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UNITED
NATIONS
A

      General Assembly
A/43/694
24 October 1988

Forty-third session
Agenda item 77
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE ISRAELI
PRACTICES AFFECTING THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE POPULATION
OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES
Note by the Secretary-General

The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the attached report, which was submitted to him, in accordance with paragraph 17 of Assembly resolution 42/160 D of 8 December 1987, by the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories.
CONTENTS

Paragraphs Page

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL .................................... 4

I. INTRODUCTION ............................... 1 - 5 7

II. ORGANIZATION OF WORK ....................... 6 - 19 7

III. MANDATE ..................................... 20 - 24 10

IV. INFORMATION AND EVIDENCE RECEIVED BY THE SPECIAL
COMMITTEE ....................................... 25 - 606 12

A. General situation .......................... 31 - 252 13

1. The uprising of the Palestinian population against
the occupation ......................... 31 - 247 13

(a) General developments and policy
statements ........................ 33 - 78 14

(b) Wave of disturbances ................ 79 - 247 23

2. Other general policy developments ........ 248 - 252 51

B. Administration of justice, including the
right to fair trial......................... 253 - 332 53

1. Palestinian population ................... 256 - 318 54

(a) Consequences of the uprising .......... 256 - 316 54

(b) Other developments .................... 317 - 318 65

2. Israeli settlers, underground activists and
others ....................................319 - 332 65

C. Treatment of civilians, including fundamental
freedoms .................................. 333 - 527 68

1. General developments ..................... 333 - 430 68

(a) Harassment and physical mistreatment .. 333 - 382 68

(b) Collective punishment ................. 383 - 397 78

(c) Expulsions and deportations ........... 398 - 418 81

(d) Economic and social situation ......... 419 - 430 88


2. Information on measures affecting certain
fundamental freedoms ..................... 431 - 498 91

(a) Freedom of movement .................. 431 - 432 91

(b) Freedom of worship .................... 433 - 440 92

(c) Freedom of expression ................. 441 - 460 93

(d) Freedom of association ..................461 - 466 97

(e) Freedom of education .................. 467 - 498 98

3. Information on settlers' activities affecting the
civilian population ....................... 499 - 527 102

D. Treatment of detainees ........................ 528 - 580 109

E. Annexation and settlements .................... 581 - 599 120

1. Policy .................................... 581 - 590 120

2. Measures .................................. 591 - 599 121

F. Information concerning Syrian territory under
occupation .................................... 600 - 606 122

V. CONCLUSIONS ....................................... 607 - 621 124

VI. ADOPTION OF THE REPORT .......................... 622 129
Annexes

I. LIST OF VICTIMS OF THE UPRISING SUBMITTED BY THE PALESTINE LIBERATION
ORGANIZATION ................................................ 131

II. PETITION SIGNED BY DETAINEES FROM ANSAR 3 ................... 140

III. MAP SHOWING ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS ESTABLISHED, PLANNED OR UNDER
CONSTRUCTION IN THE TERRITORIES OCCUPIED SINCE 1967 ......... 143

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

26 August 1988

Sir,

The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories has the honour to transmit to you herewith its twentieth report, prepared in accordance with General Assembly resolutions concerning the Special Committee and, in particular, resolution 2443 (XXIII) of 19 December 1968, by which the Special Committee was established, and resolution 42/160 D of 8 December 1987, the latest resolution by which the General Assembly renewed its mandate.

The present report covers the period from 4 September 1987, the date of the adoption of the preceding report, to 26 August 1988. The report is based on oral information received by the Special Committee through testimonies of persons having first-hand experience of the human rights situation in the occupied territories, as well as written information gathered from various sources. The Special Committee has selected, from among these oral and written sources of information, relevant excerpts and summaries, which are reflected in the report. For the purpose of collecting oral testimonies the Special Committee organized hearings that were held at Amman, Damascus, Cairo and Geneva. The Special Committee continued to monitor statements by members of the Government of Israel reflecting the policy of that Government in the occupied territories and reports on measures taken to implement that policy. The Special Committee noted the letters addressed to you and to the President of the Security Council during the period of this report relating to the mandate of the Special Committee, circulated as documents of the General Assembly and the Security Council. The Special Committee received information from organizations and individuals on various aspects of the situation in the occupied territories.

The Government of Israel has not changed its position with regard to the
Special Committee in spite of the efforts made in that direction. The Special
Committee benefited from the co-operation of the Governments of the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic, and of the Palestine Liberation Organization in carrying out its mandate.


His Excellency
Mr. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
Secretary-General of the United Nations
New York

In preparing its report the Special Committee has attempted to put before you a composite picture of the reality in the occupied territories as it affects the human rights of the civilian population. By the present letter the Special Committee wishes to draw your attention to a number of aspects that deserve a particular mention.

The information contained in the present report reflects the dramatic
deterioration of the human rights situation in the occupied territories since the beginning of the uprising of the Palestinian population against the occupation.

The accumulation of frustrations suffered by the civilian population over the years as a result of the persistent policy of annexation and colonization pursued by the Government of Israel in the territories occupied in June 1967, and the humiliation and suffering brought about by that policy, were bound to provoke a violent reaction on the part of the oppressed civilians. The restrictions imposed in the framework of the "iron-fist policy" since 1985 and the increasing determination of the young generation of Palestinians to oppose the arbitrary rules set by the occupants had prepared the ground for such a confrontation. Thus, the explosion of violence sparked off by an incident in the Gaza Strip in December 1987 quickly spread to the entire occupied territories, giving rise to what has since been called the uprising against the occupation.

The uprising has been marked by a heavy toll of casualties among the
Palestinian population. Hundreds of civilians have been killed by security forces, settlers, or under various other circumstances. The death toll has included casualties caused by shooting, beating, gas inhalation or electrocution. While several thousands of civilians have been physically injured, the entire Palestinian population has suffered as a result of the implementation by the Israeli authorities of the policy of "force, power and blows".

The day-to-day life in the occupied territories since the start of the
uprising has been characterized by constant unrest and violent clashes, sparing almost no single village or locality; the now familiar pattern of disturbances usually includes demonstrations, stone-throwing, commercial strikes on the one hand, and the use of tear gas, clubs, rubber and live bullets, the imposition of curfews and various economic sanctions by the occupation authorities on the other. Acts of aggression committed by Israeli settlers against Palestinians have contributed to a further deterioration in the climate of tension and terror prevailing in the occupied territories. Information and evidence collected by the Special Committee reveal other serious infringements of fundamental rights and freedoms, including the arbitrary deportation of Palestinians from the occupied territories; the illegal demolition of houses used as a form of collective punishment; the severe limitations on the freedom of expression, tending in particular to limit or prevent an adequate media coverage of events related to the uprising; the general closure of all educational institutions for several months, resulting in the loss of an academic year for students and serious delays in the schooling of Palestinian children.

The new situation in the occupied territories has engendered a considerable amount of administrative and other forms of detentions. Several thousand Palestinians, including minors, have been or continue to be detained in various prisons and detention centres, sometimes even inside Israel itself. Many of these cases illustrate the fact that legal guarantees such as the right to fair trial are often denied to Palestinians. Furthermore, this unprecedented increase in the prison population has also aggravated the already critical conditions of detention and the plight of the detainees.

The Special Committee has endeavoured, within the constraints and self-restrictions imposed by the financial situation of the United Nations, to provide in its report a faithful and accurate picture of the -human rights situation prevailing in the occupied territories. The tragic developments that have cast their shadow over the civilian population clearly illustrate the responsibility of the international community, which so far has unfortunately not been able to adopt effective measures to improve the human rights situation of the Palestinians under occupation. It is the sincere hope of the Special Committee that the present report may serve as a means of assessing the gravity of the plight of the civilian population in the occupied territories and the urgent need to improve its conditions.

Please accept, Sir, on behalf of my colleagues and on my own behalf, the
assurances of our highest consideration.

Daya R. PERERA
Chairman of the Special Committee to
Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting
the Human Rights of the Population
of the Occupied Territories

I. INTRODUCTION

1. The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories was established by the General Assembly in resolution 2443 (XXIII) of 19 December 1968. By that resolution, the Assembly decided to establish the Special Committee, composed of three Member States; requested the President of the Assembly to appoint the members of the Special Committee; requested the Government of Israel to receive the Special Committee, to co-operate with it and to facilitate its work; requested the Special Committee to report to the Secretary-General as soon as possible and whenever the need arose thereafter; and requested the Secretary-General to provide the Special Committee with all the necessary facilities for the performance of its task.

2. The Special Committee is composed as follows: Mr. Daya R. Perera, Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations, Chairman; Mr. Alioune Sene, Ambassador of Senegal at Bern and Permanent Representative of Senegal to the United Nations Office at Geneva; Mr. Dragan Jovanic, Yugoslavia.

3. At the meetings of the Special Committee held from 18 to 21 January 1988
Mr. A. A. M. Marleen attended as the representative of Sri Lanka.

