Question of Palestine home || Permalink || About UNISPAL || Search




Follow UNISPAL Twitter RSS

UNITED
NATIONS
A

      General Assembly
A/2171
30 June 1952

GENERAL ASSEMBLY
OFFICIAL RECORDS : SEVENTH SESSION
SUPPLEMENT No. 13 (A/2171)
New York, 1952


ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
OF THE UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND
WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE REFUGEES

IN THE NEAR EAST

Covering the period 1 July 1951 to 30 June 1952


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Paragraphs
INTRODUCTION
1-3
A.Method of report presentation
B.Past record
PART ITHE MISSION AND OPERATIONS OF THE UNITED NATIONS ELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE REFUGEES INTHE NEAR EAST
A.The Agency's mission
5-7
B.The Abency
8-9
C.The size of the task
10-11
PART IIREFUGEE RELIEV
A.Facts about the refugees
12-16
B.Camps
17-20
C.Health and well-being of the refugrees
21-25
D.Problems and waste of relief
26-30
PART III TRANSITION
AWork relief
31
BThe "Reintegration Fund"
32-33
CA fresh start.
35-36
DConsultations in the area
37-38
E.General Assembly action.
39-41
F.Follow-up
42
G.Negotiations with governments
43-44
PART IV. THE NEW PROGRAMMES
A.New programme concepts
45-60
B.First steps .
61-75
C.Prospects and problems
76-78
OPERATIONAL REPORTS
I.Organization and administration of the Agency
II.Financial operations
Appendix: Financial statements for the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952
III.Functions of procurement and supply
IV.Health and medical programme
V.Refugee welfare
VI.Education and training
VII.Co-ordination and co-operation in the region
VIII.Legal aspects of the work of the Agency
ANNEX

Status of refugees in the host countries.


INTRODUCTION
A. Method of report presentation

1. The present report is the second annual operational report of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, submitted in compliance with the provisions of paragraph 21 of General Assembly resolution 302 of 8 December 1949. It consists of a series of operational sections covering all phases of the Agency's activities for the fiscal year ending 30 June 1952.

2. For the convenience of the reader, the operational sections are prefaced with a summary of pertinent facts highlighting the problem and the united effort to meet it.

3. It is hoped that this mode of presentation may succeed in giving an over-all picture without the necessity of spending a considerable amount of time reading through the detailed reports of operations. Those who have specific interests in the various phases of the Agency's operations can find full details in the operational sections.
B. Past record

4. No attempt is made in the present report to give a historical summary of the development of the Palestine refugee problem and of the efforts of the international community to resolve it. For details, the reader is referred to the following:

For records of the past operations:

(1) Report of the Secretary-General on assistance to Palestine refugees, (A/1060, [i:Official Records of the General Assembly, Fourth Session, Ad Hoc]
Political Committee, annexes, vol. II, page 14).

(2) Interim report of the Director of UNRWA to the fifth session of the General Assembly (A/1451/ Rev.1, [i:Ibid., Fifth Session, Supplement No. 19]).

(3) Report of the Director of UNRWA and special report of the Director and Advisory Commission of UNRWA to the sixth session of the General Assembly, (A/1905 and Add.1, [i:Ibid., Sixth Session, Supplements Nos. 16 and 16A]).

For related activities of United Nations agencies:

(1) Conciliation Commission for Palestine:
(a) Progress report to the Secretary-General of 2 September 1950 (A/1367, Ibid., Fifth Session, Supplement No. 18);
(b) Supplementary report to the Secretary-General of 23 October 1950 (A/1367/Add.1, Ibid.);
(c) Progress report to the Secretary-General of 19 November 1951 (A/1985, Ibid., Sixth Session, Supplement No. 18).

(2) Final Report of the United Nations Economic Survey Mission for the Middle East, Parts I and II, 28 December 1949 (A/AC. 25/6).

(3) Annual reports of the specialized agencies, particularly the World Health Organization and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

(4) Annual reports of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.
Pertinent General Assembly resolutions:

(1) Resolutions regarding assistance to Palestine refugees:
212 (III), 19 November 1948; 302 (IV), 8 December 1949;
393 (V), 2 December 1950; 513 (VI), 26 January 1952.

(2) Resolutions regarding the Conciliation Commission for Palestine:
194 (III), 11 December 1948; 303 (IV), 9 December 1949;
394 (V), 14 December 1950. 512 (VI), 26 January 1952.

Part I.

THE MISSION AND OPERATIONS OF THE UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST

A. The Agency's mission

5. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, which was established by General Assembly resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949 and which came into being on 1 May 1950, has two principal objectives:
(a) The provision of relief to Palestine refugees so as to maintain their health and well-being; and

(b) The prosecution of a new programme of improving the living conditions of refugees in a manner which will result in self-support and removal from ration rolls.

6. The Agency's mission is not a political one. It is, of course, aware of all aspects of the political and economic situation in the Near East as it relates to the problem of the refugee. It attempts to keep informed as to the work of the Conciliation Commission for Palestine with respect to refugee interests in repatriation and compensation, but it does not participate in the work of that Commission. As stated in the joint report of the Director and Advisory Commission to the sixth session of the General Assembly, the Agency seeks detachment from the negotiations of issues outstanding between Arab countries and Israel.

7. The Agency's basic operating datum is the number of refugees on the ration rolls. Its assistance is confined to those individuals and its objective is their ultimate removal from international relief rolls.

B. The Agency

8. UNRWA is headed by a Director appointed by the Secretary-General. The Director is assisted in carrying out the mission and objectives of the Agency, as defined by the pertinent General Assembly resolutions, by an Advisory Commission which consists, at present, of representatives of the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, France and Turkey. The Agency's headquarters is located in Beirut and major field offices, each headed by a senior Agency representative, are located in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt and, up to 30 June 1952, Israel. There is also a district office at Gaza. A liaison office is maintained at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York and the Cairo Office maintains sub-offices in Port Said and Libya. The Agency is staffed, in part, by 140 international employees from eighteen countries.

9. The vast bulk of the Agency's routine operations consists of the administration of relief, an enormously complex task in which it is aided by approximately 6,000 Palestinian staff members, many of whom occupy positions of high responsibility. The ratio of Palestine employees to international employees reflects the Agency's policy of employing refugees themselves wherever possible in carrying out its task. The Agency maintains very close working relationships with other United Nations bodies working in the area, with numerous voluntary organizations which are assisting in the relief operations and, to an increasingly important extent, in the development of its new programme, with technical assistance groups working in the area on bilateral aid programmes and technical assistance activities of the United Nations and its specialized agencies.

C. The size of the task

10. The size of the Agency's current operations is indicated by the fact that it is the largest food purchasing organization in the entire Near East. Its relief budget alone for the past fiscal year amounted to $27 million. The Agency provides food, shelter, health care, education and clothing to a population of almost one million, scattered over four countries.

11. Ahead looms accelerating activity under the new $200 million programme of improving refugee living conditions. In the future it is hoped that annual expenditures for this purpose will be much larger than in the past and that housing, villages, small industries, irrigation schemes and agricultural development will take form and fit into the Near East economy. But personnel numbers will not greatly expand as the Agency plans largely to contract and use other instrumentalities in carrying out projects.

Part II.

REFUGEE RELIEF

A. Facts about the refugees

1. NUMBERS AND DISTRIBUTION

12. As of 30 June 1952, almost four years after the cessation of hostilities, there were still on the ration rolls more than 880,000 Palestine refugees scattered over an area of more than 100,000 square miles in Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. Comparatively few have migrated to Iraq, and some 19,000 remained on the Agency's register in Israel. Those registered by the Agency1 at the end of June 1952 totalled 881,600, a figure almost identical to that of July 1951. These numbers were distributed throughout the host countries2 as follows:


Lebanon
104,000
Syria
84,000
Jordan
470,000
Gaza
204,000
Israel
19,000


Late in June, an agreement was concluded with Israel whereby that Government assumed responsibility for the care of the remaining 19,000 refugees in that country as of 1 July, 1952. Supplies already delivered, as well as technical assistance from UNRWA staff, were to be available over a transition period of two months.
2. STATUS

13. Although they have been sheltered in their host countries, and in the notable instance of Jordan have been offered full citizenship, the refugees are people apart, lacking, for the most part, status, homes, land, assets, proper clothing and means of livelihood. Many cling to their only evidence of nationality--a worn, dogeared Palestine passport issued in Mandate days by a government that no longer legally exists. In Lebanon they cannot be issued working permits and by law cannot hold jobs; in Egypt, they cannot receive Agency relief and assistance unless they are physically located in the 5 by 25 mile Gaza strip; in Syria, although they are permitted to work when they can find jobs, they have not been offered citizenship; in Jordan, although possessing the full rights of Jordanians, they have concentrated in such vast numbers in areas of such meagre economic opportunity that, in the four-year period that they have been there, only an insignificant handful have managed to become self-supporting.
3. POPULATION DYNAMICS

14. The refugees are not a static group. The natural rate of increase in the refugee population has been estimated as 22,000 individuals per year although, for the reasons stated below, precise figures are unobtainable. Offsetting the rate of increase due to births, re-registrations and new registrations, are ration deductions resulting from other forms of assistance provided by the Agency, from reported deaths, emigration, the acquisition of income and property, false and duplicate registrations, and other reasons. These deductions total 45,800 for the fiscal year just ended.

15. Despite the evidence of statistics, movement occurs; the refugees migrate, often illegally, across frontiers; they emigrate in small numbers to other lands; they get jobs--and some lose them; they go off ration rolls--and some return to them; they are born in great numbers--and they die in lesser numbers. To increase or to prevent decreases in their ration issue, they eagerly report births, sometimes by passing a new-born baby from family to family, and reluctantly report deaths, resorting often to surreptitious burial to avoid giving up a ration card.
4. LIMITING NUMBERS ON RATION ROLLS

16. The Agency has unceasingly endeavoured to limit the granting of relief only to those recipients who genuinely need it. Its field teams constantly investigate ration entitlement so as to eliminate forged ration cards and duplicate registrations, and to remove from ration rolls those fortunate individuals who have managed to obtain an income which approximates the average for the local inhabitant. Efforts along these lines have been
frustrating and only moderately successful. The difficulty of obtaining accurate figures of income, when desperate measures are taken to conceal the income, is particularly unfortunate, so that the Agency's attempt to apply throughout its area of operations an "income scale" designed to eliminate from ration rolls refugees whose cash income, usually by reason of employment, is considered adequate to enable the refugee to be self-supporting has not been very effective. In addition, in Syria, Jordan and Gaza, the agreement of the government must be obtained to the removal of ration recipients for reason of income, but in these countries, due to government insistence, such a high scale has been established that seldom does removal for this reason occur. Indeed, there are numerous instances of fulltime government employees remaining on ration rolls because of the high "income scale". With sharply declining funds for relief, the Agency at the end of the year was making new plans for concentrating its limited resources on the most needy.
B. Camps
1. NUMBERS IN CAMPS

17. Only one-third of the registered refugee population lives in Agency-organized camps.3 The other two-thirds have managed to find lodging on their own, in most cases paying rent, although many have constructed their own makeshift huts on the outskirts of towns and villages and thus neither pay rent nor rely upon UNRWA for their shelter. The housing of refugees away from camps has always been encouraged, for it represents a strong bulwark against the deteriorating influence of camp life, where the necessary presence of such amenities as clinics, maternity and infant welfare centres, schools, supplementary feeding kitchens, milk distribution points, recreational areas and libraries tend to create and reinforce a professional refugee mentality.
2. PRESSURE TO EXPAND CAMPS

18. Despite the Agency's desire to restrict the size and numbers of camps, considerable pressure to enlarge and increase them has occurred. Large numbers of refugees who have managed for years to remain independent of camps have found the uphill struggle too difficult. With their savings gradually becoming exhausted and with lack of economic opportunity in the overcrowded areas where many have concentrated, they have used up their resources and now appeal to the Agency for permission to enter organized camps. In Lebanon alone, almost three thousand families, representing approximately 15,000 individuals who formerly lived independently, asked to be admitted to camps during the past year. In the face of the decreasing funds available for relief purposes, the bulk of these requests had to be turned down, and only the most urgent cases accepted.
3. CAMP SHELTER

19. The Agency has attempted to avoid the establishment of permanent or semi-permanent camps in areas where opportunities for refugee self-support are limited. For this reason, it has tended to rely principally on the use of tents as temporary shelter pending the development of more permanent projects in areas where economic opportunity for refugees exists. Last year's report described the shelter problem as "acute", largely because the military operations in Korea had made procurement of tents on the world market well-nigh impossible. The "acute" situation turned into one of near disaster during the storms of the winter of 1951-1952, which were unprecedented in severity and duration. Many tents, which for the most part had been purchased secondhand and were in their third year of use as refugee shelters, simply could not stand up to the buffeting received during the winter storms and were torn to shreds by the wind. In one nine-day period in December alone, 56,000 refugees were made shelterless and had to seek refuge in mosques, schools, requisitioned buildings or with their more fortunate neighbours. During this period, 5,120 tents were completely destroyed and almost twice this number were so badly damaged that it was evident that repairs could be only makeshift and temporary and that certainly the majority of tents could not stand up for another winter.
4. PREPARING FOR THE COMING WINTER

20. As a result of the past winter's experience, vigorous steps have been taken to ameliorate housing by new shelter and house construction programmes. In areas where the economic potential favours self-support schemes (as in parts of Jordan and Syria) and in areas such as the Gaza strip where, despite a lack of self-support opportunities, there is a likelihood that large refugee populations will not be moved for a considerable period of time, construction of huts and houses from locally available materials was started. In Gaza alone, some 30,000 refugees will be accommodated next winter in 750 eight-family units now under construction, and a further 30,000 will have been moved from tents into individual mud-and-rubble brick houses being built by the Agency. In other areas, continuing efforts to provide badly-needed tent replacements have met with some success. The world tent shortage has eased somewhat, and the Agency has recently succeeded in placing large tent orders in France and elsewhere. In addition, plans for establishing an Agency tent factory in Jordan are going forward, and increasing use of locally-available materials, such as palm leaves and reed mats for temporary shelters, also promises further alleviation of refugee housing for the coming winter.
C. Health and Well-Being of the refugees
1. NUTRITION LEVELS

21. The quality and quantity of the basic ration has been maintained in the face of increasing recognition of the need for reducing relief costs; as a result, the nutritional status of the refugees has continued at a satisfactory level. This fact is attested by the conclusions of a special survey conducted by nutrition experts of the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization in April 1952. The experts emphasize, however, the importance in the maintenance of satisfactory nutritional levels of the contribution of milk by the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (which is not supplied by the Agency) to the 450,000 refugee infants, children, and pregnant and nursing mothers.4 The daily basic ration consists of 1,595 calories during the winter and 1,521 calories during the summer. In addition to the basic ration, 1,200 grammes of dry skim milk are issued monthly as a supplement to 380,000 refugee children and nursing mothers, and 1,200 grammes monthly of dry whole milk to 20,000 infants and hospital patients.
2. HEALTH STANDARDS

22. The health and medical programme, in the face of deteriorated camp conditions caused by the storms of the past winter, has succeeded in maintaining a level of health among the refugee population which surpasses expectations. Standards of health care have remained at a high level, and no outbreaks of disease occurred during the year.
3. CARE OF THE INDIVIDUAL REFUGEE

23. Despite the vast numbers of refugees being cared for by the Agency, the refugee as an individual has not been neglected. A welfare programme designed to alleviate individual distress has effectively provided social case work, recreational facilities, sports activities for children in camps, sponsorship of Boy Scout and similar youth groups, distribution of clothing and other donations, maintenance of girls' sewing and embroidery centres where the particular talents in these handicraft activities are not lost, additional educational programmes, lectures in community health, etc.
4. EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES

24. A major function which has naturally sprung from the provision of basic refugee needs is to be found in the education programme. With the assistance of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which provides technical leadership and some financial support, the Agency has gradually developed an education and school system for refugees which, on the primary level, compares favourably with the systems in existence in the host countries. When it is realized that thousands of children now of school age have no recollection of any other kind of life than refugee existence, it is evident that the Agency's education programme is a vital necessity and must be continued in spite of decreasing funds available for relief.
5. CLOTHING SITUATION

25. The Agency, with relief funds barely adequate to provide minimum standards of food, shelter and health care among the refugee population, has been unable to provide clothing as well from these funds. The issuance of clothing, therefore, has depended upon voluntary contributions which, fortunately, were more generous this year than in the past. Contributions from voluntary agencies abroad, particularly from countries where special clothing drives for Palestine refugees have been organized, has permitted an alleviation in the deplorable lack of adequate clothing among refugees who, after four years of exile, are for the most part dressed in rags and tatters. In order to encourage contributions of clothing, as well as other items, the Agency pays ocean freight charges where necessary, when the value of the contribution warrants.
D. Problems and waste of relief
1. THE BLIGHT OF RATION ROLLS

26. The existence of vast numbers of able-bodied individuals who for four years have looked to the United Nations for the provision of all their basic needs--medical and health care, education, shelter, clothing and food--is a social and economic blight of incalculable dimensions. The presence of refugees in host countries is more than the measurable economic waste of manpower and of economic potential. The intangible waste in terms of lost pride, emotional conflict, despair and hopelessness cannot be measured, nor can the potential danger to the safety and security of the Near East be adequately assessed without taking into account the existence of these factors.

27. The need for aggressive steps to be taken to terminate relief operations is not only emphasized by the psychologically debilitating effect of giving relief over long periods of time, with the consequent development of a professional refugee mentality, but also by the crushing economic burden--apart from the cost of the care of the individual, which the presence of the refugees has placed upon the host countries. In the absence of advanced plans for economic development, the presence of refugees has in many instances and in many areas glutted the labour market, thus depressing wages. With the assurance that his basic need for food and shelter will be met by the international community at no cost to himself, the refugee suffers less from the prevailing low wages for casual work than his indigenous neighbour. In Lebanon, despite the ban on refugee employment, much of the seasonal work in the fields is done by refugees, who are able to work for exceptionally low wages. In Jordan, the average wage level has fallen markedly in recent years, due to the presence of the refugees, who are there in such numbers that every third person in the entire country is an Agency ration recipient. In Egypt, where cultivable areas are overcrowded by Egypt's own nationals, the presence of 200,000 refugees in the Gaza strip has forced the Government not only to contribute heavily to the relief of the refugees, but also to provide relief to the non-refugee Gaza population of 80,000 who are in an even worse economic position than the refugees. Thus, in all countries where the refugees are concentrated, a heavy primary and secondary economic burden is placed upon the economy despite the fact that the basic costs of refugee care are met by the contributing governments.
2. THE NEED FOR REFUGEE MOVEMENT

28. The present dispersion of the refugee population is such that great numbers exist where economic opportunity is the least. It is obvious that if the Agency is to improve living conditions and provide an opportunity for self-support, it can do so only in the areas with an economic potential, and that many refugees must move to these areas or countries if they are to benefit. The refugees in Gaza form a striking example. This is a problem for refugees and governments to face. The Agency is prepared to help.
3. THE COST OF RELIEF

29. During the Agency's first months of existence, careful estimates of relief costs were drawn up for sub-mission to the General Assembly for the fiscal year 1951-1952. Before the year began, it was estimated that the sum of $20 million would be adequate to cover relief costs for the year. Largely as a result of the great increase in food prices which occurred after the commencement of the operations in Korea, the Agency recast its relief budget, and a request submitted to the General Assembly at its sixth session resulted in an increase in the authorized relief budget for the fiscal year 1951-1952 to $27 million (resolution 513 (VI)). With this sum, at an average annual cost of $31.40 per refugee, the Agency has maintained its present level of relief services. It has provided food, shelter, basic education, health and medical care and welfare needs to the extent necessary to maintain a satisfactory level of existence for those on relief rolls. The United Nations, and in particular the contributing governments, recognize however, that relief cannot be indefinitely provided. They have determined that in the measure in which funds for the new programme are expended, funds for the provision of relief will be reduced. This is an inescapable and significant fact, for the time is rapidly approaching when voluntary contributions for the provision of relief for the Palestine refugees will no longer be forthcoming.
4. THE IMMEDIATE TASK

30. Confronted with declining contributions for relief, the Agency must intensify its efforts to achieve economy and eliminate waste. It must constantly review its procurement policies and effect the most economic purchases possible of the vast quantities of food and other items needed in its relief programme. It must obtain the co-operation of governments in eliminating restrictions which increase costs and reduce the benefit to refugees. It must pursue with vigour its campaign for the removal from ration rolls of fraudulent recipients and of those not genuinely in need. It must explore all measures of reducing food costs, eliminating unessential services and curtailing distribution costs. It must work closely with governments and co-operate fully with them, with the ultimate objective of the eventual assumption of administrative responsibility by the governments. But this is not the Agency's sole task. The ultimate constructive task is to remove the need for relief. This is the objective of the new programme on which the Agency has received a fresh mandate.
Part III.
TRANSITION

31. The Agency was launched on its mission of assistance to Palestinian refugees with the sober instruction that it should plan for the day when international funds no longer would be available for relief. The originating resolution (302(IV)) specified the limitations of relief and focused responsibility for administration in the new Agency. It suggested the temporary substitute of work relief projects. In particular, the Agency was directed to consult with local governments to find an alternative to camp life, ration lines and dependence upon voluntary contributions from the international community.
A. Work relief

32. During the Agency's first year, work relief projects were vigorously planned and pushed forward by the Agency. Governments and refugees viewed the projects with suspicion, feared resettlement implications, and were slow in acceptance. Finally, a start was made because refugees wanted wages and governments wanted public works. At the peak of employment on those works programmes, more than 12,000 refugees were employed. As governments and refugees discovered advantages in the programme the Agency began to see liabilities. Local governments contributed no funds; the full burden of wages fell on the Agency; the cost was five times that of simple relief. The approved projects were typically roads and public structures, and when they were finished the refugees returned to tents and ration lines. In short the Agency found itself financing and operating labour camps to build public works which the governments themselves would have built the following year. There was no enduring benefit for the refugee nor financial relief for the Agency, and the programme was gradually brought to a conclusion as funds ran out.

