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UNITED
NATIONS
A

      General Assembly
A/4213
30 June 1959

Annual Report of the Director
of the United Nations Relief and
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees
in the Near East
                             

1 July 1958--30 June 1959




GENERAL ASSEMBLY
OFFICIAL RECORDS : FOURTEENTH SESSION
SUPPLEMENT No. 14 (A/4213)





NEW YORK



NOTE




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.
Introduction .............................................

The provision of relief ..................................

Claimants for relief .....................................

Assistance towards self-support ..........................

Relations with host Governments ..........................

World Refugee Year .......................................

The financial position ...................................

Consultation with United Nations
Conciliation Commission for Palestine ..................
1

2

4

5

6

7

7


8
ANNEXES
A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.
Refugee statistics .......................................

Health services ..........................................

Social welfare ...........................................

Self-support programme ...................................

Education and training ...................................

Financial operations .....................................

Budget for the fiscal period 1960 ........................

Legal aspects of the work of the Agency ..................
9

11

17

19

20

25

27

33
Map: Sketch showing UNRWA's operations.................at end of volume

INTRODUCTION

1. This report is submitted to the General Assembly in accordance with the request made in paragraph 21 of resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949 and in paragraph 8 of resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958. It covers the activities of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) for the year ending 30 June 1959.1/

2. The General Assembly was informed at its thirteenth session of the resignation of Mr. Henry R. Labouisse on 15 June 1958, after four years' service as Director of the Agency. Dr. John H. Davis was appointed to succeed him as Director on 15 February 1959. In the intervening period Mr. Leslie J. Carver was Acting Director.

3. The Agency was established by the General Assembly in resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949 and entered on its tenth year of operational activity in the course of the year under review. Its present mandate is due to expire on 30 June 1960 under the provisions of paragraph 1 of resolution 818 (IX) of 4 December 1954. The Secretary-General has submitted to the General Assembly at its current session his recommendations with regard to arrangements which should be made to assist Palestine refugees after 30 June 1960.2/

4. Throughout its life UNRWA has been financially dependent on the voluntary contributions of Governments. At its thirteenth session the General Assembly directed the Agency to pursue its programme for refugees, bearing in mind the response of Governments to its appeal for increased contributions.3/ The response has not enabled the Agency to do more than continue its assistance to the refugees at approximately the same level as in recent years. This means that an average of about $33 has been spent on the relief of each refugee on the Agency's rolls, a sum barely sufficient to meet his basic physical needs.

5. In evaluating UNRWA's performance it is necessary to recall the tasks which have been assigned to it by the General Assembly. These tasks have been identified over recent years in the following terms:

(a) The temporary task of providing subsistence, medical care, shelter and education for the refugees; and

(b) The continuing long-term task which aims at assisting the refugees to become self-supporting.

6. During the past year, as throughout its history, the Agency's activities have been limited almost entirely to the "temporary task" of providing relief. There are several reasons for this. First and foremost is the obvious fact that before all else the refugees must be fed and sheltered. Secondly, the execution of the "long-term task" of assisting refugees to become self-supporting requires certain conditions which so far have not
prevailed; the most important of these is a political climate, both among the refugees themselves and in the host countries, which could render possible the implementation of "projects capable of supporting substantial numbers of refugees" such as the General Assembly has repeatedly called for since its sixth session. This is not to say that the Agency has neglected the "long-term task" given it by the General Assembly; on the contrary, it has carried out this responsibility within the limits imposed by the availability of funds and the political acceptability of the projects. (Details of this programme are contained in annex D.) However, the fact is that it has been impossible even to arrest the steady annual increase in the number of refugees registered with the Agency, owing almost entirely to the natural growth of the refugee population; since 1953 this number has risen by about 170,000, and present circumstances give every reason to believe that this trend will continue for a number of years unless some major change takes place.

7. The over-riding importance of the Agency's relief function is thus apparent. In providing such necessities as food, shelter, and medical care to a largely destitute and steadily increasing refugee population, now numbering over a million people, it has played a major role in reducing human suffering and alleviating the worst consequences of disaster. It has at the same time provided basic education for refugee children who, when conditions permit, should thus be able to lead reasonably useful and productive lives. By assuming, in this manner, much of the burden of providing the basic needs of the refugees, UNRWA has acted as a stabilizing factor in the area it serves.

8. Even so, the host Governments have borne a heavy burden--heavier than is generally realized. They have provided land, water and police protection for camps, as well as contributing materially towards the education of refugee youth. In addition, they have carried a burden no less real or costly, even though less tangible, in the form of the complex political and social problems that stem from the presence of refugees within their boundaries. In general, the host Governments have borne these responsibilities and problems with courage and perseverance.

9. The relief given to refugees, indispensable though it has been, cannot however be regarded as more than a palliative, and the refugees' lot continues to be one of hardship and disappointment. Their level of living is meagre; their opportunities for self-advancement or promotion almost non-existent; and their life of enforced idleness, now in its eleventh year, has inevitably affected their outlook and morale. Still after these eleven years of discouragement and tragedy the chief promise held out to them--a choice between a return to their former homes and compensation, as envisaged in paragraph 11 of resolution 194 (III)4/--continues to be unfulfilled. In the Director's view, the implementation of this paragraph continues in the minds of the refugees to be the most essential and acceptable long-range solution.

10. Of all the refugees the young people reaching maturity are, without doubt, facing the most distressing plight. For the majority of them, particularly the young men, jobs are not available. The Agency's programmes of vocational training and other programmes for assisting refugees to launch projects for self-employment are severely limited by the shortage of funds available for this purpose. The result is that each year some 30,000 young people reach maturity with little hope of earning a living or establishing homes in a normal way. This present lack of opportunity, with its accompanying disappointments, frustrations, and blighted hopes, is even more tragic in terms of human waste than is the need for improved food, shelter, and clothing.

11. It is no exaggeration to state that every aspect of life and human endeavour in the Near East is conditioned and complicated by the Palestine refugee problem. Its psychological, political and social repercussions are of no less significance than its economic and humanitarian aspects. Any solution of the Palestine refugee problem must take these aspects into account.

12. In the interval, while a solution is being evolved, UNRWA's principal role, as already indicated, probably will remain that of rendering basic relief services to the refugees. No shift in this emphasis can be foreseen unless and until significant changes take place--changes which offer the refugee a permanent home and suitable employment, and which give him the feeling that a wrong has been set right.

13. Thus in the Director's view one of the strongest arguments for extending UNRWA's mandate beyond 30 June 1960 is to provide time in which such a solution can take place. As this takes place, UNRWA can gradually be of further assistance by bringing its services in harmony with the forces, mostly external to UNRWA, which will be shaping the future of the Near East.

I. THE PROVISION OF RELIEF

14. The civil disturbances in Lebanon which began in May 1958 and continued until the end of October--with after-effects lasting considerably longer--greatly complicated the Agency's task of providing relief. In Lebanon itself normal methods of supplying the refugees became impossible over most of the country owing to the widespread state of insecurity, and it became necessary to deliver supplies to the different areas by means of convoys of trucks protected by security forces, or by schooner when coastal roads of access were cut off, or by various makeshift methods. These conditions not only tested the resourcefulness and determination of the Agency's staff but exposed many of them to direct personal danger. As it was, the Agency succeeded in delivering basic food rations to all refugees in Lebanon throughout the period. Essential medical services were also maintained, again often by ingenious means, but other less essential services inevitably suffered some interruption. The political settlement which came into effect in late October unfortunately did not bring an end to abnormal conditions, and the Agency had to contend with an aftermath of unrest among the refugees themselves. It is thus only since March 1959 that the Agency's operations in Lebanon have been able to start resuming their normal pattern.

15. The crisis in Lebanon directly affected the Agency's task of delivering supplies to other areas, as the normal line of supply through Beirut could not be used; ships carrying supplies for refugees in the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic and Jordan had to be diverted to Lattakia and Aqaba; this in turn created new problems of onward transport overland which were further complicated by the protracted closing of frontiers because of political developments in the different countries of the area. Nevertheless, the Agency moved some 160,000 tons of supplies to the refugees during the year and distributed rations regularly in all countries.

REGISTRATION AND NUMBERS

16. Statistics concerning the refugees are given in annex A. The increase in the refugee population, due to natural increase and new registrations, amounted to 34,280 during the year, and the total number of refugees receiving Agency relief rose from 963,958 on 30 June 1958 to 990,181 by 30 June 1959. This total includes not only persons receiving rations and all other services but also those children who receive only services. Taking into account 97,447 others who are registered with the Agency but who, because of their income, receive only certain or no services, the total number of registered refugees amounted on 30 June 1959 to 1,087,628. Of these, some 60 per cent are in territory which was formerly part of Palestine.

17. The Agency's registration system is aimed at ensuring that all refugees entitled to relief receive it and that those who are not do not. This aim is still not being satisfactorily achieved. Certain ration rolls continue to contain an appreciable proportion of ineligible beneficiaries, and this despite the application, which however is not uniformly successful, of the system by which refugees earning money continue to enjoy the benefit of certain Agency services though forfeiting their rations.

18. The problem of maintaining accurate registration is most acute in Jordan, where the names of dead or otherwise ineligible persons continue to swell the ration lists. It is now estimated by the Agency that the ration lists in Jordan are in need of rectification involving some 150,000 persons, about half of whom are dead (the refugee mortality rate in Jordan, as reported to the Agency, is about 1 per 1,000) and the balance mostly persons earning enough money for self-support and those fraudulently registered from the beginning. This continued abuse of such a substantial part of Agency assistance cannot be regarded with anything but concern. As is well known, its chief victims are the children born since 1951--now numbering 105,388--who are still deprived of rations though not of other Agency services. The Agency wishes to transfer the rations of ineligible recipients to the children, but the hopes of achieving this entertained in paragraph 4 of General Assembly resolution 916 (X) of 3 December 1955 have never been realized. The Agency continues to accord this problem a high priority in its relations with the Jordan Government. Only with the full support and co-operation of the Government and the refugees themselves can this unhappy state of affairs be changed. In fairness to all concerned it should be pointed out that the problem is both sensitive and complex, that the slowness of the remedial progress reported does not reflect the desire of responsible officials generally, and that recently the Government has expressed a willingness to attempt again to co-operate with the Agency towards a solution.

FOOD

19. The basic ration provided by the Agency has been virtually unchanged since 1951. It is generally agreed to be inadequate as a diet. However, many refugees manage to supplement it to a small extent themselves, and the Agency's supplementary feeding programme, greatly developed over the last ten years, is designed to protect the most vulnerable groups from possible malnutrition. To this may be attributed the fact that the nutritional state of the refugees has remained relatively satisfactory throughout this long period. The following is the food provided:

(a) Basic dry rations

A monthly ration for one person consists of:

10,000 grs. of flour
600 grs. of pulses
600 grs. of sugar
500 grs. of rice and/or burghol
375 grs. of oil and fats

This ration provides about 1,500 calories per day, per person, and is issued each month to about 844,000 beneficiaries, a further 16,350 persons receiving half rations (see annex A). In winter, this basic monthly ration is increased by:

300 grs. of pulses
500 grs. of dates

and then provides about 1,600 calories in all, per day, per person.

(b) Supplementary feeding:

SHELTER

20. The Agency has maintained 58 camps in the four host countries, accommodating over 400,000 refugees. In 1950, 29.3 per cent of the refugees receiving relief lived in camps; in June 1959 the proportion was 40 per cent and still rising. The increase in the number of camp-dwellers is due both to the natural increase of the camp population and to admittances from outside. The pressure on the part of refugees for accommodation continues to be greater than can be met and is symptomized by the many "squatters" settling in the vicinity of camps (an account of these was given in paras. 20 and 21 of last year's report). New construction for this purpose amounted to 10,600 family shelters during the past twelve months, while a further 9,000 are to be provided by the end of 1959. Some new camp construction is also planned; provided suitable sites are found, at least three new camps--two in Lebanon and one in Jordan--should be established during the coming year.

21. A feature of changing conditions in Agency camps during the past ten years has been the virtual disappearance of tents, once the predominant type of shelter. The replacement of tents with huts, an aim of Agency policy since 1956, is now almost complete. Compared with over 30,000 tents in use in 1950 there are now fewer than 2,000, most of which are in Jordan; conversely the number of huts has steadily increased from some 10,000 in 1950 to close to 100,000 in 1959, although many refugees formerly had the strongest objection to using any form of what they chose to regard as "permanent" shelter. By the end of 1959 no tents will be left.


HEALTH

22. During the past year there have been no major changes in the administration or orientation of the Agency's health services, full details of which are given in annex B. As already noted, the services were maintained with relatively little interruption throughout the period of disturbances in Lebanon despite the extraordinary conditions prevailing. In other areas services were maintained normally.

23. If the success of a health programme may be said to lie in what does not happen rather than in what does, it is significant that over the past year--and more importantly over the past ten years--there has been no major epidemic among the Palestine refugees, and this in what is potentially an epidemic area. Not many years ago comparable conditions would have resulted in large-scale outbreaks of sickness and disease and it is to the credit of the Agency's health organization that this has not been allowed to occur.

24. Generally speaking the refugees' state of health has continued to be satisfactory. This is particularly true in the case of the children, on whom special attention is focused. It would therefore seem that the careful balance which the Agency has sought to strike between the preventive and curative objectives has proved effective. A special word should be added about tuberculosis control, to which the Agency attaches all due importance: contrary to popular belief, various investigations made in recent years have revealed that the occurrence of this disease among the refugees is no higher than that reported among the local population.

25. In evaluating the factors bearing on the refugees' health, the contribution made by the host Governments themselves should not be underestimated; it has been of substantial proportions, particularly with regard to refugees not living in camps. Viewing the area as a whole, it may be said that the Agency's health staff, numbering in all some 3,500 persons, mostly refugees, represents a significant asset for the future.

WELFARE

26. Ten years of inactivity in camps have inevitably taken their toll of refugee morale. To combat apathy and idleness the Agency has in recent years devised a programme of activities aimed at helping the refugee in the camp to occupy himself usefully if not profitably. This has a special importance in those areas where poor economic conditions leave the refugees virtually no opportunity for employment. The programme is concerned with individual refugees who may, for example, with a little help be enabled to practise some familiar trade; and it has also been successfully extended to groups who are assisted in forming small-scale co-operatives which aim by their efforts to improve the status of their members. Help is also given to certain handicapped persons, such as deaf and dumb or blind children, whose condition would otherwise be particularly distressing.

27. This programme, full details of which are given in annex C, has been pursued throughout the year within the limits of the funds available--limits which do not permit more than a small number of refugees to benefit. The problem of indefinite idleness therefore persists in its major part, with all the tragic implications which it holds for the future in terms of undeveloped and unused latent talents.

28. As in previous years, the Agency's welfare work has involved a close co-operation with numerous private organizations helping the refugees. Apart from the variety of other valuable contributions which they make, these organizations are alone to be thanked for all the clothing, new and used, distributed to refugees during the year. The Agency wishes here publicly to express its sincere appreciation for the generosity and dedicated services rendered by these organizations.

II. CLAIMANTS FOR RELIEF

29. From its inception UNRWA's major purpose has been to provide relief to those former inhabitants of Palestine who, as a result of the 1948 conflict, became refugees. This it has had to do within the resources contributed to it. In order to benefit those who most deserve help, the Agency has concentrated on assisting persons who have lost their homes and their means of livelihood, and who are in need. It follows that the Agency's mandate has been regarded as not embracing persons other than refugees in this sense of the term. Many non-refugees, under these terms, however, have suffered severely from the events of 1948, and as early as 1950 attention became focussed on two particular groups. The first consists of the inhabitants of the border villages situated on the Jordan side of the armistice demarcation line, whose means of livelihood have largely vanished owing to the proximity of this line to their villages (principally through loss of their cultivable lands); the second is the non-refugee population of the artificially created Gaza Strip, whose economic life was similarly shattered. Appeals for Agency assistance to these victims of the Palestine conflict--"economic refugees", as they are known--have been made on various occasions since 1950. In 1959, while their needs continue, their status, so far as Agency assistance is concerned, is unchanged.

30. In 1955, in response to a request made by the General Assembly at its ninth session, the Director of UNRWA submitted a special report on the situation of claimants for Agency relief;5/ this report covered not only the "economic refugees" but also certain other categories of claimants, including the non-rationed children in Jordan (whose case is referred to in paragraph 18 above). The General Assembly considered this report at its tenth session and noted 6/ "the serious need of the other claimants for relief as described in the special report prepared by the Director pursuant to paragraph 6 of resolution 818 (XIX), namely, the frontier villagers in Jordan, the non-refugee population of the Gaza Strip, a number of the refugees in Egypt, and certain of the Bedouin". The Assembly appealed to "private organizations to give them increased assistance to the extent that local Governments cannot do so"; and urged "all Governments and individuals to support these private organizations with food, goods and services". This appeal to private organizations and Governments was reiterated by the Assembly at its eleventh session.7/

31. The course of events outlined above supports the view that the Assembly has not regarded UNRWA as the appropriate vehicle for assistance to these groups, and the Agency, in the absence of a specific directive, has been unable to extend its services to these other claimants. This year, however, fresh and pressing appeals have been made in favour of extending Agency aid, in particular rations, not only to the different groups already mentioned but also to a number of others. The most important of the latter are genuine refugees, who have in the past been able to fend for themselves but are now in need, and who are ineligible under the Agency's established policy of not admitting (or re-admitting) to its ration rolls persons who have not previously been registered or who have been self-supporting for some years.

32. Since 1955 the Agency has made no detailed survey of so-called "other claimants", but their general condition has recently been discussed at meetings of the Advisory Commission of UNRWA. Information supplied during these discussions by the representatives of the host Governments has revealed that many of the claimants whose serious need was noted in 1955 are little if any better off today and that in some cases their situation has become worse. Nearly 7,000 of the Azazma Bedouin in Jordan who were expelled from Israel in 1950 are reported to be living close to starvation; 165,000 of the frontier villagers in Jordan are in approximately the same state of need as in 1955 despite help from private organizations and other sources, while the rations given to 60,000 of the poor among the local inhabitants of Gaza by the Government of the United Arab Republic and the private organization CARE fall short of the Agency refugee ration. Anyone studying the subject is driven to the conclusion that the sum total of assistance given has proved seriously inadequate.