4. Since October 1970, the Special Committee has submitted 19 reports. 1 These reports were discussed in the Special Political Committee, which then reported to the General Assembly. 2 On the recommendation of the Special Political Committee, the Assembly adopted resolutions 2727 (XXV) of 15 December 1970, 2851 (XXVI) of 20 December 1971, 3005 (XXVII) of 15 December 1972, 3092 A and B (XXVIII) of 7 December 1973, 3240 A to C (XXIX) of 29 November 1974, 3525 A to D (XXX) of 15 December 1975, 31/106 A to D of 16 December 1976, 32/91 A to C of 13 December 1977, 33/113 A to C of 18 December 1978, 34/90 A to C of 12 December 1979, 35/122 A to F of 11 December 1980, 36/147 A to G of 16 December 1981, 37/88 A to G of 10 December 1982, 38/79 A to H of 15 December 1983, 39/95 A to H of 14 December 1984, 40/161 A to G of
16 December 1985, 41/63 A to G of 3 December 1986 and 42/160 A to G of 8 December 1987.

5. The present report has been prepared in accordance with General Assembly
resolutions 2443 (XXIII), 2546 (XXIV), 2727 (XXV), 2851 (XXVI), 3005 (XXVII),
3092 B (XXVIII), 3240 A and C (XXIX), 3525 A and C (XXX), 31/106 C and D, 32/91 B and C, 33/113 C, 34/90 A to C, 35/122 C, 36/147 C, 37/88 C, 38/79 D, 39/95 D, 40/161 D, 41/63 D and 42/160 D.
II. ORGANIZATION OF WORK

6. The Special Committee continued its work under the rules of procedure
contained in its first report to the Secretary-General. 3 Mr. Marleen acted as Chairman for the first series of meetings. At its second series of meetings, from 18 May to 2 June 1988, the Special Committee elected as its Chairman Mr. Daya R. Perera, who has succeeded Mr. Wijewardane as representative of Sri Lanka on the Special Committee.

7. The Special Committee held the first of its series of meetings from
18 to 21 January 1988 at Geneva. At those meetings the Special Committee reviewed its mandate consequent upon the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 42/160 D. By that resolution, the General Assembly:

"17. Requests the Special Committee, pending the early termination of Israeli occupation, to continue to investigate Israeli policies and practices in the Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, to consult, as appropriate, with the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to ensure the safeguarding of the welfare and human rights of the population of the occupied territories and to report to the Secretary-General as soon as possible and whenever the need arises thereafter".

8. The Special Committee decided to continue its system of monitoring information on the occupied territories and, in reference to paragraph 18, of resolution 42/160 D, to pay special attention to information on treatment of civilians in detention. The Special Committee examined information on the situation in the occupied territories for the period commencing with the date of the adoption of its report to the General Assembly (A/42/650) on 4 September 1987. It had a number of communications addressed to it by Governments, organizations and individuals in connection with its mandate. The Special Committee took note of several letters addressed to it by the Permanent Representative of Jordan and by the Permanent Observer of the Palestine Liberation Organization on matters related to its report.

9. On 19 January 1988, the Chairman of the Special Committee addressed a cable to the Secretary-General appealing to him to bring to the Israeli authorities the expression of concern of the Special Committee in view of the illegal deportation from the occupied territories of four Palestinians and the planned deportation of five others. The Special Committee also decided upon the organization of its work for the year. It agreed to address itself to the Governments of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic with a view to seeking their co-operation in the implementation of its mandate. The Special Committee also agreed to address itself to the Palestine Liberation Organization and to the International Committee of the Red Cross. Finally, the Special Committee decided that at its next series of meetings it would undertake hearings in the area for the purpose of recording relevant information or evidence.

10. On 21 January 1988, the Special Committee addressed a letter to the
Secretary-General seeking his intervention in an effort to secure the co-operation of the Government of Israel.

11. On 21 January 1988, the Special Committee addressed a letter to the Permanent Representatives of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations at Geneva, in which it requested their co-operation and informed them of the intention of the Special Committee to conduct hearings in their respective countries.

12. Similar letters were addressed to the Palestine Liberation Organization and the International Committee of the Red Cross.

13. The Governments of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic subsequently responded to the Special Committee, reconfirming their readiness to continue co-operating with it.

14. On 6 May 1988, the Chairman of the Special Committee addressed a cable to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Israel in which he conveyed to him the deep concern of the Special Committee regarding the illegal deportation of eight Palestinians on 11 April 1988, eight more on 20 April and the planned deportation of four others.

15. The Special Committee held a series of meetings at Geneva (18-19 May 1988), Amman (21-24 May 1988), Damascus (25-27 May 1988) and Cairo (29 May-1 June 1988). At these meetings, the Special Committee examined information on developments occurring in the occupied territories between December 1987 and April 1988. It had before it a number of communications addressed to it by Governments, organizations and individuals in connection with its mandate. The Special Committee took note of several letters addressed to it by the Permanent Representatives of Egypt and Jordan and by the Permanent Observer of the Palestine Liberation Organization on matters related to its report. At Amman, Damascus and Cairo the Special Committee heard testimonies of persons just returned from or living in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Syrian territory under occupation concerning the situation in those territories.

16. At Amman the Special Committee was received by the Minister for Foreign
Affairs, Mr. Taher Al-Masry; the Minister for Occupied Territories Affairs,
Mr. Marwan Dudin; and the Under-Secretary, Ministry of Labour of the Hashemite
Kingdom of Jordan, Mr. Saleh Al-Khasawneh. The Special Committee was presented with reports on the situation in the occupied territories prepared by the various ministries and organizations and it discussed various aspects of its mandate in the course of its meetings with the respective officials. During its stay at Amman the Special Committee met with Sheikh Sayegh, President of the Palestinian National Council, and with Mr. Zuhdi Sa'id, Director-General of the Department of Occupied Territories Affairs of the Palestine Liberation Organization, who presented the Special Committee with a number of reports and statistics on the situation in the occupied territories. The Special Committee also received from the Department of Education and Higher Studies of the Palestine Liberation Organization a series of reports and statistics on that situation.

17. At Damascus the Special Committee was received by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Syrian Arab Republic, Mr. Farouk Al-Shara. It also conducted consultations with Mr. Dia El-Fattal, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs. During its stay in the Syrian Arab Republic the Special Committee visited the town of Quneitra, where it met with the Deputy Governor of Quneitra Province. It also visited the village of Hamadiya and met officials of that village.

18. At Cairo the Special Committee was received by the Director, Department for Palestine Affairs, of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Farnawany. It also met Major-General Kazim Salam Zenati, Governor-General of the Gaza Strip. The Special Committee was presented with reports on the situation in the Gaza Strip. During its stay at Cairo, the Special Committee also visited the Palestinian Red Crescent Hospital where it met Dr. F. Arafat, Chairman of the Palestinian Red Crescent.

19. The Special Committee met again at Geneva from 22 to 26 August 1988. At these meetings, the Special Committee examined information on developments occurring in the occupied territories from April to August 1988. It had before it a number of communications addressed to it by Governments, organizations and individuals in connection with its mandate, as well as records of testimonies collected during its previous series of meetings. The Special Committee took note of several letters addressed to it by the Permanent Representatives of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic and by the Permanent Observer of the Palestine Liberation Organization on matters related to its mandate. The Special Committee also heard testimonies of persons recently expelled from the occupied territories. It examined and completed the present report on 26 August 1988.
III. MANDATE

20. The General Assembly, in its resolution 2443 (XXIII) entitled "Respect for and implementation of human rights in occupied territories", decided to establish a Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories, composed of three Member States.

21. The mandate of the Special Committee, as set out in the above resolution and subsequent resolutions, was "to investigate Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the population of the occupied territories".

22. In interpreting its mandate, the Special Committee determined that:

(a) The territories to be considered as occupied territories referred to the areas under Israeli occupation, namely, the Golan Heights (Syrian territory under occupation), the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Following the implementation of the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement on Disengagement of Forces of 18 January 1974 and the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces of 31 May 1974, the demarcation of the areas under occupation was altered as indicated in the maps attached to those agreements. The areas of Egyptian territory under Israeli military occupation were further modified in accordance with the Treaty of Peace between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel, which was signed on 26 March 1979 and came into force on 25 April 1979. On 25 April 1982, the Egyptian territory remaining under Israeli military occupation was restituted to the Government of Egypt in accordance with the provisions of the aforementioned agreement. Thus, for the purposes of the present report, the territories to be considered as occupied territories are those remaining under Israeli occupation, namely, the Golan Heights (Syrian territory under occupation), the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip;

(b) The persons covered by resolution 2443 (XXIII) and therefore the subject of the investigation of the Special Committee were the civilian population residing in the areas occupied as a result of the hostilities of June 1967 and those persons normally resident in the areas that were under occupation but who had left those areas because of the hostilities. However, the Committee noted that resolution 2443 (XXIII) referred to the "population" without any qualification as to any segment of the inhabitants of the occupied territories;

(c) The "human rights" of the population of the occupied territories consisted of two elements, namely, those rights which the Security Council referred to as "essential and inalienable human rights" in its resolution 237 (1967) of 14 June 1967 and, secondly, those rights which found their basis in the protection afforded by international law in particular circumstances such as military occupation and, in the case of prisoners of war, capture. In accordance with resolution 3005 (XXVII), the Special Committee was also required to investigate allegations concerning the exploitation and the looting of the resources of the occupied territories; the pillaging of the archaeological and cultural heritage of the occupied territories; and interference in the freedom of worship in the Holy Places of the occupied territories;

(d) The "policies" and "practices" affecting human rights that came within the scope of investigation by the Special Committee referred, in the case of "policies", to any course of action consciously adopted and pursued by the Government of Israel as part of its declared or undeclared intent; while "practices" referred to those actions which, irrespective of whether or not they were in implementation of a policy, reflected a pattern of behaviour on the part of the Israeli authorities towards the civilian population in the occupied areas.