33. Meanwhile, the Conciliation Commission for Palestine was busy on its separate mission of seeking solutions to the political problems of Palestine. UNRWA had no part in those negotiations but watched them with interest to note progress on the repatriation or compensation of refugees.
B. The "Reintegration Fund"

34. As a prudent step a new fund was proposed by the Agency and its establishment was approved by the General Assembly (resolution 393 (V)). This fund, initially $30 million, was called a reintegration fund to be used to help refugees to repatriate if the opportunity should develop, or to resettle elsewhere if they should so choose. The resolution specifically provided that the operations of the fund were in no way to prejudice political negotiations. The fund's purpose was often misunderstood and occasionally misinterpreted. However, to a limited extent its constructive aims were accepted. Egypt offered the Sinai area for improved facilities for 10,000 refugee families, if water were found and if there were no prejudice to refugee interests as regards repatriation or compensation. Jordan also quickly agreed to the use of the fund for small projects but with similar political reservations. On a limited scale, the first constructive steps were thus taken. Out of these initial operations came knowledge of the area, considerable experience and some progress.
C. A fresh start

35. The start of the 1951-1952 fiscal year, the operations of which are covered in the present report, was an occasion of inventory for UNRWA. Refugees were entering their fourth year on relief; it appeared that relief costs would exceed $25 million a year; and governments and refugees hesitated to accept new measures. The Agency tried to identify basic problems and sought fresh solutions.

36. Apparently governments were not satisfied that the language of the General Assembly resolutions was sufficiently protective of political positions. They wished to know more about proposed projects and the terms and conditions of their benefit to refugees. Governments also remembered the exhaustion of funds for work relief and noted the limitation of one year for the financing of the new fund. With good reason, they wished for assurances from the international community of sustained and substantial support for projects. Further, governments wanted no administrative responsibility for the care of the refugees but at the same time had undefined fears that any programme not administered by themselves might raise threats to their sovereignty. A fresh statement was needed as to the relationship between the Agency and governments under a new programme.
D. Consultations in the area

37. Against the background of the circumstances described above, early in the fiscal year under review, the Director visited Beirut, Damascus, Amman, Baghdad and Cairo to ask for help in the framing of a fresh formula of co-operation. Following these consultations, an outline of a new plan for the improvement of refugee living conditions was prepared with the advice of the Advisory Commission. This document then became the basis of more extended and detailed consultation in the capitals of the countries in the area. Out of these conversations, culminating in meetings with a special committee of the League of Arab States in Alexandria in the early autumn, the elements of the new plan to improve refugee living conditions were agreed upon. This was the firm basis for Agency recommendations to the General Assembly at its sixth session.

38. Early impressions had been confirmed. The governments insisted that the refugee political position must not be prejudiced and were militant in defence of refugee rights. They urged a three-year programme of financial support, but stated that their contribution to the new plan would be principally in the form of land and services. The improvement of refugee living conditions in any country was not to compete or conflict with schemes for improving the living conditions of nationals. In particular, there was agreement that UNRWA should remain outside the political negotiation of the Palestine issues. The Agency thus came to the Assembly with confidence in its proposals after the consultations with the Near Eastern governments which were the hosts and the advocates of almost 900,000 refugees.
E. General Assembly action

39. The principles and procedures of the new plan were presented to the General Assembly at its sixth session by the Director and Advisory Commission in their joint report made early in October 1951. Late in January 1952, the Assembly unanimously recorded its approval. The record of the discussions of the new programme is to be found in the proceedings of the [i:Ad Hoc] Political Committee and of the Assembly itself.

40. The resolution as finally adopted (513 (VI)) again repeated the fundamental premise that the Agency programme should not prejudice refugee interests in repatriation and compensation. The plea in the joint report that the Agency should not become involved in the negotiation of outstanding issues between Arab governments and Israel was respected. The governments of Members of the United Nations recorded their sustained interest in the welfare of the refugees. The Agency, in conjunction with the governments of the area, was to explore the feasibility and desirability of the gradual transfer of the operations of relief and of the new programme from the Agency to those governments.

41. The core of resolution 513 (VI) was, of course, the approval of a $250 million programme and a call for contributions of that amount over a period of approximately three years. There was to be $50 million for relief and $200 million for the new programme of improvement of refugee living conditions leading to self-support and independence from relief. Relief expenditures were to be reduced in proportion to increasing new programme expenditures. Governments were to initiate projects which would remove refugees from the ration rolls.
F. Follow-up

42. Early in February 1952, the Director returned to the area and resumed negotiations with the governments on specific projects. Not only had there been wide approval of the programme and generous pledges of support but, what was very important, specific endorsement in the General Assembly by all of the governments of the area. There was no illusion that such endorsement and promises of co-operation would automatically create a setting in which houses, villages, farms and opportunities for self-support would immediately appear on a production-line basis. The principles of the plan had to be translated into a programme of projects. Governments, both those which were contributors to the programme and those which were recipients of its benefits, had agreed in the Assembly, but each and all had the task of following-up action at home on a political level. Preparations would have to be made and timing determined. The programme would have to be explained; projects would have to be found and specific agreements negotiated.
G. Negotiations with governments

43. Since February the Agency staff has concentrated on the task of implementing the programme, in constant consultation with governments. The time has been short and the pace has been slow. Deep misunderstandings and misinterpretations of the new programme have had to be faced. Governments have preferred to undertake themselves the task of interpretation. Their citizens have needed assurances that self-supporting refugees would not be competitive, and governments have only gradually come to accept the basic economic assets of the new projects. In some countries a persistent search has been necessary to find opportunities for self-support. In other countries, although the economic potential is obvious, time-consuming surveys and studies are required before benefits can be realized. Always the political factor exerts a cautionary, a controlling, or a conditioning influence.

44. A constant awareness of the importance of the programme to refugees and to the countries concerned, a sympathetic understanding of the complexities of the political environment, and a continuing confidence in the integrity of the evolving negotiations have sustained the Agency in its task. As at the time of writing, fresh indications of tangible progress provide a new incentive to carry on.
Part IV.
THE NEW PROGRAMME
A. New programme concepts

45. The essence of the new programme is the improvement of refugee living conditions and the elimination of the need for camp life and ration rolls, an aim to be achieved without prejudicing the interests of the refugees as regards repatriation and/or compensation. This principle justifies repetition, because it is often forgotten or obscured.

46. The objective is to be accomplished through the following activities:

(1) Helping refugees find employment where there is need for their services;
(2) Training refugees for occupations where there is a shortage of trained workers;
(3) Making loans or grants to refugees to enable them to establish small enterprises to improve their economic position;
(4) Building houses in or near urban areas where employment is available;
(5) Establishing rural villages in areas where land is available for cultivation;
(6) Developing agricultural lands through well drilling, irrigation works, access roads and similar activities;
(7) Generally, financing economic development and providing technical assistance where there are assurances of proportionate benefit to refugees.

47. The above enumeration needs further explanation to show how the new programme will be adjusted to the political necessities of the situation.

48. Vocational training, loans and other services are being offered directly to the refugees, and the benefits thereof are theirs to take advantage of as and how they wish.

49. The facilities--houses, villages, and agricultural and industrial improvements--are being offered to the countries of the area on condition that refugees may benefit by their use.

50. In fact, the local governments do not give land to UNRWA. They retain possession of the land and receive valuable improvements on it.

51. Refugees use the facilities, live in decent shelter, and support themselves without modification of the political position they had in the tent, in the camp and on the ration line.

52. They pay modest rents for the use of the new facilities. They are not forced to make any choice as to future living arrangements; nor are they forced to a decision on repatriation. They, of course, yield nothingas to rights to compensation. Later, in the light of developments, refugees may still choose their own course of action. They may leave their urban houses or rural villages, taking with them to their chosen new location their new skills and their accumulated capital. They may choose to stay where they are and negotiate with the government for the possession of the property.

53. Reintegration is not a process determined by UNRWA. It can take place only by choice of a refugee and by acquiescense of a government.

54. UNRWA's programme is currently and ultimately a solid investment in refugee welfare and country economies, usable in a pattern of free choice and flexibility.
1. PROGRAMME ARRANGEMENTS

55. The experience of the Agency on small projects during the months preceding the approval by the General Assembly of the new programme has been of help in pointing the way for operations on a larger scale. During the last months of the fiscal year under review, these operations in a measure have taken form.

56. There is a basic premise and a hope that governments in the area will assume a maximum responsibility for operations of relief and for the new programme, with the Agency providing financial and technical assistance. UNRWA keeps this objective constantly in mind.
2. PROJECT TECHNIQUES

57. The Agency has, to a considerable extent, decentralized decisions to its country offices. Headquarters determines major policies and broad programme agreements, but specific projects originate, are approved, and are executed in the countries through arrangements between governments and UNRWA Country Representatives. Personnel, accounting, and supply procedures are correspondingly largely decentralized. Palestinian staff and nationals of the countries are increasingly assuming larger duties within the framework of UNRWA's responsibility, in anticipation of the day when this responsibility will be transferred to the governments.

58. A parallel effort is directed towards guiding Agency operations on a "wholesale" rather than a "retail" basis. Rather than attempt to assemble international teams of experts, the Agency prefers to provide technical assistance through the co-operation of bilateral government programmes or specialized agencies and by contracting with private firms. It seeks to ensure that the United Nations will not directly administer loans, operate schools, or engage in construction. The Agency, in consultation with governments, favors contractual arrangements and the use of governmental agencies or intermediate corporations.

59. Therefore, UNRWA, as it moves into the operations stage, is encouraging arrangements along the following lines:

(1) Refugee service centres which will record refugee skills and provide information as to training and employment opportunities;
(2) Refugee training units which will tie in with Ministries of Education and utilize in so far as possible existing facilities;
(3) Loan agencies or development banks which will make small character loans to refugees, or larger loans to refugees or others for business enterprises or private land improvements which will provide employment opportunities for refugees and help country economies;
(4) Public corporations or special project organizations which will assume responsibility for launching public projects and for subsequent operations where appropriate ministries do not assume responsibility.
3. LARGE-SCALE PROJECTS

60. As the year ended, a final appraisal suggested that the Agency should seek large projects and the co-operation of other sources in their financing. This course, which seems best in terms of ultimate large-scale refugee benefits and co-ordinated economic development, will present some problems. Big projects take longer to complete. The need for longer relief may not be fully offset by construction employment. The sharing of cost properly means the sharing of benefits. Formulae will be required for apportioning participation among refugees and nationals.
B. First steps

61. A major part of the fiscal year was occupied in explorations of soil and water resources in the search for a new formula, in obtaining General Assembly
approval and, subsequently, in negotiating programme and project agreements with governments. As of 30 June 1952, the status of the programme may be summarized as follows:
1. LEBANON

62. There are 104,000 refugees in Lebanon. The Government has endorsed the programme and has helped to explain operations to the refugees. With population and economic problems of its own, the Government does not feel that there are opportunities for refugees to become self-supporting within the boundaries of the country; there are therefore no new programme projects in Lebanon at present. In the past, a few training projects were financed. More vocational undertakings might conceivably result in refugees finding self-support opportunities elsewhere.
2. EGYPT

63. Approximately 200,000 refugees are receiving relief in the Gaza area. Also in the area are 80,000 original residents who barely made a living before the refugees arrived.

64. As reported above, the Government of Egypt authorized soil and water surveys in the Sinai areas in the hope that possibly 10,000 families might be accommodated. The Agency spent months and almost $100,000 in surveys but the best experts available could not find suitable soil in combination with adequate water. Surveys have been suspended until other sites are suggested.

65. Meanwhile, plans are being made for large-scale vocational training projects in Gaza.
3. JORDAN

66. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has within its boundaries half the refugees who are on relief. In numbers, they equal approximately the original population of Jordan, or one-third of the total population after the annexation of the area west of the River Jordan. The Government early took steps to offer citizenship and opportunities for self-support.

67. From the earliest days, the Agency has sought suitable projects, but outside the Jordan Valley they have been hard to find. Considerable time and money has gone into the search for soil and water. The Government itself is completing a 200-unit housing project for refugees at Ghor Nimrim. Previously, the Arab Land Development Corporation had courageously undertaken a project in the Valley, near Jericho.

68. Agency activity in Jordan as of 30 June 1952 is summarized below:

(a) A small loan programme for refugees has evolved into the larger operations of a Development Bank with an approved capital of 400,000 Jordanian dinars provided by UNRWA; 200,000 by the Government; and 100,000 by private banks and individuals. This enterprise is fully operative. A considerable number of loans has been made. Refugees benefit in proportion to Agency investment.
(b) Soil and water surveys by the Agency have revealed possibilities for a few small agricultural projects, and studies are now being concentrated in the Sheraa area of South Jordan.
(c) A 50-unit housing project in Amman was completed during the year and refugee families are being selected for occupancy.
(d) A small co-operative known as the Beit Quad Co-operative Society has been established for refugees, with Agency assistance, on government land. The first crops have been good, and the project is being expanded.
(e) The 36-unit Merj Naja Agricultural Community was established with refugee families, provided with irrigated lands, houses, tools, and equipment.
(f) Small training projects were being merged and expanded into a $1 million vocational programme.
(g) The Government formally approved a first programme agreement of $11 million under the new programme.

69. The above are small but important initial steps. In taking them, the Government and the Agency demonstrate that they have together finally found a good start on the road of promise for refugees. The limitations of small projects without a foundation of large economic investment are apparent. A willingness to tackle big projects and to share their primary and secondary benefits with refugees has evolved. The Agency and the Government now turn hopefully to the Jordan Valley for the development of very large projects and for new expanded programme agreements.

70. Experts and funds provided by the United States under the Point IV programme and by the United Kingdom under the latter's loan programme also play a part in the general picture. With the supplement of large Agency resources, there is every reason to expect an early announcement of important developments in Jordan.
4. SYRIA

71. This country harbours approximately 80,000 refugees. Because of its deep interest in the problem and its unique potential to help the refugees, the Agency constantly has sought the counsel of the Syrian Government. Extended discussions have taken place during the months following the approval by the Assembly of the new programme, and are still in progress, although the stage of report has not yet been reached.

72. At present a small loan programme is available to refugees in Syria. A large vocational training programme is being planned. Agreement exists that refugees in Syria can be helped to live better than in reed huts and buildings formerly abandoned.
5. IRAQ

73. There are approximately 5,000 refugees under the care of the Government in Iraq. UNRWA has an office in Baghdad which serves as a placement centre and a point of contact with technical assistance experts working on Iraq's great schemes of economic development.

74. The Agency understands that the doors of the country are open to Palestinians with skills who wish to go there without prejudice to their political position. In fact, the Government advises that there has already been some movement of this nature. This opportunity for refugees to improve their living conditions is of special interest to the Agency in connexion with the new programme plans for large scale vocational training.
6. LIBYA

75. The Agency is advised that there are opportunities for refugees in Libya and has received many requests for help from Palestinians who wish to go there. The new Government of Libya has suggested that initially 1,200 families of agriculturists and artisans might be taken care of. The Agency has already made preliminary surveys and is now ready for active operations.
C. Prospects and problems

76. UNRWA feels that its mission is finally emerging from the first stage of breaking trails. The period has been one of search for a formula, of winning confidence, and of negotiating agreements. No shortcut around these obstacles has ever been apparent, nor has one ever been suggested by those best informed and most concerned. The pace has been slow, but perhaps not unreasonably so when viewed against the full background of area problems and progress in resolving them.

77. As the Agency moves into the second stage of actual production and tangible improvement of refugee living conditions, there is no pretence of breathless speed or sudden miracle. There is, rather, a sober fore sight of difficult administrative tasks and much need for co-operative action.

78. A final summary should emphasize the following points:

(1) The old programme of relief, while humanitarian in its early origin, has deteriorated deeply with the passage of time. Financial support for relief is rapidly declining. Governments and the Agency should unite in an effort speedily to remove refugees from the ration rolls--first, by the elimination of many who do not need the help and, second, by accelerating activity under the new programme.

(2) The governments and the Press of the area can help by taking the initiative in explaining the new programme to the refugees. The Agency understands that the governments have preferred to take over this task. There is still much misunderstanding. A feeling apparently exists that refugees on ration will prejudice their compensation or repatriation position by living in better housing and by accepting jobs. This argument is advanced despite the facts that two-thirds of the refugees live elsewhere than in camps and that some more fortunate refugees are not even on rations, but live rather comfortably in houses and apartments and work at good jobs. Surely these latter refugees are not waiving their rights.

(3) The Agency operates with the deepest respect for the sovereignties of the governments of the area. Through its trusteeship of large contributions, and with the acquiescence of governments, the Agency has present responsibilities which it is endeavouring to discharge with the help of a small international staff and thousands of Palestinians. The Agency is looking forward to, and preparing for, the day when it may transfer this responsibility. Meanwhile, there is much that can be done by governments to smooth the way for assistance to refugees. Privileges and immunities are not aims in themselves, nor challenges to sovereignty, but rather facilitating arrangements of benefit to refugees. Limited relief funds are intended primarily to provide the maximum amount of food and shelter for needy refugees, and only secondarily as economic stimuli to the host countries. The Agency is relying heavily on increased co-operation by governments in facilitating administration, procurement and distribution in the days of declining relief and of mounting activities under the new programme.

(4) The Agency hopes in the coming year more convincingly to demonstrate to governments the economic potential of a capital investment of $200 million in improving refugee living conditions. Aside from the social values that flow to the refugees, there will be inevitably a large economic stimulus to country economies. New manpower, new money and new production will have important by-products--stimulated business activity, increased revenue and large foreign exchange earnings. In fact, it is the Agency's assumption that refugees may share in these secondary benefits. It is also right that countries which permit public improvements to be placed on their public lands as a means of helping refugees to live better should see concomitant benefits to their own nationals. Considerations of good timing would suggest that the more general programmes of economic development should go forward simultaneously with whatever other concentration of government funds, grants and loans that might be mobilized.

(5) The concluding and conspicuous fact is that there is an approved programme with large funds and administrative facilities immediately available to carry it out. Under the new programme almost $100 million will be available for firm commitment during the coming year. These funds lapse if not used; new contributions will flow only if previous contributions have been used. The next twelve months are significant and determinative in terms of refugee welfare.

OPERATIONAL REPORTS
I. Organization and administration of the Agency

During the year, numerous administrative and organizational changes were effected to speed the transition from a relief programme to the new programme of improving refugee living conditions. Much of this adjustment has been in the direction of decentralization.

With headquarters established in Beirut, the broad organizational pattern of UNRWA at the end of the fiscal year was as follows: The Headquarters Office, consisting of the Office of the Director, includes the Office of the Deputy Director, a Reports Office and a Programmes Office. Attached also to the Director's Office is the Agency's New York Liaison Office and the secretariat of the Advisory Commission. Reporting to the Director are five advisers in the fields of public relations, legal questions, engineering, community facilities and agriculture. The seven functional divisions, the chiefs of which also report to the Director, are the Divisions of Administration, Supply, Health, Education, Social Welfare, Economics and Finance.

The Advisory Commission, established by General Assembly resolution 302 (IV), consists, at present, of representatives of the Governments of France, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Turkey, and provision exists for an authorized total membership of seven. The Advisory Commission limits its concern to the provision of over-all guidance on Agency policy. It does not deal with the Agency's functional operations.

Field organization consists of major offices in Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria, each of which is headed by an UNRWA Representative who reports to the Directors. The Office of the UNRWA Representative to Israel was officially closed as of 30 June 1952, as a result of the turning over of relief administration of all Palestine refugees in Israel to that Government as of 1 July 1952. The office of the Agency Representative to Egypt exercises control over the office of the Chief District Officer in Gaza and also maintains a liaison office in Libya and a port office at Port Said.

The Agency's entire operations, including the expanded new programme for the provision of means of self-support for refugees as well as the continuing relief operation is administered by a staff consisting of 140 international staff members and approximately 6,000 Palestinians. The national representation among the international staff members is: United Kingdom, 27 per cent; United States, 21.5 per cent; France, 14.5 per cent; and the balance of 37 per cent spread over fifteen other nations.

In accordance with Agency policy, its administrative facilities are made available to the United Nations and the specialized agencies in the carrying out of their technical assistance programmes in the area and in the conduct of regional seminars and training courses.

Agency communications within the area are greatly facilitated by the use of United Nations radio facilities established in Jerusalem and Beirut, and by the use of a United Nations aircraft chartered from the United States Air Force. The latter is of special importance in the maintenance of contact with the Gaza strip which frequently would otherwise be completely isolated due to its politically determined geographical position.