33. The need is essentially for rations, since the majority of the claimants are already provided with other services by the host Governments. On the basis of figures supplied by the latter, the claimants total some 317,000 persons, excluding the children in Jordan whose eligibility is not in doubt. The annual cost of issuing rations to 317,000 persons would be of the order of $5,000,000. UNRWA does not have in sight additional relief funds on such a scale. Nor would a rectification of the relief rolls (mentioned in paragraph 18 above) assist these groups since the first claimants on such funds would be the children not receiving rations, who are the offspring of registered refugees (also mentioned in paragraph 18). It follows from these facts that the Agency's mandate as hitherto interpreted would require revision if UNRWA's services were to be extended to include persons so far regarded as ineligible. Only the General Assembly can decide whether UNRWA is the appropriate means of assisting (a) "economic refugees", and (b) all needy refugees irrespective of where they have been living or what means of support they have had since 1948. The Assembly's attention is earnestly drawn to the humanitarian problem posed to the conscience of the world by the continued distress of these large numbers of people, of whom the most needy are the Azazma Bedouin.

III. ASSISTANCE TOWARDS SELF-SUPPORT

34. Last year the General Assembly once again requested the Director "to plan and carry out projects capable of supporting substantial numbers of refugees and, in particular, programmes relating to education and vocational training".8/ In the past year, as in previ-ous years, conditions have not permitted the execution of projects capable of supporting substantial numbers of refugees, and no change in this sterile situation can be foreseen in the immediate future. In these circumstances the Agency has for practical purposes had to modify its attitude towards self-support programmes. The very limited funds available have also largely influenced the approach, which is currently directed at assisting a relatively small number of selected refugees to support themselves. The programmes of individual grants and loans in Jordan are characteristic of this approach.

EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING

35. It is the Agency's education and vocational training programmes, as the General Assembly has itself recognized, that represent the most important basic contribution towards preparing the refugees for future economic accomplishment, wherever they may ultimately live. The systematic expansion of the Agency's educational services has therefore been treated as a matter of high priority over a long period of years. A stage has now been reached where elementary education is provided for all refugee children; secondary education for a gradually growing proportion (roughly equal to the proportion of the indigenous school population receiving it in the host countries); university education for a small number of the most gifted students; and as much and as varied technical training as it can finance.

36. This comprehensive educational system has developed from small beginnings. In June 1950 there were 33,631 pupils in UNRWA elementary schools, in May 1959 there were 101,462 (excluding 40,906 assisted by UNRWA in Government and private schools); the number of schools in June 1950 was 64, in May 1959, 380; the number of teachers in June 1950 was 730, in May 1959 it was 3,287. The total expenditure for general education was $398,000 over the period July 1950-June 1951; it was $5,232,000 in the year 1958.

37. The scholastic year 1958-1959 was an important one for the education of Palestine refugee youth. In Jordan funds were made available for the reopening of the pilot teacher-training centre for women in Nablus, and for the building of a teacher- training centre for men in Ramallah, of a vocational training centre in Wadi-Seer, near Amman, and of an extension to the vocational training centre at Kalandia. It also proved possible to extend the teaching of handicrafts to Lebanon and to the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, and to increase the percentage of eligible secondary school pupils from 15 to 17.5 per cent of the total elementary school population. Furthermore, funds were made available for the construction of 467 additional schoolrooms in the Gaza Strip--an important step towards the abolition of the double-shift.

38. Apart generally from finance, the main obstacle in the way of further development of the educational system remains the large number of unqualified teachers. However, in-service training, summer and refresher courses are gradually improving the quality of the instruction, and there is no doubt that the teacher-training centres mentioned in paragraph 37 above will greatly influence future standards of teaching.

39. A second impediment to successful teaching is the overcrowded classrooms. The average number of pupils per room is 50, but in many small rented classrooms this already high average is often increased to over 65 and even, in isolated cases, to over 70.

40. Despite certain limitations with respect to refugee opportunities, vocational training of various kinds still offers the refugee youth the best assurance of future employment. While the Kalandia, Gaza and Wadi-Seer vocational training centres are important forward steps, they can handle only a fraction of those wanting such training. Extending vocational training to Lebanon and to the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, introducing appropriate vocational training for girls, and developing specialized agricultural training suited to the various types of farm areas, are projects awaiting implementation. The ultimate deciding factor on these will, of course, be the availability of funds.

IV. RELATIONS WITH HOST GOVERNMENTS

41. The assistance given by the host countries to the refugees, either directly or in co-operation with UNRWA, has already been mentioned in paragraph 8 above and may appropriately be re-emphasized in the present context. Working relations between the Agency and the Governments, particularly on a personal basis at various staff levels, have been good and in many ways represent an improvement over those reported in previous years.9/ It should be particularly noted that although the area has been passing through a period of tension the host Governments have co-operated in the movement of Agency supplies even when frontiers have been closed to other traffic.

42. Nevertheless, after nearly ten years of operations, the Agency is still confronted with a residue of serious problems in its relations with host governments-- problems which should have been solved in the earliest days of the Agency's existence but which in fact have become chronic and which handicap it in its work.10/ From the point of view of the host Governments the extensiveness of the Agency's operations, the large number of personnel it recruits locally, and the complexity of such major activities as nutrition, health, education and housing all are factors which present difficulties in their relations with UNRWA. Even so, failure to deal with these problems in a timely and appropriate way merely adds to the magnitude of such problems, both from the point of view of the Governments and the Agency.

43. The most fundamental of these problems, since it is a challenge to the international status of UNRWA, is the refusal of the Government of the United Arab Republic in the Egyptian region and Gaza to recognize that the Agency is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations. This failure stands in the way of the solution to many problems and presents serious obstacles to UNRWA's assistance to refugees.11/ This situation continues to exist in spite of the unequivocal position of the General Assembly, as expressed for example in resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958, "recalling that the Agency is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations".12/

44. While the problem of the denial of UNRWA's legal status does not arise as a question of principle in other host countries or in the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, yet a lack of adequate understanding of this status at certain levels of administration continues to create problems in all countries. Thus there has been interference with personnel and with routine relief operations; restrictions in the movement of supplies, resulting in increased costs; and failure to afford immunity from legal process or exemption from taxes. Financially, the total sum owing to UNRWA on all claims outstanding, including tax, is well over $US1,000,000,13/ and a disproportionate amount of time and effort is unavoidably devoted to these matters rather than to constructive work for the refugees.

45. It is important that the need for a more satisfactory basis of relations between UNRWA and the host Governments be taken into account in any review by the General Assembly of UNRWA's mandate and the question of its extension beyond 30 June 1960. It is incumbent upon the Governments in whose territory the refugees are living to face the problems relating to UNRWA and decide on the type of assistance they desire. If they wish UNRWA to fulfill its responsibilities as an operating Agency they should accord it the treatment appropriate to its juridical position. If, on the other hand, they themselves wish to control and regulate the operations it would be logical for them to assume responsibility for the performance and administration of these functions.

46. Fundamentally the relationship between host Governments and UNRWA must be based on the Charter of the United Nations and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. Today all host countries are Members of the United Nations and parties to the Convention, which was not the case when UNRWA was first established. With the exception of the 1954 agreement with Lebanon, there have been no agreements supplementing the Charter and the Convention since the earliest days of the Agency.

47. While grounds for dispute will inevitably arise from time to time, such difficulties can be resolved if the correct juridical basis has been established and if both UNRWA and the host Governments live up to their respective responsibilities and approach the problems in a spirit of co-operation and goodwill. The following points are submitted for consideration by the General Assembly as a basis for any future relations between the Agency and the host Governments:

(a) Recognition and understanding of UNRWA's juridical status as a subsidiary organ of the United Nations by every unit of Government dealing with the Agency;

(b) The conclusion of revised and, so far as possible, uniform agreements supplementing the Charter and Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations;

(c) Settlement of outstanding claims and establishment of procedures for the settlement of future issues;

(d) Close co-operation at all levels on the basis of a common interest in the welfare of the refugees.

V. WORLD REFUGEE YEAR

48. At its thirteenth session the General Assembly adopted a resolution 14/establishing a World Refugee Year, the aims of which were to focus interest on the refugee problem, to encourage additional financial contributions from Governments, voluntary agencies and the general public, and to encourage additional opportunities for permanent refugee solutions through voluntary repatriation, resettlement or integration, on a purely humanitarian basis.

49. In order to help the Secretary-General to fulfill the Assembly's request to take such steps as he might think fit to assist in the promotion of the World Refugee Year, the Agency seconded a member of its staff to his Special Representative's office in Geneva and has supplied information about its work through Geneva and direct to many national committees. It is expected that, among the results of the Year, there will be a better understanding everywhere of the complexities of the Palestine refugee problem as well as additional financial support for the UNRWA self-help and other programmes.

VI. THE FINANCIAL POSITION

50. A full report of the Agency's financial operations in 1958-1959 is contained in annex F, and a plan of expenditure for 1960 in annex G. The following paragraphs are intended to summarize the Agency's financial position during 1958-1959 and its expected position in 1960.

51. For 1958 the Agency's budget was $41.1 million, including $0.4 million carried forward from 1957. However, income in 1958 totalled only $35 million, a large part of which was not received until late in the year. In consequence much of the 1958 budget could not be implemented, and expenditure ultimately totalled only $31.8 million. An additional $1.4 million of the 1958 budget was committed and carried forward to 1959, while the balance of $7.9 million of the budget lapsed at the end of the year.

52. Income in 1958 thus exceeded expenditure by some $3.2 million, which was carried forward into 1959 as additional working capital both to finance the $1.4 million of the 1958 budget carried forward and to assist in financing the 1959 budget. However, this apparently good financial showing in 1958 was not attributable to a basic improvement in the Agency's financial position, but rather to the coincidence of several favourable factors, none of which may apply in 1959 or 1960.

53. The most important of these factors were: (a) a decline in basic food commodity prices, which saved nearly $1.6 million; (b) the receipt in 1958 of some $1.5 million in contributions pledged for 1956-1957 but not paid until 1958; and (c) a moderate increase in the rate of contributions over that of previous years. While it is to be hoped that the rate of contributions will again increase in 1959 and 1960, a reduction in food prices is not likely and there are no longer important amounts of pledges outstanding from past years.

54. Within the expenditure of $31.8 million in 1958, the Agency was able to continue to provide essential feeding, health care, shelter, welfare and education services. This was done at lower than desirable standards in the early part of 1958 (following the financial crisis of 1957 which had necessitated a drastic reduction in services), but in the latter part of the year standards were progressively restored to pre-1957 levels as the financial position improved.

55. In addition the Agency was able, late in 1958, to resume its programme of replacing tents in camps with huts, to reinstitute a limited programme of individual grants in Jordan, to implement on a small scale its budgeted programme of expansion of education and vocational training facilities, and to envisage a further expansion of these facilities in 1959. Most of these additional activities were not actually carried out in 1958
but were started and covered by the $1.4 million of the 1958 budget carried forward to 1959.

56. For 1959 the Agency is operating on a budget of $38.9 million, which includes the $1.4 million carried forward from 1958. To finance this budget, the Agency in July 1959 could foresee the definite availability of only about $23 million, consisting of the $3.2 million carried forward from 1958 income, $18.8 million of dependable pledges in hand, and $1 million of other income. It is hoped that certain countries which have not yet pledged for the last half of 1959 will soon do so; on the basis of their most recent contributions, this should provide a total amount of approximately $14.3 million. Even if these hopes are realized, however, total funds available to the Agency for 1959 will amount to only about $37.3 million, which is $1.6 million less than the budget.

57. In the absence of the assurance of adequate funds for 1959, the implementation of certain parts of the budget has had to be postponed for the time being. Current estimates of expenditure in 1959 total only about $37.1 million, or approximately the amount which the Agency may ultimately receive.

58. Within this limitation the Agency has fortunately been able to continue providing basic services at normal standards and implementing the budgeted expansion of education and vocational training facilities. It has also continued its small-scale programme of individual grants in Jordan, but has not been able to implement the budgeted expansion of project activity or the budgeted improvement, in a number of unsatisfactory camps, other than the replacement of tents with huts.

59. Thus, although the Agency has both in 1958 and 1959 carried out its basic functions, it has been forced to do so on a most uncertain financial basis, with all the attendant risks and inefficiencies.

60. For 1960, the Agency is faced with certain procedural difficulties arising from the fact that its mandate presently does not run beyond 30 June 1960. Accordingly, the Agency can at this time properly present a formal budget only for the first six months of 1960. However, to facilitate planning in the event that the Agency's operations continue beyond that date, a plan of expenditure for the whole year 1960 is also presented. For technical reasons the estimates have been prepared (annex G hereto) on the basis of what would be required for twelve months. These estimates total $38.7 million, and the budget, applicable on a six-months' basis, is 50 per cent of this amount.

61. Whether considered on a twelve months' or a six months' basis, the budget envisages the continuation of essential relief and education services at existing standards (although at somewhat higher costs and for a somewhat larger population), a further expansion of education and vocational training facilities, the continuation of the individual-grants programme in Jordan, and some necessary improvements in camps.

62. In conclusion, a word must be said about the method of financing the Agency's operations. Although the Agency has so far succeeded in large measure in carrying out at least its mandate to provide relief services to the refugees, the dangers and inefficiencies of operation which result from the absence of an income dependable both in amount and in timing of payment cannot be overemphasized. It is therefore strongly to be hoped that the Assembly and the contributors will evolve a method of financing the Agency in 1960 which will ensure its receipt of the income it needs at the appropriate time, so that the planning and execution of approved programmes can be carried out properly and efficiently.

VII. CONSULTATION WITH THE UNITED NATIONS
CONCILIATION COMMISSION FOR PALESTINE

63. In accordance with the instructions of the General Assembly,15/ the Agency has continued to consult with the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, in particular with regard to the release of blocked Arab refugee bank accounts in Israel. At the request of the Commission, and by agreement with the banks concerned, a notice was published in the Press drawing attention to the fact that a certain number of people had not withdrawn balances of their accounts, or claimed safe custody items, in Palestine branches of Barclays Bank, D.C.O., and the former branches there of the Ottoman Bank. Holders of such accounts were invited to apply for the recovery of their balances.




ANNEXES


Annex A
REFUGEE STATISTICS
Table 1
TOTAL REGISTERED REFUGEE POPULATION ACCORDING TO ENTITLEMENT 1950-1959 a/

Members of families registered for rations
F
G
H
A


Full rations recipients
B


Half
rations recipients
C

Babies and
children
registered
for services
D



Total
A + B + C
E

Members receiving no rations or services
Members of families registered for education and/or medical services
Members of registered families receiving no rations or services b/
Total
D + E +
F + G
June 1950
June 1951
June 1952
June 1953
June 1954
June 1955
June 1956
June 1957
June 1958
June 1959
c/
826,459
805,593
772,166
820,486
828,531
830,266
830,611
836,781
843,739
c/
51,034
58,733
64,817
17,340
17,228
16,987
16,733
16,577
16,350
c/
2,174
18,347
34,765
49,232
60,167
75,026
86,212
110,600
130,092
960,021
879,667
882,673
871,748
887,058
905,986
922,279
933,556
963,958
990,181
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
18,203
19,776
21,548
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
4,462
5,901
6,977
--
31,789
41,915
44,741
54,526
62,920
74,678
62,980
63,713
68,922
960,021
911,456
924,588a/
916,489
941,584
968,906
996,957
1,019,201
1,053,348
1,087,628
a/ The statistics contained in the previous annual reports covered refugees registered for rations, their babies under one year of age and children registered for services (shown in the first three columns of the above table).
Other refugees registered with the Agency who receive, because of their family's income, only certain services or no services are included to reflect the trend in the total number of registered refugees.
These statistics are based on the Agency's registration records which do not necessarily show the actual refugee population owing to factors such as the high rate of unreported deaths, undetected false registrations, etc.

b/ Including up to 1956 members receiving no rations or services in families registered for rations.

c/ Details not available.

d/ Including 27,674 refugees residing in Israel who were UNRWA's responsibility up to 1/7/1952.

Table 2

DISTRIBUTION OF REGISTERED REFUGEE, ACCORDING TO COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE,
FAMILY ENTITLEMENT AND AGE AS AT 30 JUNE 1959
Number of persons
Number
of
families
Country and family
entitlements
Below
1 year
1-15
years
15 years
and over
Total
Jordan
Rations and/or all services........
No rations or services.............
TOTAL

Gaza
Rations and/or all services........
No rations or services.............
TOTAL

Lebanon
Rations and/or all services .......
Education and/or medical services..
No rations or services.............
TOTAL

Syria
Rations and/or all services........
Education and/or medical services..
No rations or services.............
TOTAL

Agency total
Rations and/or all services .......
Education and/or medical services..
No rations or services.............

GRAND TOTAL
9,913
142
10,055


6,978
40
7,018


1,385
50
40
1,475


3,534
3
56
3,593


21,810
53
278

22,141
229,465
10,362
239,827


104,164
3,878
108,042


48,051
2,321
2,709
53,081


44,000
44
2,271
46,315


425,680
2,365
19,220

447,265
321,448
24,395
345,843


125,288
8,394
133,682


62,490
4,377
10,309
77,176


55,013
182
6,326
61,521


564,239
4,559
49,424

618,222
560,826
34,899
595,725


236,430
12,312
248,742


111,926
6,748
13,058
131,732


102,547
229
8,653
111,429


1,011,729
6,977
68,922

1,087,628
105,870
7,214
113,084


42,128
3,681
45,809


23,970
1,286
3,973
29,229


22,825
37
3,023
25,885


194,793
1,323
17,891

214,007
Table 3

NUMBER OF REFUGEES IN CAMPS ACCORDING TO COUNTRY AS AT 30 JUNE 1959 a/

Country
Number of
families
Number of
persons
Percentage of the total
refugee population
Jordan ................
Gaza ..................
Lebanon ...............
Syria .................
TOTAL
37,887
24,904
12,225
5,114
80,130
196,079
140,430
55,689
22,269
414,467
33
58
42
20
40
a/ Families and refugees enumerated are all those registered in camps irrespective of their entitlement.
Previous years' reports covered only refugees in receipt of rations, their babies and children registered for services.


Annex B

HEALTH SERVICES

I. ORGANIZATION AND STAFF

1. The organization of the Agency's health services has remained substantially unchanged during the period under review. The World Health Organization (WHO), by agreement with the Agency, continues to be responsible for the technical direction of these services and for providing certain of the senior staff including the Chief Medical Officer of the Agency. This satisfactory arrangement has now lasted a full decade.