The geographical names employed in the present report reflect the usage in the
original source and do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations.

23. Since its inception the Special Committee has relied on the following
international instruments in interpreting and carrying out its mandate:

(a) The Charter of the United Nations;

(b) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

(c) The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949; 4

(d) The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, of 12 August 1949; 5

(e) The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, of 14 May 1954; 6

(f) The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land; 7

(g) The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 8

24. The Special Committee has also relied on those resolutions relevant to the situation of civilians in the occupied territories adopted by United Nations organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organisation.
IV. INFORMATION AND EVIDENCE RECEIVED BY THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE

25. In the course of carrying out its mandate, the Special Committee has relied on the following sources:

(a) The testimony of persons with first-hand knowledge of the situation of the population in the occupied territories;

(b) Reports in the Israeli press of pronouncements by responsible persons in the Government of Israel;

(c) Reports appearing in other news media, including the Arab language press published in the occupied territories in Israel and the international press.

The Special Committee received written statements from the Governments of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic, and from the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Government of Egypt has provided the Special Committee with information on the situation in the Gaza Strip. The Government of the Syrian Arab Republic has provided the Special Committee with information on the situation in the Syrian territory under occupation. The Government of Jordan and the Palestine Liberation Organization have provided the Special Committee with various monthly and other reports on the situation in the occupied territories. In addition, the Special Committee received written information from intergovernmental organizations such as relevant specialized agencies and regional organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations and individuals on the situation in the occupied territories.

26. The Special Committee undertook a series of hearings at Amman, Damascus and Cairo during its meetings from 20 May to 1 June 1988. At these meetings, the Special Committee heard the testimony of persons having a first-hand knowledge of the human rights situation existing in the occupied territories. These testimonies are contained in documents A/AC.145/RT.480 to 488 and RT.491 and 492, and are reflected below. During its meetings held at Geneva from 22 to 26 August 1988, the Special Committee heard the testimony of persons recently expelled from the occupied territories. These testimonies are contained in documents A/AC.145/RT.494 to 496, and are reflected below.

27. The Special Committee has taken particular care to rely on information
appearing in the Israeli press that has not been contradicted by the Government of Israel or that is commonly considered as reliable by the Government.

28. In the course of carrying out its mandate, the Special Committee has taken note of information reaching it through a variety of sources, such as individuals, organizations and Governments. At its meetings, the Committee had before it several communications addressed to it, directly or referred to it by the Secretary-General, from sources inside the occupied territories, as well as from several parts of the world. Where necessary, the Committee has followed up information contained in these communications.

29. The following paragraphs contain a summary of the information examined by the Special Committee divided as follows:

(a) General situation;

(b) Administration of justice, including the right to fair trial;

(c) Treatment of civilians, including fundamental freedoms;

(d) Treatment of detainees;

(e) Annexation and settlements;

(f) Information concerning Syrian territory under occupation.

30. This information has been divided into oral evidence and written information. In order to comply with restrictions on the volume of documentation now enjoined upon United Nations reports, the Special Committee has endeavoured to present this information in the most compact and concise form possible. Oral evidence, for which a full record of testimonies is available in documents A/AC.145/RT.480 to 488, RT.491 and 492 and RT.494 to 496, has been condensed to a general indication of the contents of such records. The report also attempts to summarize written information. This information is reflected in more detail in documents of the Special Committee that are available on file at the Secretariat.

A. General situation
1. The uprising of the Palestinian population against
the occupation

31. During the period between September and December 1987, the Special Committee continued to receive, as in previous years but on an even wider scale, reports of various incidents appearing in the press and reflecting the climate of tension prevailing in the territories. This period was marked by numerous incidents such as violent demonstrations, armed clashes, shootings leading in some instances to serious injuries and killings, the throwing of petrol bombs and grenades, business and school strikes, in various towns, localities, refugee camps and universities in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

32. On 8 December 1987, an incident occurred in the Gaza Strip, which, in retrospect, appears to have been the first of a long series of disturbances in the occupied territories, which have involved loss of life and violence on a large and constant scale and which have since commonly been referred to as an uprising. In view of this deterioration of the situation, the present section attempts to provide a general account of the main policy developments and daily disturbances characterizing the uprising.

(a) General developments and policy statements

Written information

33. On 8 December 1987, three Gaza Strip residents were killed in a car accident at the Erez check-point, involving an Israeli truck whose driver collided with two vans taking workers back to the Gaza Strip from Israel. Seven people were injured in the accident, some of them critically. The victims were named as Issa Mahmoud Hamuda, 29, Kamal Hamuda, 23, and Mahmud Abu-Maadi. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 December 1987)

34. On 9 December 1987, riots broke out in the Jabalya refugee camp and around the Shifa hospital in Gaza. According to the Southern Region Commander, Aluf (Maj.-Gen.) Yitzhak Mordekhai, the riots were triggered off by the road accident on 8 December 1987, which, local residents alleged, was caused deliberately by the truck driver, as well as by the expulsion from the region of the local Islamic Jihad leader, Sheikh Abdul Aziz Oudeh.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 December 1987)

35. On 11 December 1987, army and border police reinforcements were sent to the territories to deal with the escalating riots. Senior military sources described the riots in the territories as a "civil uprising", at a level unprecedented in recent years.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 December 1987)

36. On 22 December 1987, Defence Minister Rabin said during a tour of the
West Bank and the Gaza Strip that there was no limit on how many people might be deported or placed under administrative detention, provided Israeli legal procedures were followed. According to an "authoritative source", the defence establishment decided to use "every legitimate means to the fullest extent" to maintain law and order in the territories. It was reported that, in addition to punitive measures that would focus on "known inciters", new measures would be adopted that would include a military presence even larger than the fivefold increase deployed at present; deployment of top-echelon troops at sensitive spots; a deepening of intelligence efforts, both to preclude riots and to isolate trouble-makers; and more extensive use of non-lethal means, such as watercannon. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 December 1987)

37. On 1 January 1988, the twenty-fourth anniversary of Fatah, it was reported that thousands of Israeli Defence Force (IDF) troops that were deployed in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip had been placed on high alert and instructed to intervene immediately and forcefully to thwart any disturbances. The IDF deputy chief of operations, T/A (Brig.-Gen.) Giora Rom said in a briefing for the foreign press that the IDF had doubled the number of troops in the West Bank and tripled the number in the Gaza Strip. Troops had already received additional rubber bullets, tear gas, plastic shields and clubs, as well as fire trucks for spraying water. (Jerusalem Post, 1 January 1988)

38. On 10 January 1988, it was reported that, at a meeting held between Defence Minister Rabin, Chief of Staff Dan Shomron, Southern Region Commander Yitzhak Mordekhai and the Co-ordinator of Activities in the Territories, Shmuel Goren, it was decided to increase further the IDF presence in the Gaza Strip. There were several reports of press, radio and television reporters being banned in several areas in the Strip that were reportedly the theatre of disturbances. It was also reported that, for the first time since the outbreak of disturbances in the territories, leaflets, signed by a "Popular Committee for the Civil Uprising" were distributed in the Jerusalem area calling on the population to boycott all Israeli products and to disobey curfew orders. Also for the first time, IDF armoured personnel carriers patrolled in a number of refugee camps. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 January 1988)

39. On 11 January 1988, it was reported that IDF helicopters started dropping
tear-gas canisters in some refugee camps to disperse demonstrators. Local residents claimed that a new form of gas, causing nausea and dizziness, was being used, but the IDF denied the allegation. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 January 1988)

40. On 12 January 1988, military sources reported that since the outbreak of
unrest in the territories on 9 December 1987 60 IDF soldiers had been injured in the exercise of their duties; 55 were injured from stones thrown at them. Some 37 soldiers were injured in the West Bank and 23 in the Gaza Strip. During the same period 10 West Bank residents were killed and 73 were injured; in the Gaza Strip 23 local residents were killed and 183 were injured. Eight hundred and eighteen West Bank residents and 691 Gaza Strip residents were arrested. Thirty-seven Israeli civilians were injured in the West Bank, and three in the Gaza Strip. Some 1,259 "violent incidents" were reported in the West Bank in which IDF soldiers were involved, and 419 such incidents occurred in the Gaza Strip. In 92 cases in the West Bank and 55 in the Gaza Strip, local residents used weapons, both firearms and "cold weapons". It was also reported that a spokesman for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) said the Agency had very serious problems in supplying food to the refugee camps owing to the prolonged curfews. (Ha'aretz, 13 January 1988)

41. On 13 January 1988, the Inner Cabinet approved IDF proposals for dealing with the disturbances, including the expanded use of curfews. The ministers reportedly approved plans to reduce the number of casualties among demonstrators, as well as the purchase of new riot-dispersal gear for soldiers in the territories and of water-cannon trucks and the stationing of additional policemen to deal with the unrest in East Jerusalem. (Jerusalem Post, 14 January 1988)