With the enormous manpower potential of the refugee population available to it, the Agency has no difficulty in obtaining local staff with the exception of a few professional and highly technical skilled persons. In so far as international staff is concerned, the absence of recruitment offices and facilities outside the area of operations has made the recruitment of international employees extremely difficult. Except for the direct personal contacts made on occasions when senior staff members are able to make trips outside the area and interview candidates, selection has to be made upon
a basis of personal history statements received by mail, supplemented by the taking up of references where possible.

The status of international employees in relation to local governments remains unclear. Differences of interpretation of the United Nations Convention on Privileges and Immunities in the countries of the area have been a major factor in the Agency's inability to give a precise definition of the status of its international employees. With respect to the terms of employment of international staff members in the Agency as they relate to the staff rules and regulations of the United Nations, agreement has been reached with Headquarters for the granting of temporary-indefinite status to all international employees, together with the accompanying benefits, with the exception of participation in the United Nations Pension Fund. Lack of participation in the Fund has given rise to some concern, since it now appears that the Agency's existence will be longer than the brief period that was originally expected.
II. Financial operations

1. BASIS OF OPERATIONS

A. General Assembly authorization

The past financial year, which ended on 30 June 1952, was governed by two resolutions of the General Assembly, first, by resolution 393 (V) of 2 December 1950 which approved the expenditure of $30 million for reintegration and $20 million for relief; secondly, resolution 513 (VI), which was not adopted until 26 January 1952, when the financial year was half over. This latter resolution increased the amounts authorized by $20 million for reintegration and $7 million for relief, and made 1951-1952 the first year of a three-year programme which envisaged a total expenditure of $250 million.

This programme represented a departure from the line of approach that had hitherto been followed, in that it requested approval of funds on a programme basis instead of in annual instalments, in order to give greater weight to the Agency's negotiations with governments. Contributions, however, must still be negotiated annually and, of the $77 million authorized by resolution 513 (VI) for 1951-1952, not more than $66 million was actually pledged as of 30 June 1952 by contributing governments, leaving $184 million of the $250 million still to be negotiated.
B. Fund accounting methods

The Agency's accounting system had been based on the assumption that the provisions of resolution 393 (V) constituted a limitation of the amounts to be spent on relief and reintegration respectively, but did not require the Agency to establish two entirely separate funds. However, since an element of doubt existed as to whether this was a correct interpretation of the requirements of the resolution, both the Advisory Commission of UNRWA and the Secretary-General of the United Nations were asked for a ruling on the point, and both confirmed the existing practice of maintaining one fund but keeping a strict account of expenditures under the two programmes.

It has therefore been necessary to adopt some method of splitting the costs that are in fact common to both programmes in order to arrive at a realistic division between the two. This has been done for the past year's accounts by classifying all expenditures that are not directly attributable to either relief or the new programme, under the heading of Administration, and pro-rating the sum equally between the two activities. This proportion was chosen originally on the basis of proposed expenditure, and has been maintained (in spite of the fact that reintegration expenditure has been very much smaller than was expected) on the grounds that considerable preparations for the ew programme have had to be made and administrative machinery established for large scale operations soon to get under way.

A more accurate method of accounting has been gradually developed during the past year by a continuous process of re-analysis of expenditures and the reclassification of individual code headings. This process resulted in the fact that the plan of expenditure originally endorsed by the Advisory Commission in September 1951 had to be adjusted (in composition but not in total amount) during the course of the year. These adjustments consisted mainly in eliminating certain expenditures from relief, putting them under administration and the fund for the new programme, and setting up a separate operational reserve from funds previously classified under administration. It is hoped that during the new financial year this process of re-analysis of expenditure and reclassification of code headings will make it possible to reduce to an absolute minimum the administrative and other costs now classified as common to both programmes, so that strictly administrative expenditure applicable to both activities and classified under common services will not exceed 3 per cent of the total.
C. Banking arrangements

The Agency's main banking accounts are kept with the Chase National Bank of New York, Lloyds National and Provincial Foreign Bank in London and the Chase Bank of Paris. Each of these is fed by the contributions of the principal contributors, so that the account with the Chase National Bank of New York is the largest. Each account is kept in the currency of the country, and used for purchases in that country or currency area, and for funding accounts in the area of operations. There are no exchange restrictions on the Chase National Bank account, but sterling transfers to Lebanon, Syria, Egypt and Israel may only reach (4,11)75,000 sterling per quarter to each country. Similarly, part of the French franc account must be used for purchases in the franc zone, and the rest may be converted to Lebanese pounds at the free rate.

Within the area of its operations, the Agency maintains accounts with the British Bank of the Middle East in the Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. In Lebanon and Syria, the accounts are in dollars, sterling and local currency, while in Jordan the account is in local currency only. The dollar and sterling accounts are used for funding separate accounts for the use of the UNRWA Field Office in each country. Similarly accounts are maintained with the Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie (Afrique) in Beirut, the Ottoman Bank in Jerusalem, Barclays Bank in Cairo (including an account with the Gaza branch) and the Arab Bank in Amman. The only host countries in which the Agency's exchange operations are restricted are Jordan and Egypt, which are within the sterling area, and from and to which transfers are controlled.

It is hoped very shortly to make a comprehensive study of the effect of the Agency's foreign exchange operations on countries in which large scale reintegration is likely to be carried out (for the present, Jordan and Syria) to ensure that UNRWA funds are used to the best advantage of both the Agency and the countries concerned.

It is a matter of note that during the past year the Agency has begun to receive interest on its main accounts. The British Bank of the Middle East pays 1 I/2 per cent and the Chase Bank of Paris 0.5 per cent on current balances, while the Chase National Bank of New York and Lloyds National Bank pay interest only on fixed deposits--1 per cent on 30-day deposits of $1 million or multiples, and 2 per cent on 21-day deposits of sterling in any amount, respectively.

Payments by the Agency to suppliers outside the area may be made by one of several methods, either by an irrevocable and confirmed letter of credit, which is avoided as far as possible on account of the extra bank charges involved and the fact that funds are blocked by the immediate debit, or by a revocable letter of credit, on which rates are lower and the amount is charged only when payments are actually effected. This system, however, is not popular with the suppliers. Payment may also be made simply by instructing the bank to effect payment to the supplier on his presentation of certain documents; under this system, which is used extensively with the London Bank, no funds are blocked and bank charges are reduced.

An arrangement was made in February 1952 with the Bureau of Finance at Headquarters in New York to extend the existing system, under which small payments are made upon presentation of the necessary documents to the Liaison Officer, to cover also large purchases made in the United States, for which heavy expenses are normally incurred for letters of credit. In the case of one large flour purchase alone, about $1,000 was saved by this means. Payments are also made by other agencies, such as WHO and UNICEF, on behalf of UNRWA (for instance for large purchases of medical supplies and blankets), for which advance deposits are made to the organization concerned and the invoices and shipping documents are sent to Beirut after shipment.
2. STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE FOR 1951-1952

During the past year, the old system of accounting has been modified to some extent by certain reclassifications of expenditure but, broadly speaking, the same headings have been used for the statements of 1951-1952 as appear in the previous year's report to the General Assembly. This means that comparison with the financial statements for 1950-1951 is not only difficult but misleading, since the classification appears to be the same as the previous year but in fact is not. The plan of expenditure for the fiscal year 1952-1953 will be classified entirely differently from the previous plan and the financial statements for 1950-1951.
A. Statement of assets and liabilities

The net difference between the Agency's financial position at the beginning and at the end of the past financial year is $15.6 million, as shown in the following summary table:


30 June 1951
30 June 1952
($US million)
Net change Increase (decrease)
Total assets
10.8
23.1
12.3
Total liabilities and reserve
4.3
1.0
(3.3)
Net Assets
6.5
22.1
15.6


This drop in liabilities and reserves was due to the repayment of the $2.8 million loan from the International Refugee Organization during the second quarter. The increase in net assets is made up of an excess of income over expenditure of $15.3 million and a credit adjustment of more than $200,000 made directly to the working fund balance at 30 June 1951 (see note 3 to financial statements).
B. Income

The Agency's total income for the fiscal year amounted to some $43.3 million, and included cash contributions of $41.8 million, contributions in kind valued at $1.1 million and miscellaneous receipts of $400,000. The greater part of the cash contributions received were against current pledges from the following sources:


Government
Pleged
$ US
Received
$ US
Percentage of total contribution
Balance
$ US
United States of America
50,000,000
30,000,000
72.9
20,000,000
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
12,400,000
8,000,000
19.4
4,400,00
France
2,571,400
2,000,00
4.9
571,400
Others
1,258,421
1,030,921
2,5
227,500
Other contributors
142,811
99,954
3
42,857
TOTAL
66,372,632
41130,875
100.0
25,241,757



Thus, as against the $77 million budgeted by UNRWA and authorized by General Assembly resolution 513 (VI), some $66 million was in fact pledged by contributing governments, and $41 million was actually received.

The Agency's operations were not hampered during the fiscal year 1951-1952 because of a lack of funds. The $77 million budget included $50 million of estimated expenditures for projects. The final programme was approved by the General Assembly on 22 January 1952. Negotiations for agreements with the Arab Governments on the new programme have continued since that time.

The sum of $25 million shown as the balance outstanding is subject to certain reservations by the contributors. The United States Government has informed the Agency that the $20 million still due for the 1951-1952 programme must be firmly committed to projects before 31 December this year; and the Government of the United Kingdom has similarly stipulated that the $4.4 million balance of its contribution will only be paid against specific project commitments made before 31 March 1953.

Amounts were still outstanding at the end of the fiscal year from the governments acting as hosts to the refugees. At 30 June, Egypt was the only host country that had paid its contribution for the current year in full, although the whole amount ($435,000) of its previous year's contribution was still outstanding; Jordan had paid half, and Israel, Lebanon and Syria had paid nothing.

The balance of $2,151,000 making up total income consists of contributions in kind from all sources valued at some $1,114,000 (of which roughly $670,000 worth may be said to fall within the Agency programme); some $642,000 of cash received against pledges made before the beginning of the fiscal year under review; and miscellaneous income amounting to $395,000. This latter item resulted mainly from the sale of empty containers, although any income derived from the repayment of Agency loans, made either to individuals or to firms, is also recorded under this heading.
C. Expenditure

Although the term "reintegration" is employed in the text of the General Assembly resolution, the Agency's new programme is not intended in itself to be a final solution of the refugee problem and the use of the term conveys an idea of permanent resettlement which is at variance with the resolution establishing the right of the refugees to repatriation and/or compensation. For this reason the word "reintegration" is not used by the Agency in describing its activities in the area. Instead the specific activities leading to the improvement of refugee living conditions and creation of opportunity for self-support, although financed from the "reintegration" fund, are better described as activities under the "new programme."

The following table shows how total expenditure and commitments have been divided between relief and the new programme:



Relief
New programme
($ US million)
Total
Direct expenditure
23.28
1.51
24.79
Commitment
1.01
16
1.17
Pro-ration of administrative and indirect expenses
1.58
1.58
3.17
Administrative and indirect expense commitments
03
03
06
25.90
3.28
29.19


The plan of expenditure for the fiscal year 1951-1952 estimated $27 million for relief. In addition to the $25.9 million of expenditures and commitments reflected in the table, there was an increase of $1.1 million in the inventory of relief supplies. The total figure of $27 million for relief expenditure and commitments was reduced by the difference between the inventories taken at the beginning and at the end of the year.

The commitments under the relief programme consist for the greater part ($751,000) of orders for tents and blankets that will be used for the winter of 1952-1953 and for medical supplies. These represent in effect advance purchasing for the following fiscal year.

The direct expenditure for the new programme can be divided as follows:

By country
$ US thousand
Headquarters
57
Syria
68
Jordan
695
Gaza
122
Demilitarized zone
7
Total project expenditure
1,508
General expenses
949
Total project expenditure
949
General expenses
559
Total direct expenditure

By type
1,508
Research
157
Training
52
Urban housing
69
Agriculture
80
Loans and grants (to individuals)
118
Industrial and financial
450
Miscellaneous
23
Total project expenditure
949
General expenses
559
Total direct expenditure
1,508


The greatest single item of expenditure has been the Agency's contribution of $420,000 to the capital of the Jordan Development Bank, an intermediary agency set up by UNRWA to deal with loans on a retail basis.

3. NEW FISCAL YEAR 1952-1953
A. New procedures

During the financial year 1951-1952, the Agency's accounting system was based on detailed accounting records maintained centrally at headquarters. Field Offices received allotments of funds on an imprest basis to cover disbursements made within their area of activity, and submitted details of all transactions to headquarters at the end of each month. The preparation of the budget was also carried out on a centralized basis, and where a plan of expenditure provided funds for a function, such as welfare, education or health care, control of the budget was given to the appropriate division chief at headquarters. This meant that the Country Representatives did not assume their proper share of responsibility for developing a budget for the operations within their jurisdiction. Moreover, accurate accounting was impossible, since the plan of expenditure did not necessarily reflect the country or function within the country for which the expenditure was required.

In order to rectify this situation, it was decided to decentralize finance operations to the Field Offices, and the estimates for the 1952-1953 plan of expenditure were the first to have been compiled by the Country Representatives themselves instead of by headquarters, although the new system of making quarterly allocations to the field instead of monthly ones was introduced for the last quarter of the fiscal year 1951-1952. Under the new system, which came into force at the beginning of the fiscal year 1952-1953, headquarters is responsible for determining policy, issuing general procedures, making periodic inspections and audits by means of a small group of travelling auditors and maintaining an over-all control; but it does not duplicate the accounts and financial records of the Field Offices, which will at the end of each month submit reports to headquarters for consolidation into summary reports of the Agency's financial operations.

The classification of accounts used by the Agency in the past has suffered from three deficiencies: (1) it failed to provide information on the cost of activities or functions as distinguished from the cost of goods or services used; (2) it was too rigid to permit ready expansion or alteration as the Agency programme developed; and (3) it was not easily adaptable to decentralized operations. An entirely new classification was therefore prepared for introduction on 1 July 1952. This is essentially a combination of two subsidiary classifications; first, everything the Agency buys or consumes has been classified into some eighty objects of expenditure, such as personnel costs, travel, food supplies, construction materials, equipment, etc.; secondly, everything the Agency does has been classified into sixteen functions, each of which is a carefully defined activity such as basic subsistence, health care or education. These functions are in turn grouped under the two basic programmes of relief and the new programme, plus a third category entitled common services instead of administration, since it includes general administration, supply and transport, and registration and investigation, the total of which is then pro-rated between the two programmes in an agreed proportion, assumed for the present to be one-half to relief and one-half to the new programme.

A new system of account coding has also been developed which will make it possible in the future to determine accurately the cost of each function, consequently of each programme, and finally of the Agency's entire operations. Moreover, it will also be possible to cut across the various activities and to classify and determine the cost of a specific object of expenditure used by one or both of the two programmes; so that a statistical analysis of the Agency's operations will be possible to an extent unknown under the old system.

The new classification of accounts will permit the Agency to exercise a greater control over its financial operations. The budget for each Field Office and for headquarters will be based upon the classifications and will contain specific information on proposed expenditures under each code. Budgets will be approved and allotments made to each expending office; accounts will be maintained; summary reports will be submitted to the Finance Division at Headquarters; consolidated reports will be prepared; financial analyses and budget reviews will be made; and finally, the accounts will be audited; all on the basis of the uniform classification of accounts.

It is also proposed to set up a strict method of budgeting and accounting for expenditures under the new programme. In the first place, over-all programme agreements will be concluded with the governments, within the ceiling of $200 million authorized by the General Assembly. The UNRWA Representative and the government official concerned will then prepare and agree upon specific projects, for which allotments will be made by headquarters within the amount of the programme agreement and from funds actually made available by contributors or for which firm promises have been received. In fact, no funds will be committed for projects without the written authorization of such project agreements.
B. Prospects for the future

The basis of the three-year programme, submitted to and approved by the General Assembly, as originally drawn up was a progressively widening ratio between declining relief and increasing reintegration:




1951-1952
1952-1953
1953-1954
Total
($ US million)
Relief
27
18
5
50
Reintegration
50
100
50
200
77
118
55
250


The delay in launching the new programme, caused by the late approval of the General Assembly (26 January 1952) and long negotiations with Arab governments, resulted in relatively small expenditures during the fiscal year 1951-1952. Therefore the expected reduction in relief rolls through expenditures on the new programme did not take place.

It is expected that ample funds will be available for the new fiscal year. On 1 July 1952, the Agency had approximately $11 million of unallotted and unreserved cash, and $25.2 million is expected on pledges for the fiscal year 1951-1952. In addition, a total of $80 million is anticipated during the 1952-1953 fiscal year; United States of America, $60 million; United Kingdom, $15 million; France, $3 million; and other contributors, $2 million. Thus available resources for the fiscal year should be in the neighbourhood of $116 million. However, only a small part of this sum will be available for financing the relief programme, since two of the con-tributing governments have stipulated that a limited portion of their funds might be spent for that purpose. A large proportion of the funds are to be available for financing projects under the new programme.

During the past several months, much of the effort of the Agency has been directed toward the establishment of a finance organization and the procedures required to implement the new programme. The main purpose of the decentralization of financial accounts and records was to provide UNRWA Country Representatives with financial data necessary to fulfil their responsibilities. The financial instructions which have been issued, and those now in draft form, relating to budgeting, accounting, financial reporting and auditing provide the Agency with the basis for adequate control of operations under the new programme.
APPENDIX


INDEX TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1952


Statement title
Statement number
Notes to the financial statements Statement of assets and liabilities
1
Summary statement of income and expenditure
2
Contributions in cash---Received from States Members of the United Nations
3
Contributions in cash---Received from States non-Members of the United Nations
4
Contributions in cash---Received from other contributors
5
Contributions in kind---Received from States Members of the United Nations
6
Contributions in kind---Received from other contributors
7
Memorandum statement of direct aid to refugees and services to the Agency by governments in the Near East
8
Memorandum statement of direct aid to refugees and services to the Agency by voluntary agencies in the Near East
9
Statement of expenditure for the relief programme
10
Statement of expenditure for the reintegration programme
11
Statement of expenditure for administrative and other indirect expenses
12

NOTES TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
for the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952

Note 1. The following assets of the agency are not reflected in the statement of assets and liabilities. The disbursements for these assets and any subsequent recoveries have been treated as expenditures and miscellaneous receipts respectively in the accompanying statements and in the financial statements of previous periods:

(a) Capital stock of the Jordan Development Bank Ltd., at a cost of $420,000.
(b) Reintegration loans receivable outstanding totalling $193,492, of which not more than 50 per cent are expected to be collected.
(c) Fixed assets at a cost of $1,013,537 and having an estimated residual value of $408,164.

Note 2. Inventories are valued generally at the lower of cost or market price where available and in other cases at estimated values. Approximately 18 per cent of the total inventory values were estimated.

Note 3. On the accompanying statement of assets and liabilities, the Working Fund balance at 30 June 1951 is shown as being $6,744,762 whereas in the Director's report for the previous fiscal period which ended 30 June 1951, the balance is shown as being $6,509,322. These two amounts are reconciled below:



Working Fund
$
Balance at 30 June 1951 per Director's report for the fiscal period then ended
6,509,322
Add:
Adjustment for over-estimate of liabilities shown on statement of assets and liabilities at 30 June 1951
154,044
Various transactions of income and expenditure occurring in the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952, but pertaining to the prior period
81,394
Various transactions of income and expenditure occurring in the fiscalyear ended 30 June 1952, but pertaining to the prior period
6,744,762


Note 4. The accompanying statements reflect adjustments for changes in the supply inventories balance between 30 June 1951 and 30 June 1952, and do not reflect commitments outstanding at 30 June 1952 represented mainly by unfilled purchase orders and contracts for materials and services not received. Both of these factors have to be taken into account as follows to make the expenditures shown in these statements comparable with the fiscal year budget:



Relief programme
$
Reintegration
programme
$
Total
$
Per statement No. 2
24,861,637
3,092,203
27,953,840
Invevtory adjustment---add (deduct)
1,093,039
(39,712)
1,053,327
3,052,491
29,007,167
Add
commitment outstanding
1,044,568
194,982
30,246,226
26,999,244
3,246,982
30,246,226

Note 5. In addition to the activities of UNRWA, contributions were made to the Palestine refugee programme by governments and voluntary agencies in the Near East in the form of direct aid to the refugees and services to UNRWA. As these contributions were not under the control of UNRWA, they have not been recognized in the accompanying statements of income and expenditure but are shown in memorandum form in statements Nos. 8 and 9 and are recapitulated in the following summary to reflect the total expenditures of the Palestine refugee programme incurred by UNRWA, the governments and voluntary agencies.



Note 6. The contributions of governments and voluntary agencies in the Near East shown in the foregoing summary and on statements Nos. 8 and 9 are limited to the amounts reported to UNRWA by the governments and agencies concerned, except for several instances where reports received did not cover the entire fiscal year; in these cases the amounts were extrapolated for the year.

Note 7. Relief supplies were also donated to the refugees by UNICEF but are not reflected in these statements since the contributions are shown in UNICEF reports and should not be duplicated in the financial statements of UNRWA, another United Nations organization.

Note 8. Contributions in cash have in all cases been converted to US dollars at the official rates of exchange prevailing at time of receipt.