2. A well balanced preventive and curative health programme has been maintained and due care has been taken to ensure that the changes or developments which have taken place are in accordance with the planned health programmes of the host countries, with whose Health Ministries a close liaison has been maintained in a cordial spirit of mutual co-operation and understanding.

3. It is considered apposite here to point out that, in any future development in the health fields of the Near East countries, the existence of a large, trained, and experienced cadre of medical and para-medical personnel, such as the present Agency health division staff, can be an important factor in assisting such expansion.

4. Emphasis continues to be laid on the preventive aspects of the Agency's health programme and on the value of health education as an effective means of improving the state of health of the refugees, who are being made aware of what can be done and what they themselves can do towards achieving a positive state of health. Of paramount importance is the education of the mothers in all matters appertaining to the well-being of their families.

5. Table 1 below records the number of staff employed in the Agency's health services (including persons seconded by WHO) as at 30 June 1959. The table does not include the many workers employed in hospitals and clinics subsidized by the Agency for the provision of health services to the refugees.

Table 1
HQ
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
International staff
Doctors .......................
Nurses ........................
Public health engineer ........
Nutritionist ..................
Supply and materials officer
(medical) ....................



Area staff
Doctors, full-time ............
Doctors, part-time ............
Dentists, full-time ...........
Dentists, part-time ...........
Nurses (nurse midwives and
public health nurses) ........
Auxiliary nurses (practical,
aid, CBA) ....................
Midwives ......................
Sanitation and maintenance
officers......................
Food supervisors ..............
Laboratory technicians.........
Pharmacist and pharmaceutical
technicians ..................
Health educator ...............
Others:
Medical ......................
Sanitation and maintenance ...
Supplementary feeding milk ...



Labour category
Medical .......................
Sanitation and maintenance ....
Supplementary feeding milk ....
4
1
1
1
1
1




0
0
0
0

1

0
0

0
0
0

1
1

25
1
0




1
0
0

1
1
0
0

0




19
0
1
0

21

32
7

3
1
2

1
0

28
9
7




39
143
121

1
1
0
0

0




13
1 a/
1
4

14

33
2

2
1
1

1
0

20
6
5




38
62
103

1
1
0
0

0




42
5
0
1 b/

46

196
1

3
3
3

1
0

68
14
13




106
613
503
1
1
0
0

0

SUB-TOTAL


16
0
1
0

18

65
3

2
1
3

1
0

48
46
28

SUB-TOTAL


85
590
232

SUB-TOTAL

GRAND
TOTAL

8
5
1
1

1

16


90
6
3
5

100

326
13

10
6
9

5
1

189
76
53

892


269
1,408
959

2,636


3,544
a/ There are in addition 2 private specialists hired on a contractual basis.
b/ There are in addition 7 private practitioners hired on a contractual basis.
II. CLINICS HOSPITALS AND LABORATORIES

6. The number of clinics operated directly by the Agency is 91, of which 81 are static and 10 mobile, the latter covering 29 points of service. In addition are utilized the services of 7 subsidized Government static clinics and 5 static and 3 mobile voluntary societies' clinics (the latter covering 6 points of service) as well as the outpatient facilities of large hospitals in the host countries.

7. In general, satisfactory services were maintained throughout the year, though the public unrest in Lebanon over a period of several months resulted in some disruption of normal communications. Thanks to the devotion of the health division staff, sometimes at considerable personal risk, the basic health services were maintained with little or no interruption. In Jordan the fuel crisis during the autumn months necessitated the restriction of ambulance services to the transport of emergency cases to hospital. In the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, the small clinic building at Darbashieh village was destroyed during a border skirmish.

8. The following table shows the number of visits paid by patients to Agency and subsidized clinics during the period under review:

Table 2
Description
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
Population served by medical
services ..................
General medical cases.......
Dressings and skin..........
Eye cases ..................
Dental .....................
TOTAL
118,674
163,606
176,108
144,648
176,461
660,823
102,776
124,148
114,240
99,445
117,486
455,319
560,826
796,009
619,638
462,473
534,491
2,412,611
236,430
427,626
377,202
268,989
289,677
1,363,494
1,018,706
1,511,389
1,287,188
975,555
1,118,115
4,892,247


9. The hospital policy of the Agency is to use, as far as possible, the services of those hospitals which are already in existence and are operated by governments, local authorities, voluntary societies, or administered privately. Only where, for geographic or other reasons, these hospitals cannot meet the needs of the Agency, does the latter establish its own institutions. A statistical summary is given hereunder of the numbers of hospitals used by the Agency at the end of the period under review:

Table 3
Number of hospitals
available
Government
and local authorities
Vol. socs.
and private
Agency
Total
Lebanon ...............
Syrian region of U.A.R.
Jordan ................
Gaza ..................
TOTAL
--
11
8
4
23
19
5
16
1
41
1
1
3
1 a/
6
20
17
27
6
70
a/ Administered in co-operation with the Government. In addition to the above, the Agency operates 8 maternity centres in Gaza, 3 in Jordan, and 2 medical detention posts in the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic.


10. The number of hospital beds maintained by or reserved for the Agency increased from 2,102 in June 1958 to 2,116 in 1959. In Lebanon, Syria and Jordan there has been a moderate increase in the number of beds available for refugees, mainly to cover the needs of general, paediatric, and mental patients, while the decrease, which appears in the Gaza district only, is apparent and not real and is due to a reclassification of bed reservations, as between refugees and Gaza residents; the total number of hospital beds in the Gaza district available to refugees remaining unchanged during the period of review.

11. In Jordan with the opening at Hebron of the new Government hospital in which the Agency subsidizes 50 beds, it was possible for the Agency to close its St. Luke's Hospital in the same town on 31 October 1958. There was a moderate increase in the number of beds reserved in the Italian and Sisters of Nazareth Hospitals at Amman and in the Arab Evangelical Hospital at Nablus. Because of the sufficiency of tuberculosis beds elsewhere, it was possible to reduce from 50 to 40 the number of beds reserved in the Barachah Sanatorium at Arroub. In the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, a small increase also took place in the beds subsidized in St. Louis, the Italian, and Sadat hospital in Damascus. The Ministry of Health kindly allocated 20 beds in Kadamous Sanatorium for the admission of tuberculous refugee patients as required.

12. Laboratory services continue to be provided by Agency-operated, university, governmental or subsidized private laboratories. In Lebanon the Government Public Health Laboratory deals with all public health specimens as well as such materials derived from clinical cases as may be referred to it. In addition, facilities for the culture of sputum have recently been established in this laboratory. In Jordan a new agreement has been reached with the Ministry of Health under which the Government will provide both a public health and a clinical laboratory service for all refugees in Jordan, on payment of an annual subsidy by the Agency to the Government to cover the cost of non-public health laboratory examinations. In the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, a subsidized private laboratory in Damascus is used while in Gaza the Agency has its own laboratory. Occasional use was also made of the laboratory of the Malaria Institute of India for the purpose of reporting upon special malaria specimens.

III. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

13. During pregnancy professional care is provided through the maternity clinics which are held regularly in special centres throughout the four countries. Here medical and nursing supervision is given and any abnormalities discovered are referred for investigation and treatment. Simple health instruction is given and a ready-made layette or layette materials issued. In addition to the physical examination, the urine is checked, the blood pressure is recorded and a serological test for syphilis is carried out. A daily issue of skim milk and a monthly issue of supplementary dry rations are authorized from the beginning of the fifth month of pregnancy till the end of the twelfth month after delivery. Delivery normally takes place in the home or in the camp maternity centres, hospital care usually being reserved for complicated cases.

Table 4
Number of beds
available
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
General .................
T.B. ....................
Maternity ...............
Paediatric ..............
Mental ..................
TOTAL
163
150
20
26
51
410
92
45
11
18
--
166
627
140
66
140
50
1,023
264
150
80
23
--
517
1,146
485
177
207
101
2,116


14. In general, services were maintained satisfactorily throughout the year except for some limitation in certain areas in Lebanon due to the public unrest. The monthly supplementary issue of extra dry rations continued to act as a powerful stimulus to attendance as evidenced by the 118,523 visits made to the clinics during the year under review by the 33,824 pregnant women inclusive of those still on the register at the end of the previous review period and those newly registered during the present period under review.

15. Of the 16,951 serological tests for syphilis carried out on the 25,669 newly registered pregnant women, 166 proved to be positive, i.e., 0.98 per cent. The completion of these tests ensures early discovery of the disease where it exists and permits of the immediate institution of adequate treatment with subsequent surveillance as well as the investigation of the marital partner and other family members. The epidemiological trend of syphilis occurring among refugee pregnant women attending maternity clinics during the last eight years is shown by the following statistics (figures for 1953/1954 not available):


1951-1952
1952-1953
1954-1955
1955-1956
1956-1957
1957-1958
1958-1959
Number of ante-
natal STS performed
Number of positive STS................
Percentage positive
17,538

1,032
5.9
19,458

577
3.0
21,223

557
2.6
20,800

342
1.64
18,629

259
1.39
18,463

256
1.4
16,951

166
0.98

16. The child health service provides simple advice to mothers regarding the care of their infants and young children, especially in respect of breast feeding, weaning, diet, bathing, clothing, and the prevention of infection. Prophylactic immunization against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and enteric group fevers are carried out. Beneficiaries of supplementary feeding in the 0-2 years age group are selected mainly through maternity clinics. The total number of attendances during the period under review was 381,799 (monthly average 31,816) compared with 338,617 attendances (monthly average 28,218) during the corresponding period of the previous report.

17. As in all warm countries, summer diarrhoea and gastroenteritis among infants and young children constitute a serious problem during the hot weather and instructions are given to mothers at the clinics concerning the preventive measures to be adopted in respect of these conditions, e.g. adequate personal hygiene, careful food preparation and protection, general cleanliness, and fly control.


18. After a careful study that has now extended over two years the Agency has evolved a régime for the treatment of infants suffering from summer diarrhoea. This régime is based on the maintenance or restoration of body fluid electrolytic balance, treatment by suitable chemotherapeutic agents and the provision through the supplementary feeding centres of a special menu for a period of ten days or longer as required. In order that the régime may operate satisfactorily, very careful preparations have to be made before the onset of the warm season, e.g. training of staff in techniques, drawing up of menus, instruction of supplementary feeding centres staff, orientation of health education workers, and by no means least, the teaching of the mothers. The careful follow-up of each case is most important and necessitates a very active programme of home visiting by the nursing staff and health education workers. The régime has been operating in Jordan for over two years, in Gaza for one year and has been extended to Lebanon and to the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic in the summer of 1959.

19. There are two school health teams operating in Jordan and one in each of the three remaining countries. Their function and duties include the review of the state of health of the school population, routine medical examination especially of new entrants, referral for treatment of schoolchildren discovered to be suffering from remediable defects, follow-up of such cases, selection of schoolchildren needing supplementary feeding, participation in prophylactic immunization campaigns, medical examination of school teachers, supervision of environmental sanitation in schools and health
education. During the period of review 74,854 schoolchildren and 1,595 teachers in Agency schools were examined.
IV. NUTRITION

20. The caloric value of the basic rations supplied to refugees continued unchanged throughout the year at about 1,500 calories per day in summer and about 1,600 calories per day in winter, and with a total vegetable protein content of 41.7 and 44.2 grammes respectively. The constituents also remained unchanged except that in Jordan during two winter months burghol was issued in lieu of rice and in December 1958 there was an issue in all four countries of 400 grammes of flour in lieu of 500 grammes of dates. No fresh food items are included in the basic rations.

21. Under the supplementary feeding programme provision continued to be made for the protection of the most vulnerable groups in the refugee population. The average monthly number of expectant and nursing mothers in receipt of the special supplementary rations
issued from the beginning of the fifth month of pregnancy to the end of the twelfth month after delivery and having a value of 500 calories per day was 28,325. This same group together with all children up to the age of fifteen years are entitled to a daily issue of milk and amounted to an average daily number of 192,241 beneficiaries. In addition milk was issued to schools and orphanages. During the scholastic year the average daily number of such beneficiaries was 39,570. Further, a substantial nutritionally balanced hot meal, which included, besides the dry ration constituents, items of fresh food such as meat, eggs, vegetables, fruit, was provided on six days a week to a daily average of 42,703 persons, mostly children selected on medical grounds as being in need of supplementary feeding. The calorie value of the meal varies from 200 to 650 calories according to the age of the recipient and is provided, in the first instance, for a period of three months, which may however be extended on medical certification. Fish oil capsules were issued regularly through supplementary feeding centres and to school children attending the Agency's elementary schools. An average number of some 1,500 out-patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis were in receipt of double basic rations. Hospital rations remained unchanged. In the Gaza district a daily issue of milk was made to some 12,000 Gaza non-refugee residents through the Agency milk centres on behalf of the voluntary society CARE.

22. Apart from some difficulties experienced in and around Beirut during the period of public unrest, the supplementary feeding and milk distribution programme continued smoothly in all countries with a gradual increase in the number of beneficiaries as the year advanced, especially in respect of expectant and nursing mothers in Jordan and Gaza, and also of schoolchildren, particularly in Lebanon, receiving milk in schools. In
the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, a proportion of the milk distributed had been in the form of milk powder but with effect from 1 October 1958 this procedure ceased and subsequently all milk issues throughout the Agency were in liquid form. Several new supplementary feeding centres were established in Jordan and Gaza and in other instances better premises have been built or are at present under construction at centres already in operation.

23. Following a recommendation made by the Chief of the Nutrition Section of WHO at Geneva, a survey of the gain in weight during pregnancy of refugee women was commenced in Jordan during August 1958 and was extended to the other three host countries in January 1959. It is not expected to be completed until the late summer of 1959. A small health survey was carried out in Jordan during December 1958 by a visiting team of doctors from Johns Hopkins University Hospital under the auspices of MEDICO, a branch of the International Rescue Committee. A total of 585 schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years selected from two refugee camps and one non-refugee town school were reviewed. On the comprehensive examination form was recorded the nutritional state of the children examined and other medical data. The completed forms have been despatched for analysis and assessment of the findings, a report on which is still awaited. While no extensive nutritional survey has been carried out during the period of the report, it has to be borne in mind that the refugee population is under constant medical surveillance by the camp medical officers, school health doctors and the home visiting nursing staff. From their reports it can be stated that in general the nutritional state of the refugee population is not unsatisfactory.
V. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES CONTROL

24. A list of infectious diseases recorded among the refugee population for the period under review is given in the following table:

Table 5
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
Population a/ ...................

Plague .........................
Cholera .........................
Yellow fever ....................
Smallpox ........................
Typhus (louse-borne) ............
Typhus (endemic) ................
Relapsing fever .................
Diphtheria ......................
Measles .........................
Whooping cough ..................
Chicken pox .....................
Mumps ...........................
Meningitis (cerebro-spinal) .....
Poliomyelitis ..................
Enteric group fevers ............
Dysentery .......................
Malaria .........................
Bilharziasis ....................
Ankylostomiasis .................
Trachomab .......................
Conjunctivitis b/ ...............
118,674

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
581
1,242
432
1,041
1
11
30
17,543
1
0
48
3,552
15,501
102,776

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
451
398
347
635
1
3
164
15,563
173
0
0
438
7,789
560,826

0
0
0
0
0
0
12
17
3,336
878
1,055
1,595
20
32
89
14,840
508
0
0
78,172
105,536
236,430

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
249
101
260
1,952
7
0
135
20,918
55
107
695
12,463
16,117
1,018,706

0
0
0
0
0
0
13
23
4,617
2,619
2,094
5,223
29
46
418
68,864
737
107
743
94,625
144,943
a/ Figures are based on the Registration Statistical Bulletin for the second quarter of 1959.
b/ Attendances and not cases.
25. No case from the six "convention" diseases occurred among the refugees during the period under review. Thirteen cases of relapsing fever were reported but were considered on epidemiological grounds to be tick-borne. All except one of these cases occurred in Jordan. Dysentery and eye diseases are still the most prevalent infections but the number of reported cases has not increased. Due to the improvement of sanitation, preventive inoculation coverage and diffusion of health education, the incidence of enteric group fever cases showed a progressive decline.

26. Although the Asiatic influenza outbreak was not as widespread as that of 1957, greater severity and more complicated cases were noted among the refugees.

27. Fewer cases of poliomyelitis were reported in all four fields and data are collected in every instance for an epidemiological study of the disease.

28. Following the campaign launched last year in Gaza against ankylostomiasis, the incidence of this disease among the refugee population in the district is decreasing. Effective follow-up procedures in the cases treated is being maintained.

29. The measles outbreak has been mild during the period under review. In Aleppo, where some complicated cases had occurred two years ago, precautionary measures were take to meet a possible cyclical wave.

30. In Jordan, in contrast to the 70 cases of diphtheria of the previous reporting
period only 17 were reported during the present period. A vigorous health education campaign is designed to attract the refugee to make use of the immunization facilities offered in the Agency's clinics.

31. In all Agency clinics active immunization campaigns against the related communicable diseases were carried out. The total numbers of routine injections given during the period under review were as follows:


Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
TAB ....................
Smallpox ...............
Diphtheria .............
Pertussis ..............
Triple vaccine..........
10,395
5,495
8,074
--
2,753
42,379
4,048
1,138
913
785
60,074
1,381
9,077
2,556
7,241
93,247
10,178
10,370
--
--
206,095
21,102
28,659
3,469
10,779



32. Malaria control. The following gives a summary of the Agency's anti-malaria activities during the year.
Table 6
Residual spraying campaigns
Country
Camps
sprayed
Villages
sprayed
Sq. meters
sprayed
Population
protected
Jordan.............
--
50
1,521,081
25,148
Larvicidal campaign (Jordan)
Estimated number of square meters of water surfaces treated during the period
April-November 1958 inclusive ...............................................
Number of litres DDT 2.5 per cent, pineresin 2 per cent mixed with solar oils..
41,692,525
104,930
Drainage (Jordan)
Number of linear metres cleared ...............................................
Number of cubic metres dug as drains ..........................................
Number of square metres dried .................................................
173,810
17,520
841,650


33. In Jordan, early in May 1959 and in accordance with the agreement signed in 1954, the Agency handed over the Yarmuk-Jordan Valley Antimalaria Project to the national malaria eradication team, after an evaluation survey of the Agency's anti-malaria activities of the past five years. Materials and equipment used by the Agency for this programme have been transferred to the national team.