42. On 19 January 1988, it was reported that IDF soldiers in the West Bank had been instructed to "charge the protesters and beat them severely. Soldiers should try to capture the leaders of the demonstration or disturbance, beat them and detain them". According to a senior military official in the territories the beaten youths were the "message transmitted by the IDF to inhabitants participating in disturbances". At the same time soldiers were given strict instructions restricting the use of live ammunition. On 19 January 1988, Defence Minister Rabin declared that violent demonstrations would be prevented with "force, power and blows". (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 and 20 January 1988)

43. On 21 January 1988, it was reported that the new policy of beating protesters was already being applied and that hospitals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip were full of persons with serious injuries caused by club beatings. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 January 1988)

44. On 21 January 1988, it was reported that the commander of the Jerusalem police was given the responsibility to impose curfews on certain areas in case of disturbances. (Attalia, 21 January 1988)

45. On 25 January 1988, Defence Minister Rabin told reporters that the policy of beating demonstrators had been introduced on 4 or 5 January 1988. Mr. Rabin stressed that beatings should stop when a detainee was caught. No force should be used when entering a home to make an arrest, unless the soldiers met resistance in the house. Soldiers should not beat shopkeepers to force them to open their shops or to punish shopkeepers for keeping them closed. "There should not be blows for the sake of blows", he said. He described reports about beating detainees and innocent people as "exceptions", and said he was concerned about them. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 January 1988)

46. On 26 January 1988, Defence Minister Rabin told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee that over 90 per cent of Palestinians who had been beaten had acted violently or had offered violent resistance to the security forces. "The present policy of combining force, imposition of curfews, initiative and charging protesters without opening fire, but with using force, including beatings, has so far proved to be very efficient. No one was killed among them, or among us. We shall start deploying reserve forces in the territories. We shall persevere with this policy until we reach calm", Mr. Rabin said. (Ha'aretz, 27 January 1988)

47. On 1 February 1988, the Israeli Defence Minister declared that IDF troop
presence in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip would be stepped up in order to
restore calm in the territories. The Israeli Minister of Police, Haim Barlev, also announced the need to increase the police force by 600 and for new anti-riot equipment. (Attalia, 4 February 1988)

48. On 12 February 1988, it was reported that the Jerusalem police had adopted a new policy of "much harsher measures" to bring an end to the riots in the city. It was reported that police would also resort to the imposition of curfews in and around Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, 12 February 1988)

49. On 23 February 1988, it was reported that the IDF had been drafting West Bank settlers to help police the territories. The settlers reportedly served on a voluntary basis and were subject to military discipline. (Jerusalem Post, 23 February 1988)

50. On 23 February 1988, a letter from Chief of Staff Maj.-Gen. Dan Shomron was distributed to all IDF commanders in the territories, containing guidelines for the use of force. The letter emphasized that "under no circumstances should force be used as a means of punishment", and that "no steps should be taken to humiliate or abuse the local population, nor should property be intentionally damaged". (Jerusalem Post, 24 February 1988)

51. On 24 February 1988, Defence Minister Rabin told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee that the means used by the IDF to deal with the uprising in the territories should include massive arrests and control of funds coming into the territories. He said force, rubber bullets, tear gas and beating would continue to be used against protesters. (Attalia, 25 February 1988)

52. On 28 February 1988, it was reported that Arab residents of the territories would henceforward be able to complain at any police station about injuries or damages caused by soldiers. Such complaints would be transferred to the investigating Military Police for investigation. (Ha'aretz, 28 February 1988)

53. On 4 March 1988, a senior military official in the territories was reported as estimating that the policy of beating had proved itself, and that thanks to this policy the IDF had regained the power of deterrence that it had lost during the month preceding the adoption of that policy. "We resorted to force before as well, but now we also talk about it and this open talk restores the soldiers' self-confidence, which they had lost during the preceding period", the official said. (Ha'aretz, 4 March 1988)

54. On 14 March 1988, it was reported that 450 Arab policemen serving in the
territories had already resigned and that many more had announced their intention to resign in the coming days. Police sources said that the Israeli police would reduce its services to the local population in the territories. Police Inspector-General Haim Kraus said the police would have to adapt itself to the new situation. Some police stations in the territories would have to be closed, and there would be serious delays in the handling of criminal complaints and traffic violations. Police would concentrate their efforts on dealing with complaints by the Jewish settlers. Complaints by Arab residents would be dealt with "with a lower priority", he said. (Ha'aretz, 14 March 1988)

55. On 20 March 1988, it was reported that the security authorities had decided to outlaw the Shabiba youth movement, which was a Fatah-inspired movement. Shabiba activists would be arrested and tried. Following that decision hundreds of suspected members of the Shabiba were arrested and youth clubs believed to be Shabiba centres were closed down by administrative orders. (Ha'aretz, 20 March 1988)

56. On 20 March 1988, Defence Minister Rabin told the Cabinet that standing orders on the use of live ammunition in the territories had been changed to permit soldiers to shoot directly at rioters who attacked them with petrol bombs. Soldiers could shoot at their attackers only if they could identify them, Rabin said. On 22 March 1988, the Defence Minister said at the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee that settlers could also shoot at persons throwing petrol bombs at them. Following that declaration a spokesman for the Defence Ministry published the following clarification: "In order to avoid misunderstanding, civilians who come under attack may shoot only in cases of danger to their lives, and as long as such a danger exists. If there is a possibility of delivering oneself from that danger, or after a danger no longer exists, the permission is no longer valid". (Ha'aretz, 23 March 1988)

57. On 28 March 1988, it was decided to step up control of identity cards,
driving-licences and car licences held by residents. Persons who would not carry valid documents would be punished according to the law. On 29 March 1988, Defence Minister Rabin said the punishment in the territories might be further extended to include an expanded use of curfews, sealing of localities, arrests and ban of travel to Israel for work, "without which they have no economic existence", according to Mr. Rabin. (Ha'aretz, 29-30 March 1988)

58. On 24 April 1988, Defence Minister Rabin reported at the Cabinet meeting that since the beginning of the wave of unrest in the territories 165 Arabs had been killed, 147 of them by the IDF and the rest "in the framework of internal settling of accounts or unsolved cases of death". A total of 4,900 were detained, including 1,700 in administrative detention. Further details on the number of casualties in the territories were given on 10 May 1988. According to data attributable to military sources and updated to 9 May 1988, with regard to the number of deaths, and to 4 May 1988, with regard to the number of injured and detained, the figures were the following: 150 Arabs were killed by security forces (105 in the West Bank and 44 in the Gaza Strip). The death circumstances of 18 others were still under examination and 25 others were killed in various circumstances related to the uprising, including some killed by settlers, some who died after tear-gas poisoning or beating and at least two who were electrocuted when they climbed up electricity pylons to unfurl or remove Palestine flags. Some 1,410 Arabs were injured, 919 in incidents in the West Bank and 491 in the Gaza Strip. These figures included persons injured from beating, gas, shooting and other injuries. The number of persons detained was reported as 7,525, of whom about one third had already been released. Some 5,311 were detained in the West Bank and 2,214 in the Gaza Strip. No official figures were given regarding administrative detainees, but their number was estimated at 1,700. (Ha'aretz, 24 April and 10 May 1988)

59. On 3 May 1988, it was reported that 30 policemen from Gaza who had earlier resigned from their posts returned to work. Over the previous 2 weeks some 80 policemen, including 5 police officers, returned to their posts. According to some of the policemen, their return to work was prompted by threats from their Jewish commanders that they could go to jail unless they returned to work. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 May 1988)

60. On 15 May 1988, it was reported that the Attorney-General, Yosef Harish,
accepted a proposal by the police to establish new emergency regulations concerning the authority, rules and restrictions for the entry of policemen to private homes and courtyards in the territories, in order to set up observation and guard posts. (Ha'aretz, 15 May 1988)

61. On 16 May 1988, it was reported that a call for a general strike, included in leaflet No. 16 of the underground leadership of the uprising, was generally observed throughout the territories. It was also reported that popular committees continued functioning in various localities in order to "deepen the cutting off of the Palestinian society from the Israeli administration". Thus, improvised classes were organized by "nationalist activists" and women to replace the closed-off schools. (Ha'aretz, 16 May 1988)

62. On 30 May 1988, it was reported that, for the first time since the beginning of the uprising in the territories, Defence Minister Rabin met in his office in Tel Aviv with four public figures from Nablus to discuss the situation in the West Bank. The meeting, which was held on 26 May 1988, was said to be secret, but it was learnt that the participants were Dr. Hatem Abu Ghazaleh, a former city councillor under deposed Mayor Bassam Shak'a; two members of the current city council, Izzat Alul and Ibrahim Abdel Hadi, and Hussam Abdel Hadi, a member of the board of trustees of Al-Najah University. On 30 May 1988, Defence Minister Rabin met with four pro-Jordanian personalities: Othman Hallak of Jerusalem, editor of the Al-Nahar newspaper; Hanna Nasser of Bethlehem, Chairman of the Jerusalem District Electricity Company, Dr. Yasser Obeid, deputy director of the Ramallah Government Hospital, and Naim Khoury, a Baptist bishop from Bethlehem. (Ha'aretz,
Jerusalem Post, 30 and 31 May 1988)