Note 9. Contributions in kind other than used clothing are reported at values designated by contributors or when not so designated at estimated values considered by the Agency to be appropriate. Used clothing is valued on the basis of rates employed by the customs authorities of Lebanon.

Statement No. 1
(Expressed in US dollars)

For the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952

(Expressed in US dollars)



Income $ $
Contributions in cash received from:
States Members of the United Nations (statement No. 3) ............. 41,364,250
States non-members of the United Nations (statement No. 4) ......... 308,600
Other contributors (statement No. 5) ............................... 99,954 41,772,804

Contributions in kind received from:
States Members of the United Nations (statement No. 6) ............. 647,909
Other contributors (statement No. 7) ............................... 466,161 1,114,070

Miscellaneous cash receipts ......................................... 394,713

Total income 43,281,587
Less expenditure
Relief programme (statement No. 10) ................................. 24,861,637
Reintegration programme (statement No. 11) .......................... 3,092,203

Total expenditure 27,953,840

EXCESS OF INCOME OVER EXPENDITURE 15,327,747


The notes to the financial statements are an integral part of these statements and should
be read in conjunction therewith.
Special reference should be made to note 4.



Statement No. 3
CONTRIBUTIONS IN CASH
Received from States Members of the United Nations for the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952
(Expressed in US dollars)



Total Amount Balance
Contributors Currency pledged pledged received expected
$ $ $


In respect to pledges for the twelve
months ended 30 June 1952
Bolivia .......... US dollars 5,000 5,000 5,000 -
Denmark ............. Danish kroner 300,000 43,500 43,500 -
Egypt ........ Egyptian pounds 135,841 391,223 391,223 -
El Salvador ... US dollars 500 500 - 500
France ....... French francs 900,000,000 2,571,400 2,000,000 571,400
Honduras ......... US dollars 2,500 2,500 2,500 - Indonesia ....... US dollars 30,000 30,000 30,000 -
Israel ......... Israeli pounds 35,715 50,000 - 50,000
Lebanon ....... US dollars 33,000 33,000 - 33,000
Luxembourg .... US dollars 2,000 2,000 2,000 -
Netherlands ........ Dutch guilders 95,000 25,000 25,000 -
New Zealand .. Pounds sterling 75,000 210,000 210,000 -
Saudi Arabia .. Pounds sterling 14,286 40,000 40,000 -
Sweden ........ Pounds sterling 6,897 19,310 19,310 -
Syria ........ Syrian pounds 225,000 60,000 - 60,000
Syria-Palestine Arab
Refugee Institute ..Syrian pounds 34,631 9,787 9,787 -
United Kingdom . Pounds sterling 4,428,571 12,400,000 8,000,001 4,400,000
United States of America US dollars 50,000,000 50,000,000 30,000,000 20,000,000
65,893,221 40,778,321 25,114,900

In respect to pledges for the period
prior to 1 July 1951
Denmark .........Danish kroner 100,000 14,500 14,500 -
Egypt ........ Egyptian pounds 151,000 435,000 - 435,000
France . French francs 200,000,000 571,429 571,429 -
Lebanon ...... Lebanese pounds 108,468 28,500 - 28,500
Syria ........ Syrian pounds 64,498 17,916 - 17,916

1,067,345 585,929 481,416

Total 66,960,566 41,364,250 25,596,316


The notes to the financial statements are an integral part of these statements and should be read in conjunction therewith.


Statement No. 4
CONTRIBUTIONS IN CASH
Received from States non-members of the United Nations for the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952
(Expressed in US dollars)

Total Amount Balance
Contributors Currency pledged pledged received expected
$ $ $


In respect to pledges for the twelve
months ended 30 June 1952
Jordan ........... Jordan dinars 60,000 168,000 84,000 84,000
Southern Rhodesia ..Pounds sterling 7,000 19,600 19,600 -
Sudan ........... Egyptian pounds 50,000 144,000 144,000 -
Vietnam ......... US dollars 5,000 5,000 5,000 -
------ ------ ------ --------
Total 336,600 252,600 84,000
======= ====== ========
In respect to pledges for the period
prior to 1 July 1951
Jordan ......... Jordan dinars 20,000 56,000 56,000 -
------- ------ ------ Tota 392,600 308,600 84,000
======= ====== ======

The notes to the financial statements are an integral part of these statements and should be read in conjunction therewith.


Statement No. 5
CONTRIBUTIONS IN CASH
Received from other contributors for the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952
(Expressed in US dollars)

Total Amount Balance
Contributors Currency pledged pledged received expected
$ $ $


In respect to pledges for the twelve
months ended 30 June 1952
Bahrein ....................... Pounds sterling 7,474 20,927 20,927 -
The Joint Christian Committee for
Refugee Work in Syria and Lebanon.Lebanese pounds 3,500 942 942 -
Kuwait ........................ Pounds sterling 11,250 31,500 31,500 -
Qatar ...................... Pounds sterling 7,463 20,895 20,895 -
UNESCO ..................... US dollars 25,425 25,425 25,425 -
WHO ........................... US dollars 42,857 42,857 - 42,857
Various donors (under $200 each) US dollars 265 265 265 -
----- ----- ------ ------
Total 142,811 99,954 42,857
======= ======= ======

The notes to the financial statements are an integral part of these statements and should be read in conjunction therewith.

Statement No. 6

CONTRIBUTIONS IN KIND
Received from States Members of the United Nations for the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952
(Expressed in US dollars)



Total
value Amount Balance
Contributors Commodities pledged pledged received expected
$ $ $


States Members of the United Nations
Australia ........................ Edible fat 600,000 328,715 271,285
Belgium ......................... Blankets 30,000 - 30,000
Greece .......................... Dried fruit, tobacco 56,287 56,287 -
Israel .......................... Gasoline 5,207 5,207 -
Norway .......................... Smoked herrings 14,000 14,000 -
Pakistan ........................ Wheat 90,000 90,000 -
Philippines ..................... Refined sugar 10,000 10,000 -
Saudi Arabia .................... Petroleum products 75,000 75,000 -
Share of Mexico's contribution to the
United Nations Korean Reconstruction
Agency .................. Supplies 115,600 - 115,600
Venezuela ..................... Domestic produce 20,000 - 20,000
Yugoslavia .................... Maize 68,700 68,700 -
------ ------ ------
Total 1,084,794 647,909 436,885

The notes to the financial statements are an integral part of these statements and should be read in conjunction therewith.

Statement No. 7
CONTRIBUTIONS IN KIND
Received from other contributors for the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952
(Expressed in US dollars)

Amount
Contributors Commodities contributed received
$

American Middle East Relief .......................Used clothing, shoes 7,409
Arab Relief Committee .............................Used clothing, shoes 1,272
Bodourian, Cairo ..................................Cigarettes 3,672
British Red Cross Society .........................Used clothing, shoes, blankets, tents 57,440
Canadian Pulp Industry ........................... Dryer felts 514
Canadian Red Cross Society ....................... Used clothing 11,824
Church World Service ..............................Used clothing, shoes, bedding, blankets 93,142
Congregational Christian Service Committee ........Used clothing, shoes 4,650
Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe ....New blankets 2,128
Egyptian Red Crescent .............................Medical supplies 2,880
Holy Land Arab Refugee Fund .......................Used clothing, shoes 2,419
League of Red Cross Societies .....................Coffee, sardines 1,904
Lutheran World Federation .........................Used clothing, shoes, bedding, egg powder 115,492
Mennonite Central Committee, United States ........Used clothing, shoes, bedding 29,979
New Zealand Council of Organization for Relief Services, Over..........Used clothing 3,372
Norwegian Relief to Europe ........................Timber 17,500
Pontifical Mission ................................Used clothing, shoes 30,354
Save the Children Fund, Australia .................New and used clothing 823
Save the Children Federation, New York ............Used clothing, blankets, shoes 780
Superior Council for Relief, Palestine Refugees ...Millet, used clothing, shoes, dried eggs 37,178
Swedish Red Cross .................................Used clothing 26,138
Turkish Red Crescent ............................. Rice 1,214
United Arab Refugee Appeal, Cairo .................Used clothing,blankets,soap,school supplies 7,442
World Relief Commission of the National Association of Evangelicals ..Used clothing, shoes 3,605
Various donors (to value of under $500 each) .....Used clothing, medicines, soap, milk food 3,030
------
Total 466,161
=======

The notes to the financial statements are an integral part of these statements and should be read in conjunction therewith.



Statement No. 8
Statement No. 10
STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE FOR RELIEF PROGRAMME
For the fiscal year ended 30 June 1952
(Expressed in US dollars)

Statement No. 12

The Supply Division of UNRWA has three main land a number of subsidiary functions. Its main functions are:

(a) The distribution service for rations and other direct issues to refugees;
(b) The procurement service for the whole Agency;
(c) The transportation service of the Agency.
The nature of its work brings the Division in constant contact with the Economic, Trade, and Finance Ministries of the several governments of the area, and also with the supply services of UNICEF, WHO and other United Nations agencies. The Division employs sixteen international staff members and some 200 Palestinians at headquarters and district headquarters, excluding drivers, mechanics, warehouse personnel and the like. The Division has its main procurement office in Beirut, with a branch office in Cairo. It has agents in London, and has access to the procurement services of other United Nations agencies in Geneva, Paris and New York.

A survey of the organization and methods of operation of the Supply Division has recently been undertaken by a firm of management consultants from England. As a result of this survey, extensive changes in the methods of book-keeping and accounting were put into effect, and forms and other operating documents were redesigned in accordance with modern principles. Some strengthening of the organization of the Division was undertaken on the advice of the consultants, with the specific object of allowing the senior executives more time for personal visits of inspection and investigation to sources of supply.

The Agency is a very large purchaser of flour, its annual purchases amounting to over 100,000 tons. The purchase in local markets, or the importation from abroad, of this large quantity is not without its effect on local economy, and constant touch is maintained by the Supply Division with the appropriate Ministries in the host countries. The whole of the fiscal year 1951-1952 was a period of shortages of cereals in the Middle East, due to partial failure of the harvest in 1951. Consequently, the Governments of Jordan, Syria and Lebanon requested the Agency to refrain from purchases on the local market. The prospect of a good harvest in 1952 has led to a reversal of this policy, and some governments have indicated that they consider it will be unnecessary for them to grant import permits for foreign flour, in view of local availability. The policy which has been consistently followed by the Agency with regard to all consumable commodities, including flour, is that local produce is purchased rather than imported whenever this can be done without any sacrifice of funds or quality.
COST OF FOOD, SHELTER, MEDICAMENTS AND FUEL
PER REFUGEE PER MONTH IN US DOLLARS
(Quarterly averages)
1950 1951 1952

II III IV I II III IV I II

1.59 1.56 .. 1.76 2.04 2.26 2.08 2.20 1.84



COST OF STAPLE RELIEF FOODS PER TON IN US DOLLARS

1950 1951 1952

II III IV I II III IV I II

Flour ............ 90 96 .. 114 129 125 115 120 114
Sugar ............ 160 166 .. 162 177 205 186 163 145
Oil .............. 406 464 .. 480 535 495 420 380 357
Pulses ........... 95 102 .. 110 118 108 107 95 102
Rice ............. .. 140 .. 140 129 183 181 200 220


VALUE OF RELIEF GOODS DISTRIBUTED (EXCLUDING TEXTILES)
(Millions of US dollar equivalents)

Lebanon Syria Jordan Gaza Israel

1950 May-December .............. 1.33 0.87 4.66 2.26 0.26
1951 January-December .......... 2.55 2.45 10.11 4.44 0.47
1952 January-June ............... 1.44 1.02 5.57 2.31 0.19

Cumulative total 5.32 4.34 20.34 9.01 0.92


VALUE AND DESTINATION OF LOCAL PURCHASES
(Thousands of US dollar equivalents)


For internal transport and distribution services, the Agency relies on the railway system of the area, long-distance haulage contractors and local shipping. For local distribution the Agency has a small fleet of its own trucks. The area is poorly served by railways, and road haulage operates under considerable handicaps owing to the constant crossing of national frontiers, with all the attendant delays caused by customs and security formalities. The Agency complies to the greatest extent possible with the governments' desires that the maximum amount of traffic should be sent by rail in preference to road. Compliance with governments' wishes in this matter is made more difficult owing to the fact that road haulers always seem able to undercut the prices charged by rail.

There are many points at which the financial interests of the Agency conflict with specific local interests of the host countries and contacts between the Supply Division and the government authorities with the object of reconciling these differences are constant.

A further complication in the supply programme results from the fact that many contributor nations to the programme attach special conditions to their donations requiring the Agency to expend the value of their donations in the donating country. It is not always easy, and sometimes impossible, to find a commodity which is at the same time required by the Agency and available for export by the donor country at a price comparable with that at which the commodity could be purchased in other markets. As the Agency's financial accounts are maintained on a US dollar basis, the cost expressed in dollars of supplies obtained with soft currency donations often appears excessive, and tends to give a misleading picture.

The basic ration issued to refugees has been maintained at the same level as in previous years, and is issued monthly to heads of families at distribution points. The actual distribution of some 10,000 tons of food each month, in small lots of five or so rations each, is itself a large task employing a considerable staff and involving careful transport planning. The composition of the ration will be found in the section dealing with nutrition.

Tentage and blankets are other large items of expenditure, the Agency having had to purchase 11,000 tents and 300,000 blankets to replace others which had become completely unserviceable from hard use and exposure.

The question as to what extent it is wise for an Agency of this type to stockpile stores in anticipation of future requirements has received careful attention. The temptation to stockpile a large quantity of stores, so that they will be available without delay when required, has been successfully resisted. In the case of consumable goods which have to be procured from distant markets owing to local non-availability, a modest reserve is
essential to guard against interruptions in the supply line. These advance commitments necessitate availability of funds a considerable length of time before the supplies are required for distribution in the field.

IV. Health and medical programme
1. ORGANIZATION, PERSONNEL AND BUDGET

The Agency's health programme receives technical guidance from the World Health Organization, as well as a certain amount of financial assistance through the provision of a Chief of the Health Division and a malariologist, whose salaries are paid by WHO, plus a cash grant of $42,857 a year, At headquarters, the Health Division consists of a division chief, a deputy chief, a malariologist, a public health engineer, a nursing service officer, a medical supply officer and a limited number of clerks and technicians, in all a staff of twelve.

In Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Gaza the health programme is headed by a field health officer, with technical responsibility to the chief of the Health Division and administrative responsibility to the UNRWA Representative in the country. Field health officers in their respective countries operate their health programmes in accordance with policies established by headquarters, but have sufficient freedom to adapt the programmes to the particular circumstances of the countries in which each operates. They maintain close liaison with the officials of the Ministries of Health and of local Departments of Health, and frequently participate in over-all health programmes of the countries. To each country office is assigned a field nurse officer, a field camp and sanitation officer and a medical supply officer. The basic medical unit common to all countries is the camp clinic, operated by a medical officer with the assistance of a camp nurse, a staff nurse, a practical nurse, a nurse's aid and a midwife. However, variations in unit organization occur from camp to camp.

Hospitalization is provided in part by hospitals operated by the Agency, as well as by subsidized hospitals operated by voluntary organizations, and in some instances by hospitals operated by the governments. There is no established pattern for each country and wide variation occurs; for example, tuberculous patients are taken care of in Agency hospitals in Lebanon and Gaza, and in government sanitoria in Lebanon and Syria, and to some extent in Jordan.

In providing adequate health and medical facilities to a refugee population exceeding 850,000 persons, the Agency employs a total of 1,768 persons in its health programme. A breakdown of this figure is given below.

Table A
PERSONNEL AS AT 30 JUNE 1952

The above reflects the Agency's policy of gradually replacing international staff members by area staff as trained personnel become available.

The provision of health facilities is not limited to refugees in certain areas. In Gaza, clinical facilities are available to all who apply, since it is recognized that the indigenous residents of the Gaza strip are on the average in even greater need of these services than the refugee population itself. In Jordan, the Agency has followed the policy of permitting the so-called "economic" refugee living on the Israeli-Jordan frontier to
attend Agency clinics.

The operation of the health programme costs approximately $2,150,000 per year. This figure includes salaries and wages, medical supplies, and subsidies for the medical, public health, sanitation and camp maintenance aspects of the Agency's programme. Thus, the cost of medical services per refugee in the fiscal year 1951 1952 amounted to $2.49. It should be pointed out that this figure is somewhat inflated, since a certain amount of stockpiling of medical supplies was accomplished during the year in order to take advantage of reduced prices. Expenditures, however, for the maintenance of camps, including sanitation, were nearly 100 per cent greater than in the previous fiscal year, due to the necessity for extensive improvements to and purchase of tents which had been badly damaged by the severe December storms and by the provision of more permanent sanitary facilities than the previous emergency type.
2. CO-OPERATIVE ARRANGEMENTS WITH GOVERNMENTS
AND THE ROLE OF WHO

The burden of the health programme has fallen on the Agency with a varying pattern of government participation. Certain governments will admit refugee patients to government hospitals, either free of charge or at a minimal rate. In some cases, arrangements have been made so that refugees may attend government clinics, although it must be pointed out that in many instances, non-refugees attend Agency operated facilities. Joint anti-malaria campaigns have been conducted in many small communities which are made up of both
refugees and nationals of the countries. Similarly cooperation has been attained in the control of typhus and relapsing fevers, since these two diseases, when they do occur among refugees, appear usually among those who live outside camps; i.e., in communities which consist largely of nationals of countries. In one country, a diphtheria immunization programme was carried out jointly by the Agency and the government, with UNICEF providing the toxoid. Co-operation with governments is also apparent in the exchange of epidemiological information between the Agency and the governments. In Jordan, a well-developed public health diagnostic laboratory and vaccine production service originally established by the Agency has been turned over to the government, with the understanding that the service for UNRWA will continue to be rendered on the same scale as previously. The international laboratory experts have been taken on by WHO to continue providing technical assistance to the laboratory.

Special mention must be made of the role of voluntary agencies in the area. Several of the hospitals providing care for the refugees are mission hospitals operated by foreign missionary groups and in some instances with subsidies provided by the Agency.

3. HEALTH OF THE REFUGEES

A list of the infectious diseases among the refugees from the period 17 June 1951 to 14 June 1952 gives an idea of the common diseases encountered in the area (see table B).

It is gratifying to note that out of the six classical Treaty diseases--cholera, plague, yellow fever, small pox, typhus fever and relapsing fever (louse-borne)--only two cases of endemic typhus have been reported.

The immunization campaigns against the typhoid group and diphtheria, and the insect control campaign against insect-borne diseases have contributed greatly toward the reduction of the incidence of these diseases. Agency incidence rates compare very favourably with the incidence among the indigenous inhabitants, in spite of the very primitive sanitary conditions under which refugees live. Statistical evidence shows that the crude death rate among the refugee population, which is over 90 per cent Moslem, ranges between 20.6 and 23.6. These figures compare with a rate of 21.3 recorded for the Moslem population under the Mandate régime.
Table B
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
From 17 June 1951 to 14 June 1952 inclusive


Lebanon Syria Jordan Gaza Total

Populationa ..................... 102,015 83,694 464,376 256,000 906,085
Plague .......................... - - - - -
Cholera ......................... - - - - -
Yellow fever .................... - - - - -
Smallpox ........................ - - - - -
Typhus (louse-borne) ............ - - - - -
Typhus (endemic) ................ - - 1 1 2
Relapsing fever ................. - - 124 13 137
Diphtheria ...................... 19 6 181 9 215
Measles ......................... 205 104 830 172 1,311
Whooping cough .................. 1,833 367 1,731 1,478 5,409
Meningitis ...................... 4 3 39 33 79
Poliomyelitis ................... 1 - 23 7 31
Typhoid (Para A & B) ............ 137 89 1,435 173 1,834
Amoebic dysentery ............... 6,499 3,157 5,492 290 15,438
Bacillary dysentery ............. 5,451 412 5,805 1,009 12,677
Non-specific dysentery .......... 21,487 11,287 20,536 20,542 73,852
Malaria ......................... 8,125 5,795 30,069 41 44,030
Bilharziasis .................... 1 - 17 68 86
Trachoma ........................ 17,939 10,302 230,653 21,578 280,472
Conjunctivitis .................. 30,981 19,877 131,472 23,261 205,591
Tuberculosis .................... 174 296 3,589 470 4,529
Syphilis ........................ 208 161 475 781 1,625
Mumps ........................... - 152 232 79 463
Pneumonias ...................... 720 - 68 - 788
a Population at risk, for whom statistics are available, including some non-refugees in Gaza.
These numbers are not the same as registered ration recipients.
4. CLINICS AND HOSPITALS
Table C below gives attendance figures at Agency clinics during the year:
Table C
ATTENDANCES 16 JUNE 1951--15 JUNE 1952

Lebanon Syria Jordan Gaza Total

Population ................ 102,015 83,694 344,547 287,000a 817,256
General medical cases ..... 490,251 254,601 407,422 332,215 1,484,489
Dressings and skin ........ 269,541 157,218 548,147 475,904 1,450,810
Eye ....................... 195,054 91,259 815,202 647,502 1,749,017
School health ............. 33,585 29,364 114,092 859,121 1,036,162
Maternal .................. 18,983 6,865 22,788 47,497 96,133
Infants ................... 97,139 44,007 97,329 83,000 321,475
Venereal diseases ......... 1,510 2,647 3,447 958 8,562
Others .................... 20,089 17,511 52,796 22,860 113,256

TOTAL 6,259,904


a Includes services to refugees by the Public Health Department and the Red Crescent Society, Gaza -- also services by UNRWA to non-refugees.
The above figures are based on WHO's monthly reports covering the period 16 June 1951-15 June 1952 and are not necessarily the same as those on rations.