34. Except for an early start of operations (16 March instead of 1 April) and the replacement of dieldrin by D.D.T., there has been no change in the techniques employed during the period of review. Ditches were cleaned, some frontier villages sprayed and all
potential breeding places were treated with larvicidal agents.

35. In view of the hand-over mentioned above and as part of the evaluation survey, an epidemiological investigation was carried out in co-operation with the national malaria eradication team. Among the 552 infants examined, only one blood slide was found positive
for malaria. On investigation, it was found that the patient had contracted the disease outside the project area. Likewise, 2,974 schoolchildren were examined and the parasite rate was found to be 1.04 per cent.

36. In Lebanon and the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, also, active national malaria eradication campaigns are under way. The Agency co-operates in this work within the camp areas.

37. In the Gaza district 55 cases of malaria were reported during the period but after investigation it was presumed that they were all infected outside the district.

38. Under the insect control programme periodic changes in the formulation of the anti-fly insecticide mixture have produced good results during this period. Nevertheless more and more reliance is being placed on sanitation measures and health education of the public to effect control of fly breeding.

39. Anti-louse measures continued to be carried out in all fields using 1 per cent BHC (lindane). No case of louse-borne diseases was recorded in the Agency area of operations during the past five years.

40. Until very recently, bedbug control was carried out with limited success. Following an experimental study made in the autumn of 1958, an eradication campaign against bedbugs was started in May 1959 in the Gaza district employing an organo-phosphorous compound used under strict safety precautions. Judging from the data so far collected, encouraging results have been obtained.

41. Tuberculosis control . The advent of the newer anti-tuberculosis drugs has had a profound influence on the methods adopted in the treatment and control of tuberculosis. A high proportion of patients suffering from this disease can now be treated very effectively as outpatients or require a much shorter stay in hospital. In the Agency programme, during the last three years, there has been a gradually increasing emphasis on domiciliary treatment and this method has proved to be so satisfactory that waiting lists for hospital admission have practically been abolished and in Jordan it has again been possible to reduce the number of sanatorium beds reserved for refugees, this year from 150 to 140. In Lebanon, the 150-bed wing at Bhannes Sanatorium is more than adequate to meet the requirements of refugees living in that country and consequently has in addition received patients from the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, Jordan and Gaza requiring thoracic surgery. In Gaza the number of beds available in Bureij Sanatorium are sufficient for the needs of both the refugees and the Gaza residents while in the Syrian region the Ministry of Health of the United Arab Republic has kindly made available in Kadamous Sanatorium a further 20 beds, as required, and in addition to those already available at Ibn Nafis and Ibn Rushd Sanatoria.

42. So far as the medical supervision of outpatients was concerned, two major changes have taken place in Jordan where, in the Hebron Area, following the closure of St. Luke's Hospital where the Agency maintained a tuberculosis outpatient centre, an agreement was concluded with the nearby Barakah Sanatorium for the introduction of diagnostic and outpatient services for refugees with effect from 1 November 1958. With the opening of the Government/WHO tuberculosis centre at Jerusalem, an agreement was also concluded with the Ministry of Health for the provision of like services for refugee patients living in the Jerusalem, Jericho, and Ramallah areas. This agreement is similar to the agreement already in operation for more than two years in respect of the supervision at the Government/WHO tuberculosis centre at Amman of the tuberculous refugee patients living in East Jordan.

43. In the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic a committee appointed by the Ministry of Health investigated the tuberculosis situation among the refugees living in Damascus area at Khan Es Shieh, Khan Dannoun and Jaramana camps and Barzeh village and found the incidence of the disease to be very low. A statistical summary of the findings is as follows:

Population
Percentage found
to be tuberculous
Khan Es Shieh ..................
Khan Dannoun ...................
Jaramana .......................
Barzeh .........................
2,894
944
1,432
210
0.4
0.0
1.7
0.0

In a report made in July 1958 by the Agency's field health officer in Gaza of a survey of almost 25,000 schoolchildren between the ages of 5 and 15 years, the number discovered to be suffering from tuberculosis was only 0.08 per cent. The medical services of the United Nations Emergency Force assisted in this survey. It is to be noted that all pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergoing domiciliary treatment continue to receive double basic rations.
VI. ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

44. Water supplies in camps were maintained satisfactorily during the period of review, despite the public disturbances in Lebanon and the severe drought that prevailed early this year in the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic and Jordan. These emergencies and minor shortages in supplies were met by the provision of water tankers. There has been considerable improvement in existing facilities as well as substantial construction of new water supply systems. These were mainly in Burj el Shamali and Burj el Barajneh camps in Lebanon, Bureij and Nuseirat camps in Gaza, and Fara'a and Jericho camps in Jordan.

45. Excreta disposal has also been considerably improved during the year with the construction of an additional number of septic tank latrines especially in Jordan and of private family latrines in both Jordan and Gaza. Garbage and refuse has either been removed
by the local municipalities against payment, or disposed of by the Agency by composting or by burning in incinerators.
VII. NURSING SERVICES

46. While the care of the sick in clinics and hospitals and curative activities in general require much of the time and effort of the nursing services, nevertheless increased emphasis continues to be laid on the development of the very essential contribution which the nursing services can make to the preventive aspects of maternal and child health, school health, tuberculosis control, home visiting, health education and prophylactic immunization. Of particular importance is the influence of the nurse in advising and educating the mothers in all matters connected with the health of their families.

47. Reference has already been made in paragraphs 17 and 18 of this annex to the special régime that has been evolved for the treatment of infants suffering from summer diarrhoea. The successful implementation of this régime depends to a very great extent on the efforts of the nursing services in teaching the mother the details of the régime, in the follow-up of the individual patient, in observing the progress made during the home visiting, and in encouraging the mother to attend the clinic regularly until her infant's health is restored to normal.

48. A staff of 100 nurses and 326 nursing auxiliaries is employed by the Agency in its preventive and curative services. This number does not include the large group of nursing staff employed in clinics and hospitals subsidized by the Agency.
VIII. HEALTH EDUCATION OF THE PUBLIC

49. This programme has now been in operation for four years. In that time it has become established as an integral and important part of the general health programme of the Agency. Gradually there has developed, not only among the refugee population and the Agency's employees, but also among the members of the surrounding communities, public leaders, local authorities, large business concerns, a realization and an appreciation of what can be achieved in the prevention of disease and in raising the standard of health of the community by health education of the public.

50. Talks, discussion groups and lectures to mothers attending maternal and child health clinics, to schoolchildren, to teachers, to community leaders, and Agency employees have been instituted. Audio-visual aids such as posters, flannel graphs films, health calendars, mobile health and nutrition exhibitions, have been used to stimulate interest. Special campaigns directed towards fly and bedbug control, dental hygiene, cleanliness weeks, etc. have been designed to give special emphasis to what can be accomplished by the individual and by the community with the means available.
IX. MEDICAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

51. The following table shows the continuation of the training of medical and para-medical personnel in the different universities and nursing training schools.
Table 7
Egypt
Lebanon
Syria
Iraq
Total
Universities
Medicine......................
Pharmacy .....................
Dentistry ....................
Veterinary medicine ..........
79
8
7
3

97
13
2
2
--

17
12
1
3
--

16
6
--
1
--

7
110
11
13
3

137
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
Nursing
General nursing (local school)
General nursing (UK schools)..
Midwifery ....................
Child birth attendants .......
Assistant pharmacists ........
1
6
--
--
--
--
1
--
--
--
24
3
6
--
--
4
--
--
10
25
29
10
6
10
25

52. In addition to the above, a three-months ophthalmic training course was given at St. John's Ophthalmic Hospital, Jerusalem, to two groups of male auxiliary nurses. An in-service course in maternal and child health of three months duration was given at Jericho to seven qualified and ten auxiliary nurses. In the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, an in-service refresher course of the same length was given to similar groups of nurses. In Gaza a first-aid and dressing course was given to fourteen nursing auxiliaries.

53. The Medical International Corporation, known as MEDICO, a branch of the International Rescue Committee, sponsored the visit of a team of medical and surgical specialists from Johns Hopkins University Hospital who gave a series of lectures and technical demonstrations to doctors and nurses in Jordan. The nurse anaesthetist attached to the team also gave lectures and similar demonstrations on anaesthesia to groups of nurses from Government, voluntary societies and Agency hospitals. In Jordan a three months in-service health education course was given at Jericho to three students.

54. The 1959 session of the Journées medicales de Beyrouth took place in March 1959 and was attended by a number of the Agency's medical officers. The Agency contributed to the cost of the ninth Middle East Medical Assembly held in May 1959 which fifty doctors of the Agency's staff or from Agency-subsidized hospitals attended.
X. MEDICAL SUPPLIES

55. In general, throughout the period of review, the provision of medical supplies has been satisfactory, the bulk of items being purchased by the Agency through UNICEF, on a world tender basis. Relatively few items, and these in small amounts only, were bought locally. On the clerical side, a major change has been the mechanization of control and accounting procedures in the base warehouse medical stores and in the field pharmacies. While the procurement of Narcotic drugs continues to be arranged centrally, the drugs themselves are now delivered directly by the suppliers to the field pharmacy concerned.
XI. GOVERNMENTS AND VOLUNTARY SOCIETIES

56. High tribute must continue to be paid to the various Governments, universities, voluntary societies, private firms, and individuals for the very generous and valuable contribution which they have made to the health work being carried out amongst the refugees
from Palestine. This assistance has been in the form of personnel, free hospital beds, services in out-patient and mobile clinics, maternal and child health centres, assistance in mass immunization campaigns, medical supplies, layettes, X-ray equipment and supplementary food supplies. In certain instances, funds were provided to cover the cost of specific nursing training courses. All such supplementary assistance has been of great help to the health division of the Agency in operating its extensive and complicated health programme.

Annex C

SOCIAL WELFARE

I. COMBATING IDLENESS

1. One of the most distressing aspects of life in a refugee camp is the unavoidable idleness: every year thousands of young Palestinian refugees leave school
to swell the ranks of those who have nothing to do. The debilitating effects of such a life can easily be imagined. The Agency is tackling the problem as best it can by:

(i) Encouraging the refugees, through a community development programme, to find means of occupying themselves in groups or individually and thus, if only in small ways, of improving their lot;

(ii) Developing a programme of activities for older boys and young men.

2. The initiation of the community development programme was reported last year. While some progress has been made since in Jordan and Gaza, in Lebanon it has been retarded by last year's disturbances, and only recently have the authorities of the United Arab Republic given their approval to the execution of such a programme in the Syrian region.
(a) Community development

3. The Agency, offering advice and assistance, encourages refugees to develop their own self-help projects, which mainly take the form of co-operatives. Small, one-time cash grants are made to groups who have developed their own idea, drawn up a plan of organization and contributed or raised sums for their projects. Some account was given in last year's report of the difficulties involved in promoting such co-operatives among the Palestine refugees. Nevertheless, the total number successfully launched has since increased to ten (located in Jordan, Gaza and Lebanon), comprising two poultry and livestock co-operatives for sixteen and eighteen families, a poultry and dairy cooperative for eighteen families, a wool-knitting co-operative for twenty-five women, a handicraft co- operative for twenty women, an agricultural co-operative for forty-nine families, a carpentry co-operative for fifteen young men, a soap-making co-operative for seven young men, an agricultural saving and credit co-operative with eighteen members, and a consumer co-operative developed by fifty-one families. These co-operatives are financed by money raised by their members and by loans and gifts from outside sources, as well as by UNRWA's initial contributions. They cannot make their members self-supporting because the camps concerned are situated in unproductive areas and the refugees, who alone constitute their market, seldom have money to spend. Nevertheless, they do enable their members to earn some money to supplement their rations and, more important, make it possible for them to work again.
(b) Assistance to individuals

4. For a small sum, averaging $36 per person, it has been possible to provide some individual refugees with the necessary materials or equipment to enable them to follow a once familiar trade and thus earn a little money to supplement their rations. Altogether 311 persons, such as bicycle-repairers, fishermen, painters, barbers, and dress-makers, have thus been assisted in the past year. Small contributions to the Agency are used directly to help individuals under this programme.
(c) Activities for women

5. The thirty-three sewing centres which the Agency runs for young women in the camps have become very popular. The parents as well as their daughters have come to appreciate the benefits of this training, and there are now waiting-lists for admission. The six-month training given to each girl (thirty in each centre) both enhances their value in the home and may enable them to earn small amounts of money outside. During the past year 1,580 girls graduated from these courses. The Gaza embroidery centre, employing some
420 women in their spare time, has also continued to function and enabled its members to earn about £1 Egyptian per month each.
(d) Activities for idle refugee youth

6. During the past year the Agency has given close attention to the problem presented by the many youths who have nothing to do, and has requested the World Alliance of the Young Men's Christian Associations to make a survey of the situation. Activity centres for young men already exist in some camps, but they are mostly inadequate and trained leaders are lacking. The only well developed programme is in Gaza, where sports activities are well organized and six short carpentry courses have proved highly successful. The Agency would like to develop suitable programmes in all areas, and hopes that World Refugee Year campaigns will yield some financial assistance for this purpose.

II. ASSISTANCE TO THE NEEDY
(a) Hardship cases

7. By normal standards most of the 400,000 refugees in camps would be considered hardship cases. Agency welfare funds and supplies are sufficient for assistance only to the neediest of them, and then most often in emergencies only. During the year cash assistance totalling $47,362 was given to 8,595 refugees, and extra blankets, clothing and fuel for heating and cooking were given to 28,438 others. Many refugee families who appealed to case workers received advice on social and psychological problems; 45 families were reunited through their efforts.
(b) Education and training of handicapped children

8. The Agency's programme of making possible the education and training of blind and of deaf and dumb refugee children in local institutions, so that they can become useful citizens, has been assisted by contributions from outside sources. During the year, eighteen children began training courses, while nine completed their courses and returned to their camps where the Agency will assist them in their efforts to make a way of life. Twelve deaf and dumb and fifty-four blind children are continuing their schooling which, in some cases, will last a further six years and for which funds averaging $300 per individual per school year have been allocated.
(c) Rehabilitation of crippled children

9. Many badly crippled refugee children could, with proper physiotherapy, be helped to lead a normal life. During the past year the Agency, again with the assistance of outside contributions, has been able to place forty children from Lebanon in the Cortbawi Rehabilitation Centre, Beirut; sixteen have already been discharged, their treatment completed. Funds have now been provided and places reserved for a limited number from Syria and Jordan. Plans have also been made to place fifteen crippled children from Gaza in the Vocational Rehabilitation Centre, Cairo. There are many more children who could benefit but facilities are at present lacking.
III. VOLUNTARY AGENCIES

10. Contributions in cash and in kind from voluntary organizations throughout the world and the services which some of them were able to perform in the field have again complemented UNRWA's efforts on behalf of the refugees. UNRWA wishes to thank each and every one of these for their valuable help and co-operation.
(a) Adult clothing programme

11. The basic needs of the refugees are food, shelter and clothing. For clothing UNRWA has had to rely entirely on donations of used clothing collected overseas, paying only for the ocean transport. The following organizations have borne almost the whole burden of supplying the refugees with clothing:
12. The efforts of these organizations, during the year, have resulted in the largest amount of donations ever received, and the Agency has paid the record amount of $230,000 for ocean transport. The increase in number and quality of men's and boys' shoes is particularly gratifying since these are most needed: in all, 2,096,700 kg. of clothing and 154,244 kg. of shoes were provided.

(b) Children's clothing programme

13. The Agency at one time supplied new clothing for children since they quickly wear out second-hand garments. This year no funds have been available, but a programme is being carried out by the following organizations:

The Cooperative for American Remittances to Everywhere, Inc. (CARE) has furnished materials for new clothes in Gaza for children in need, both refugee and non-refugee, between the ages of 1 and 15; UNRWA cut the cloth and has distributed parcels which include
buttons and thread to all refugee children in Gaza between the ages of 1 and 5; the older children will all have received theirs by October.

The Church World Service, through the Near East Christian Council Committee and the Lutheran World Federation, administered their own new clothing programmes for school children in Jordan and Lebanon.
(c) Other voluntary agency activities in the field

14. Special mention must also be made of certain other agencies which maintain full-time staff in the field and organize a variety of activities, in addition to the clothing programmes of some of them, such as sewing and handicraft centres, clinics, milk and feeding centres, and schools, etc., for the benefit of the refugees. These include Jamiat Al Islam (in Jordan), the Lutheran World Federation (in Jordan and the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic), the Mennonite Central Committee (in Jordan), the Near East Christian Council Committee (in Gaza, in Lebanon through the Joint Christian Committee, in Jordan directly and through the International Church Committee), the Pontifical Mission (in Lebanon, Jordan and the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic), the World Council of Churches, the Young Men's Christian Association (in Jordan, Gaza and Lebanon) and the Young
Women's Christian Association (in Jordan).

Annex D
SELF-SUPPORT PROGRAMME
I. GAZA STRIP

1. In 1954 the Agency initiated a programme for the planting of 4.5 million forest seedlings in the Gaza Strip for the purpose of protecting farm lands. This programme has now been completed with the planting in the past year of the remaining one million seedlings. The afforested areas have been handed over to the local authorities.
II. JORDAN
(a) Agricultural settlements

2. Since last year's report, no new settlements have been initiated.
(b) Development Bank of Jordan

3. Most of the Bank's operations during the year continued to be connected with agricultural loans. The capital has been almost wholly employed and it has been decided to recommend an increase in the authorized capital from $1,400,000 to $2,800,000. At 31 March
loans in operation were:
The total number of refugees living on the projects is estimated at about 8,000 people. The net profit of the Bank during the year ending 31 March 1959 amounted to $48,059, compared with $43,697 in 1958 and $43,355 in 1957.

III. PLACEMENT IN JOBS


4. A considerable number of skilled and educated refugees have established themselves within the economy of the host countries and neighbouring Arab states. There are still, however, many qualified persons who for one reason or another have not been able to
break away from the camps.