63. On 1 June 1988, it was reported that Defence Minister Rabin had told the
Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee that the economic pressure exerted on the Palestinian population, as well as the mass arrests, were the principal elements contributing to what he described as an "attrition in the Arab population's motivation" to pursue the uprising. He said there was a decrease in the number of violent demonstrations and setting up of barricades, but there was an increase in petrol-bomb attacks and planting of improvised charges. Mr. Rabin stated that there was no "civil disobedience" in the sense of "detachment from the military government's services". On the contrary, Gaza residents continued to apply for new identity cards and the population needed their jobs in Israel. Mr. Rabin added that he opposed the idea of holding elections for mayors in the territories. He also said that soldiers were authorized to open fire at petrol-bomb throwers. Those caught doing so would be punished and their houses would be demolished, he said. At the same meeting MK Yossi Sarid affirmed that according to a government-issued document the Palestinian population had suffered since the beginning of the uprising and until 1 May 1988 180 dead and 5,130 injured, and that 10,000 Arabs were being detained. MK Sarid quoted a "senior official source" who reportedly said in a closed meeting a week earlier that the abuse and humiliation were at present the principal cause of the continuing agitation and uprising in the territories. In another development it was reported that the Chairman of the Knesset Constitution and Law Committee decided to invite Defence Minister Rabin to appear before the Committee to discuss a proposal to subject administrative detentions in the territories to judicial review again. (Ha'aretz, 1 June 1988)

64. On 1 June 1988, it was reported that the IDF spokesman, Brig.-Gen. Efraim Lapid, said at a press conference that it was decided at the IDF not to open any inquiry into irregularities following complaints by Arabs from the territories or newspaper reports, unless such complaints were accompanied by an affidavit signed by the plaintiff.
(Ha'aretz, 1 June 1988)

65. On 1 June 1988, the IDF spokesman gave details about the number of casualties in the territories since the outbreak of the uprising. In the West Bank 130 Arabs were killed, including 99 from IDF shooting and 31 in other circumstances, such as shooting by settlers or electrocution. In the Gaza Strip 58 were killed, including 53 from IDF shooting. According to information updated to 27 May 1988, 1,521 Arabs were injured in the territories: 1,003 in the West Bank and 518 in the Gaza Strip. These figures concerned only persons who were taken to hospital and registered by the IDF. Many others reportedly avoided hospitalization. According to the same report, during that period one Israeli soldier and one civilian - a woman - were killed, and 346 soldiers (237 in the West Bank and 109 in the Gaza Strip) and 210 civilians (197 in the West Bank and 13 in Gaza) were injured. By 27 May 1988, 8,141 Arabs had been detained, 5,715 in the West Bank and 2,426 in
Gaza. Most of them were still in detention. In a related development, MK Dedi Zucker said at the Knesset that since December 1987 1,999 Arabs had been injured from beatings with truncheons, causing breaking of bones, 647 were injured from gas and 979 from shooting. During the same period 44 houses were demolished without trial, leaving 600 people homeless. (Ha'aretz, 2 June 1988)

66. On 5 June 1988, it was reported that the IDF had begun using a new sort of non-lethal ammunition-aluminium bullets. Such bullets were reportedly fired at demonstrators from distances of over 100 metres, thus only injuring but not causing death. (Ha'aretz, 5 June 1988)

67. On 10 June 1988, a civil administration official, Major Daniel Danon, was
appointed head of the local council at the Bureij refugee camp. The move followed the resignation of all the council members due to threats to their lives. Major Danon and the 12 officers who administered the council had reportedly collected tens of thousands of shekels in taxes for residents who had earlier failed to pay taxes. He added that his men had started to deal with problems of electricity and water, and other municipal problems. Four other local councils were without a head of council, following resignations. It was also reported that the civil administration had so far changed identity cards for 60,000 Gaza Strip residents. (Ha'aretz, 12 June 1988)

68. On 14 June 1988, rules concerning administrative detentions were modified as a military judge, and no longer an advisory board, started hearing appeals by detainees against their detention. (Ha'aretz, 15 June 1988)

69. On 19 June 1988, Defence Minister Rabin and Chief of Staff Dan Shomron said at the Cabinet session that IDF soldiers in the territories had received instructions to shoot at anyone holding a petrol bomb. They reported that petrol-bomb attacks had increased to become the main problem facing the IDF in the territories. Other measures adopted against petrol-bomb throwers were the sealing or demolition of houses. (Ha'aretz, 20 June 1988)

70. On 20 June 1988, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI) presented its first annual report since the beginning of the uprising in the territories. At a press conference held to mark the publishing of the report, ACRI officials said that a double standard existed in the investigation and punishment of Arabs and Jews. Settlers were given "ridiculous punishments", such as several months of public service or suspended prison sentences for shooting and killing Arabs. In contrast, an Arab youth at Haifa was recently sentenced to two years in prison for throwing a stone. Some 2,500 Palestinians from the territories were being held in administrative detention, while in previous years their number was usually no more than a few dozens. The written report criticized the overcrowding and sanitary conditions in prisons where Arabs from the territories were held, and charged that the authorities had consistently failed to notify prisoners' families about their whereabouts. (Jerusalem Post, 21 June 1988)

71. On 7 July 1988, a "senior military source" in the Central Command said that the uprising in the territories would go on, in one form or another, for years, and that the IDF was getting organized on the ground according to that assumption. He added that a return to the conditions that prevailed until December 1987 was impossible and that the nature of the IDF activity would have to remain, in the long run, in the present scope and pattern. It was also reported that "popular direction committees" had recently become a well established phenomenon in the West Bank. These committees also included "shock committees", designed to deal with those who violated directives to strike, shut shops or refrain from going to work in Israel. In Nablus, popular committees were reportedly very active in every neighbourhood and persons were designated as responsible in every street, with a view to ensuring full compliance with the directives set out in the clandestine leaflets. According to the report this phenomenon greatly preoccupied the IDF. (Ha'aretz, 8 July 1988)

72. On 19 July 1988, it was reported that the civil administration in the West Bank intended to dismiss some 1,000 out of its 14,000 Arab employees, owing to financial difficulties. A similar decision was recently taken in the civil administration in the Gaza Strip. According to the report, no Israeli employees of the civil administration would be affected by the decision, for the time being. (Ha'aretz, 19 July 1988)

73. On 24 July 1988, it was reported that according to the IDF spokesman 177 Arab residents of the territories had been killed from IDF shooting since the beginning of the uprising. Arab sources said the number of victims reached 203 and that, in addition, 57 died as a result of inhaling gas, 18 from beating and electrocution and 22 in other, unclear circumstances. In the same context, it was reported on 25 July 1988 that the Deputy Chief of Staff of the IDF, Maj.-Gen. Ehud Barak said that 170 Arabs had been killed from IDF shooting and 41 in "other circumstances", and that thousands had been injured and hospitalized. (Ha'aretz, 24-25 July 1988)

74. On 7 August 1988, IDF sources were reported as saying that a total of 183 Palestinians had been killed and about 2,100 wounded by IDF gunfire in approximately 13,750 incidents since the beginning of the uprising in December 1987. About 5,500 were gaoled. According to the same sources 456 soldiers and 282 Jewish civilians were injured in the territories during that period. (Jerusalem Post, 7 August 1988)

75. On 15 August 1988, it was reported that the civil administration in the
territories intended to act against any attempt by pro-PLO elements to fill the vacuum created following Jordan's disengagement from the West Bank. This concerned in particular attempts to replace existing municipal councils by local committees and to bring in important sums of money from abroad in order to support the continuation of the uprising. In that connection, it was reported that the security authorities had confiscated over the past few months approximately $500,000, on suspicion that the money was designed to promote the uprising. Instructions were given to the Foreign Ministry to make it clear to any foreign body that it was forbidden to supply inhabitants of the territories with sums of money exceeding 400 Jordanian dinars ($1,000), unless authorized otherwise by the Israeli authorities. The security authorities were reportedly conducting a fierce campaign against local organizations in the territories, known as popular committees, which were acting to enforce the decisions and instructions of the "leadership of the uprising". Popular committees dealing with welfare and community services would not be affected by the new measures, according to the report. It was further reported that the civil administration intended to dismiss some 750 Arab employees in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, out of some 18,500 Arab employees in these areas. It would continue to reduce its services to
the local population, in proportion with its deepening financial deficit.
(Ha'aretz, 15 August 1988)

76. On 16 August 1988, it was reported that the IDF had recently started using plastic bullets, replacing the rubber bullets hitherto used in the territories. According to military sources, the use of plastic bullets would reduce the risk of killing those hit by such bullets. The Chief of Staff, Maj.-Gen. Dan Shomron, told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee that plastic bullets were non-lethal, and that they could be used from a distance of over 70 metres. MK Ran Cohen alleged that a resident of a refugee camp had been killed from plastic-bullet shooting, and another had been seriously injured. The Chief of Staff also reported to the Knesset Committee that the level of violence in the territories was on the decrease: there were fewer clashes and fewer incidents of petrol-bomb throwing, erection of barricades, arson of buses and villages closing themselves off. He added that there was no policy of harassing the population, but in places where demonstrations took place, and in particular in villages, the army imposed closures and the villagers themselves drove the inciters away. (Ha'aretz,
16 and 17 August 1988)