The number of hospital beds maintained by or reserved for the Agency as of 15 June 1952 was as follows:

Lebanon ............................. 250
Syria ............................... 139
Jordan .............................. 968
Gaza ................................ 602

TOTAL 1,959
5. INSECT CONTROL

In a sub-tropical zone, such as the one in which UNRWA operates, insect-borne epidemics have been known for centuries to be a scourge of inhabitants of the countries that are now harbouring refugees. As hundreds of thousands of the latter are now living in these countries under poor conditions and roaming the countryside in search of work, fear of epidemics has necessitated a continuous insect control campaign.

The Agency therefore has actively engaged in antimalaria, anti-fly, anti-flea and anti-louse campaigns, which have proved of great value in reducing incidence of disease and in the maintenance of reasonable standards of health.

In 1951, an anti-malaria campaign started in the previous year was continued, and residual spraying was accomplished during the spring and early summer in Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. The expense of this campaign amounted to 12.1 cents per individual protected, and a very careful follow-up was maintained, especially in the Jordan Valley, by blood and entomological surveys. Most of the cases of malaria diagnosed by medical officers in the various stationary and mobile clinics are based on clinical evidence. Periodic microscopic checking on this clinical diagnosis showed that approximately 20 per cent of these cases were positive. The percentage of these clinical malaria cases in relation to the numbers of refugees attending clinics served as a month-to-month index of the degree of malaria prevalence. These percentages are shown in the following table.
Table D



West
Lebanon Syria East Jordan Jordan Gaza

1951
June .............. 2.7 3.0 11.0 5.5 -
July .............. 2.8 3.15 13.1 4.8 -
August ............ 2.3 3.9 11.1 4.0 -
September ......... 2.3 3.4 10.1 3.5 -
October ........... 2.9 3.6 10.3 3.8 -
November .......... 2.3 2.6 11.6 3.4 -
December .......... 1.9 1.0 11.6 2.0 -
1952
January ........... 1.7 0.6 8.7 1.1 -
February .......... 1.6 0.5 7.9 1.5 -
March ............. 1.5 0.5 8.3 1.7 -
April ............. 1.2 0.6 9.9 2.2 -
May ............... 1.3 0.3 9.3 2.2 -


There is a downward trend of malaria in all areas, although in East Jordan the incidence remains high, and had it not been for the Agency's anti-malaria activity, the 100,000 refugees living there would have been decimated by malaria epidemics. In Gaza, the victory has been exterminated and the very few cases that were reported proved always to have been imported from Sinai.

The insecticidal campaign against flies was continued during the year in all refugee camps and barracks. During 1951 and 1952, chlorodane in oil or as emulsion, used at first in a 2 per cent concentration, later increased to 4 per cent, constituted the principal anti-fly spray. This was applied weekly at all breeding places.

As sanitary conditions in the camps are improved, and as the sanitation staffs acquire more experience in garbage and sewage collection and disposal, the fly problem has noticeably dwindled. The installation of more incinerators in camps and the replacement of notorious fly-breeding latrines with borehole latrines, as in Gaza, and cesspit latrines in other places, are contributing greatly to the solution of the fly problem. During the year, the number of refugees benefited by the anti-fly campaign was 308,600, accomplished at a
cost per individual of 6.8 cents.

The anti-louse and anti-flea campaigns were vigorously continued and, by the end of 1951, lice infestation among the refugee population in camps averaged about 40 per cent in West Jordan, 16 per cent in East Jordan, 25 per cent in Syria, 17 per cent in Gaza, and 10 per cent in Lebanon.

Dusting the body and clothes with 10 per cent DDT in talcum continues to be efficacious against lice, but it is noted that lice take a longer period of time to die than previously and that the delousing effect seldom lasts more than three weeks.

It appears that fleas are definitely getting resistant to 10 per cent DDT powder, and in addition to DDT, gammexane powder (0.4 per cent gamma), and 4 per cent chlorodane emulsion or solution are being used in spraying floors of infested tents or barracks. Flea traps devised at first to give an index of fleas in tents have now begun to be used by refugees on successive nights as a means of flea control. Some of these traps have recorded as high as 700 fleas per trap per night. In the narrow sandy Gaza strip, where many Bedouin refugees, together with their domestic animals, live in crowded camps, thus giving fleas excellent opportunities for breeding, the problem is particularly disturbing.

6. ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

The Health Division is responsible for the maintenance of proper sanitation in organized camps, and environmental sanitation programmes are conducted by field camp maintenance and sanitation officers employed by the Division. The number of sanitary labourers is approximately 1 per 500 refugees in camps. In all but the smallest camps, one sanitary foreman is also authorized. These sanitary labourers have as their principal functions the cleaning and maintenance of latrines, the sweeping of the camp areas and the collection and
disposal of garbage and refuse.

There was a shortage of water in organized camps during July, August and September 1951, which was especially severe in South Lebanon, South Syria and all of Jordan. Measures taken by UNRWA were timely and adequate, and included the provision of water storage facilities for sixteen camps and of five watertank trucks. In some camps, many local residents of nearby communities drew water from UNRWA supplies when their normal sources failed.

In Gaza, there has been a perennial shortage of water during the summer months, and extensive works were planned and substantially completed during the year to expand water supply and storage facilities.

In Jordan, thirteen Agency camps obtained water from municipalities under an arrangement whereby UNRWA pays the national government for water and the government in turn reimburses the municipalities. Since some of the municipalities have not been reimbursed the Agency has on several occasions been threatened with a cut-off of the water supply.
7. NUTRITION

Following the surveys of the nutritional state of the refugees made by Dr. Clements, Chief of the Nutrition Section of WHO in 1950, and Dr. Corkill, Consultant to the Nutrition Section of WHO in 1951, a third survey was carried out in the spring of 1952. On this occasion the survey was made jointly by Dr. Burgess, Chief of the Nutrition Section of WHO, and Dr. van Veen, Senior Supervisory Officer of the Nutrition Division of FAO. The investigation was chiefly concerned with children, as signs of malnutrition reveal themselves more readily in children than in adults. Thirty-eight groups of refugees and non-refugees were examined and, in addition, camps, hospitals, clinics, feeding centres and schools were visited. In their report, the nutritionists stated that their assessment revealed relatively few refugee children who could be described as badly nourished, and that no serious malnutrition was found in any of the refugee groups they examined.

As the refugee population appeared to have adapted itself well to the basic ration and knew how to make good use of it, the nutritionists recommended that it should remain unchanged. The basic ration is shown in the table below:
Table E


Grammes per Calories per
Commodity month month

Flour ....................... 10,000 36,000
Pulses ...................... 600 2,100
Oils and fats ............... 375 3,375
Sugar ....................... 600 2,400
Rice ........................ 500 1,755

TOTAL 12,075 45,630
Datesa ...................... 500 1,250
Pulsesa ..................... 300 1,050

GRAND TOTAL 12,875 47,930

a Will be issued during winter period only.


This ration is deficient in animal protein, fresh vegetables and fruit, as these are expensive, perishable and difficult to supply regularly over a territory as large as that in which the Agency is operating. This lack is partly made up for by the fact that the refugees have learned to obtain these commodities by trading part of their flour ration, which is on a generous scale, and partly by the issue of UNICEF milk to vulnerable groups, i.e., children and pregnant and nursing women. It will thus be seen that the issue of UNICEF milk is of great importance, and the nutritionists were emphatic that there should be no reduction in the supply of milk as provided at present.

In addition to the basic ration and the UNICEF milk, supplementary meals continued to be given to infants under two years of age, and to children certified as in need by medical officers. The feeding centres are in some cases operated by medical personnel and in others by welfare personnel, but all are under medical supervision. The meals consist of items from the basic ration and fresh foodstuffs bought locally. They provide an extra 300,000 calories per person. During the year, the number of supplementary feeding centres was increased. Weights charts were maintained for infants. Cod liver oil and, in some cases, vitamin B and C preparations were given daily at the centres.

During the year, increased efforts were made to spread health education as to correct feeding and care of children through health centres, schools and clinics. It is of interest that, almost without exception, doctors in charge of UNRWA clinics were of the opinion that injudicious feeding, rather than lack of food, was one of the most important primary causes of malnutrition in infants.
8. SPECIAL CAMPAIGNS

The trachoma campaign was continued during the year with a routine treatment consisting of local applications of ophthalmic antibiotics (aureomycin or terramycin ointment, together with sulphonamides by mouth). This programme was assisted by UNICEF, which kindly procured some of the antibiotics. The campaign was completed at the end of January 1952 and the medical officer in charge reported over 80 per cent of cures. It should be noted that the results of this trachoma control campaign materially contributed to the acceptance by the WHO Expert Committee on Trachoma of Professor Bietti's views on the methods of treatment of trachoma. The results obtained on Palestine refugees were almost as good as those obtained by Professor Mitsui in an almost identical trachoma control campaign in Japan, which was carried out on 1,000 people. It is safe to assume that the results of the trachoma campaign among Palestine refugees shows a great opportunity for mass control of this disease, although tremendous administrative difficulties exist in applying ophthalmic ointment locally four times a day for sixty to ninety days at a low cost.

By virtue of the Agency's emphasis on the preventive aspect of its medical programme, work in connexion with maternal and child health has been given special attention in the health service to refugees. On the maternity side of this programme, lying-in sections have been established in the camp hospitals or polyclinics of the larger camps, and ante-natal clinics in almost all camps and large communities.

A mass immunization campaign against diphtheria was carried out among refugee and non-refugee children of school and pre-school ages in addition to the routine inoculations against typhoid and smallpox, all of which play an important part in preventing these diseases from occurring amongst the young.

The Agency continued its anti-venereal disease campaign during the course of the year. Although there is some evidence of an increase in the incidence of early infectious syphilis in urban areas of Lebanon, particularly among males, there is ample evidence to show that general syphilis morbidity remains low--not higher than 5 per cent. Treatment schedules have not been changed. The standard method was three million units of procaine penicillin in 2 per cent aluminium monostearate in oil in one dose or distributed over five daily injections. No other venereal diseases except gonorrhoea have been recorded.
9. MEDICAL SANITARY SUPPLIES

During the course of the year, very favourable terms were offered to UNRWA by IRO, and hundreds of items were procured for 40 per cent of the list price.
Purchases of medical supplies were also made through WHO, which provided assistance to the Agency through its procurement facilities, and approximately $480,000 was expended during the year for these items, including insecticides.

Numerous administrative changes in medical supply procedures were instituted in the interest of obtaining better control, regulating supply and reducing the number of units supplied direct from the base warehouse.
10. TRAINING IN PARA-MEDICAL FIELDS

In July 1951, plans for the reintegration of Palestinian Arab refugees in all possible ways were intensified. In this field, it was recognized that there were opportunities for training people in medical trades in medical units belonging to the Agency's health services in all four host countries. These countries were therefore circularized with a view to ascertaining what facilities were available in each for training refugees in medical occupations. This involved drawing up estimates in advance for such training projects as were considered suitable, and for purposes of administration all medical training projects were treated in the same way as those in other fields. An officer was appointed to the Health Division at headquarters for duty as Medical Training Officer.

A number of medical training schemes submitted by the four host countries were considered, and estimates for the most suitable and practicable were drawn up. These schemes included training as nurses, malaria technicians, laboratory and X-ray technicians, pharmacy attendants, tuberculosis and operating theatre orderlies, midwives and health education organizers. A list of training projects undertaken from July 1951 onwards is given in Table F below:
Table F
UNRWA MEDICAL TRAINING COURSES
(July 1951 -- June 1952)

Duration Number of
Name of course months trainees

Malaria technicians ...................... 3 8
Pharmacy attendants and machine-packers .. 6 25
Health education organizers .............. 5 1
Nurses, first year ....................... 12 27
Aid nurses, male ......................... 3 35
Midwives ................................. 18 7
Nurse aid-midwives ....................... 6 10
Childbirth attendants .................... 6 25
Laboratory technicians ................... 6 20
X-ray technicians ........................ 12 2
X-ray assistant .......................... 6 1
TB orderlies ............................. 6 2
Operating theatre orderlies .............. 6 2

All categories 165


In Jordan, there were excellent facilities for training in the large Augusta Victoria Hospital in Jerusalem, and training schemes for nurses, midwives, laboratory and X-ray technicians and pharmacy attendants were submitted. The Minister of Health in Jordan was also interested in nursing training, and offered to carry out the training of fifteen nurses in government hospitals in West Jordan at a cost of 100 Jordan dinars ($280) per head per annum, provided he obtained the assistance of a nurse tutor to organize and supervise the training. The offer was accepted, and an Agency international nurse was appointed to take charge of the training. Plans for a three-year training course for forty-five nurses have been initiated in Jordan.

In Syria, where facilities for training in Agency medical units were less than in other countries, the National University Hospital in Damascus kindly undertook the training of two refugees each in pharmacy, radiography and laboratory work. In addition, two students were trained as pharmacy attendants in the UNRWA pharmacy and two as TB medical orderlies at the Red Crescent TB Dispensary in Damascus.

In Gaza, besides the training of the laboratory technicians referred to above, it was found possible to institute the training of some operation theatre orderlies and X-ray assistants. A training course for twelve refugee women as general nurses was arranged at the Church Missionary Society Hospital. The training of twenty-five women as childbirth attendants was also begun.

Recently a course of training for ten refugee women as nurse aid-midwives was instituted in refugee camps in Lebanon. The intention of this course was to fit village women for duties in newly constructed refugee communities which it is hoped will eventually take the place of tented camps. Other courses of this nature are planned.

In addition to these courses in general medical subjects, a scheme was arranged for the training of an Agency sanitary official as a health education organizer. This training was carried out on the Agency's behalf by the Tanta Demonstration Centre in Egypt, which is a centre for the education of villagers in health matters, maintained jointly by WHO and the Health and Social Welfare Department of the Egyptian Government. On completion of training, the candidate will be employed in organizing the teaching of health education for new communities.

Besides the medical training schemes initiated and financed directly by the Agency, thirteen fellowships in medical subjects tenable at the American University of Beirut were made available to refugee candidates by the United States Technical Assistance Board. The fellowships awarded were two for medical technology (two years' course), five for laboratory technicians, three for sanitarians, and three for public health nurses.

When considering the practicability of medical training projects, certain limiting factors had to be borne in mind. The first of these was the place of training. Use had to be made of existing facilities in hospitals, laboratories and clinics, as for the most part the accommodation was limited and would not permit of large classes. Teaching staff was another difficulty, as competent instructors in the Agency's employment were already fully occupied with their routine duties, and there was a shortage of capable teachers outside. In the case of nursing training, it was difficult to find women students with a sufficiently high standard of education who were willing to train as nurses, partly because nursing is not generally regarded as a suitable profession for women in the Middle East.

Possibilities for employment on completion of training had also to be very carefully considered. It was obvious that to train many more refugees than there were posts available would lead to a feeling of frustration. The need for medical technicians in the Middle East is admitted on all sides but, owing to lack of finances, some countries have not been able to reach the stage of trying to fill this need. With the aid being furnished to Middle East countries by the United States Technical Assistance Board, however, there are greatly improved prospects of an increased number of technical posts in the expanding health departments of these countries in the near future. In addition, there will be a need for medical posts in the new communities which it is proposed to construct for refugees as soon as political agreement is obtained. Part of the medical training programme is designed towards this end. With increased emphasis on training unskilled refugees to become independent, projects for training larger numbers in medical trades are about to be commenced in the field.
V. Refugee welfare
1. INTRODUCTION

The Welfare Division of UNRWA groups together three distinct services. These are:

(1) Social welfare;
(2) Placement;
(3) Registration and refugees statistics.

The main functions of the social welfare branch are to relieve individual distress, to improve the morale of the refugees, to distribute liquid milk and to provide hot midday meals for babies and the under-nourished. The branch also organizes and runs arts and crafts centres and sewing centres for girls and women in the camps, and gives instruction in domestic matters and in baby care. This year special funds were allotted for the expansion of individual social case work.

Another function of this branch is to keep in continuous contact with various voluntary agencies which are carrying out relief work for the Palestinian Arab refugees. Further information on this subject will be found on page 119.

The placement branch is concerned with finding employment for individual refugees with existing employers and with analysing refugee skills so as to give advice in the development of training programmes.

The registration branch is responsible for the registers of refugees on the relief rolls, and thus determines entitlement to rations and to other assistance. It also maintains the central statistical file on refugee members, origin, present location, sex, age, religion, etc.
2. SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH

(a) Reconstitution and distribution of UNICEF milk Of the greatest importance in maintaining health among the refugee babies and children is the joint
UNRWA/UNICEF milk programme. UNICEF supplies milk in powder form to UNRWA, which undertakes its reconstitution and distribution to the classes who are the special care of UNICEF, that is, to children under fifteen years and to expectant and nursing mothers. The standard daily ration is 0.36 litres of reconstituted whole milk for babies under two years, and 0.28 litres of reconstituted skim milk for each mother or older child.

It is UNICEF's policy that milk should be reconsituted and distributed in liquid form, the object being to ensure that it will be consumed regularly by the beneficiaries themselves and that it will not be sold or diverted to other uses. Accordingly, UNRWA has always tried to distribute reconstituted milk to as many of the beneficiaries as possible. However, not all refugees are to be found concentrated in camps, nor even in large numbers in close proximity to each other. Many families live far from any of their fellows in villages or country places to which few other refugees have gone. For administrative reasons, it is not practicable to open milk centres in places where the refugee population is small or widely scattered. It follows that liquid distribution is not feasible in all cases. During the year, a major effort was made to meet this problem, and a reorganization was undertaken which succeeded in increasing the average number of daily liquid milk distributions from about 336,000 to about 422,000, with a corresponding decrease in the quantities of dried milk issued. At the end of the year, only 14,000 refugee children and mothers were being issued with milk in powder form.

Milk was also distributed, on behalf of UNICEF, to certain groups which are not strictly "refugees" within UNRWA's definition, which specifies that a "refugee" must, among other things, have "lost his permanent place of residence". This excludes at least two categories of persons who have been heavily hit by the same events that created the refugee problem. These are:

(i) The so-called "economic refugees", that is to say, persons whose homes lie on the Arab side of the frontier between Israel and Jordan but whose lands or jobs were on the other side, and who thus, through the loss of their means of livelihood, have been reduced to partial or complete destitution and starvation. Their numbers are estimated at about 56,000.

(ii) The original inhabitants of Gaza. These number about 80,000. Before the exodus of the refugees, the Gaza strip, which measures only some twenty-five by five miles, was already a poor and overcrowded area. After the arrival of nearly 200,000 refugees, the economy of Gaza sank from bad to worse, and poverty, even destitution, became widespread among the local population.

UNICEF has made available supplies of milk for about 30,000 beneficiaries among the "economic refugees" of the Jordan/Israel frontier at the normal ration allowed to ordinary refugees. To assist in this programme, UNRWA opened seven special milk centres in the frontier villages. The Lutheran World Federation also co-operated by opening another five. Other distributions are made from thirty-one centres already established by UNRWA for true refugees.

In Gaza, milk supplied by UNICEF was distributed, through the ordinary centres set up by UNRWA for the refugees, to non-refugee mothers and children. The numbers served varied greatly, being 9,000 to 10,000 daily during most of the year, but dropping to 6,000 during the summer when the harvest was in, vegetables were more plentiful and the schools were closed.

The American Middle East Relief Association shipped large quantities of powder skim milk from United States Government surplus stocks to the Palestinian refugees. One part was distributed in powder form in Syria to all refugees in one distribution, without regard to the categories specified by UNICEF. The remaining part was distributed to the Gaza poor, as well as to refugees in Gaza.

As already reported, exceptional winter storms played havoc with the tents and other dwellings of the refugees. The milk distribution points suffered heavily in these gales. Many of them consist of large marquee tents, weakened by years of use. Others are simple structures, erected to give the cheapest shelter for those at work and for equipment and supplies. In the high winds, tents were torn to rags and hutments were blown down. Equipment and supplies were severely damaged. Nevertheless, the programme was continued by temporary transfer to quarters requisitioned by the government.

The table below gives certain figures concerning the milk programme.



Average number
Number of of daily bene-
Country centres ficiaries

Refugees:
Lebanon ..................... 110 50,629
Syria ....................... 24 45,266
Jordan ...................... 180 213,625
Gaza ........................ 12 64,047

373,567
Non-refugees:
Jordan ...................... 12
Jerusalem ................. 8,582
Frontier villages ......... 33,779
Gaza ........................ - 5,892

48,253

TOTALS 338 421,820



In addition, milk is served through thirty-one ordinary refugee centres.
(b) Supplementary feeding

To supplement the Agency's standard rations and milk distribution programme where necessary, a supplementary feeding scheme is conducted. Under this plan, hot midday meals are served to such refugees as are certified by the Agency's doctors to be in need of them. Meat, eggs and fresh vegetables form part of this extra nourishment, which has a food value of 600 calories per meal.