5. The Agency has developed contacts with most Governments and major employers in the area who inform it of the vacant jobs they want filled. During the past year the Agency has received notice of 171 vacant posts as well as requests for unlimited numbers of accountants, nurses, and teachers. Over 2,200 have submitted applications for these jobs; 278 have been given contracts of employment through the Agency and many others have been engaged directly by employers. Most of the refugees placed during the past year were teachers hired by the Governments of Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the Sudan.

IV. ASSISTANCE TO EMIGRANTS

6. The Agency has again been able to pay part or all of the ocean passages of refugees from Lebanon and Jordan who have obtained immigration visas and exit permits but who could not leave without financial assistance. No refugees are allowed to emigrate from
the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic or Gaza. During the period under review 477 refugees were helped to emigrate: 273 to the United States, 84 to Brazil, 75 to Venezuela, 10 to Honduras and 35 to other countries. The average cost to the Agency of this assistance was $275 per person.

Annex E
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
I. GENERAL

1. As of 31 May 1959, the number of children benefitting from UNRWA'S elementary and secondary education programme was 176,332 (1957-1958: 173,051); of these, 120,206 (1957-1958: 117,936) attended elementary or secondary classes in one or other of the 380 schools maintained by the Agency. A total of 56,116 pupils was enrolled in government and
private schools under the Agency's grants-in-aid system. The number of teachers employed by UNRWA was 3,287 (1957-1958: 3,321).

2. The general level of teaching is still improving slowly but steadily. The development of secondary education has made it possible to appoint more highly qualified teachers than formerly, while the in-service training and summer courses, general and specialized, have helped many existing teachers who are underqualified. It is gratifying to note the help of the Governments of the host countries and of the international specialists seconded to UNRWA by UNESCO in raising the standard of teachers. Now that one teacher-
training centre has been reopened and another is being built, a substantial improvement in education can be expected to follow.

3. The number of girls in the Agency's schools is still increasing. Enrolment figures for girls by year and by area since 1951 are shown in table 1.
Table 1
ENROLMENT OF GIRL PUPILS
Country
June 1951
June 1952
June 1953
June 1954
Gaza ............................
Jordan ..........................
Lebanon .........................
Syria ...........................
5,357
4,349
1,029
941

11,676
5,410
4,526
2,076
727

12,739
6,189
10,035
3,169
2,074

21,467
8,652
14,249
4,154
3,585

30,640
Country
June 1955
June 1956
June 1957
June 1958
June 1959
Gaza ............................
Jordan ..........................
Lebanon .........................
Syria ...........................
10,507
15,589
4,337
3,693

34,126
12,729
16,790
4,558
3,863

37,940
14,205
16,464
4,682
4,281

39,632
15,625
16,565
5,163
4,505

41,858
16,837
16,781
5,820
4,984

44,422
II. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

4. For the first time since 1953-1954, the number of pupils entering the first class of the elementary cycle exceeded the previous year's figures. The new intake was 20,327, which compared with new intakes of 19,212 in 1957-1958, of 19,712 in 1956-1957, of 21,120 in 1955-1956, of 27,710 in 1954-1955 and of 31,000 in 1953-1954. While the total number of new boy entrants dropped from 10,549 in 1957-1958 to 10,466 in 1958-1959, the new girl entrants increased from 9,339 in 1957-1958 to 9,861 in 1958-1959. The gap between boys and girls in first elementary classes is becoming smaller every year as appreciation of the importance of education for girls develops in the parents' minds. The fall in new boy entrants is probably due to a preference for government and private schools, especially in Jordan.

5. The total number of pupils registered in UNRWA/UNESCO elementary schools in May 1959 was 101,462 (60,286 boys and 41,176 girls), compared with 102,031 (62,380 boys and 39,651 girls) in May 1958. The decrease of 2,094 boys is explained by the many boys over six who took the opportunity of education offered them by the Agency in 1953 and are now leaving the sixth elementary grade. The increase in the number of girls is explained firstly by the fact that many girls over six are still entering school for the first time and by the steadily growing tendency for girls not to leave school at the age of ten or eleven.

6. Taking into account assistance to refugee pupils in government or private schools, the total number of pupils receiving elementary education at the Agency's expense was 142,368. This figure is not yet final because some payments in grants-in-aid are still outstanding at the time of writing.

7. During the year under review the construction of 748 rooms (642 classrooms and 106 administrative rooms) was started.
III. SECONDARY EDUCATION


8. The increasing number of refugee pupils seeking secondary education continues to constitute a major and pressing problem. Although it was possible to raise the proportion of such pupils eligible for secondary education from 15 to 17.5 per cent of the total elementary population, the number of pupils actually following secondary education increased by much more than 2.5 per cent. This continues to throw a serious financial burden on the Governments, especially in Jordan and in the Syrian province of the United Arab Republic. While, for instance, the Agency pays the Jordanian Government grants-in-aid in respect of 5,000 secondary pupils in the government schools, there are in reality 9,732 pupils from refugee families. The government, therefore, bears the costs of 4,732 pupils.
In the Gaza Strip the payment of grants-in-aid was fixed again at a lump sum of $136,000, independently of the number of refugee pupils in the government secondary schools.

9. Table 2 shows the number of secondary school pupils from refugee families according to school and area. Figures in parentheses are those for 1957-1958.

Table 2

NUMBER OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS
Area
Agency schools
Government schools
Private schools
Total
Gaza ..............
Jordan ............
Lebanon ...........
Syria .............
8,244 ( 7,495)
7,259 ( 5,852)
1,325 ( 996)
1,916 ( 1,562)
18,744 (15,905)
3,400 (3,400)
5,000 (4,500)
106 ( 81)
1,408 (1,256)
9,914 (9,237)
--
5,000 (4,500)
2,846 (2,219)
1,790 ( 847)
5,036 (3,380)
11,644 (10,895)
12,659 (10,666)
4,277 ( 3,296)
5,114 ( 3,665)
33,694 (28,522)


IV. UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIPS

10. The number of university scholarships was limited to 375 for the third year in succession. As the population in secondary schools increases rapidly, the competition to obtain a scholarship becomes more severe every year. Only the exceptionally gifted stand
a chance; many who are well suited for higher education cannot be given it.

V. VOCATIONAL TRAINING

11. The most notable developments in the field of vocational training were:

(a) The opening in December of a commercial training section at the Kalandia Vocational Training Centre, which increased the capacity of the Centre from 232 to 280;

(b) The expansion of the Kalandia Vocational Training Centre to provide for another 120 places; the new accommodation will be ready at the end of the present session;

(c) The start of the building of a Vocational Training Centre at Wadi-Seer, near Amman, which will house 230 trainees; it is expected to be completed in the spring of 1960;

(d) The approval of two new courses (builders and wiremen-cable jointers) for the Gaza Vocational Training Centre.

12. The number of vocational training specialists has increased correspondingly and now totals 9, including a specialist who will train the instructors for the Wadi-Seer Centre. Thereafter he will be engaged in in-service training of the instructors in the three centres.

13. There is no doubt that in the long run all the graduates from these centres will find employment, given freedom of movement and stable conditions in the area. Even though jobs may not always be available to young men immediately upon the completion of a course, still vocational training offers them the best basis for satisfactory employment.

14. The intensive training of pipeline welders at Tripoli was suspended from May of last year to January of this year because of events in the Lebanon. The course was then resumed on a single-shift basis with a capacity of 24 trainees (i.e., half the former capacity) and, at the request of the contracting companies, was extended from ten to twelve weeks. The output is now eight trainees a month.

15. The vocational training specialists have now nearly completed detailed lesson-by-lesson syllabuses, compete with working drawings, for the various trades-- fourteen in number--for the use of the local instructors, as well as detailed lists of tools, equipment and materials for each of these trades. This is a big step forward which will still further improve the quality of the training; it has been a major undertaking on the part of the specialists.
VI. TEACHER TRAINING

16. The reopening of the teacher-training centre for women in Nablus, and the construction of a teacher-training centre for men in Ramallah for two hundred trainees, have been referred to above. With the help of the Governments concerned and of the international specialists seconded by UNESCO, the in-service training and summer courses are becoming more efficient and more specialized every year.
VII. PHYSICAL FACILITIES

17. This year saw the execution of an extensive building programme, the first since 1955. The need is felt for a more liberal maintenance programme, especially with regard to doors, store-rooms, covered passages, benches for sport-fields and walls. Twenty handicraft centres and one extension of an existing centre are under construction. The absence of simple laboratories for lower secondary pupils and of home economics rooms for girls is badly felt.

VIII. UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

18. The number of international specialists seconded by UNESCO to UNRWA has been increased to fourteen in view of the opening of the teacher-training centres.

19. Mention was made in last year's report of the valuable recommendations of the Working Party on the Education and Training of Palestine Refugees organized by UNESCO in Jerusalem on 5, 6 and 7 May 1958. It is gratifying to report that during the following year an extra amount of nearly $2,000,000 was made available for use in the fields of vocational and teacher-training and for the purpose of abolishing double-shifting, all subjects in which the Working Party had been keenly interested. The increase of eligible secondary pupils from 15 to 17.5 per cent of the total elementary population also conformed with the recommendations of the Working Party, which however would have wished to see the proportion raised still higher in view of the development of secondary education in the host countries.

Table 3

UNRWA/UNESCO SCHOOLS SHOWING NUMBER OF ELEMENTARY
AND SECONDARY PUPILS, 1951-1959
Country
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
Gaza
Elementary ......
Secondary .......
TOTAL

Jordan
Elementary .....
Secondary ......
TOTAL

Lebanon
Elementary .....
Secondary ......
TOTAL

Syria
Elementary .....
Secondary ......
TOTAL

GRAND TOTAL
Elementary ......
Secondary .......
TOTAL
19,543
61
19,604


16,345
--
16,345


4,564
--
4,564


2,599
--
2,599


43,051
61
43,112
22,551
164
22,715


15,882
--
15,882


6,291
--
6,291


2,895
--
2,895


47,619
164
47,783
25,702
675
26,377


30,118
87
30,205


9,332
86
9,418


5,410
166
5,576


70,562
1,014
71,576
31,107
1,781
32,888


39,188
812
40,000


11,695
384
12,079


8,758
864
9,622


90,748
3,841
94,589
34,016
3,339
37,355


42,144
1,694
43,838


12,567
620
13,187


9,700
671
10,371


98,427
6,324
104,751
35,087
4,937
40,024


43,649
3,062
46,711


12,983
948
13,931


10,288
936
11,224


102,007
9,883
111,890
34,876
6,410
41,286


42,431
4,608
47,039


13,155
1,003
14,158


11,042
1,180
12,222


101,504
13,201
114,705
35,163
7,495
42,658


41,600
5,852
47,452


13,936
996
14,932


11,332
1,562
12,894


102,031
15,905
117,936
34,806
8,244
43,050


39,519
7,259
46,778


14,881
1,325
14,932


12,256
1,916
14,172


101,462
18,744
120,206
Table 4

UNRWA/UNESCO SCHOOLS SHOWING NUMBER OF PUPILS PER CLASS AT THE END OF MAY 1959

ELEMENTARY CLASSES

Country
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Gaza ...
Jordan..
Lebanon.
Syria ..
TOTAL
3,041
3,918
1,811
1,624
10,394
2,925
3,640
1,370
1,212
9,147
2,976
3,562
1,657
1,234
9,429
2,862
3,091
1,211
867
8,031
2,902
3,299
1,539
1,174
8,914
2,635
2,400
1,028
818
6,881
2,856
3,952
1,763
1,064
9,635
2,562
2,658
976
681
6,877
3,780
4,818
1,488
1,772
11,858
2,322
2,383
682
691
6,078
4,083
4,132
997
854
10,066
1,862
1,666
359
275
4,162
19,638
23,681
9,255
7,712
60,286
15,168
15,838
5,626
4,544
41,176
GRAND
TOTAL
19,451
17,460
15,795
16,512
17,936
14,228
101,462


Table 5

UNRWA/UNESCO SCHOOLS SHOWING NUMBER OF PUPILS PER CLASS AT THE END OF MAY 1959

SECONDARY CLASSES
Country
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Gaza ..
Jordan.
Lebanon
Syria..
TOTAL
3,460
3,063
680
646
7,849
1,033
674
148
155
2,010
3,115
1,729
451
493
5,788
636
239
46
143
1,064
--
979
--
337
1,316
--
30
--
142
172
--
358
--
--
358
--
--
--
--
--
--
220
--
--
220
--
--
--
--
--
6,575
6,316
1,131
1,476
15,498
1,669
943
194
440
3,246
GRAND
TOTAL
9,859
6,852
1,488
358
220
18,744
Table 6

DISTRIBUTION OF PALESTINE REFUGEE CHILDREN RECEIVING EDUCATION AS AT MAY 1959
Country
Number of
UNRWA/UNESCO
schools
In UNRWA schools
Total number of assisted refugee pupils in elementary and secondary classes in
Total number of refugees receiving education
Elementary
Secondary
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Government schools a/
Private
schools a/
Gaza ..
Jordan.
Lebanon
Syria..
TOTAL
79
181
50
70
380
19,638
23,681
9,255
7,712
60,286
15,168
15,838
5,626
4,544
41,176
34,806
39,519
14,881
12,256
101,462
6,575
6,322
1,131
1,476
15,504
1,669
937
194
440
3,240
8,244
7,259
1,325
1,916
18,744
3,400
24,836
967
6,923
36,126
--
7,523
9,925
2,542
19,990
46,450
79,137
27,098
23,637
176,322
a/ Not definite yet.
Annex F
FINANCIAL OPERATIONS
I. INTRODUCTION

1. The Agency's fiscal period is the calendar year, whereas the present report covers the period 1 July 1958 to 30 June 1959. The accounts of the Agency for 1958 and for 1959 are therefore each published separately, together with the related auditors' reports, and the present report is intended to present only a summary of financial operations in 1958 together with a preliminary view of operations in 1959. Also included is a brief report of contributions by Governments direct to the refugees.

2. Although in 1958 the Agency operated with two separate funds and two separate budgets ("Relief" and "Rehabilitation"), in 1959 the Agency's Financial Regulations are being changed to provide for a single fund and a single budget, in order to simplify and facilitate accounting and operations. The analysis in this annex therefore follows this approach as being more suitable to current conditions and to facilitate comparisons between 1958 and 1959.
II. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS IN 1958
(a) Budget and expenditure in 1958

3. For 1958 the Agency presented a budget totalling $40,660,000. To this was added $418,507 carried forward from 1957 representing items of construction, equipment and other one-time expenditures not completed at 31 December 1958, thus giving a total budget for 1958 of $41,078,507. At 31 December 1958 the Agency had expended $31,776,067. A further $1,420,000 had been committed on construction, equipment and similar one-time expenditure items and was therefore carried forward to 1959. The remaining 1958 budget balance of $7,882,440 lapsed at 31 December 1958.

4. The following table summarizes the Agency's budget and expenditure in 1958:
Table 1
(in thousands of US dollars)

Budget for 1958
Expended or committed
Activity
From
1957
programme
From
1958
programme
Total
Expended
in 1958
Committed and
carried for-
ward to 1959
Total
Basic subsistence .................
Supplementary feeding .............
Health care .......................
Shelter and camps .................
Elementary and secondary education.
Vocational and university education
Social welfare ....................
Placement services ................
Projects and special activities ...
Registration and eligibility ......
Transport within UNRWA area .......
Stores control and warehousing ....
General administration ............
General services ..................
Operations administration and
services .........................
Expenses and losses due to Gaza and
Lebanon emergencies ..............
Operational reserve ...............
TOTALS
5
1
53
180
50
22
1
--
--
--
78
20
--
9

--

--
--
419
14,850
1,520
2,500
2,730
4,900
2,750
590
150
5,000
330
1,340
700
650
1,520

330

--
800
40,660
14,855
1,521
2,553
2,910
4,950
2,772
591
150
5,000
330
1,418
720
650
1,529

330

--
800
41,079
13,235
1,469
2,620
1,976
5,232
779
679
166
346
370
1,658
692
633
1,483

313

125
--
31,776
6
51
31
623
626
28
52
--
--
--
1
1
--
1

--

--
--
1,420
13,241
1,520
2,651
2,599
5,858
807
731
166
346
370
1,659
693
633
1,484

313

125
--
33,196


5. The $7.9 million of the total 1958 budget which lapsed at 31 December 1958 included the following items:
$
1.6 million savings on basic food commodity prices
2.0 million of proposed expansion of vocational training
facilities not implemented
0.3 million of shelter and camp construction not implemented
4.0 million of proposed self-support projects and projects not implemented,
after transfer of $0.6 million to the heading of elementary
___ and secondary education
7.9 million

6. As will be noted, the bulk of the lapsed budget ($6.3 million) related to proposals which were not implemented, the principal reason being lack of funds. In certain cases, however (notably in vocational training), items budgeted in 1958 and not implemented
were again budgeted in 1959.

7. In the other budget headings taken as a whole, total funds expended or committed exceeded the total related budget by $1.4 million, the excess being covered by the operational reserve ($0.8 million) and by transfer--as noted above--from the heading of projects and special activities ($0.6 million). The principal area of over-expenditure was that of elementary and secondary education ($908,000), resulting principally from a decision late in 1958 to expand handicrafts training, to eliminate double shifts in classrooms and to increase the ratio of secondary students to elementary students from 15 to 17.5 per cent. The remaining $0.5 million resulted principally from improvements found necessary in health care ($98,000), increases in transport costs, including replacement of vehicles ($241,000) and losses due to Gaza and Lebanon emergencies ($125,000).
(b) Income and expenditure in 1958

8. Income in 1958 totalled $35,033,259, from sources as follows:

From pledges for prior years ..............................
From pledges for 1958 .....................................
From other sources ........................................
$
1,484,446
32,444,020
1,104,793
35,033,259


9. Income in 1958 thus exceeded expenditure by some $3.2 million, of which, however, $1.4 million represented commitments at 31 December 1958 which were carried forward to 1959 as noted in paragraph 3 above. The remaining 1.8 million has served to augment income in 1959 and to cover a part of the estimated shortfall in contributions (see paragraph 20 below).

10. The favourable ratio of income to expenditure in 1958 represented a very welcome improvement over 1957, when a financial crisis faced the Agency and forced it to eliminate or curtail entire sections of its programme and to reduce standards to undesirably low levels in others. The favourable income showing in 1958 permitted the Agency to restore, progressively, most standards to pre-1957 levels and even to envisage
implementation of a part of its 1959 budget (for expansion of vocational training and for self-support projects) which might otherwise have failed for lack of funds.