77. On 18 August 1988, it was reported that in recent months the IDF units
operating in the territories were avoiding entering villages situated far from the central roads. According to one reserve officer who had served in the West Bank, several remote villages had declared themselves "autonomous zones". He mentioned three such villages in the Tulkarem area: Deir al-Ghussun, A-Til and A-Dik. (Ha'aretz, 18 August 1988)

78. On 19 August 1988, it was reported that the Defence Ministry had outlawed the popular committees operating in the territories. Defence Minister Rabin said the committees had been responsible for the "institutionalization of the uprising". He said that the banning of the committees had "provided a more convenient legal means to deal with their members and leaders". According to Mr. Rabin, 200 to 300 committee members were already being held in administrative detention, but hundreds of others were still operating. Under the new instructions any member of a popular committee could face a prison sentence of up to 10 years. A similar penalty could be imposed on persons participating in meetings organized by such committees, those holding leaflets issued on their behalf, or those contributing money to them. According to reports there were several sorts of popular committees: those organized to provide community services, such as medical aid committees or welfare committees; those known as strike forces, designed to enforce the guidelines of the leadership of the uprising; and regional guiding committees designed to organize protest activities against the occupation at local level. The authorities reportedly considered these committees to be "the moving force behind the uprising, and potential alternatives to the military government". (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 August 1988)

(b) Wave of disturbances

Oral evidence

79. Several witnesses testified on the climate of violence and confrontation in the occupied territories since the beginning of the uprising. Most of them
referred to their personal experience, involving wounding by bullet shots or
beatings:

"We heard troops outside and we found that tear-gas bombs were being
thrown at us, and then the tear-gas bombs started entering into the mosque.
There was an old man who fainted and I tried to go over to help him. I was
trying to help him and while I was doing that another young man was hit or
injured. I did not know what it was, but in trying to help him I realized
that he had received a bullet wound close to his heart. I was carrying him
outside the mosque. But a soldier was outside and he was carrying a gun with
a silencer. You see, up till then we thought it was only tear gas that was
being used. We did not suspect that live bullets were being used. About
40 metres away I saw some people who were just falling to the ground and I
realized that someone had opened fire on them. Then I was hit and the bullet
entered my chest and passed by the wall of the heart." (Anonymous witness,
A/AC.145/RT.481)

I was in the hospital. About 8.00 a.m. we heard a lot of noise, we heard firing and there were soldiers who stormed the hospital, perhaps a hundred or maybe more. They came in and they started beating up everyone who was inside. Some youths between 16 and 20 years, who were only visiting the hospital, were beaten up. They fired some gas canisters into the kidney unit and I was there at the time. A great number of youths were arrested the same day in the hospital. Among them were some patients who still had the drip
attached to their arms." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1)

80. Testimonies relating to the wave of disturbances may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.481 (two anonymous witnesses); A/AC.145/RT.482 (two anonymous witnesses); A/AC.145/RT.484 (an anonymous witness); and A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1 (three anonymous witnesses).

Written information

81. On 9 December 1987, during the riots youths attacked an IDF patrol with stones and petrol bombs. The patrol commander opened fire, killing Hatam al-Sisi, 17, a student of the Falujiya school. Seventeen others were injured, some of them seriously. Following al-Sisi's death hundreds of Gaza residents gathered at the Shifa Hospital and several of the dead youth's relatives succeeded in carrying the body away for burial. There were reports of barricades being erected around the hospital, and of use of tear gas and firing in the air by the IDF. The Jabaliya camp was sealed off. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 December 1987)

82. On 10 December 1987, the riots, which until then were restricted to the
northern part of the Gaza Strip and the town of Gaza, spread to the rest of the region and to several West Bank localities. Serious rioting was reported at Nablus and the Balata refugee camp, as well as at Khan Yunis, in the Gaza Strip, where a 13-year-old girl, Siam Hussein Hamad, was seriously injured when troops opened fire at stone-throwing demonstrators. Another child, aged 11, whose name was not reported, was killed at Khan Yunis, and at least 15 others were injured by IDF gunfire. At the entrance to the Casbah area at Nablus, Ibrahim al-Iklik, 17, was shot dead and another youth was injured. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 December 1987)

83. On 11 December 1987, as the riots continued in Nablus and Balata and spread to Hebron, Bir Zeit, and several refugee camps, three residents of Balata were killed by IDF gunfire: Suheila Ka'ba, 57, Sahar al-Jirmi, 19, and Ali Musa'id, 11. According to Arab sources a fourth resident, Abdallah Sa'our, 14, was also killed. The riots continued throughout the Gaza Strip and several dozen demonstrators were reportedly injured in clashes with the security forces. A commercial strike was held and Rafah and the Jabaliya refugee camp were placed under curfew. Commercial strikes were also held at Nablus, Ramallah and East Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 December 1987)

84. On 13 December 1987, the disturbances were concentrated in refugee camps
(Balata, Jalazun, Ein Beit Alma and Kalandiya). A commercial strike was held in Nablus, Ramallah and East Jerusalem. In the Gaza Strip some 60,000 residents with jobs in Israel refrained from going to work for the third day running. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 December 1987)

85. On 14 December 1987, in Khan Yunis, Hassan Jarhoun, 25, was killed by IDF
troops after a petrol bomb was thrown at a group of soldiers. The incident
triggered off a wave of serious rioting in the region. The disturbances later
spread to northern Gaza Strip localities such as Jabaliya and Bureij refugee
camps. Commercial strikes continued in Gaza and Nablus. Incidents were reported in some West Bank localities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 December 1987)

86. On 15 December 1987, 4 Gaza residents died and 11 were wounded in clashes
between IDF troops and demonstrators. The victims were Talal Hwili, 17, who died of gunshot wounds in the neck, at Beit Hanoun; Nafez Yousuf Iqtifar, who was killed in Deir el-Balah after demonstrators hurled iron bars and cement blocks at troops; Mahmoud Sahla, 22, of Jabaliya, who died during a clash in the Shifa Hospital courtyard, and Abdullah Abu Husseini, 27, who died in the Ashkelon Hospital of wounds incurred in Khan Yunis four days earlier. According to Arab sources, Ibrahim Dakar, 23, also died in the Shifa Hospital clash. According to UNRWA eyewitnesses, Gaza youths were, on several instances, tied across the bonnets of army jeeps to give security forces in the vehicles safe entry into refugee camps. Commercial strikes continued at Nablus and Ramallah, despite attempts by the civil administration to force shopowners to open their businesses. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 December 1987)

87. On 15 December 1987, Khaled Emad Abu Takia, 20, from Gaza, and
Najwa Hassan Abdallah Al-Masri, 17, from Beit Hanun, were among the victims of the violent clashes that took place throughout the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. (Attalia, 17 December 1987)

88. On 16 December 1987, the disturbances continued, principally in the Gaza
Strip. A general strike continued throughout the Strip. Partial commercial
strikes were also reported in East Jerusalem, Ramallah and Nablus. (Ha'aretz,
Jerusalem Post, 17 December 1987)

89. On 17 December 1987, the Rafah youth who the previous day stabbed an Israeli soldier and was later wounded from IDF gunfire, died of his wounds. He was named as Atwa Abu-Samdani, 20. It was reported that 54 Gaza residents were being hospitalized in Ashkelon, including three in serious condition. The focus of protest reportedly moved to East Jerusalem and areas north of the city, where business and schools were closed in protest over the move by Trade and Industry Minister Ariel Sharon who inaugurated his residence in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 December 1987)

90. On 18 December 1987, Hussein Saada Al-Mahsiri, 85, from El-Bireh, died from gas intoxication inhaled in Al-Afsa square. (Attalia, 24 December 1987)

91. On 18 and 19 December 1987, riots were reported throughout the Gaza Strip and in East Jerusalem, where rioting was described as the worst since 1967. In the Gaza Strip rioting flared up following Friday prayers. Troops opened fire at demonstrators in Bureij refugee camp and in the Seja'iya quarter. At least two demonstrators were killed: Abdel Salam Fatahiya, 19, and Masha al-Batanizi, 20. It was reported that further reinforcements were sent to the region, and that the local command had been reorganized. In East Jerusalem hundreds of elementary and secondary school pupils burned tyres, erected barricades and threw stones. Agencies of Israeli banks in East Jerusalem and Israeli cars were attacked and damaged. Large police and border-guard forces used tear gas to disperse the protesters. A total school and commercial strike was observed in the town. Elsewhere in the West Bank widespread disturbances were reported, principally in Hebron and in the Balata, Askar and Jalazun refugee camps near Nablus. Commercial strikes were held in Nablus, Anabta, Kalkiliya and Tulkarem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 December 1987)

92. On 21 December 1987, a general strike was observed in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. For the first time since the wave of unrest began, the Arab population of Israel held a strike in sympathy with the population of the territories and many incidents and riots were reported in mixed Arab-Jewish towns in Israel. The general strike in the territories affected businesses, services, transport, schools and work in Israel. In Jenin a border-guard jeep was attacked with 20 petrol bombs. The troops opened fire, killing Yussuf al-Arawi, 25, and injuring eight others, including one seriously. In Tubas an IDF "elite unit" was confronted by rioters and opened fire, killing two youths, Bassal Sawafteh, 18, and his cousin Nazek Sawafteh, 22. Raad Shehadeh of the Gaza Strip, who was injured earlier, died of his wounds in an Israeli hospital. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 December 1987)