The programme falls into two parts; first, special food for babies under two years and, second, more substantial meals for older children and adults. The baby feeding programme is now conducted entirely by the Health Division, under the direct supervision of its own doctors and nurses. In Syria, the remainder of the supplementary feeding scheme has also recently been transferred from the Welfare to the Health Division. Elsewhere, the social welfare branch organizes meals for older children and adults, the Health Division concerning itself only with selecting the beneficiaries and advising on the foods most suitable from the dietetic point of view.

Reference has already been made to the unprecedented storms which swept over the Levant Coast last December. In the refugee camps, tents were torn to rags, buildings were blown down, refugees were left rain-soaked and shelterless, and a situation arose which, even in a normal community, would have called for emergency relief on a large scale. Following this disaster, a heavy extra task was cast on the feeding centres. In Gaza, where the havoc was worst, thousands of meals were immediately needed for refugees huddled in schools, mosques and other public buildings. In this crisis, and in spite of damage to their own premises, stores and equipment, the staffs of the feeding centres succeeded in issuing over 32,000 additional hot meals per day during the thirteen days of the emergency. In Jordan also, similar large-scale action was taken under conditions often little, if any, better.

The following table sets out the average number of meals served in the feeding centres (whether conducted by the Welfare or Health Divisions) during June 1952:

Number of Average
Country centres daily meals
Lebanon ......................... 17 3,684
Syria ........................... 19 2,224
Jordan .......................... 47 15,060
Gaza ............................ 23 6,845

TOTALS 106 27,813
(c) Social case work

Up to September 1951, social case work was carried on in only a small number of individual and family cases. Services included home and hospital visiting,
assistance in marital problems, provision of prosthetic appliances, etc. The conditions of the refugees necessitated the expansion of the work, but the lack of trained welfare workers was a handicap. To correct this situation, three trainees were sent from Syria and Lebanon by the Near East Christian Council Committee for a three months' course. Three others were given a similar course by the Union de Formation sociale of Beirut.

Seven social case workers were appointed by the Agency to Gaza in November 1951 where such assistance was particularly badly needed. In Lebanon, a subsidy was granted to the Union pour la Protection de l'Enfance au Liban for work with refugee juvenile delinquents.

Refugee orphans have always been a problem. A number of cases were handled during the year, and effective arrangements were made for their temporary care until they can be placed in orphanages.

As social case work thus developed, $16,000 was allotted to the field offices for this work during the second half of the financial year.
(d) Distribution of clothing

The acute problem of clothing among the refugees has already been discussed. At the outset of the year under review, the Agency had in its possession a substantial quantity of cotton cloth and clothing which had been produced in its weaving and sewing centres. The distribution of these goods was the only direct material donation which the Agency could make in this respect, for the limitations of the relief budget make it impracticable to undertake any purchases whatever. The only continuing action that can be taken is to encourage voluntary donations, for which the Agency pays the freight when necessary, and to assist in, or even to undertake directly, the distribution of such supplies as are available. Generous as have been the gifts of many charitable bodies, the quantities of clothing and of boots and shoes which have been received were entirely inadequate to meet the needs of over 800,000 men, women and children, most of whom left their original homes with the most scanty belongings and who have now been living for four years in a penniless
or almost penniless condition.

By now, the average refugee family has only an incongruous assortment of threadbare western clothes mixed with Arab garments, of bits of uniforms worn with the native Kaffieh and old, battered shoes. In this respect, their situation is more than serious.

The Agency continues its appeals for assistance from voluntary sources and does and will do its best to channel such supplies to the most needy cases.
(e) Arts and crafts for girls and women

Arts and crafts centres run by the Welfare Division fall into the following categories:

(i) Training centres designed to teach refugee girls and women dressmaking, embroidery, sewing, weaving, etc.,
(ii) Production centres, where articles are manufactured for sale by girls and women who have already completed their training and can earn money;
(iii) Sewing centres, which serve as community centres where the women and girls meet to help in sewing, preparing layettes and making garments for refugees.

Discussions took place in February 1952 between representatives of certain voluntary agencies and UNRWA on plans for securing advice on designing and merchandising of embroidery, soft toys and rugs produced at the arts and crafts centres. Possible markets in the United States and elsewhere will be studied. Some of the products of these centres are of such quality that they have already found some markets in the Near East and abroad.

The following figures show the position of the arts and crafts training centres as of 30 June 1952:



Number of Number of Number of
Country apprentices centres instructors

Lebanon ................ 339 16 20
Syria .................. 126 7 7
Jordan ................. 548 23 26
Gaza ................... 212 8 14

TOTAL 1,225 54 67
(f) Recreational activities

During the year, recreational activities contributed considerably to raising the morale of refugees, in particular that of those who live in isolated camps.

Libraries, night classes, clubs for boys and adults, play centres and film shows are provided to the extent possible on an extremely limited budget. A number of these activities were managed by volunteers from among the refugees themselves and others were directed by UNRWA staff. Some of the voluntary agencies helped in the recreational activities and opened and ran clubs and libraries in certain camps.

The libraries in Gaza and Jordan have increased, partly due to help given by outside organizations and through UNESCO's gift coupon scheme.

The clubs for adults were active after the rainy season, in particular those of Gaza and Syria. Sports meetings, excursions, lectures, theatrical shows and
films were among the activities.

The following table gives the figures on recreational activities as on 30 June 1952:

Number of leaders
Daily Number of
Country attendance centres Paid Voluntary

Lebanon ............ 345 3 2a 2
Syria ............. 589 10 1b 9
Jordan ............. 909 14 - 14
Gaza .............. 45,871 33 - 33

TOTAL 47,714 60 3 58


a Paid by Pontifical Mission.
b Paid by Friends Service Committee.
3. REGISTRATION

It has been mentioned earlier in the present report that the Agency's basic operating datum is the number of refugees on the ration rolls. Although this is true, the maintenance of records which can give accurate statistics concerning refugee numbers is no simple task. The headquarters registration office maintains a file of over 250,000 family cards on which are recorded as much pertinent data concerning the refugee family and its members as can be obtained. The family cards are devised to give information as follows:

(1) Place of origin;

(2) Present location;

(3) Names, sex, and age of family members and relationship;

(4) Ration entitlement of family;

(5) Religion;

(6) Occupations, if any, of family members;

(7) Occupation of head of family.

On these cards are also recorded births, marriages and deaths. Deletion of a family from the ration rolls causes the removal of the card from the active files, but the record is maintained for future reference. Ambitious though the intent of the registration office may be in assembling all of the data required for the "family card", it is admitted that some of the data that the office is called upon to provide is based largely on surmise and statements, often not entirely accurate, obtained from the refugees during the refugee census in 1950.

There is, of course, a constant change in refugee numbers and the registration office has as one of its main tasks the maintenance of up-to-date records of these changes. Thus, reports are kept on births, deaths, marriages, migration, employment status and other pertinent factors which influence over-all Agency planning. In addition to its headquarters staff, the registration office maintains a field staff of investigating teams whose principal function is on-the-spot checking of questions of eligibility. These teams also report vital statistics.

A properly registered refugee may be:

(1) An adult drawing full rations;

(2) An adult drawing half rations;

(3) An under-nourished adult certified by a doctor as being in need of supplemental food and who thus, in addition to his rations, is issued one hot meal per day;

(4) A child between the ages of one and seven drawing half rations. In this case, only a limited number of children of this age group are drawing half rations, since the half-ration policy was not put into effect until late in the year and was not made applicable to children already drawing full rations;

(5) An infant, zero to one, who is registered and who receives UNICEF milk but not UNRWA rations. During the past year there has been little basic change in the total number of ration recipients and, as of June 1952, 881,673 refugees were registered by the Agency compared with 881,991 in July 1951.

NUMBERS OF REFUGEES FROM
JULY 1951 THROUGH JUNE 1952
Per month and per country


Months Lebanon Syria Jordan Gaza Israel Total 1951
July ..... 106,896 83,187 467,385 200,143 24,380 881,991
August ... 106,796 83,080 466,737 200,321 21,981 878,915
September 106,862 82,684 465,106 200,856 21,659 877,167
October . 106,389 83,247 463,451 201,337 21,732 876,156
November . 105,965 83,426 463,288 201,587 20,257 874,523
December 105,135 83,401 463,169 201,310 19,716 872,731

1952
January . 104,871 83,440 461,709 201,234 19,776 871,030
February . 104,641 83,694 458,250 201,175 19,710 867,470
March .... 104,640 83,694 464,462 202,345 19,749 874,890
April ... 104,660 83,694 463,994 203,619 19,774 875,741
May ..... 104,196 83,960 470,427 204,092 19,787 882,462
June .... 103,901 84,224 469,576 204,356 19,616 881,673

As pointed out earlier, there has been considerable change within these figures. The following table, showing the numbers removed from the rolls during the course of the year, makes it evident that removals were almost exactly offset by new registrations, including the registration of babies born during the year, and reinstatements.
NUMBERS OF REFUGEES
REMOVED FROM THE ROLLS DURING THE PERIOD
JULY 1951 -- JUNE 1952
Lebanon Syria Jordan Israel Gaza Total


Deaths 645 924 1,237 154 1,170 4,130
Emigration . 80 - 523 - 1 604
Income and property 5,499 1,123 5,313 4,803 79 16,817
Duplication, false
registration,
non-refugees ..... 1,921 284 14,261 - 655 17,121
Granting of loans - 221 123 - - 344
Others ........... 1,830 93 4,110 216 5 6,793

TOTAL 9,975 2,645 25,567 5,173 2,449 45,809


The figure of total registered refugees will drop appreciably in July 1952, due to the fact that approximately 19,000 refugees who have been receiving Agency care in Israel will be removed from Agency responsibility in accordance with an agreement signed by the Agency and the Government of Israel in June of this year. It is important to bear in mind the fact that the numbers listed in the above table do not represent the totality of all Palestine refugees, but only those who are eligible for relief. There are thousands of Palestine refugees who are not at present registered with the Agency because they have been at all times self-sufficient. It is estimated, for example, that in Lebanon, where a Palestine refugee census was conducted by the Government in early 1952, approximately 130,000 Palestine refugees are harboured in that country. Of this number, only 104,000 are registered on the Agency's ration rolls.
4. PLACEMENT SERVICE

At the time of the last annual report, the placement service was only a month old and, in the words of that report, was "set up on a small scale at headquarters to ensure that . . . such employment opportunities as may arise may not be wasted", and to carry on an experimental migration policy.
(a) Placement

Since the beginning of the year under review, the placement service has been expanded by the development of field offices and by an increase in the headquarters office. In May 1952, work was started on the compilation of a register of occupational skills among the refugees in Jordan.

Placement service teams were established in each area to collect applications from those refugees voluntarily approaching them, and to circulate notices of openings, arrange interviews, etc. A total of 1,492 applications were received in the month of June, as compared with a total of 964 for the entire previous year.

It is expected that this register will be of particular value when large-scale vocational training programmes, coupled with the projects planned for Jordan, get under way.

In Gaza, the employment office is concerned principally with the placement of refugees with the Agency itself, since there are practically no other employment opportunities and, wherever possible, employees are rotated on a forty-five day schedule so as to provide some cash income to the greatest possible number.

The lack of economic opportunity in Gaza has aroused an intense interest on the part of refugees in employment opportunities in other countries.

The placement service at headquarters has made contacts with government departments and private employers in Aden, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrein, Sudan, in addition to those made by the Agency Office in Iraq and Libya. Arranged visits to the placement service during the past year included the Director of Health of the Sudan; representatives of the United States Point IV programme, Libya; ILO Training Centre, Libya; United Nations Mission, Libya; and private employers in Saudi Arabia.

By its studies of the demand for labour in relation to its present availability in the Near East, the placement service advised the education and Health Divisions of needs for trained personnel, enabling them to adjust their training courses accordingly.

It also maintained close working relationships with voluntary societies, both in the Near East and abroad, in order to circulate vacancies, to assist refugees in need of funds or help which the Agency could not provide, to stimulate employment offers and applications, and similar matters.
(b) Migration

An experimental migration policy was started in June 1951. Under this plan, loans were given to refugees who had already secured travel documents and migration visas on their own initiative, but who lacked the funds to cover costs of travel. Loans were limited to $400 per adult and $200 per child. During the year, 145 persons were assisted by the Agency to migrate at an average cost of $294 each. Early in the calendar year, Agency assistance to refugees for purposes of migration was suspended in accordance with government wishes, pending the outcome of discussions relating to the Agency's over-all programme.
VI. Education and training

1. GENERAL

During the year, the main concern of the Education Division of UNRWA continued to be primary education, of which there was some expansion, but the
Division was also occupied with secondary and higher education, prevocational and technical training, and fundamental and adult education. Although these other programmes remain small in comparison to primary education, considerable planning has been undertaken with a view to their expansion.

The principal objective towards which the Education Division has worked has been to provide a degree of education amongst the refugees comparable with the standards of the countries in which they are at present dwelling. The necessity for training or retraining refugees in various techniques with a view to self-support has also had to be considered very seriously. The main limitations upon the primary education programme have been financial. Nevertheless, the number of children receiving education does, in fact, on the primary level, compare favourably with those in the host countries. As will be seen in section 3 below, the Agency has succeeded in increasing the number of its primary school pupils, in spite of its limited budget.

The total amount spent on education during the year 1951-1952 was $683,503, which was broken down as follows:
$
UNRWA-UNESCO schools
(including general supervision) ......................... 548,831
Subsidies to private schools ............................. 45,159
Technical training ....................................... 66,513
Higher education ......................................... 15,000
Fundamental and adult education .......................... 8,000

683,503
2. CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER UNITED NATIONS
AGENCIES

The Education Division of UNRWA works in close co-operation with UNESCO, which assumes the technical supervision of the programme and provides the two principal officers for the Education Division at headquarters.

In addition, UNESCO provided funds in the amount of $80,850 during the year, as against an UNRWA contribution exceeding $600,000.

It is anticipated that the agreement with UNESCO will be renewed for the year 1952-1953. The Executive Board of that organization has already recommended a contribution of $91,500 for each of the years 1952-1953 and 1953-1954. As well, it has agreed to provide $50,000 in 1952-1953 from its technical assistance budget for technical training and fundamental education.

The International Labour Organisation has also cooperated closely with the UNRWA Education Division, especially by lending an expert to study training needs amongst the refugees. It has also offered to co-operate with UNRWA in the development of handicraft activities, with special reference to those refugees for whom at present it would be most difficult to find employment. For this purpose ILO is prepared to lend experts to co-operate in the Agency's technical training programme. This is in addition to the experts referred to in the annex to the present section.
3. PRIMARY EDUCATION

The statistical position with regard to primary education is shown at the end of the present section. It will be seen that the main advance during the year 1951-1952 has been to increase the number of teachers in UNRWA-UNESCO schools from 848 in June 1951 to 955 in June 1952. This expansion has been achieved without any over-all increase in expenditure on primary education.

The larger teaching staff has made it possible to add to the number of pupils in these schools, of whom there are now normally almost 51,000, as against 43,000 a year ago. (The figures in the table refer to the month of June. An exceptionally heavy harvest in Jordan led to a temporary reduction of about 3,000 pupils during that month.) However, it has not been possible to reduce the unwieldy size of classes, which remain at approximately fifty pupils each.

Boy pupils remain almost three times as numerous as girls. This is in accordance with the customs of the Middle East, where education for girls is not sought after as it is for boys.

In addition to the 51,000 children who were attending UNRWA-UNESCO schools in June 1952, some 47,000 refugee children were receiving education in government and private schools. The figures shown in the columns dealing with this point cannot be accepted as precise, as they refer to independent institutions, many of which have no duty to make returns to the Agency. They are, however, probably fairly accurate guides to the position. The UNRWA-UNESCO programme provides for grants to certain private schools in which refugee pupils are taught alongside local children. Such grants can only be regarded as assistance to those conducting the schools. They are never sufficient to cover the entire expense and are made solely to encourage the acceptance of refugee children in private schools, thus reducing the pressure on the Agency's schools.

As stated elsewhere, the percentages of refugee children at school compare favourably with the figures for the host countries. However, there is a strong movement towards general compulsory education throughout the Near East, and preparatory steps have already been taken in Syria and Egypt. The Egyptian authorities in Gaza, in particular, are pressing for a large expansion of the primary school programme. In Jordan also where only 30 per cent of the refugee children are being educated, there is a strong demand for a substantial increase in the Agency's school system.

The amount spent per child in the UNRWA-UNESCO schools is kept to the extremely low figure of a little over $11 per annum. This figure is reached only at considerable sacrifice. Teachers' salaries are very low and, although they are refugees themselves and many of them receive free lodging in the camps and are entitled to the usual refugee rations, there is a tendency for the better qualified to find employment elsewhere. To counteract their loss, training courses were provided for 612 teachers during the summer vacation.

The restricted education budget inevitably results in:

(a) Poor premises. Many of the schools are still conducted under canvas, although it has been possible to reduce the number of such "tent classes" by one-third. The Agency's difficulties in this respect were increased by exceptional storms during the winter, especially in Gaza.

(b) Overcrowded classrooms. As already stated above, the average number of children per teacher is extremely high. It should be noted that the figures given in the table are averages. In spite of every effort, many classes far exceed the average of fifty pupils.

(c) Poor equipment. In some classrooms there are only benches, so that children must kneel on the floor to write. The strictest economy must also be exercised in respect of every other type of equipment needed. Only the essentials are permitted, and what is deemed "essential" falls far below the standard of normal schools.

It says much for the work of both teachers and children that, despite these conditions, the examination results of the Agency's pupils are at least as good as those of the children in the ordinary schools of the host countries.

A disturbing feature is the tendency of children to leave school before their primary education is complete. In one typical group of schools, the attendance rolls showed 500 boys at age ten, but only seventy-seven at age fourteen. In girls' schools in the same area, the figures were 250 at age ten and only thirteen at age fourteen. This is partly due to the fact that the expansion of the UNRWA-UNESCO schools has mostly been in the junior classes, but it is also largely due to a tendency among parents to remove their children as soon as they are old enough to be useful, whether by earning a trifle of money, or by helping with household tasks. This practice is also reflected in the ordinary schools of the host countries.

A working party was convened by UNESCO in Beirut in April 1952, to make recommendations on the possible development of the UNRWA-UNESCO education programme. This meeting was attended by representatives of the Ministries of Education of Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon, as well as by officials of UNESCO and UNRWA, both from headquarters and from all parts of the field. The working party found that the ideal level of educational facilities for refugee children could not be met within the existing budget of $614,000 for 1951-1952 and estimated that a complete programme would cost $1,628,000. This figure, however, was based on the assumption of universal education for all refugee children up to the age of fourteen, a desirable objective but not attainable within the present budgetary limitations.

Although every effort has been made to extend education to as many pupils as possible by reducing expenses to an absolute minimum, there are still many children who have requested admission to the schools but who have had to be refused. This is especially so in Jordan, where approximately the same number of children were refused as were admitted.
4. SECONDARY EDUCATION

The limitation on funds available for education has made it necessary for the Agency to concentrate on primary education almost to the complete exclusion of secondary. However, Gaza now has 164 pupils receiving secondary education, and in Jordan there is one class with thirty-three. Elsewhere, Agency facilities are not provided for secondary pupils. Certain secondary schools in Gaza are subsidized by the Agency. Their pupils bring the total of refugees receiving secondary education in Gaza up to 800.

Other figures concerning secondary education in Government or private schools are not available.
5. HIGHER EDUCATION

At the request of UNESCO, $15,000 was allocated in grants to refugee students in universities. Of this sum, $9,000 was used to assist sixty-three students at the American University of Beirut, $3,000 was allocated to twenty-six students at St. Joseph's University, Beirut, and $3,000 was allocated to fifty-five students in Damascus University.

The Egyptian Ministry of Education gave monthly grants of £E6 to more than a hundred refugee students studying in Egyptian universities. UNESCO has also made a grant of $1,200 for the same purpose.

It is intended to examine the possibility of assistance to students who wish to specialize at foreign universities during the coming and subsequent years.
6. PRE-VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Considerable attention has been devoted recently to pre-vocational training in the primary schools. Such classes will be continued in Gaza, where they will be closely linked with technical training. However, with the expansion of the technical training programme, prevocational training must be reduced in other districts.
7. TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Exhaustive studies have been made and are still continuing to determine the skills available among the refugees. At the same time, in looking forward to the execution of its over-all plans, the Agency must estimate with the greatest care the need which will exist for skilled workers of all kinds. Also to be considered is the availability of, and the present and potential need for, skills in the host countries. Upon the relation of these factors depends the planning of the Agency's vocational training programme.

Recently, the Agency's placement service undertook the compilation of a register of occupational skills among the refugees in Jordan, which enabled it to give valuable information to the Education Division. Statistics provided by the Agency's registration branch were also carefully studied. An expert, seconded to UNRWA by ILO, gave important aid in analysing manpower requirements, training needs and other related problems. Assistance was also given in other ways by ILO, as well as by UNESCO and other specialized agencies, the Technical Assistance Administration of the United Nations experts in bilateral aid programmes, specialists of the former Palestine Mandatory Government, and by others. Economic considerations were carefully taken into account by the Agency's own experts in that field, and the entire problem was considered in its relation to all possible eventualities of the future, as far as these could be foreseen.

Following the examination of the problem, plans have been made for the immediate initiation of a $5 million programme for technical and vocational training. Of this sum, $1 million has been allotted to Jordan, $3 million to Syria and $300,000 to Gaza. The balance of $700,000 will be used in other countries.