11. In 1958, contributions were received from only twenty-eight Members of the United Nations, and three non-members. Moreover, 93 per cent of total contributions were received from only three contributors--the United States of America ($23.8 million), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ($5.6 million) and Canada ($2.1 million).
(c) Assets, liabilities and working capital in 1958

12. At 31 December 1958 the financial position of the Agency was as follows, compared with the position at 31 December 1957:

Assets ...........................
Less liabilities and reserves ....

Working capital ..................
31 December
1958
$
29,153,791
6,953,871

22,199,920
31 December
1957
$
25,144,599
6,238,390

18,906,209


13. The increase of $3.3 million in working capital (resulting largely from excess of income over expenditure mentioned in paragraph 9 above) represented a most welcome improvement over the position at the end of 1957. As pointed out previously, however, $1.4 million of the working capital is reserved for items committed in 1958 and carried forward to 1959.

III. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS IN 1959
(a) Budget and expenditure in 1959

14. For 1959 the Agency presented a budget totalling $37,475,000, to which has been added the $1,420,000 carried forward from 1958 as mentioned in paragraphs 3 and 4 above, giving a total budget of $38,895,000 for 1959.

15. Lack of assurance as to contributions in 1959 has forced the Agency to defer implementation of a good part of its 1959 budget, and at 31 July 1959 only $37.1 million had been approved for implementation. However, within this limitation the Agency has succeeded in continuing its minimum essential programmes of feeding, health care, shelter, welfare and education at normal standards and in implementing nearly all of its budgeted programme of expansion of vocational training together with continuation on a modest scale of its project of individual self-support grants in Jordan.

16. The following table summarizes the current budget and estimated expenditure position of the Agency for 1959:
Table 2
(in thousands of US dollars)

Budget for 1959
Estimated
expenditure
(and
commitments)
Activity
From
1958
programme
For
1959
programme
Total
Basic subsistence ........................
Supplementary feeding.....................
Health care ..............................
Shelter and camps.........................
Elementary and secondary education .......
Vocational and university education ......
Social welfare ...........................
Placement services .......................
Projects and special activities ..........
Registration and eligibility .............
Transport within UNRWA area ..............
Stores control and warehousing ...........
General administration....................
General services..........................
Operations administration and services....
Operational reserve ......................

TOTALS
6
51
31
623
626
28
52
--
--
--
1
1
--
1
--
--

1,420
14,700
1,530
2,730
2,750
5,615
1,700
590
150
2,190
230
1,390
600
600
1,600
300
800

37,475
14,706
1,581
2,761
3,373
6,241
1,728
642
150
2,190
230
1,391
601
600
1,601
300
800

38,895
13,692
1,575
2,847
2,842
6,925
1,655
835
235
1,368
204
1,514
842
625
1,638
309
--

37,106


17. The difference of $1.8 million between the total 1959 budget and the estimated expenditure (and commitments) is represented principally by budget items not yet approved for implementation due to the uncertainties of income, including additional shelter construction ($750,000) and self-support projects ($761,000). The balance ($278,000) represents net savings (particularly on the price of basic food commodities) in excess of certain additional budget allocations found necessary.

(b) Income and expenditure in 1959

18. Income is presently estimated for 1959 as follows:

From pledges made for prior years .........................
From pledges made or to be made for 1959 ..................
From other sources ........................................
$
300,000
32,800,000
1,100,000
34,100,000

19. Income expected from pledges for prior years has thus declined by nearly $1.2 million from 1958, while expected current pledges have increased less than $0.4 million over 1958. Total expected income in 1959 is thus nearly $1 million less than in 1958. Moreover, it must be emphasized that of the $32.8 million expected contributions for 1959, approximately $14.3 million has as yet not even been pledged but is expected to be received solely on the basis of the contributions received in prior years from certain countries
(notably the United States, United Kingdom and Australia).

20. Estimated income at $34.1 million is $4.8 million short of the 1959 total budget of $38.9 million. This has been compensated in part by the $3.2 million of income in excess of expenditure in 1958 mentioned in paragraphs 9 and 13 above, and in part by the delayed implementation of a portion of the budget as mentioned in paragraph 17 above. Estimated expenditure is $3 million in excess of estimated income.

21. In 1959 a total of 37 countries (including 34 members of the United Nations and 3 non-members) has to date (31 July 1959) contributed or pledged to contribute to the Agency's programme, compared with a total of 31 countries (28 members and 3 non-members) which contributed in 1958, and compared with a total of 82 members of the United Nations. However, as in 1958, the bulk (93 per cent) of the estimated contributions is again expected to come from three principal contributors--the United States of America ($23 million), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ($5.6 million) and Canada ($2.1 million).
(c) Working Capital in 1959

22. At 1 January 1959 the Agency had $22.2 million of working capital. Of this amount, $3 million has been drawn to cover the excess of estimated expenditure over estimated income (paragraph 20 above), leaving an estimated $19.2 million at 31 December 1959. If contributions for 1960 are received at the appropriate time in 1960, working capital of $19.2 million is adequate to the Agency's needs, as it provides funds for the necessary pipeline of supplies (approximately $9 million) and for about three months' operations ($9 million to $10 million) to cover short delays in receipt of contributions. However, should contributions for 1960 be either markedly delayed in payment or less
than the Agency's budget (see annex G), the working capital obviously would not be adequate to the Agency's needs.
IV. CONTRIBUTIONS BY GOVERNMENTS
DIRECT TO THE REFUGEES

23. The foregoing paragraphs dealt solely with UNRWA's operations. In addition to UNRWA's programme, various Governments--particularly those of the host countries--make material contributions direct to the refugees in the form of medical care, education and other services. These contributions are reported hereunder to the extent that they have been reported to the Agency by the Governments concerned, and the figures are those supplied by the Governments:

Country
Description of contribution made
direct to the refugees
Period
covered
Value ($)
France.................

Jordan.................


Lebanon................


United Arab Republic
Egyptian region......


Syrian region........
Scholarships

Education, welfare, health, security


Health and welfare



Education, hospital and health services,
security, welfare

Education, health, welfare
1957/58

1 Jan. 1958-}
30 June 1959 }

1 Jan. 1958-}
30 June 1959 }


1 Jan. 1958-}
30 June 1959 }

1 Jan. 1958-}
30 June 1959 }
13,466

2,039,421


22,835 a/



941,973


1,868,871
____________
a/ Plus other services of security, administration, etc., on which no value was placed.
24. For contributions direct to the refugees from non-Government sources, see annex C.

25. Previously (i.e., up to 31 December 1957) contributions direct to the refugees by Governments and others were reported in the Agency's financial statements. However, this method did not make such information directly available to readers of the Director's report, nor is such information properly a part of the Agency's own accounts. It has therefore appeared desirable to change the method of reporting as from 1 January 1958 and to include such information in the present report.

Annex G
BUDGET FOR THE FISCAL PERIOD 1960
I. INTRODUCTION

1. As pointed out in paragraph 60 of this report, certain procedural difficulties faced the Agency in preparing a budget for 1960. The method adopted to overcome these difficulties has been that of preparing expenditure estimates based on a twelve months' period, but with estimates for the first six months of 1960 also computed and shown in summary form in the table in paragraph 4 below. The estimates for the first six months of 1960 are 50 per cent of the estimates for the whole of 1960, and while all of the discussion of the estimates is based on the longer period, the amounts required for the shorter period can readily be obtained by taking 50 per cent of the estimates shown throughout this annex for the longer period.

2. As the Agency is almost entirely dependent upon voluntary contributions for its revenue, primary emphasis has been placed upon consideration of expenditure estimates (paragraphs 4 to 56 of the present annex). The problem of financing the budget is examined
in paragraphs 57 to 59.

3. In previous years, the Agency's budgets distinguished between "relief" activities and "rehabilitation" activities; there were two separate funds and two separate budgets. During the current year, however, the Agency's financial regulations are being changed to eliminate this distinction, and the 1960 budget is presented as a single programme, sub-divided into sections corresponding with the Agency's principal activities
within this programme.
II. EXPENDITURE ESTIMATES
(a) General

4. The following table presents a summary of the Agency's estimates of expenditure required in 1960, together with the corresponding budget figures for 1959 for purposes of comparison:
BUDGET ESTIMATES FOR 1960
(in thousands of US dollars)

1960 budget estimates
Activity
First
six
months
Last
six
months
Total
1959
budget
Increase
(Decrease)
Basic subsistence .................
Supplementary feeding .............
Health care .......................
Shelter and camps..................
Elementary and secondary education.
Vocational and university education
Social welfare ....................
Placement services ................
Projects and special activities....
Registration and eligibility.......
Transport within UNRWA area........
Stores control and warehousing.....
General administration ............
General services ..................
Operations administration and
services..........................
Operational reserve ...............

TOTAL BUDGET
$
7,350
795
1,460
875
3,455
1,355
435
115
500
105
860
325
330
840

160
400

19,360
$
7,350
795
1,460
875
3,455
1,355
435
115
500
105
860
325
330
840

160
400

19,360
$
14,700
1,590
2,920
1,750
6,910
2,710
870
230
1,000
210
1,720
650
660
1,680

320
800

38,720
$
14,700
1,530
2,730
2,750
5,615
1,700
590
150
2,190
230
1,390
600
600
1,600

300
800

37,475
$
--
60
190
(1,000)
1,295
1,010
280
80
(1,190)
(20)
330
50
60
80

20
--

1,245


5. As shown by the foregoing table, total expenditure in 1960 is estimated at $38,720,000, as compared with a budget of $37,475,000 in 1959. The 1960 estimates are based upon the continuation of all essential activities such as feeding, health care, shelter, education and welfare at basically the same standards as in 1959. However, provision is made for a larger number of beneficiaries, the increase being due to the natural growth of the population (and to unfavourable economic conditions in the area during the past year or more). In addition, provision is made for a substantial expansion of the Agency's vocational training and university education programme, and for the continuation on a modest scale of projects aimed at assisting refugees to become self-supporting. In general, except in the fields of vocational training, elementary and secondary education and shelter, no provision is made for capital expenditure beyond the amount necessary to replace worn out equipment.

6. The rising cost of living has forced the Agency to give further attention to salary scales, particularly those for locally employed staff. A survey conducted in April 1958 recognized that the cost of living had risen since 1955 and a bonus on that account was paid in 1958 and again in 1959. This, however, is no more than a temporary expedient, and a permanent solution is necessary. An independent survey is under way to review the Agency's staffing pattern and salary scales, and to bring them into line--where necessary--with the pattern and scales employed by Governments and large-scale employers in the host countries. A preliminary estimate indicates that the Agency's salary scales, which have not been significantly modified since 1952, are approximately 12.5 per cent too low. The payment of the bonus in 1958 and 1959 has only partially bridged the gap (to the extent of about 8 per cent). The 1960 budget provides for a similar 8 per cent increase during
the first half of the year and for the payment of salaries higher by 12.5 per cent during the second half of the year, when the results of the survey should be available. This is, however, no better than a guess at the outcome of the survey, and may have to be revised when the results are known.

7. The salary scales for the international staff have also remained static since 1952. In fact, the rate of mission allowance since 1952 has been only half that paid prior to 1952, and is still only half of that paid to international staff members of other United Nations agencies operating in the area. Moreover, the number of international staff members of the Agency has been considerably reduced since 1952 and cannot be further reduced without affecting the efficiency of the Agency. To recruit and retain competent staff, UNRWA must be able to offer reasonably attractive conditions of employment, which it cannot do at present. As one measure designed to make employment more attractive, the 1960 budget provides for participation by the international staff in the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund with effect from 1 July 1960, involving an increase of about 4 per cent in international staff costs.

8. Basic food commodities account for a third or more of the Agency's budget, and are notoriously subject to wide market fluctuations. The following estimates are based upon the assumption that prices will not be higher than those budgeted for 1959. Should food prices rise markedly during 1960, the Agency would be faced with so serious a problem that a further appeal would have to be made for additional funds to enable UNRWA to maintain its minimum essential services.
(b) Basic subsistence

1960 1959
$14,700,000 $14,700,000

9. This budget heading covers the provision of the following rations:

Type of ration
(i) Basic food ration (consisting of
    dry food commodities -- flour,
    rice, pulses, sugar, cooking
    oil, dates, etc.)
(ii) Soap
(iii) Blankets

(iv) Kerosene
Quantity
1500 calories per day in
summer and 1600 calories
per day in winter

150 grams per month
One per year per three
beneficiaries
1 litre per month for five
winter months in Gaza (all
basic ration recipients)
1.5 litres per month for
five winter months in
Lebanon,Syria, Jordan
(camp residents only)
Estimated number
of beneficiaries
856,800 in the first quarter
of 1960 rising to 862,900 in
the last quarter of 1960

856,800 rising to 862,900

978,000


230,000



265,000

10. The cost of basic subsistence includes (in addition to the purchase cost of supplies) port costs on supplies, their transport to field warehouses, control of their quality, and their distribution to entitled recipients. The costs of warehousing of commodities, however, and transportation from warehouses to distribution centres are provided for under "Stores control and warehousing" (paragraph 45 below) and under "Transport within UNRWA area" (paragraph 42 below), respectively.

11. Although an estimated additional 8,000 basic ration beneficiaries must be provided for in 1960 (at a cost of $128,000), and a small provision ($20,000) made for increased staff costs, the 1960 budget has been set at the same over-all figure as that for 1959, the increases being so small by comparison with the total cost that a minor reduction in the price of one item will more than cover it. The warning in paragraph 8 above should not, however, be overlooked. No provision has been made in the 1960 budget for equipment or construction other than the maintenance of existing facilities.
(c) SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING

1960 1959
$1,590,000 $1,530,000

12. This budget heading provides for special rations to supplement the basic subsistence ration for certain vulnerable categories of refugees who require additional
food, as follows:
Type of ration
(i) Whole milk

(ii) Skim milk




(iii) One hot meal six days per week


(iv) Special ration of rice,
flour, etc.

(v) Special ration of flour,
rice, etc.

(vi) Vitamin capsules
Calories
per day
194

125




600/700



500


1500/1600

--
Type
of beneficiary
Babies 0-1 year

Children aged 1-15 }
Nursing mothers }
Pregnant women }
Special medical cases }

Special cases medically certified }
to be in need of extra food }

Nursing mothers }
Pregnant women }

Non-hospitalised tuberculosis }
cases }

School and other children }
}
Estimated
number of
beneficiaries
14,700


224,619



48,030


30,700


1,600


149,000
total

13. The cost of supplementary feeding is computed in the same manner, and with the same reservation respecting warehousing and transport, as noted for basic subsistence in paragraph 10 above, but it includes also provision for the cost of reconstituting dried milk powder and for the preparation and serving of the hot meals.

14. The increase of $60,000 over 1959 is to provide for a slight increase in the number of beneficiaries ($27,000), for increased staff costs ($30,000) and for the construction and equipment ($30,000) of two additional milk distribution centres and two feeding centres where existing facilities are proving inadequate. This is partly offset by an anticipated reduction ($27,000) in the price of milk. Other costs are expected to remain at approximately 1959 budget levels.
(d) Health care

1960 1959
$2,920,000 $2,730,000

15. This budget heading covers the provision of medical care to approximately 1,000,000 refugees, and includes the cost of pharmacies, laboratories, general clinical and hospital care, dental treatment, maternal and child health care, tuberculosis control, mental health care, school health services, public health education, epidemiological measures and other necessary health measures. Transport of supplies, however, is provided
for under "Transport within UNRWA area" (paragraph 42 below).

16. The increase of $190,000 over 1959 is required to provide for:

(i) Higher charges for beds in subsidized hospitals ($20,000);
(ii) Essential developments in facilities and standards involving an outlay of $31,000
on construction and equipment and of $56,000 for operating costs;
(iii) Increased staff costs ($83,000).

17. Although the budgeted increase may appear to be large, it is essential if the Agency is to maintain its standards of medical care.
(e) Shelter and camps

1960 1959
$1,750,000 $2,750,000

18. This budget heading covers the provision and maintenance of shelter for approximately 412,000 refugees officially quartered in camps and of sanitation, water supply, insect and rodent control, roads and drainage and ancillary camp facilities such as bathhouses and slaughter houses. These services (except shelter) are also supplied, of necessity, to a further 34,000 refugees who have established themselves as "squatters" on the outskirts of official UNRWA camps. In Gaza, where a high proportion of the population of certain towns and villages are refugees, sanitation services are provided in co-operation with the municipal and village councils on a pro-rata cost basis; in a few instances in Gaza, also, there is similar co-operation in water supply.

19. The 1960 budget provides for the following:

(i) Recurring costs of shelter repair, sanitation, water
supply, etc.......................................
(ii) Replacement of tents by huts in existing camp.......
(iii) Construction of additional shelter in existing camps
(iv) Miscellaneous construction in existing camps
(latrines, incinerators, roads, etc.).............
(v) Special camp facilities (complete new camps) .......
1960
$

1,110,000
--
540,000

100,000
--
1,750,000
1959
$

930,000
280,000
440,000

100,000
1,000,000
2,750,000

20. The apparent increase of $180,000 in paragraph 19 (i) above is very largely a reflection of higher costs ($123,000) which could not be avoided in 1958 and 1959 and have consequently been carried over into 1960. The only true increase budgeted for 1960 is in staff costs ($57,000). Although the progressive elimination of tents has markedly reduced shelter maintenance costs, this has been more than offset by the cost of maintaining a much larger number of shelters, which in turn has been made necessary by the increase in camp population and in the numbers of refugees seeking entrance into Agency camps. The cost of sanitation, water supply and other camp services has also been seriously affected by the need to provide such services to a constantly increasing number of beneficiaries.

21. Under the heading of shelter construction (paragraph 19 (iii) above), an amount of $540,000 has been budgeted to provide shelter for an estimated 22,000 refugees, composed partly of new families and persons in over-crowded shelters, and partly of "squatters" who are living in highly unsanitary conditions on the outskirts of official Agency camps. The 1959 provision (paragraph 19 (v) above) of $1,000,000 for additional camps has not been repeated, as it is hoped that funds will be sufficient in 1959 to meet such requirements as may arise. Nor has provision been made for the replacement of tents, as it is expected that, with the completion of the 1959 programme, tents will have at last disappeared from Agency camps.