93. On 22 December 1987, a violent clash occurred in the Jabaliya camp between troops and a rioting crowd. Haled Taleb Shaker Ahmed, 19, was killed from IDF gunfire and several others were seriously injured. Muhammad Rashed al-Keisi, 20, of Jenin, who was injured in the head two days earlier from shots fired by border guards, died in a hospital in Haifa. Other violent demonstrations were reported in Yatta, south of Hebron, and in the al-Amary refugee camp, near Ramallah, where the army used a helicopter to drop tear-gas canisters. Several persons were injured in the incidents. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 December 1987)

94. On 23 December 1987, Youssef Mohammed Al-Najar died from wounds received the previous day. He was shot at the chest by the IDF during clashes in Jabaliya refugee camp. He died in Soroka Hospital. Another youth, Fayez Abu Salem, was also injured in the incident and was admitted to an Israeli hospital in serious condition. (Al-Ittihad, 24 December 1987)

95. On 24 December 1987, it was reported that since 9 December 1987 27 inhabitants were killed in the territories. Another 118 persons were admitted to hospitals in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip with gunfire, club-beating or gas-intoxication injuries. The breakdown by day is the following:

16 December 1987 36
17 December 1987 19
19 December 1987 1
20 December 1987 30
21 December 1987 24
22 December 1987 8

(Attalia, 31 December 1988)

96. On 30 December 1987, the death was reported of Mustafa Said el-Ab, 17, of the Jabaliya refugee camp. The youth had been injured in the head from IDF shots during a clash on 22 December 1987. He died at the Soroka Hospital in Beersheba. The news of his death renewed high tension in the region. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 December 1987)

97. On 1 January 1988, violent disturbances were reported in several West Bank towns, villages and refugee camps and in the Jabaliya camp in Gaza. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 January 1988)

98. On 1 January 1988, Naji Hassan Mohammed Hussein, 42, was shot dead in Kabatiya by IDF soldiers. (Al-Ittihad, 22 January 1988)

99. On 2 January 1988, disturbances were reported mainly in refugee camps in Gaza, in particular Jabaliya, Nusseirat and Rafah, as well as the Kasbah area of Nablus and Balata and Al-Amary refugee camps in the West Bank. Troops used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse protesters. Strikes were reported in East Jerusalem and in all the major West Bank towns. In several towns shopkeepers were ordered to open their shops. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 January 1988)

100. On 3 January 1988, a 25-year-old woman, Haniya Suleiman al-Ghasawneh, was
killed in A-Ram, north of Jerusalem, when a soldier opened fire at stone-throwing youths. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 January 1988; Attalia, 7 January 1988)

101. On 4 January 1988, violent disturbances took place in A-Ram, Ramallah,
Al-Amary and Kalandiya, following the death of Haniya al-Ghasawneh. Troops used tear gas and rubber bullets. Violent disturbances were also reported in several Gaza Strip localities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 January 1988)

102. On 5 January 1988, violent disturbances were reported in Khan Yunis and in other Gaza Strip localities. Adel Dabalan, 18, was shot at by troops and later died in hospital. Several others were injured, including five soldiers. In the West Bank, disturbances were reported in several localities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 January 1988)

103. On 6 January 1988, a resident of the Nur Shams camp was shot by an officer and wounded in the shoulder after he tried to attack a woman soldier and slash her throat. Violent disturbances were reported mainly in the Gaza Strip. A commercial strike was observed and Arab workers did not go to their jobs in Israel. (Ha'aretz, 7 January 1988)

104. On 6 January 1988, violent demonstrations took place in many areas in the
occupied territories following the expulsion orders issued against nine residents.
(Attalia, 7 January 1988)

105. On 7 January 1988, violent disturbances occurred in many localities in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip, where seven local youths were injured from shots. Two were hospitalized in a serious condition. In East Jerusalem there was a commercial strike. Strikes were also reported in Ramallah, A-Ram and in Jericho. (Ha'aretz, 8 January 1988)

106. On 7 January 1988, it was reported that a 15-year-old boy, Muezin Zaki Muslim from Al-Maghazi refugee camp, was killed and another, Mohammed Nafe' Sedki, 15, was shot in the head during clashes in Yabud. Many people were arrested. (Al-Ittihad, 8 January 1988; Attalia, 14 January 1988)

107. On 8 and 9 January 1988, violent disturbances were reported throughout the Gaza Strip, despite the imposition of curfew. Two local youths were killed in Bureij and in Khan Yunis, when troops opened fire at protesters. The Khan Yunis youth was named as Bassam Muallem, 25. In the Al-Nasr camp all the men were detained and interrogated. There were reports of arrests and severe beating by troops, particularly in the Shati and Deir el-Balah camps. Strikes were reported in all the major towns of the territories, including East Jerusalem and the usually quiet Jericho and Bethlehem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 January 1988)

108. On 9 January 1988, Bassem Khodr Abu Muslim, 27, was killed during clashes with the IDF in Beni Seheyla. Fourteen persons were reported injured in Rafah following violent incidents during the general strike. (Attalia, 14 January 1988)

109. On 10 January 1988, violent disturbances were reported in the Gaza Strip.
Troops used tear gas, rubber bullets and live ammunition to disperse crowds of
stone-throwers. In Sajaiya, near Gaza, Tokan Musseibeh, 35, was killed and several others were injured, including a child aged 2, who was struck in the eye by a rubber bullet. A 45-year-old woman and at least four youths were admitted to the Ahli Hospital with signs of severe beatings. In some refugee camps tear-gas canisters were dropped from IDF helicopters. According to residents, the gas dropped was a new form that caused nausea and dizziness. A Rafah resident, Khalil Abu Lal, 65, who was injured three weeks earlier from IDF gunfire, died at a Beersheba hospital. Violent disturbances also took place in East Jerusalem and in several West-Bank localities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 January 1988)

110. On 10 January 1988, tear gas was used by the IDF to disperse protesters in Khan Yunis resulting in the death of a pregnant woman, Wajdan Fares, 35.
(Attalia, 14 January 1988)

111. On 11 January 1988, in Khan Yunis, Atta Khudair, 24, was shot dead during a violent clash with an IDF patrol. Violent disturbances and commercial strikes were also reported in the Gaza Strip and in most of the West Bank towns and in East Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 January 1988)

112. On 12 January 1988, violent disturbances were reported, mainly in the Gaza Strip. In Rafah, Mohammad Yusef Ahmad el-Yazuri, 30, was killed after he stabbed a soldier. Two other Palestinians were injured in the incident. In other disturbances in the Gaza Strip, 24 local residents were injured from IDF shots. Soldiers reportedly severely beat Arab protesters. The commercial and transport strike throughout the West Bank continued. Violent incidents occurred in and around East Jerusalem and in Nablus, where four youths were injured from shots. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 January 1988)

113. On 13 January 1988, Hassan Mustafa Miali, 19, was shot dead in the village of Niama, north west of Ramallah, when troops opened fire at rioters who attacked them with stones and other objects. Dozens were injured in violent disturbances in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, including an elderly man, who was wounded in the head by a rubber bullet, in Kalandiya, and a 10-year-old boy, in Jabaliya. There were numerous reports of local population refusing to obey the curfew orders. In East Jerusalem crowds of youths from the Arab neighbourhood of Jebel Mukaber pelted with stones houses in the nearby Jewish neighbourhood of Armon-Hanatziv (East Talpiot). The incident was described as an unprecedented one. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 January 1988)

114. On 13 January 1988, it was reported that since the outbreak of the disturbances in the occupied territories 54 local residents had been killed from IDF shots, in addition to thousands of injured persons. (Al-Ittihad, 15 January 1988)

115. On 14 January 1988, the general strike continued throughout the occupied
territories where violent incidents occurred in several villages, towns and refugee camps. It was reported that UNRWA was barred from supplying food to refugee camps. Mohammed Ramadan Tabaza, 18, from Nuseirat, died from gas poisoning during disturbances in the camp. (Al-Ittihad, 15 January 1988; Attalia, 21 January 1988)

116. On 15 January 1988, it was reported that the 10-year-old boy who had been
killed by IDF troops two days earlier during a violent disturbance in Gaza was
identified as Ramadan Yunis Sobeih. Another boy wounded in the incident,
Ra'ed Razek Salman, 13, was still in critical condition. Commercial strikes
continued in East Jerusalem and in West Bank towns. An IDF infantryman shot and killed a bedouin shepherd, Ahmed Ali Ghazale e-Bayat, 44, who was spotted with his flock of sheep in an IDF firing zone near Tekoa. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 January 1988)

117. On 15 January 1988, in Jabaliya, near Gaza, Ibrahim Mohammad Abu-Naher, 31, from Sheikh Radwan, was shot dead after he stabbed a soldier. Commercial strikes continued in most of the West Bank towns. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 January 1988)