Training courses will be started this autumn for from 5,000 to 10,000 refugees. Plans include provision for agricultural training, commercial courses and teacher training, as well as technical courses for mechanics, carpenters, electricians, plumbers, surveyors, printers and bookbinders, machine weavers, potters, carpet
makers, etc.

Vocational and technical training courses were conducted on a very limited scale during 1951-1952 due to lack of programme agreements. Details are set out in the tables below.

8. FUNDAMENTAL AND ADULT EDUCATION

The campaign against illiteracy among adult refugees has made great progress during the year. The method employed is largely based on that of Laubach and uses the "each one teach one" system. This serves a double purpose, firstly, of fixing the lessons in the learner teacher's mind and, secondly, of passing on the instruction of one original teacher to a great number of ultimate pupils. As experience was gained, the system was progressively modified to meet the special conditions in which it was being used. It was also supplemented by ordinary classes conducted upon more traditional lines.

The programme, initiated in Gaza, spread to the refugees in Jordan and Lebanon. By the end of the year, at a total cost of only $8,000, some 40,000 refugee adults, formerly illiterate, could read and write. Many thousands more are still in the learning stage.

It has been found that these newly literate persons are only too anxious to use their learning and to go on with their reading. It is intended to aid them, by providing as far as possible for their further fundamental education. Not only this, but literacy opens up the possibility of technical training for many thousands for whom it would otherwise have been impractical. Advantage will be taken of this fact in connexion with the Agency's technical and vocational training programme.

PRIMARY EDUCATION, JUNE 1952

UNRWA A-UNESCO schools

Number of pupils pupils
Number of Number of per
Country schools Teachers Boys Girls Total teacher

Jordan ............ 61 330 11,356 4,526 15,882 48
Syria ........ ..... 19 57 2,168 727 2,895 51
Lebanon ........... 20 107 4,215 2,076 6,291 58
Gaza .............. 26 461 17,305 5,410 22,715 49

Totals

June 1952 ......... 126 955 35,044 12,739 47,783a 50
June 1951 ......... 114 848 31,436 11,676 43,112 51

aThe figures for the spring months of 1952 were almost 51,000. The reduced figure for June is due to the absence of children from the schools in Jordan during the harvest. A bad harvest in 1951 led to such absenteeism being much less marked. The figures as shown in this table are therefore somewhat less favourable than in normal months.


Government and private schools

Pupils in private schools
Pupils in Without With
government UNRWA-UNESCO UNRWA-UNESCO
Country schools grants grants
_____________________________________________________________________________
Jordan ........... 13,000 4,308 4,635
Syria ............. 5,515 - 3,288
Lebanon .......... 1,389 4,788 6,467
Gaza ............. 2,314 52 1,801

TOTALS 22,218 9,148 16,191

General


Total Percentage
pupils Total refugee refugee
in all children children
Country schools 6-14 years at school

Jordan ............ 37,825 128,097 30
Syria ............. 11,698 22,862 51
Lebanon ........... 18,935 28,372 66.7
Gaza .............. 26,882 55,574 50

TOTALS 95,340 234,905 40.6


Expenditures
UNRWA-UNESCO
UNRWA-UNESCO schools grants
to
private
Country Total 1951/52 Per pupil schools
______________________________________________________________________________

Jordan ............ 209,554 13.19 14,358
Syria ............. 43,732 15.10 9,956
Lebanon ........... 70,159 11.15 13,887
Gaza .............. 212,014 9.33 6,958
Headquarters ...... 13,372 - -

TOTALS 548,831 11.48 45,159


APPENDIX
TRAINING PROJECTS 1951-1952
Number of
Country students Subject Cost Centre

Lebanon . . 4 Teacher training 1,112 American University of Beirut
10 Teacher training 2,778 British Syrian Training College, Beirut 15 Teacher training 6,614 French Pedagogic Centre, Beirut
50 Mechanic's course 24,000 Kobbeh, Tripoli
35 Secretarial - for UNRWA staff only 755 American University of Beirut
18 Secretarial - for UNRWA staff only 518 YWCA, Beirut
30 Secretarial 1,830 YMCA and New Evening School,Beirut
40 Secretarial 498 New Evening School, Beirut

Syria .... 15 Teacher training 4,096 Govt. Training Colleges at Homs, leppo and Latakia
21 Teacher training 5,721 Al Kulliya al Islamiya, Damascus
1 Agricultural refresher course 511 Government Agricultural Schools at Hoche Karaban and Selemiyeh
Jordan ... 15 Teacher training (rural) 3,998 Kadoorie School, Talkarem
Gaza ...... 20 Mechanic's course 1,170 UNRWA Centre
20 Weaver's course 544 UNRWA Centre
20 Teacher training 2,946 UNRWA Centre
12 Commercial 1,469 UNRWA Centre

TOTALS 326 58,560

Note: This list does not include summer courses for UNRWA teachers, nor training schemes for nurses, midwives, and laboratory and other technicians conducted as part of the Agency's health programme.

VII. Co-ordination and co-operation in the region

In the course of its operations, UNRWA has been greatly aided by several specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has co-operated with others, particularly in the field of technical assistance.

UNRWA has also had certain contacts with the only non-United Nations inter-governmental regional body in the area, namely the League of Arab States.

Apart from these inter-governmental organizations, UNRWA has worked in happy relations with a number of voluntary agencies which have been assisting the refugees in various ways.

The following are notes on the co-operation between UNRWA and other organizations.
UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS

The Agency maintains a Liaison Office at the United Nations Headquarters in New York which has special responsibilities of its own, particularly in the field of procurement of supplies in the western hemisphere, and which also enables the Agency to call on the specialized services available at United Nations Headquarters, for example, legal advice from the Legal Department, and recruitment and services of staff from the Personnel Department, the staff regulations of the United Nations having been accepted by the Agency as a model for its own in the interest of administrative uniformity in all United Nations bodies. The Department of Social Affairs has nominated a New York staff member to advise the Agency in the social welfare field in addition to his regular work of advising governments in the area. The Department of Economic Affairs has worked out co-operative arrangements with the economic staff of the Agency whereby studies and reports are pooled, staff exchanged and the documentation on the Near East, periodically submitted by the Department to the Economic and Social Council, is supplemented by material collected and analysed in the area itself. In these various ways, the Agency is enabled to call on the facilities and services of United Nations Headquarters and in turn contributes something from its work in the field.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE BOARD

UNRWA maintains the closest relations with the Technical Assistance Board Liaison Office for the Near East and has provided the Office with professional, administrative and clerical staff, transportation, office space and other facilities. UNRWA uses the Office as a focal point for the exchange of information on specific plans and projects with multilateral and bilateral technical assistance agencies operating in the area, and channels its requests for technical assistance to the specialized agencies through this Liaison Office.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION

FAO has close working relations with the Agency, provides technical assistance to countries in which UNRWA operates, and has recently offered to provide technical aid in directly assisting UNRWA's programme. An FAO agricultural economist, for whom UNRWA contributed part of the subsistence costs, has recently completed a year's mission in Jordan. In addition, a number of short-term surveys on specific problems have been provided by FAO at the request of the Agency. UNRWA offers its facilities to assist FAO conferences, seminars and training centres, such as the regional conference held in Bloudane, Syria, in August 1951, and the joint United Nations-FAO statistical seminar held in Beirut in July 1952. In these countries and in Jordan, the FAO experts often obtain technical briefing from the UNRWA staff experts on local conditions in the field.
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION

An expert was seconded to UNRWA by ILO to meet the Agency's needs for assistance in analysing manpower requirements, training needs, development of placement services and other labour problems in the Near East relative to refugees.

Particular interest has been displayed by ILO in the area of greatest concentration of refugees, i.e., the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ILO has offered to assist the Agency by supplying a director and instructors for a technical school which the Agency is planning to establish in Jordan. In addition, ILO has co-operated with UNRWA in the field of development of handicraft activities, particularly among handicapped refugees, by providing an expert in handicrafts, cottage industries and co-operatives to advise on the vocational training programme of UNRWA's Education and Social Welfare Divisions. The Director of the Regional Office of ILO in Istanbul visited the Agency's field of operations in June and discussed further possibilities of technical assistance to UNRWA.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

The headquarters of WHO in Geneva assumes technical direction of the UNRWA health programme through the Chief Medical Officer sent by WHO to the Agency. The office in Geneva directly concerned with the Agency programme is the Division of Organization of Public Health Services, which is within the Department of Advisory Services. In addition to providing the Chief Medical Officer, WHO also provides a malariologist and a public health engineer. The salary and expenses of the public health engineer only are reimbursable by the Agency. In addition, WHO makes an annual grant to the Agency of $42,857. (These provisions of personnel and grant are included in the "Proposed Programme and Budget Estimates for the financial year 1 January to 31 December 1952" of WHO document EB9/19). The existing arrangements were continued in force for another year by resolution of the Fifth World Health Assembly. WHO documents or publications desired by UNRWA are requested and received from the Geneva headquarters. Experts have been furnished in the fields of venereal disease control, trachoma, nutrition, environmental sanitation, nursing, maternal and child health and health education. The relationship has been a very satisfactory one on both sides.

WHO has also exhibited great interest in the expanded programme of the Agency as approved at the sixth session of the General Assembly of the United Nations and is co-operating actively in long-range planning for this programme. WHO looks forward to co-operation with the Agency in the provision of necessary health services at the many new sites and in the new communities which will be established in accordance with the Agency's plans.

UNRWA has co-operated with the WHO regional office in Alexandria which has, on many occasions, rendered assistance on request. UNRWA has also assisted the regional office in some undertakings in the countries in which the Agency is operating. The following are some of the fields in which there has been co-operation and mutual assistance between the Agency's Health Division and the Alexandria office: malariology, environmental sanitation, health education, nursing, bilharziasis and venereal disease control.
UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL,
SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

An agreement was signed on 19 March 1951 between UNESCO and UNRWA to govern relations between the two organizations until 31 December 1951. This agreement embodied the general understanding reached late in 1950, the new points being that UNESCO undertook to contribute from its own budget the sum of $80,850 to be paid into UNRWA Beirut account for the educational programme for Arab refugees, and UNRWA undertook to provide staff and facilities as hitherto, within a budgetary limitation of $400,000. In fact, UNRWA expenditure greatly exceeded this figure. It is expected that a further agreement will be drawn up under which UNESCO will undertake to recruit and pay two education officers instead of one. The Executive Board of UNESCO has, in fact, recommended an annual sum of $91,500 per annum for the years 1952-1953 and 1953-1954. UNESCO has agreed also to provide an additional $50,000 in 1952-1953 from its technical assistance budget for technical training and fundamental education.

At present UNRWA-UNESCO is operating some 126 schools staffed by 955 headmasters, teachers and vocational instructors. These schools have a normal attendance of nearly 51,000, an increase of approximately 50 per cent since the beginning of the Agency's operations.

UNESCO is also actively participating in carrying out the Agency's long-range plan to make refugees self-supporting through the provision of training and facilities. Under active consideration is the establishment of a series of training schemes in which the active co-operation of UNESCO is anticipated.

A technical assistance agreement has been signed with UNESCO under which experts in visual, fundamental and technical education will be provided to assist in the development of UNRWA's training and retraining programme. A visual education specialist is now in the field and has already completed the production of a film, assisted by a cameraman also provided by UNESCO. Supplies, equipment and fellowships are also provided under the terms of this agreement.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION

Recently the Deputy Director of UNRWA assisted ICAO in the negotiation and signing of an agreement for the provision of technical assistance in the field of civil aviation to Lebanon.

UNRWA, in accordance with its policy of making services available to the United Nations and the specialized agencies, is planning to act as host to an informal meeting of representatives of ICAO from the region this autumn.
UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN'S
EMERGENCY FUND

The UNICEF Eastern Mediterranean Area Office and UNRWA work closely and effectively together, each organization, however, maintaining its identity and its own programme policies.

UNICEF provides skim and whole milk for some 350,000 children and eligible mothers among the refugees. It contributes the milk, and UNRWA contributes the reconstitution facilities, namely mixing centres and distribution points, including equipment, transport and personnel. UNICEF and UNRWA work very closely together in analysing maternal and child health problems, particularly under-nourishment, among the refugee mothers and children. UNICEF receives UNRWA advice in the social welfare and health fields, and UNRWA receives the benefit of UNICEF's long and effective experience in providing milk to under-nourished children. The UNICEF-UNRWA relationship in the milk programme is one of the best examples of close, practical, regional co-operation which exists in the field of United Nations effort.

UNICEF provides supplementary items of diet from time to time if available, such as margarine, rice, etc. UNICEF may also make available certain supplies, such as lumber, for reintegration.

UNICEF-UNRWA-WHO are examining jointly long-range needs as to equipment, supplies and personnel in the fields of maternal and child health and care as the Agency's programme of reintegration develops. UNICEF contributes medical and public health supplies to the UNRWA health programme, again demonstrating the practical coupling of complementary activities and achieving a useful balanced programme.

UNICEF has also presented forty-two prefabricated huts for refugee use in Gaza and has agreed to contribute approximately $50,000 for the purchase of materials required for their erection.
UNITED NATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
ADMINISTRATION

By virtue of an agreement signed between TAA, the Department of Social Affairs of the Secretariat at Headquarters and UNRWA, TAA has provided a social welfare adviser who is available to UNRWA for its special problems having to do with community organization, administration of relief, etc., and to the Near-Eastern countries as a close link with TAA on technical assistance in all social matters. UNRWA provides this expert with an office and administrative and clerical facilities.

A child welfare adviser will also be provided who will have similar functions in the field of child welfare and will, in addition, work closely with UNICEF and UNRWA, in the milk distribution programme for some 350,000 refugee mothers and children. In addition, an industrial economist, whose subsistence costs were shared by UNRWA, has completed a year's assignment in Jordan.

UNRWA acts in very close liaison with TAA in advising on the value and practicability of specific projects to be executed by TAA in countries of UNRWA's concern. Moreover, until May 1952, when the TAB Liaison Office for the Near East was established, UNRWA also attempted to find suitable candidates for the projects and to expedite negotiations for the provision of experts to these countries. The principle of over-all co-ordination has been strictly maintained.

In addition, UNRWA offers the United Nations and specialized agencies administrative facilities for organizing regional seminars and training centres. On the basis of its wide practical experience in the Near East, it feels that it can act as an effective force in furthering the economic and social development of the area.
LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES

The League of Arab States is an inter-governmental regional organization having consultative status with the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council. Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen are members. At the time of the League's last meeting in October 1951 at Alexandria, the Director of UNRWA was invited to consult with a special committee established by the League to consider the Agency's new programme and its recommendations to the sixth session of the General Assembly.

The Superior Council of the League has also been instrumental in collecting contributions for the relief of Palestine refugees, and estimated that it had contributed up to the end of September 1951 an amount equivalent to $3,500,000 for this purpose.

The Agency has, upon request, assisted by way of free transport and distribution of these relief supplies. The League has recently conducted, with the full co- operation of the Agency, a survey of educational and social conditions among the refugees.
UNITED STATES TECHNICAL COOPERATION
ADMINISTRATION

Through the TAB Liaison Office in the Near East, UNRWA maintains close and continuous contact with the United States Technical Cooperation Administration in the countries of UNRWA's concern, thus ensuring the most efficient utilization of this organization's assistance.
FRENCH TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME

Meetings are held by the Agency with representatives of the French Technical Assistance Programme in the area to exchange information on the development plans of this organization, especially in the fields of agriculture and education.

In addition, UNRWA has a group of fifteen teachers in training with the French Pedagogical Centre at Beirut, as a part of the Agency's programme for refugee education.
BRITISH MIDDLE EAST OFFICE

Experts from the Development Division of the British Middle East Office have frequently given assistance to UNRWA by providing technical advice in forestry, co-operatives, statistics, animal husbandry, etc.

In addition, BMEO lent an agricultural adviser to UNRWA and has seconded other experts for long-term assignments in countries where UNRWA operates. Recently the BMEO Co-operatives Adviser was loaned to UNRWA for two months to assist in drafting an ordinance for control by the Jordan Government of organizations to be formed for rural land development and settlement.

BMEO and the United States Technical Cooperation Administration are members of the Jordan Government's Development Board and assist the Government in planning the development of the country's resources. UNRWA is a member of the Policy Committee of this Board. A technical operation staff has been set up to co-ordinate the participation of UNRWA, TCA and the United Kingdom in the Yarmuk River development scheme.
OTHER GOVERNMENTAL AID

The French Cultural Mission, the United States Information Service and the British Council have been providing UNRWA with films and other teaching materials suitable for refugee schools of higher level.
VOLUNTARY AGENCIES

Throughout the year, very valuable aid continued to be given to the refugees by voluntary agencies.
A conference, organized by the World Council of Churches and the International Missionary Council and held in May 1951, set up a "Near East Christian Council Committee" to represent Christian church agencies engaged in work among the refugees. A fulltime executive secretary was appointed. Joint meetings were later held in Beirut between this organization and the Central Co-ordinating Committee. As these two bodies group virtually all voluntary agencies working for the refugees, co-operation between such agencies was developed to a very high degree. The joint meetings were attended by representatives of UNRWA, which was thus able to make known how the voluntary activities could best be co-ordinated with the larger-scale operations of the Agency.

At the same time, through many meetings, formal and informal, the Agency's representatives kept in close contact with their voluntary collaborators.

Deep appreciation must be expressed for the excellent work and the valuable contributions of the voluntary organizations. It is regretted that space does not permit a review of the many fine and useful tasks which they have accomplished, but their aid in the fields of education, of medical service, and of social welfare, in the distribution of clothing and of food and milk, have been a very valuable factor in relieving the distress of the refugees.
VIII. Legal aspects of the work of the Agency

The operations which have been undertaken by the UNRWA in the Near East have necessarily given rise to problems of a legal character, deriving in part from
the nature of these operations or flowing from the international character of the Agency's relations with the countries of refuge.

In this respect, the application of the provisions of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations to the Agency, as a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly under Article 22 of the Charter, has on various occasions been the subject of discussion between UNRWA and the governments concerned. Matters at issue have, in general, been satisfactorily resolved; some, however, await settlement. The situation is further complicated by the fact that not all the governments in the area are parties to the Convention, and one is not a Member of the United Nations.
A. LEBANON

Lebanon is a party to the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. The principal subject on which UNRWA has had recourse to the provisions of the Convention has been in asserting its immunity from judicial process--in one instance in an action for rent brought by a landlord against both the Lebanese Government and the Agency, and likewise in a series of claims for indemnity alleged by exemployees who had been employed because they were refugees. In the latter case, apart from UNRWA's immunity from jurisdiction and from the question of the propriety of paying indemnities to individual refugees at the expense of the programme in aid of the entire group, it is not believed that the Lebanese Labour Code applies to the Agency as an "employer."

A similar question has been raised by an effort to have the salaries of UNRWA employees attached by court order. While either the service of such an order on the Agency or an attachment directed against its funds would plainly violate sections 2 and 3 of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, it has been the practice of the Agency to arrange for an amicable settlement of these judgment debts between creditor and debtor in order that justice could be done without prejudicing its own essential immunity.

In several cases of a more serious nature, however, it has been necessary for the Agency to negotiate with the Lebanese Government because of violations of the Convention, no doubt by subordinate authorities not familiar with the status of UNRWA.

Thus, United Nations aircraft No. 8257 was prevented on two occasions from taking off from the Beirut airport on important flights of an official character. This seizure was carried out in an effort to exact landing fees at a time when their applicability to the United Nations was still under discussion and negotiation. Thus, also, following an alleged infraction of customs regulations imputed to an Agency driver, an ambulance bearing an UNRWA licence plate was seized by Lebanese authorities and kept in custody for a period of two months pending payment of a prescribed fine. Repeated representations were necessary to obtain the release of the ambulance, and in the meantime the Agency was deprived of the use of an important item of its international property.

The Lebanese Government has given every assistance in allowing duty-free importation of all supplies necessary for the UNRWA programme. Where duties
had already been collected as a procedural matter, refunds have been made with certain exceptions regarding fuels which are still under negotiation. In particular, the refund of certain taxes paid on kerosene has consistently been refused.
B. SYRIA

Syria has not yet acceded to the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. While in broad terms the Syrian Government has given effect to the provisions of the Convention in relation to the Agency and to its international staff, UNRWA has on occasion had to negotiate as to privileges and immunities which it should enjoy in order to carry out its programme effectively, for example, the freedom of the Agency to import or export supplies and to ship them in transit through Syria for the needs of its programme elsewhere. Obviously, any effort to exact customs duties on supplies imported for assistance to refugees not only reduces the effectiveness of the
Agency's programme but also necessarily levies against the financial contributions made by other Member States. The Agency therefore welcomes the recent suggestion of the Syrian Government that the former should draw up proposals for an overall agreement to cover UNRWA activities in Syria.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs has given specific recognition to the judicial immunity of the Agency under Article 105 of the Charter, and the Syrian Council of Ministers, in Decree No. 341 of 17 September 1946, determined that the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations should be treated as enforceable in Syria pending its formal ratification by the Government. This obligation, however, has not been fully implemented by all echelons of the Ministry of Justice. For example, actions for termination indemnities, for which UNRWA denies liability either under international law or under the provisions of the Syrian Labour Code, have been brought against the Agency by former employees and judgments rendered against UNRWA. Bank assets of the Agency were even seized by order of the Director of Execution contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the Convention, although executive intervention has thus far avoided payment.