22. An amount of $100,000 (paragraph 19 (iv) above) has been budgeted to provide for essential extensions of sanitary and water supply facilities, and for other camp improvements considered highly desirable such as improved roads.
(f) Elementary and secondary education

1960 1959
$6,910,000 $5,615,000

23. This budget heading (entitled "General education" in previous years) covers the provision of elementary education (grades 1 to 6) for all refugeechildren who seek it and of secondary education (grades 7 to 11 or 12) for certain percentages of the elementary school populations (set at 17.5 per cent in Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan for the school year 1959-1960 and at 20 per cent for the school year 1960-1961, with a special arrangement in Gaza). It includes the cost of handicraft training for students in those areas where the Agency has been able to provide facilities. Elementary and secondary education programmes are conducted both in Agency schools and, where Agency installations are not adequate, by subsidies to government or privately operated schools.

24. The budget presentation for educational activities is complicated by the fact that the school year runs from about September of one year to about June of the next (the actual dates vary in the different countries), whereas the Agency's fiscal period is the calendar year. The 1960 budget therefore provides for the last half of school year 1959-1960 and the first half of school year 1960-1961. The estimates of school populations
are:

Elementary education ................
Secondary education .................

TOTAL
School year
1959-1960
$
159,600
34,000

193,600
School year
1960-1961
$
157,700
32,400

190,100


25. The 1960 budget provides for the following:

Recurring costs of salaries, supplies,
maintenance of schools, subsidies,
etc. ..............................
Cost of constructing and equipping
classrooms and handicraft centres...
1960
$


6,501,000

409,000

6,910,000
1959
$


5,350,000

265,000

5,615,000


26. The increase of $1,151,000 over 1959 in recurring (operating) costs is to provide for:

(i) Increases in staff costs ($540,000). Teachers comprise nearly 40 per cent of the Agency's total staff, and related staff cost increases are consequently very large. Part of this increase is due to increases in the numbers of staff recruited during 1959, part is due to normal salary increments and upgradings as a result of improved qualifications, and part to expected salary scale increases discussed in paragraph 6 above;

(ii) Operation for the full year of handicraft centres constructed in 1959 ($86,000);

(iii) Restoration of sports activities and school gardening discontinued in 1957 ($22,000);

(iv) Increase in school year 1960-1961 in the percentage of secondary pupils in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon from 17.5 per cent to 20 per cent of the elementary school population in order to keep abreast of improvements in local standards ($60,000);

(v) Increases in costs incurred in late 1958 and in 1959 after the 1959 budget had been prepared ($443,000), resulting from increased numbers of pupils and from the expansion of handicrafts training and other improvements.

27. The provision for construction and equipment includes:

(i) Classrooms and equipment to reduce overcrowding ($307,000);

(ii) Buildings and equipment to permit the expansion of handicraft training in areas where facilities are not now available ($102,000).

28. No provision has been made for increased numbers of pupils (other than the increase in the percentage of secondary pupils noted above) since the school population has now stabilized, and existing facilities, together with the improvements mentioned above, are considered adequate.
(g) Vocational and university education

1960 1959
$2,710,000 $1,700,000

29. This budget heading provides for industrial, commercial and agricultural vocational training for limited numbers of students, for teacher training and for university training for carefully selected young men and women in professions such as medicine, dentistry, and engineering professions for which there is a demand in the Middle East. Vocational and teacher training is largely conducted in the Agency's own schools, while university scholarships are awarded in most of the universities in the Agency's area of operation.

30. The 1960 budget provides for the following:

Activity

Operating (recurring) costs

(i) University scholarships for professional training
(ii) Operation of three vocational training centres
(Jordan and Gaza) ...............................
(iii) Arc welding course (Lebanon) ....................
(iv) Commercial training (Lebanon)....................
(v) Teacher training (Jordan and Gaza) ..............
(vi) Nursing training (Jordan and Gaza) ..............
(vii) Miscellaneous courses and contingencies
(all areas) .....................................
(viii) Administration and common instruction costs .....

TOTAL OPERATING COSTS

Construction and equipment costs

(i) Wadi Seer Vocational Training Centre (Jordan) ...
(ii) Ramallah Teacher Training Centre (Jordan) .......
(iii) Expansion of facilities at Kalandia Vocational
Training Centre (Jordan) ........................
(iv) Vocational Training Centre in Syria .............
(v) Vocational Training Centre in Lebanon ...........
(vi) Agricultural Training Centre in Jordan or Syria..
(vii) Vocational Training Centre for Girls in Jordan ..
(viii) Teacher Training Centre for Women to replace
rented facilities at Nablus, Jordan..............
(ix) Facilities for giving short courses on the
operation and servicing of heavy diesel
equipment........................................

TOTAL CONSTRUCTION AND
EQUIPMENT COSTS

TOTAL COSTS
1960
$


280,000

428,000
31,000
13,000
200,000
8,000

42,000
178,000

1,180,000



--
--

--
355,000
355,000
230,000
203,000

167,000


220,000


1,530,000

2,710,000
=========
1959
$


255,000

322,000
75,000
35,000
122,000
10,000

86,000
122,000

1,027,000



382,000
184,000

107,000
--
--
--
--

--


--


1,673,000

1,700,000
=========
31. The net increase of $153,000 over 1959 in operating costs is almost entirely due to the operating costs of the Wadi Seer (Jordan) Vocational Training Centre, the Ramallah (Jordan) Teacher Training Centre, and the extension to the Kalandia (Jordan) Vocational Training Centre, all of which were constructed under the 1959 budget. The small increase in the provision of university scholarships is to provide for a modest increase in the number of scholarships in keeping with population growth.

32. The proposal to construct and equip additional vocational, agricultural and teacher-training centres is considered by the Agency to be in line with paragraph 4 of General Assembly resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958, which requested the Agency to "plan and carry out projects capable of supporting substantial numbers of refugees and, in particular, programmes relating to education and vocational training". The Agency considers that facilities of this kind should now be made available to refugee youth in Syria and Lebanon.
(h) Social welfare
1960 1959
$870,000 $590,000

33. This budget heading covers the activities of welfare case work among refugees in particular need of assistance, ocean and inland transportation and distribution of used clothing and other donations outside UNRWA's programme, community development and operation of welfare centres, clothing for children, and other welfare services.

34. The increase of $280,000 over 1959 is to provide for:

(i) Continuance in 1960 of certain increases found necessary in 1959 ($26,000 for freight on additional used clothing and $41,000 in burial grants, aid to religious institutions and case work);

(ii) Increased staff costs ($13,000);

(iii) A rational program of clothing for children ($200,000).

35. In 1959, no funds at all were budgeted for clothing for children. During the year, however, as a result of a generous contribution of cloth by CARE, it became possible to provide clothing on a limited scale to children in Gaza. Although adult refugees' clothing requirements are met to some extent through the clothing donated by voluntary agencies and transported to the area UNRWA, children are not so fortunate and badly
need some new clothing. Three years ago the Agency managed to find the funds for a
limited clothing programme for children, but was obliged to discontinue it in 1958. Should funds become available in 1960, the amount budgeted will permit resumption of the programme on a limited scale.
(i) Placement services

1960 1959
$230,000 $150,000

36. This budget heading provides for a placement service which assists qualified refugees to find suitable employment and for grants for travel costs for those who have obtained valid travel documents to areas where there are employment opportunities.

37. Whereas the initial estimate for 1959 for migration grants was only $68,000, the greatly stimulated movement of refugees to seek employment opportunities outside the UNRWA area owing to local economic conditions has required an additional allocation of $91,000 for this purpose during the course of 1959. This increased amount has also been included in the 1960 budget. In all other respects operations are budgeted at, or slightly less than, 1959 levels.
(j) Projects and special activities

1960 1959
$1,000,000 $2,190,000

38. This budget heading provides for the following direct self-support projects in 1960:

(i) $600,000 for continuation of the individual grants project in Jordan, which was reactivated late in 1958 and continued in 1959;

(ii) $200,000 for further participation in the capital of the Jordan Development Bank;

(iii) $50,000 for continuation of the project for the rehabilitation of orphans and handicapped children;

(iv) $150,000 for miscellaneous self-support projects (including an individual grants programme in Syria) which it is hoped can be developed if funds are available, and the arts and crafts activity (production of embroidery work) in Gaza.

39. A number of small projects budgeted in 1959 were completed during the year so that no additional funds will be required for them.
(k) Registration and eligibility

1960 1959
$210,000 $230,000

40. This budget heading provides for the registration of refugees, recording of changes in their status by reason of births, marriages and deaths, recording of changes in physical location, and recording of modifications to categories of refugees entitled to receive rations and Agency services, and the determination of their entitlements and verification of their continued eligibility to receive assistance.

41. Although it has been necessary to provide a small amount for increased staff salaries, economies have made it possible to operate at a lower total cost than was budgeted in 1959. No provision has been made in 1960 for construction or equipment.
(1) Transport within UNRWA area

1960 1959
$1,720,000 $1,390,000

42. This budget heading covers the costs of all passenger transport within the UNRWA area and of all transport (including port operations) of supplies from the point of reception to the point of consumption with the exception of port costs on basic food commodities and their transport to field warehouses. This exception has been made to avoid apparent fluctuations in the cost of basic subsistence which would otherwise arise from the fact that basic commodities are purchased locally at times and purchased abroad at other times (see also paragraph 10 above).

43. The increase of $330,000 over 1959 is required for:

(i) Increased cost of hired road transport and of port services ($90,000);

(ii) Replacement of unserviceable passenger vehicles ($50,000) and freight carriers $(127,000);

(iii) Improvements in workshops and equipment to permit more efficient operations ($9,000);

(iv) Increased staff costs ($54,000).

44. The proposed increase of $330,000 appears to be large, but much of it is quite unavoidable, and the remainder must be incurred if the Agency's large vehicle fleet is to be efficiently maintained and operated on an economical basis.
(m) Stores control and warehousing

1960 1959
$650,000 $600,000

45. This budget heading covers the warehousing of supplies after receipt in the UNRWA area, together with administrative costs associated with the proper control of supply inventories valued on an average at more than $5 million.

46. The increase of $50,000 over 1959 is necessary to provide for improvements to warehouses and equipment ($17,000), increased staff costs ($25,000) and slightly higher warehousing losses ($8,000).
(n) General administration

1960 1959
$660,000 $600,000

47. This budget heading covers the offices of the Director and the country representatives, the area and camp offices, the Advisory Commission and the New York Liaison Office.

48. The increase of $60,000 over 1959 is largely to provide for increased staff costs, the ratio being high because this budget heading is largely composed of staff costs. The general problem of staff costs has been examined in paragraphs 6 and 7 above.

49. An amount of $6,000 has been provided for the essential replacement of office furniture in area offices.
(o) General services

1960 1959
$1,680,000 $1,600,000

50. This budget heading covers all of the internal services of the Agency except transport and supply (see paragraphs 42 and 45, respectively, above). Included are personnel, procurement, translation, legal, statistical and financial services, communications, office facilities and travel services, and their supervision.

51. The increase of $80,000 over 1959 is to provide for increased staff costs ($61,000) and for essential replacements of office machines and equipment ($19,000).

52. The general problem of staff costs has been examined in paragraphs 6 and 7 above.
(p) Operations administration and services

1960 1959
$320,000 $300,000

53. This budget heading provides for the supervision of operations (as distinguished from internal services), and for certain services related thereto-- engineering and architectural services, public information and visual aids production.

54. The increase of $20,000 over 1959 is largely to provide for increased staff costs, as explained in paragraphs 6 and 7 above.

(q) Operational reserve

1960 1959
$800,000 $800,000

55. An amount of $800,000 has been included again in 1960 to provide for operational contingencies and for emergencies such as those from which the Agency has suffered at least once in each year during the past six years. The amount represents only
2 per cent of the total budget and is considered to be the minimum required for safety.

56. There is no provision included in the operational reserve for any significant possible increase in basic commodity prices where a serious rise, especially in the cost of flour, might necessitate additional funds or a substantial re-appraisal of the Agency's whole budget.
III. FINANCING THE 1960 BUDGET

57. As shown in paragraph 4 above, the Agency's budget for 1960 totals $38,720,000. As the Agency no longer has any amount of unpaid pledges from prior years to augment its current income and cannot safely envisage reducing its working capital, contributions are requested equal to the total budget.

58. In 1959 the Agency asked for contributions totalling $36 million. Although the amount of $38.7 million requested for 1960 is somewhat larger, the Agency earnestly hopes that States Members of the United Nations will find it possible to pledge this amount. The Agency also hopes that those nations which have contributed in the past will continue to do so at least as generously as before, and that other nations will find it possible to contribute to the Agency's requirements.

59. It must be emphasized that the Agency is seriously handicapped in the planning and execution of its programmes by its inability to forecast, until well into the budget year, the amount of income that it can expect to receive. It is to be hoped, therefore, that the General Assembly and the contributors will find it possible to establish a firm basis of income for the Agency in 1960.

Annex H
LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE WORK OF THE AGENCY
I. GENERAL LEGAL ACTIVITIES AND PROBLEMS

1. The Agency has continued to deal with a great number and variety of legal problems. These have included: commercial and other private law matters; international administrative law governing relations with staff; and international law involving the status of the Agency and its relations with Governments. The armed disturbances in Lebanon in the early part of the reporting period and the aftermath of insecurity, together with tensions and frontier closings in other sectors, have added to the legal difficulties and problems facing the Agency.16/

2. As noted in chapter IV of the present report, working relations with Government authorities have for the most part been satisfactory. However, there remains a residue of problems which continue to handicap and burden the work of the Agency. As the Agency entered its tenth year of service to Palestine refugees, it found itself still faced with major problems concerning its legal status vis-à-vis the host Governments. The most serious difficulty of principle arises with the authorities of the United Arab Republic in the southern (Egyptian) region and Gaza.17/ Despite the clear reaffirmation by the General Assembly in its resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958 that UNRWA is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations, and numerous reminders by the Secretary-General and the Director of the Agency, the Government of the United Arab Republic has not yet acknowledged this or admitted the application in the southern (Egyptian) region and Gaza of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. Consequently the correct juridical basis does not exist for the settlement of the practical problems which arise and sometimes seriously handicap the operations of the Agency. While in other host countries and in the northern (Syrian) region of the United Arab Republic the status of the Agency as an organ of the United Nations and the application of the Convention are officially recognized, difficulties continue to arise because subordinate authorities, and sometimes even ministries and courts, are inadequately acquainted with the obligations involved.

3. In addition to the basic problem concerning status, there continue to be numerous differences concerning the application and interpretation of the Convention and other agreements. After nearly ten years Governments continue to impose certain taxes contrary to section 7 of the Convention and special agreements, or have not yet made adequate arrangements for their remission or refund in accordance with section 8, thus measurably reducing the funds available for the refugee programme. While gradual progress is being made in all countries, a disproportionate amount of time and effort must still be devoted to tax questions. It is estimated that nearly $300,000 is owing to the Agency as tax refunds under sections 7 and 8 of the Convention. Other practical difficulties include legal process against the Agency or its staff, restrictions on imports and exports and on movement of staff, and efforts to control or interfere with appointments of staff and other matters of internal administration. There have also been several arrests of Agency staff members in the host countries on unspecified security grounds.

4. Besides the tax claims mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the Agency has claims outstanding against the host countries amounting to over $800,000 and, with the exception of Lebanon where there has been agreement in principle on the establishment of a joint committee, no method of settlement has been agreed. The total Agency claims, including those for tax refunds, thus far submitted against each country are approximately: United Arab Republic (southern region and Gaza) $77,000; United Arab Republic (northern region) $318,000; Jordan $142,000; and Lebanon $555,000.

5. The difficulties arising from the intergovernmental agreement concerning rail transport between Lebanon, Syria and Jordan 18/ have continued during the year under review. Moreover the resulting restrictions have continued to involve additional costs for the Agency, at a rate which is increasing, and sometimes result in inconveniences and delays endangering the supply position in Jordan. Negotiations are continuing both for lifting the restrictions for the future and for the recovery of the considerable extra costs thus far incurred.

6. During the reporting period Iraq, where the Agency maintains a liaison office, refunded to the Agency all taxes which had been collected on petroleum products since 1952. In agreeing to the reimbursement for the entire period, the Government tacitly recognized the international law principle that its statute of limitations, which in municipal law barred claims for the refund of taxes after only one year, could not be interposed to defeat its international obligations. A further question involving taxes imposed retroactively on the sale to the Agency of dates for distribution during the winter of 1958-1959 is under discussion between the Agency, the Government and the supplier.

7. Mention was made in previous reports 19/ of three claims made by the Agency against the Government of Israel: one on account of the destruction of an Agency school in September 1956 caused by an incursion of Israel forces into Jordan ($3,378.42); a second in respect of damages resulting from the entry into and occupation of the Gaza Strip by Israel forces ($309,865); and a third for losses and damages resulting from a road accident with an Israel military vehicle which took place in February 1957 and in which one UNRWA staff member was killed and two others injured ($62,500). Mention was also made of several claims lodged against the Agency by the Israel Government amounting altogether to more than $55,000, in respect of services and supplies said to have been provided to the Agency by the Israel Government during the same period. There are no new developments concerning any of the claims mentioned in this paragraph, which remains outstanding.

8. Manifold problems have continued to arise both at Agency Headquarters and in the field offices in connexion with contracts, leases, insurance, and other private law matters. During the period under review the Agency has concluded over 5,000 contracts through its procurement division, field offices and operating divisions. Over 4,000 of these were contracts for procurement of commodities, materials and equipment. Also included were an air charter agreement, hospital and insurance agreements, leases for lands and buildings, construction contracts, and contracts for transport and services. These transactions have been kept under constant review with the aim of improving and standardizing procedures, methods and forms. While most disputes which have arisen have been solved by amicable negotiation, arbitration has been considered in some instances. The Agency, at the date of this report, is involved in a major dispute with a supplier concerning a contract for the purchase of its 1958 rice requirements. This dispute has already entailed arbitration procedures, seven ancillary court actions, and discussions with two Governments.

9. A codification of staff rules applicable to area staff members was brought to completion and will be issued with effect from 1 September 1959, marking an important stage in the development of the administrative law of the Agency. The new staff rules will, inter alia, bring into effect the Joint Appeals Board referred to in last year's report,20/ and contain detailed social security arrangements. Progress has also been made towards standardizing and clarifying the position and conditions of service of other employees and the foundations have been laid for further work in this connexion during the coming year.

10. Close co-operation between UNRWA and other United Nations bodies and agencies in the area has been maintained throughout the year. Legal assistance to the United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL) was continued as long as the Group remained. The arrangements with the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) for assistance to the latter in the procurement of supplies was brought to an end in view of the establishment by UNEF of an administrative office for procurement of supplies. Close co-operation on legal questions has been maintained.

11. The Agency has continued to enjoy the benefit of close collaboration with the Office of Legal Affairs of the United Nations, and of the legal offices of the various specialized agencies. Appreciation is expressed for the special assistance and advice given by the Legal Counsel of the United Nations.

II. LEGAL WORK IN THE VARIOUS HOST COUNTRIES

(a) The Egyptian region of the United Arab Republic
and the Gaza Strip

12. As was pointed out in paragraph 2 of this annex, the Government of the United Arab Republic still withholds recognition of UNRWA as a subsidiary organ of the United Nations in spite of the General Assembly's latest resolution and the several reminders of the Secretary-General and the Director. In fact a further express denial of UNRWA's status and of the application of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations to which Egypt acceded on 17 September 1948 is contained in a note verbale from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, dated 1 December 1958. The Agency has informed the Government of its willingness to discuss any problems which the latter has in applying the Convention, but maintains the view that recognition of its status as established by the General Assembly is necessary in order to establish the proper juridical basis for the discussion of practical problems. The Government on the other hand has confined itself to expressing a willingness to deal with practical difficulties facing the Agency.

13. In its previous report reference was made to several cases which had been brought against the Agency before Egyptian tribunals by former staff members.21/ There have been no particular developments in any of these cases during the present reporting period and no new cases have been instituted. At least two of the previous cases, however, remain before the courts (one in Gaza and one in Cairo) and the Government has not yet informed the courts, in accordance with international practice, of the Agency's status or immunity. There was also a new demand by the Labour Office in Port Said to inspect Agency staff records, but this demand was dropped and the matter satisfactorily settled with the assistance of the Department of Palestine Affairs. In Gaza there were several instances in which staff members were arrested, subjected to interrogation, or interfered with in connexion with acts performed in their official capacity and in accordance with Agency instructions. Progress has been made, however, with respect to the question of attachment orders 22/ which the courts in Gaza have in the past attempted to serve on the Agency for collection of debts owed by staff members. The authorities have agreed that no attempt will be made to serve the Agency. The Agency, of course, continues to take administrative measures to ensure that staff members will settle their obligations and not shelter behind the immunity of the Organization.

14. One of the most important practical problems remaining unsolved is that of the entry of staff members into Gaza.23/ Considerable progress with regard to procedures was made during the course of the year. The period for which permits are valid was extended from 3 to 6 months and all renewals take place on 1 January and 1 July thus reducing the administrative work involved. It was further understood that short-term visas good for seven days would be given in those few cases where a frontier permit was withheld. Unfortunately, however, denials of both permits and short-term visas have continued to be made to certain staff members whose work requires that they visit Gaza and undue delays in other cases have not been eliminated. The work of the Agency in Gaza, therefore, continues to be seriously hampered.

15. The problem concerning alien registration of international staff described in last year's report 24/ was satisfactorily settled by an understanding that Agency officials would not be required to fill in any questionnaire other than the normal form used in applying for visas.

16. Satisfactory arrangements exist for the exemption or refund of most taxes, and the procedures previously established have been working smoothly. The authorities in Gaza recognized the Agency's exemption from stamp taxes and made a partial refund. Later, however, they reversed their position and not only have not made further refunds, but have asked for the return of the payment already made. The principal tax problems in the Egyptian region of the United Arab Republic and Gaza at present relate to municipal taxes levied on exported commodities at Port Said and various stamp taxes collected on shipping documents and other commercial papers. The amounts involved have thus far been relatively small.

17. The Agency during the present reporting period submitted a claim to the Government of the United Arab Republic in the amount of $68,993 for damages suffered to Agency property during 1955 due to local riots following an incursion of Israel forces into the Gaza Strip. The claim is based on the special responsibility which the Egyptian Government had for the security of United Nations property. Submission of the claim had been delayed by various intervening events. The Government has replied denying its responsibility, and the matter continues to be under negotiation.
(b) The Syrian region of the United Arab Republic

18. The status of UNRWA as a subsidiary organ of the United Nations established under Article 22 of the Charter and the applicability of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations are recognized in the Syrian region of the United Arab Republic, and progress toward an understanding of that status has continued. In this connexion the Agency is pleased to report that during the past year the courts in the Syrian region, recognizing UNRWA's legal status, have dismissed several actions instituted against the Agency on the grounds of immunity from legal process. Other means are provided by the Agency for the settlement of such disputes. Many differences and problems still remain, however, and Government authorities, particularly at lower echelons, have on occasion shown a disregard of or lack of information concerning UNRWA's status.

19. Difficulties described in previous reports 25/ have continued with respect to the movement of Agency personnel on official business both on entry into and within the country. Certain Agency officials have been prevented from travelling on duty in specific areas in which the Agency is operating, and in a few cases even from entering Agency camps. An even more serious incident occurred when a staff member was seized on Agency premises in disregard of his inviolability and was summarily expelled from the country without proper cause. In spite of the Agency's protest this incident has not been corrected. Customs procedures are unduly complex and time-consuming, and customs committees having quasi- judicial powers have sought to impose fines for delays in completing certain customs formalities on shipments from Lebanon to Jordan.

20. A further problem concerned the extension to the Syrian region of a law requiring United Arab Republic nationals to obtain permission from the Ministry of the Interior in order to be employed by an international organization. Difficulties were initially encountered in establishing arrangements which would be consistent with Articles 100 and 101 of the Charter of the United Nations and paragraph 9 (b) of General Assembly resolution 302 (IV), but at the end of the reporting period it appeared that an acceptable solution would be found. The differences previously reported 26/ concerning demands for the payment of income tax on the salaries of United Arab Republic nationals employed by the Agency have not been solved, but the issue has remained in abeyance and no enforcement action has been attempted. A similar situation exists with respect to national service obligations.

21. A claim was submitted to the Government of the United Arab Republic for reimbursement of $254,628.89 representing the difference between the cost of rail transport and the cost of transport by road, up to 31 December 1956, for the Syrian sector of the route between Beirut and Jordan.27/ At the same time the Agency reiterated its right, denied by the Government, to use either truck or rail transport. The Government has disputed the claim for refund of past costs and, for the future, has not yet afforded freedom of choice of the means of transport. On the other hand, however, although the border with Jordan was closed during almost half of the reporting period, special arrangements were made for Agency supplies to pass through the Syrian region from Lebanon to Jordan.

22. Efforts of the Agency to obtain exemption and refund of taxes and customs duties have been vigorously pursued and continued improvement of the Agency's tax status has been noted.28/ Refunds of certain customs duties and taxes have recently been made for the first time. Exemption from stamp duties is now generally recognized although it does not yet include related defence and school taxes. Numerous problems still remain concerning the effective date of the exemption, the inapplicability of national statutes of limitation, necessary documentation, and the fiscal nature of certain fees. These matters are under negotiation with the appropriate authorities. The total tax claims outstanding in the Syrian region amount to approximately $75,000.
(c) Jordan

23. While the status of the Agency as a subsidiary organ of the United Nations is recognized by the Government of Jordan, there have been several instances in which a lack of understanding of this status has been evidenced. On the whole, however, working relations have continued to be good, and in the first full year following Jordan's accession to the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations considerable progress has been made in regularizing relations on the basis of this instrument. The application of the Convention to the Agency has not in any way been denied, although the lack of internal implementing legislation has presented some difficulties. Some differences also exist concerning the interpretation of certain provisions. No progress has been made toward the revision of the existing general agreement between Jordan and the Agency.29/

24. Following Jordan's accession to the Convention in January 1958, necessary measures were taken in agreement with the Government to discontinue deduction by the Agency of income tax from the salaries of locally recruited staff. While some demands have been made directly to staff members for payment of income and social welfare taxes, to date it would not appear that any such taxes have actually been collected. This issue has been referred to the Secretary-General.

25. Other difficulties which have arisen include the search (without requesting permission) of the Agency's mail bags and premises in August 1958 following the arrest of a staff member charged with complicity in the bombing of public buildings; the service of summons and other notices; the arrest of a staff member when he refused to deliver Agency records; and the requirement of registration of locally recruited staff for national guard service. Representations were made in all of these matters and in most instances a satisfactory understanding was reached. In other cases immunity of staff members was waived when it was considered that the immunity would impede the course of justice and could be waived without prejudice to the interests of the United Nations.

26. No progress has been made during the reporting period with respect to the Agency's claim for damages ($49,821.53) resulting from the 1955-1956 riots.30/ The only new development was a suggestion by the Agency that this claim, together with other outstanding matters, should be referred to arbitration. The Government has not, however, as yet indicated its willingness to accept this suggestion. The positions are likewise the same with regard to the Agency's claim for reparation for the wrongful attachment of Agency funds in 1954, and this claim is also still outstanding.31/

27. The Agency also has several unsettled claims concerning tax refunds, the most important of which related to a National Guard tax imposed on the purchase of cement. A claim for the refund of $57,719.30 paid up to the end of 1958 was submitted to the Government on 30 May 1959. At the date of this report no exemption has been granted nor have appropriate procedures been established for remission or refund, although discussions are in progress. Other outstanding questions concerning the Agency's immunity relate to duties on petroleum products, quay dues, stamp duties and land taxes.

28. Discussion has continued throughout the reporting period of a dispute concerning a contract for the purchase of flour entered into between the Agency and the Jordanian Ministry of Economy in 1954. The Government is claiming a sum of approximately $160,000 withheld by the Agency as compensation for damages suffered from the non-fulfilment of the contract. In principle the parties have agreed to arbitration but differences exist as to whether local or international arbitration is appropriate. The Agency has maintained the position that in a dispute between a Government and an organ of the United Nations, the arbitrator should be chosen on an international level. It has also suggested that advantage should be taken of the establishment of an arbitration procedure to settle other outstanding disputes between the parties (see paragraph 26 above) but this has not been agreed by the Government.
(d) Lebanon

29. The legal difficulties, referred to in last year's report,32/ which arose in connexion with the Lebanese crisis continued into the present reporting period and new problems arose in the aftermath of the disturbances. Restrictions on movement across the Lebanese-Syrian frontier and inside Lebanese territory disappeared with the crisis. Other problems, however, particularly those relating to security in the camps intensified. Although the authorities have shown goodwill and a desire to fulfil their obligations, the protection afforded has not always conformed with international law and practice. Some staff members have been attacked, Agency property has been damaged or looted, and there has been considerable interference on the part of certain groups and individuals with the activities of the Agency, particularly in camps and clinics. Because of difficulties encountered during the crisis there have also been a few requests for adjustments in contracts.

30. Problems concerning the lands used for refugee camps also became more serious. As in all host countries the camps have been established on lands provided by the Government, but the Government's arrangements with private land-owners have not in all cases been regularized. Some private individuals have brought court actions directly against refugee families in an attempt to force their eviction from parcels of land within the boundaries of UNRWA camps. The Government has failed to take the necessary action to resolve these difficulties in spite of repeated requests from the Agency and this remains a serious cause of difficulty and unrest. The Government itself has asked for the relocation of certain camps, as well as the moving of certain refugees improperly installed in the environs of camps near Beirut, but has not provided the necessary land and facilities for the establishment of such camps.

31. The Agency's status as a subsidiary organ of the United Nations is recognized by the Government of Lebanon, which has also specifically declared its willingness to apply the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations in accordance with international practice. The problem of implementation throughout all ministries and governmental units, particularly at lower echelons, has not, however, been solved. Many legal problems continue to arise concerning the detailed application of the Convention and of the Agreement concluded between the Government of Lebanon and UNRWA on 26 November 1954. Summonses and attachment orders have been addressed to the Agency itself or to the Director, contrary to section 2 of the Convention, and as previously reported,33/ immunities of Agency officials have continued to be disregarded or insufficiently respected, particularly concerning summonses and court actions in respect of acts performed in their official capacity.

32. The situation with respect to tax exemptions and refunds, as well as other claims, is not yet satisfactory although some progress has been made. Refunds of certain taxes were received during the year and arrangements are now being made with the Director-General of Customs respecting a procedure for refund of duties and taxes included in the price of goods purchased locally as envisaged in section 8 of the Convention. The two major claims referred to in previous reports 34/ concerning port charges ($107,820) and extra expenses resulting from compulsory use of rail transport 35/ (amounting to $338,583 as of 31 December 1956) remain outstanding in spite of their formal acceptance by the Government and requests made by the Agency at the highest levels of Government. A serious problem also arises as a result of a recent denial of the Agency's exemption from stamp taxes. The stamp taxes on insurance policies alone have already amounted to $30,000. The Agency is pursuing this and other tax matters involving claims for refund of over $140,000.

33. As pointed out in last year's report 36/ it has been agreed in principle that outstanding claims, as well as certain other related questions, should be referred to a joint committee composed of representatives of the Government and of the Agency. The establishment of this Committee was postponed owing to the crisis in the summer of 1958, and in spite of renewed suggestions by the Agency following the end of the disturbances, steps have not yet been taken to bring it into being.

III. CONCLUSION

34. An account of the legal activities of the Agency, and particularly the problems which it faces in its relationship with host Governments, should not overlook the fact that the Governments themselves have serious problems. As already pointed out in chapter IV of the present report the extensiveness of the Agency's operations, the large number of personnel it recruits locally, and the fact that its major activities--nutrition, health, education and housing--touch on matters of particular concern to Governments, are factors which must be borne in mind in seeking to understand the reluctance of some Governments to treat the Agency as a United Nations organ. A variety of historic and political influences further complicates an approach to the problem. It seems that the Governments also tend to confuse traditional diplomatic privileges with the functional immunities of United Nations officials provided in the Convention which latter are limited to those necessary for the performance of official functions.

35. The Agency is scarcely qualified to attempt to explain in detail the thinking of the host Governments with respect to the various matters described, but it recognizes that on some of the questions real differences of opinion exist and that errors can be made on both sides. It is the Agency's view that a more expeditious method of dealing with these various problems must be found in order to resolve these legitimate differences in the manner indicated in paragraph 47 of chapter IV above. Many, for example, could be avoided entirely if the agreements position with host Governments were brought up to date. If the correct juridical basis is thus established and procedures for the settlement of disputes are agreed upon between the Agency and the various host Governments, the Agency is confident that the problems outlined in the present annex can be resolved.


Notes

1/ Information concerning the origin of the Agency and its mission and work prior to 1 July 1958 will be found in the following annual reports and other United Nations documents:

A. Final report of the United Nations Economic Survey Mission for the Middle East (28 December 1949) (A/AC.25/6, parts I and II).

B. Report of the Secretary-General on Assistance to Palestine Refugees: Official Records of the General Assembly, Fourth Session, Ad Hoc Political Committee, Annexes, vol. II, p. 14 (A/1060).

C. Reports of the Director of UNRWA and special reports of the Director and Advisory Commission to the General Assembly:

(a) Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifth Session,
Supplement No. 19 (A/1451/Rev.1);
(b) Ibid., Sixth Session, Supplements Nos. 16 and 16A (A/1905 and Add.1);
(c) Ibid., Seventh Session, Supplements Nos. 13 and 13A (A/2171 and Add.1);
(d) Ibid., Eighth Session, Supplements Nos. 12 and 12A (A/2470 and Add.1);
(e) Ibid., Ninth Session, Supplements Nos. 17 and 17A (A/2717 and Add.1);
(f) Ibid., Tenth Session, Supplements Nos. 15, 15A and 15B (A/2978 and Add.1);
(g) Ibid., Eleventh Session, Supplements Nos. 14 and 14A (A/3212 and Add.1);
(h) Ibid., Twelfth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/3686 and A/3735);
(i) Ibid., Thirteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/3931 and A/3948).

D. Pertinent General Assembly resolutions:

194 (III) of 11 December 1948;
212 (III) of 19 November 1948;
302 (IV)of 8 December 1949;
393 (V) of 2 December 1950;
513 (VI) of 26 January 1952;
614 (VII) of 6 November 1952;
720 (VIII) of 27 November 1953;
818 (IX) of 4 December 1954;
916 (X) of 3 December 1955;
1018 (XI) of 28 February 1957;
1191 (XII) of 12 December 1957;
1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958.

2/ A/4121.

3/ Resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958, para. 3.

4/ "The General Assembly ... Resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible".

5/ A/2978/Add.1.

6/ Resolution 916 (X) of 3 December 1955, paras. 5, 6 and 7.

7/ Resolution 1018 (XI) of 28 February 1957, para. 6.

8/ Resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958, para. 4.

9/ See particularly A/3212, paras. 74-84.

10/ For the description of these problems and their background in previous years see A/2978, para. 59 and annex G; A/3212, paras. 74-84, and annex G; A/3686, paras. 70-76 and annex H; A/3931, paras. 59-63 and annex H.

11/ Some of the current difficulties arising from this are described in annex H.

12/ See also resolutions 513 (VI), paragraph 3; 1018 (XI), sixth paragraph of preamble and paragraph 2; 1191 (XII), sixth paragraph of preamble and paragraph 4.

13/ See annex H, paras. 3 and 4.

14/ Resolution 1285 (XIII) of 5 December 1958.

15/ Resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958, para. 6.

16/ A/3931, annex H, para. 2.

17/ A/3931, annex H, paras. 3 and 12 ff.; compare however with A/2717, annex G, para. 10 and A/2978, annex G, para. 15.

18/ See A/3686, annex H, para. 26 and A/3931, annex H, para. 4.

19/ See A/3686, annex H, para. 8 and A/3931, annex H, para. 5.

20/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 8.

21/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 14.

22/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 16.

23/ A/3931, annex H, para. 13.

24/ A/3931, annex H, para. 17.

25/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 22.

26/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 23.

27/ See para. 5 above.

28/ A/3931, annex H, para. 23.

29/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 25.

30/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 26.

31/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 26.

32/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 29.

33/ A/3931, annex H, para. 32.

34/ See A/3931, annex H, para. 31.

35/ See paragraph 5 above.

36/ See A/3931, annex H, paras. 31 and 32.
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