Automobiles which are the property of the Agency have been seized by police authorities pending settlement of cases resulting from accidents or alleged contraventions. Customs Committees having a quasi judicial character have served process upon the Agency and have imposed fines. Agency supplies have been searched and inspected while being transported by the Agency. Charges in the nature of taxes on Agency bank accounts have also been exacted, as well as charges on import licences and similar documents. All these actions it seems plain, are deprivations of privileges and immunities which are necessary for the exercise by the Agency of its functions in Syria and for the fulfilment of the purposes of the United Nations under Article 105 of the Charter, but it is clear that such problems could be regulated by accession to the Convention, as well as by the proposed bilateral agreement.
C. HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, although not a Member of the United Nations, has annexed the Convention on privileges and immunities to the Agreement concluded between UNRWA and the Government, thus making its provisions a part of the over-all under-takings. The Agreement was signed by the Government on 16 March 1951 and by the Agency on 20 August 1951, but has not as yet been ratified by the Jordanian Parliament as required by the Constitution. Nevertheless, the Government has in general given effect to its
terms, with certain limited exceptions. On the whole, for example, the courts have recognized the judicial immunity of the Agency, although in some cases locally recruited staff members, mostly Jordanian citizens, have been summoned to court for acts performed in the course of their duty. Sentences have been passed but have not in any case to date involved penalties or payments of any sort. On various occasions, the Agency has been able to appear in court as a plaintiff for the recovery of stolen properties.
D. EGYPT

Egypt is a party both to the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations and to a special agreement concluded between the Government and the Agency on 12 September 1950. The Agency and its staff have accordingly enjoyed essential privileges and immunities in Egypt as provided by the Convention, subject to certain military restrictions in force in the Gaza area. Imports and exports of Agency supplies in Egypt or from Egypt to Gaza have been subjected to licensing procedures. In one case a judgment was referred against the Agency by a civilian court in Gaza for payment of indemnities to an injured worker. The Agency was obliged to decline the request of the Gaza Administration for payment of income taxes on the salaries of UNRWA officials in the area, although locally recruited staff members have been paying such taxes directly to the Administration.
Annex
Status of refugees in the host countries

In principle the status of refugees is a matter out-side the terms of reference of UNRWA; it nevertheless has a close bearing upon the activities and programme of the Agency. It was therefore considered advisable to make a separate study of this question.

As the status of refugees and, in particular, their rights and obligations, differ between one host country and another, each country will be dealt with separately.
A. LEBANON
1. Juridical status of refugees

Refugees are regarded as being in Lebanon on sufferance. They are not granted residence visas and are not entitled to take advantage of the laws of citizenship. They have no political rights and no military obligations. They are of course expected to conform to the laws and regulations of Lebanon, as well as to all measures taken for the maintenance of peace, public order and health to the same extent as foreigners do. However, due to the peculiar conditions under which they live, they are subject to certain other restrictions. It is not clear to what extent the personal status of refugees is governed by the laws of Lebanon. There seems to be sufficient ground for saying that rights dependent on personal status previously acquired by refugees would be respected by Lebanese courts. All changes of personal status must be reported, within the periods allowed by the law, to the Sûreté générale, Contr_le des Etrangers. Registration of marriages, annulment of marriages, divorce, births, deaths, changes of religion, etc., is obligatory on Lebanese citizens under the Law of 7 December 1951, regulating the registration of documents of personal status.

The succession of refugees, like that of foreigners, is governed by the law of the country of the de cujus under article 9 of the Law of Succession contained in Order LR/141 of 3 October 1933. Palestine law is therefore applicable to the devolution of the estates of refugees, as has been held by Lebanese courts in several cases.

Wills made by refugees according to Lebanese law are executory without any order of court.
2. Rights in civil, criminal and fiscal legislation

(a) Access to courts of law

Lebanese law applies fully to all refugees to the same extent that it applies to foreigners within the jurisdiction. They have access to all courts of law. They can be sued or prosecuted in all courts and they are entitled to sue and prosecute any action, whether civil or criminal. Being considered foreigners, however, refugees are required to file security before they are allowed to constitute themselves civil claimants in criminal complaints (article 61 of the Code of Criminal Procedure).

(b) Acquisition of property

Refugees can acquire immovable property in Lebanon and all rights pertaining thereto under the conditions applicable to foreigners, namely, by obtaining the prior consent of the President of the Republic (Legislative Order No. 196 of 24 July 1942). In practice, however, refugees find it difficult to obtain this consent, since Lebanon does not agree to the settlement of refugees on its territory.

There is no restriction on the acquisition of movable property, and leases of immovable property for periods less than nine years. The acquisition of leases for periods of nine years or more, and other rights in rem in immovable property are subject to the same consent.

(c) Taxation

Refugees are subject to various types of taxation. All taxes, customs and excise duties, licence fees, etc., with the exception of municipal rates on dwelling houses, are payable by refugees.

UNRWA employees who are refugees have not been required, however, to pay income tax as yet. All prohibitions and restrictions on imports and exports and financial regulations apply to refugees.
3. Freedom of association and meeting

(a) Freedom of association

In principle, the refugees enjoy freedom of association in the same way as other foreigners in Lebanon do. Any association formed by them would be a foreign association within the meaning of Order LR/369 of 21 December 1939, which regulates the formation of foreign associations. Under article 8 of the said Order, all foreigners, members of an association, must be in possession of the identity cards reserved to foreigners, and it is still to be seen whether the identity cards recently delivered to Palestinians would entitle them to form lawful associations as of right and not as hitherto on sufferance.

(b) Freedom of meeting

Freedom of meeting is enjoyed by refugees to the same extent and under the same law applicable to Lebanese citizens. Meetings of refugees in Lebanon have been held on mere notice to the Ministry of the Interior or the Sûreté Générale.

4. Gainful employment

Like all foreigners in the Lebanon, refugees must be in possession of a permis de travail to enable them to be lawfully employed for a salary. The said permit is made obligatory on all foreign employees by article 59 of the Law of September 1946 (Code du Travail).

Refugees engaged in commerce, industries, agriculture and other means of self-employment must also be in possession of a permis de travail granted under article 22 of the Budget Law of 4 February 1946.

Refugees engaged in a liberal profession must also obtain a permis de travail under the same article of the said budget law, besides qualifying for the profession as required by law.

Permits are granted by the Ministry of National Economy. Some refugees have been able to obtain permits on any of the following grounds, namely: (a) That they are experts or specialists;
(b) That they are married to Lebanese spouses;
(c) That they are of Lebanese origin;
(d) That they are employed by foreign companies which are allowed certain quotas of foreign employees.

In point of fact, a good many refugees have succeeded in obtaining salaried employment while others have successfully established themselves in commerce and industry.

UNRWA employees are not required to hold permits.
5. Administrative restrictions

Unlike foreigners in Lebanon, refugees are subjected to certain restrictions justifiable on grounds of public order, security and health as well as on grounds of policy.

(a) Identity cards

Refugees aged 15 and above must hold the identity cards delivered especially to Palestinians. Children below 15 are registered on father's or mother's identity card. All refugees not registered during the census of refugees, and hence without identity cards, are unlawfully in Lebanon and may be deported to the country of refuge from which they had come.

(b) Travel documents

Travel documents are issued to refugees permitted to leave Lebanon. These are issued by the Sûreté Générale, Contr_le des Etrangers, and are of three
kinds:

(i) White, valid for a single outward journey without return to Lebanon;
(ii) Blue, valid usually for one year, for one outward journey and return to Lebanon within a fixed period; and
(iii) Frontier passes for short visits to Syria and return.

(c) Restrictions on movement

Freedom of movement is restricted in the following manner:

(i) Inside Lebanon: Refugees drawing rations cannot transfer themselves without the permission of the Central Committee, obtained through the local Quaimaqam or Muhafez. The sanction for illegal transfer is the suspension of rations at Government's request until the return of the refugee to his original place of residence.

The same rules apply in principle to refugees not drawing rations, but in practice they can move freely inside the country and live anywhere they like.

(ii) Outside Lebanon: There is no restriction whatsoever on refugees desiring to leave Lebanon for good. A laissez-passer and exist permit are granted as a matter of course on mere application to the Central Committee which approves the application and refers it to the Sûreté Générale for the necessary action.

Restrictions exist, however, on travel abroad and return to Lebanon. Except in rare cases and on sufficient grounds, refugees are not granted return visas to Lebanon. Once they leave Lebanon, they must return, if they so desire, on valid passports granted by a foreign State. To this rule exception is made in favour of refugees who have found employment with the Arabian American Oil Company, the Iraq Petroleum Company, the Contract and Trading Company, and similar concerns, and those going for a trial period to Libya under an UNRWA settlement scheme, or have obtained employment in the Libyan Government or the United States Point IV programme. All these are granted return visas to Lebanon.

In principle, Lebanon does not accept new refugees. Exception had to be made, however, in favour of very few refugees of Lebanese origin, or whose relatives were in Lebanon, those who were repulsed from Israel and those who came from Gaza illegally and remained. Refugees who were able to obtain the passports of an Arab or a foreign State come to Lebanon as foreigners and not as refugees.
B. SYRIA
1. Personal status of refugees

The Palestine Arab Refugee Institution was created on 25 January 1949 by virtue of Law No. 450. The Institution has been to a large extent entrusted with managing the affairs of the refugees, including, inter alia, the census of refugees, registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, transfers and registration of movable and immovable properties owned by Palestinians in Palestine. Certificates that are issued by the PARI are accepted by law courts and official departments as if they were issued by the Directorate of the Vital Statistics Department (Direction de l'Etat Civil) of the Government.

Syrian Law of Nationality No. 98 of 28 May 1951 regulates the procedure for obtaining Syrian citizenship. One of the conditions is that the "foreigner" should have had an actual fixed residence in Syria for five consecutive years. The relevant article does not exclude Palestinians from fulfilling the conditions enumerated thereunder. However, article 6 provides that the Ministry of the Interior may grant Syrian nationality to a person of Arab origin, if the Government considers it is in the national interest to grant him Syrian nationality, even if he does not fulfil the conditions of residence mentioned in article 4. Article 5 provides that Syrian nationality cannot be granted to a group of persons or to a community en bloc except by virtue of a law published by the Government. Refugees have no political rights and no military obligations.
2. Rights in civil legislation

Generally speaking and with some exceptions to be mentioned hereunder, Palestinian Arabs residing in Syria enjoy all civil rights which are normally enjoyed by Syrian citizens. They have access to all courts and can be sued and sue.

Palestinian Arabs are allowed to open shops, establish places of business, form companies or partnerships on their own account or jointly with Syrians. Professional men, such as lawyers, architects, doctors, dentists, etc., are granted licences to practise their respective professions, provided they submit their documents or qualifications. Syrian Commercial Law (promulgated in 1949) does not discriminate between Syrians and non-Syrians. There is however a restriction as regards the formation of companies with shares (Sociétés Anonymes). In these companies, at least one-third of the members of the Council of Administration should be of Syrian nationality (see article 179 of the Commercial Law).

Some of the Legislative Decrees which have been passed in the last two years aim at facilitating the means of work to Palestinians. The following examples may be quoted:

(a) Petition Writers Law (No. 119 of 9 July 1951);
(b) Legislative Decree No. 162 of 10 March 1952 regulating the profession of sworn translators;

(c) Legislative Decree No. 250 of 31 May 1952, allowing Palestine public cars to be registered as Syrian public cars within a period of three months, provided that the car owners produce documents showing that their cars entered Syria in 1948, that they paid the Customs fees, and that the Syrian number plates of these cars shall not be negotiable upon the complete deterioration or destruction of the cars;

(d) Co-operative Societies Law No. 65 of 28 February 1950, allowing Palestinians to be members of co-operative societies under article 24 of the Co-operative Societies Law which stipulates, inter alia, that a member of a co-operative society should be a Syrian or an Arab citizen of an Arab country. Palestine was and is still considered as an Arab country. But article 40 of the said law provides that the members of the Board of Administration and the Committee of Control should be Syrians. This provision obviously excludes Palestinian Arabs.

(e) Acquisition of Immovable Properties by Foreigners. (Legislative Decree No. 189 of 1 April 1952.) Palestinian refugees are regarded as non-Syrian in law. The Legislative Decree in question is entitled "Conditions of Acquisition of Immovable Properties by non-Syrians". Under this law non-Syrians cannot buy or acquire land anywhere in Syria save in two circumstances: first, where the right devolves upon them by virtue of succession, testament or liquidation of religious trust property, and second, if the property in question is situated within the municipal boundaries of the Merkez (Capital) of the Mohafazat (Districts). Even here prior authorization in the form of a presidential decree is required before the acquisition of such property can become effective.
3. Fiscal legislation

Palestine refugees are subject to taxation including municipal rates, property and land taxes, on the same footing as any Syrian trader or landowner. With the exception of UNRWA employees, all Palestinians employed by the Government or by commercial enterprises pay income tax on their salaries.
4. Freedom of association and meeting

Syrian law does not preclude Palestinians from forming associations and societies or from holding meetings, provided prior authorization from the competent authorities has been obtained. The formation of political parties or associations, whether by Syrians or Palestinians or foreigners, is strictly prohibited by Legislative Decree No. 197 of 6 April 1952.
5. Right to work

(a) Under the Labour Law and other enactments

Article 82 of the Syrian Labour Code provides as follows: "Alien workers holding a residence permit for Syria shall be permitted to work there, if reciprocal arrangements are made. In the case of Arab workers of States belonging to the Arab League, they shall be treated as Syrians. Foreign technicians shall be permitted to work in Syria at the employer's request, without regard to the principle of reciprocity".

Article 206 idem provides, inter alia: "Employed persons who are citizens of any of the nations belonging to the Arab League shall receive equal treatment with Syrian workers in all matters resulting from the operation of the provisions of this Labour Code".

The question which arises here is whether Palestinians from the strict legal point of view, are or were citizens of a "State" belonging to the Arab League,
because Palestine was not an independent State. It was, however, represented in the Council of the Arab League during its meetings.

In fact, however, Palestinians are allowed to work in local and foreign companies, e.g., in the Khumassieh Co., the Glass Making Co., I.P.C., Bechtel and other smaller concerns. But Decision No. 22/sh/Ein of 19 September 1950 was passed by the Ministry of National Economy, which made it incumbent upon non-Syrian labourers to obtain a permis de travail prior to being employed by public establishments or public concerns. Such permis de travail are generally granted to Palestinians without any difficulty by the Directorate of Labour and Social Welfare, and their holders are accorded the same treatment as Syrians.

(b) Under the Civil Servants Act and other decrees

Article 11, paragraph (i) provides that no person shall be employed in the Civil Service, except if he has been of Syrian nationality for at least five years. On 17 September 1949, however, the Legislative Decree No. 37 was promulgated. This Decree stipulates that "The condition of Syrian nationality should not be applied to Palestinian Arab candidates applying for posts to the Government Departments or public local authorities, and that they shall be treated on the same footing as Syrians with the right of keeping their Palestinian citizenship". The only special condition is that the applicant should have been a Palestinian Arab for at least five years.
6. Administrative restrictions

In principle, refugees enjoy the same rights as Syrian citizens.

(a) They can travel freely within the country, on condition that they are provided with the prescribed documents of identity and in certain cases, e.g., in military zones, with special authorization, which is granted exceptionally.

(b) They can leave the country for Lebanon and return, provided they hold identity cards and a special authorization which Syrian citizens themselves are also required to obtain. In fact, this authorization is granted more easily to Palestinian refugees than to Syrian citizens.

In order to enable refugees to go to an Arab country other than Lebanon, they should be holders of a valid passport or of a Syrian laissez-passer and of an exit visa which is easily given. To obtain an entrance visa is very difficult. An application must be submitted giving reasons for re-entry. In order to leave for a non-Arab country, the refugees should be holders of a valid passport.

Identity cards for Palestinian refugees in Syria are issued by the Department of Public Security, Palestine Branch. The refugees who are given rations by UNRWA hold also a ration booklet issued by the Palestine Arab Refugee Institution. They cannot change their residence without prior approval of the latter. The refugees who have no rations are free to change their residence.
C. JORDAN

There have been two fundamental developments in Jordan, the unification of the laws of East and West Jordan, and the new Jordan Constitution.

The amalgamation of East and West Jordan resulted in the existence in one Kingdom of two separate and essentially divergent systems of law operating side by side. Subsequently, a Legislative Committee was constituted in order to unify the laws of the Kingdom. The Committee itself was a balanced mixture of jurists versed in two entirely different systems of law. The result of their deliberations was a compromise system but with markedly progressive leanings.

Refugees in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan are regarded as Jordanian citizens. They enjoy the same rights and suffer the same obligations and duties as Jordanian citizens. They vote, they pay taxes, they can acquire property, etc.

The main question, however, is to determine the conditions which should be fulfilled for the acquisition of Jordanian nationality. Until recently, citizenship was governed by the Citizenship Ordinance, 1928. Under article 1 of this Ordinance, all persons resident in Trans-Jordan in 1924 could acquire Jordanian nationality provided they voted for it under the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne.

After the termination of the Mandate and in the absence of adequate legislation, a number of Palestinians were given Jordanian citizenship under the provisions of this article, notwithstanding that they were not resident in Jordan in 1924.

In some cases, Jordanian citizenship was also given through naturalization under article 7 of the said Ordinance.

It was soon evident however that existing laws were not adequate to meet the situation created by the annexation of a part of Palestine and the existence
therein of a large body of refugees. To that end the following laws were enacted:

(a) Passport Amendment Ordinance No. 11 of 1949 made it possible for Palestinians to obtain a Jordanian passport.

(b) Palestinians were excluded from the application of the provisions of the Foreigners' Law of 1927.

(c) Finally, this legislative trend towards complete recognition of citizenship found expression in Supplementary Ordinance No. 56 of 1949 which amended the original Citizenship Ordinance. This amendment reads as follows:

"All habitual residents on the date of promulgation of this Ordinance in Transjordan or in the Western bank which is administered by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan who hold Palestinian nationality are considered to have acquired Jordanian nationality and thus enjoy all the rights of Jordanians and bear all the duties required from them as such."

Under this Ordinance, Palestinians in the Hashemite Kingdom acquired ipso facto Jordanian nationality and enjoyed the rights of Jordanian citizens.

It must be pointed out however that this Ordinance was passed by the Council of Ministers while Parliament was not in session and has not yet been presented to Parliament as required by article 94 of the Jordan Constitution which reads as follows:

". . . These provisional laws which shall not contravene the terms of the Constitution shall have the force of law provided that they be submitted to the Assembly at the beginning of its next session. In the event of such interim laws not being approved, the Council of Ministers with the sanction of the King shall announce their immediate cancellation and from the date of notification such provisional laws shall cease to be in force. Such cancellation shall not affect any contracts or other rights that may have been made or acquired thereunder."

It should also be noted that, in principle, this Supplementary Ordinance precludes Palestinians who were not resident in Jordan in 1949 from obtaining Jordanian nationality.
D. EGYPT AND GAZA

In Egypt, the question is of academic interest. Only a few hundred Palestinians have taken refuge in Egypt proper. They have been allowed to work. They have access to all courts of law. They are subject to taxation and they are allowed to travel freely in the country. They have no political rights and no military obligations.

In Gaza, Palestine mandatory laws have remained in force but new regulations have from time to time been issued by the Administration. These have the force of law.

Throughout, the Gaza Strip has remained an entity separate from Western Jordan and has not been affected by any legal developments in the latter.

As regards status, refugees in the Gaza Strip enjoy the same rights and suffer the same duties and restrictions applicable to the inhabitants of the area. Freedom of association and movement within the area have been curtailed for security reasons. Travel outside the area is restricted. Applications must be approved by the Military Governor, and only in few instances has permission been granted other than to UNRWA employees.

Income and other taxes are paid by the inhabitants and by refugees alike.

1The term "registered refugee" refers to all refugees eligible
for Agency relief and reintegration services, and includes infants under one year who receive only milk rations, babies one
to seven who receive half-rations, plus milk rations; adults
who may, because of special circumstances, receive half rations,
and adults and children receiving full rations. Not all refugees
are entitled to Agency assistance; eligibility is conditional upon
need as well as the loss of homes and means of livelihood as a
result of the conflict.

2 The Agency has considered as host countries those countries
in the Near East where large numbers of refugees receive
direct Agency assistance. These countries are Jordan, Lebanon,
Syria, Egypt and Israel. It is also important to note that the
Government of Iraq has accepted approximately 5,000 refugees
who have migrated there and has assumed complete responsibility for their relief. The Agency maintains a Country Representative's office in Iraq to look after refugee interests and to promote the establishment of government-approved projects benefiting refugees in Iraq.

3In May 1951, 276,655 (31.5 per cent) refugees out of a
registered population of 878,003 lived in organized camps. By
May 1952 this number had been increased to 282,573, or 32
per cent of the registered refugee population of 882,462.

4"Report on the Nutrition Problems of the Palestine
Refugees" by Doctors R. C. Burgess (WHO) and A. G. Van
Veen (FAO) dated 2 April 1952 (FAO / 52 / 4 / 1865).


Follow UNISPAL RSS Twitter