118. On 17 January 1988, the general strike continued thoughout the occupied territories. Radio Monte Carlo reported the death of two women in Gaza and two babies in Kalkiliya from gas injuries. (Attalia, 21 January 1988)

119. On 19 January 1988, violent disturbances were reported in several West Bank localities, where five local residents were injured from shots or rubber bullets.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 January 1988)

120. On 20 January 1988, there were numerous reports of residents of the territories hospitalized with injuries caused by severe beatings. Commercial strikes continued in all the major towns and there were reports of heavily equipped troops forcing shops open, or threatening and beating shopkeepers, forcing them to open their businesses. Violent incidents occurred in many localities around East Jerusalem and in several West Bank localities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 January 1988)

121. On 24 January 1988, troops used tear gas, rubber bullets and live ammunition to disperse protesters in Ramallah. Jamal Abu-Shawish, 27, was shot and seriously wounded. Commercial strikes were also reported in the East Jerusalem area and in Nablus, Kalkiliya and Tulkarem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 January 1988)

122. On 26 January 1988, IDF soldiers reportedly raided houses in Idna and arrested many inhabitants, including children under 10. (Attalia, 28 January 1988)

123. On 28 January 1988, IDF soldiers shot dead a youth from Rafah,
Mohammed Ali Hamdan, 22, and injured 10 others who were hospitalized. (Al-Ittihad, 29 January 1988)

124. On 29 and 30 January 1988, large-scale rioting was again reported in several areas and several protesters were injured. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 January 1988)

125. On 1 February 1988, violent disturbances continued throughout the West Bank. In Anabta two youths were killed when troops fired at stone-throwers. They were named as Murad Bassam Hamdallah, 17, and Muayed Muhammad Shaer, 21. Several others were injured. It was reported that some 100 persons had been injured in Nablus Jerusalem Post, 2 February 1988)

126. On 2 February 1988, violent disturbances were reported in Tulkarem and in the Hebron area villages. Commercial strikes were reported in East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip and several West Bank towns. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 February 1988)

127. On 3 February 1988, a 26-year-old man was killed in Tulkarem. Asma Sabuba, 23, from Anabta, who had been shot in the head several days earlier died of her wounds. Many of the disturbances were reportedly triggered off by numerous acts of vandalism by Jewish settlers. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 February 1988)

128. On 5 and 6 February 1988, serious disturbances were reported in Al-Aroub
refugee camp near Hebron and in Shu'fat camp north of Jerusalem. Dozens of arrests were made. For the first time in many weeks police used rubber bullets against rioters in East Jerusalem, and not only tear gas. The commercial strike in the city continued for the thirty-first day. In Al-Aroub a local woman was killed from IDF shots after rioters attacked troops and passing traffic with stones. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 February 1988)

129. On 6 February 1988, violent incidents took place in the territories. A young girl, Asma Abdel Ati Al-Sherif, 17, was killed from IDF gunshots during riots in Al-Aroub camp and a 15-year-old boy suffered cerebral concussion during clashes in the Gaza Strip. (Attalia, 11 February 1988)

130. On 7 February 1988, violent disturbances were reported in many areas in the territories. Four local youths were killed and at least twelve others were injured. Many of the incidents were sparked off by rumours of attacks by settlers. In a violent clash in Beit-Ummar, north of Hebron, three local residents were killed when troops chased rioters inside the village: Imad Hassan Sabarna, 20, Muhammed Ibrahim Shawiha, 22, and Taysir Jarad Awad, 19. In Kalkiliya, Iyad Sharia, 16, was seriously injured when troops opened fire at rioters. Iyad Al-Bassuki, 10, who had been injured a few days earlier from gunshot in the village of Burka, died of his wounds. Others were injured in Yabed, Deir Amar and Jadira. Another youth from Deir el-Balah, Rami Al-Aklouk, 15, died in a Jerusalem hospital, but military sources said he died of a disease. Commercial strikes were reported in all the West Bank and Gaza Strip towns. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 February 1988)

131. On 8 February 1988, IDF troops wounded Mohammed Selim Shiha, 25, in Anabta and assaulted several children in Shu'fat camp, among them were Assem Magdi Mohammed Nimr, 6, and his brother Moatasem, 4. (Attalia, 11 February 1988)

132. On 9 February 1988, Khader Fuad Tarazi, 17, a Christian youth from Gaza died in hospital after being seriously injured in the head. Another youth, Nabil Ass'ad Abu Khalil, 16, from the village of A-Til, near Tulkarem, died when troops opened fire at a crowd of protesters. In Gaza 28 persons, including 14 members of one family, were reportedly injured from beating, in the continuing unrest. Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 February 1988)

133. On 10 February 1988, Mahmoud al-Himawi, 22, from Murazi refugee camp in Gaza, died of shotgun wounds he received on 5 January 1988 from troops. Dozens of Gaza Strip residents were injured from beating in Jabaliya and Shati camps. Violent incidents were also reported in East Jerusalem, Nablus, Tarkumiya and Ramallah. Commercial strikes continued in West Bank towns. (Ha'aretz, 11 February 1988)

134. On 10 February 1988, it was reported that 250 persons were injured in the
Gaza Strip during the past three days. (Attalia, 11 and 18 February 1988)

135. On 11 February 1988, Ahmed Abu Sabil from Tulkarem refugee camp died during a clash with troops. Other violent incidents were reported in Ramallah and Hebron. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 February 1988)

136. On 12 February 1988, two youths were killed in Nablus, in a riot following the Friday prayers. They were named as Bashar el-Masri, 18, and Bassal Jitan, 14. Other violent disturbances were reported in Ramallah, Balata, Al-Amary and Jalazun. Violent disturbances also occurred in many areas in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, 14 February 1988)

137. On 17 February 1988, Ismail Hussein al-Halaika, 23, from the village of
Shuyukh, was killed during a violent disturbance in the village. Other violent disturbances were reported in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Shops opened for three hours in the afternoon. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 February 1988)

138. On 20 February 1988, the situation was again tense in many parts of the
territories. In Ramallah, Abdallah Attiya, 19, was killed when border guards
opened fire at protesters. Troops later used tear gas and rubber bullets to
disperse crowds. At the Tulkarem refugee camp a 12-year-old boy was shot dead and another, aged 10, was seriously injured. The dead boy was named as Nasrallah Abd el-Kader. The injured one was Sami Bassionai. Other violent incidents occured in Bani-Naim, Tubas, Kalandiya, Jenin, Yatta, Kabatiya and Balata. It was also reported that a Rafah resident complained to the Red Cross that his three-month-old baby daughter was killed on 14 February 1988 as a result of tear gas used by troops. The baby was named as Ranan Adwan. The IDF spokesman denied that tear gas was used on that date by the IDF. (Ha'aretz, 21 February 1988)

139. On 21 February 1988, Kamal Suleiman Fares, 21, a teacher, was killed in
Deir Amar when passengers of two Israeli vehicles stopped at roadblocks opened fire to disperse protesters. Violent clashes occurred in Nablus. An officer opened fire, killing Ghareb Suleiman Abu-Amara, 20. Another man, Ahmed Abu Salhiya, 60, died as a result of tear-gas poisoning. At least six other Nablus residents were injured from shots and many others were injured from beating or tear gas. Violent disorders were reported in the Gaza Strip. In Khan Yunis troops opened fire at rioters, injuring three. Many others were injured from beating. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 February 1988)

140. On 22 February 1988, violent disturbances were reported in Nablus, Ramallah, Anabta, Dheisheh, El-Bireh and many Gaza Strip localities. Several persons were injured from beating. (Ha'aretz, 23 February 1988)

141. On 23 February 1988, a 13-year-old boy died from shots in the village of
Yamoun, near Jenin. In Baka a-Sharkiya a soldier wearing civilian clothes
reportedly shot and killed a 13-year-old girl, Raida Rajib Lutfi. Ataf Fayed, 30, who was injured from IDF shots in Khan Yunis several days earler, died of his wounds. Violent disturbances were reported in Eizariya, in East Jerusalem and in Nablus. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 February 1988)

142. On 24 February 1988, a general strike was observed in the territories to
protest the arrival of United States Secretary of State Shultz. For the first time since the beginning of the uprising, protesters used firearms in the Gaza Strip, when a road mine was activated as a security vehicle drove by. Nine persons were injured in the Gaza Strip. MK Dedi Zucker handed to the Defence Minister and to the Judge Advocate-General affidavits and post mortem certificates according to which three Gaza Strip residents had died as a result of beating. They were named as Iad Akal, 17, from the Bunei camp - who died on 7 February 1988; Muhammad Shwidah, 68, from Sajaiya, who died on 14 February 1988, and Khader el-Taazi, 20, who died on 8 February 1988. In Kabatiya local residents killed a man known as a collaborator with Israel, after the man had shot at his attackers and killed a 4-year-old boy, Muhammad Abu Zeid, and injured 13 others. The man was named as Muhammed Ayed a-Zakharra, 40. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 and 26 February 1988)

143. On 25 February 1988, three youths were killed from shots as violent disturbances continued in many areas. Bassam Abu Khalifa, 18, was killed in the Jenin refugee camp. Three others were injured, including one seriously, in the same incident. Sami Ghaleb a-Dia, 14, was killed in Nablus. Yussuf al-Kilani, 21, from Yabed near Jenin, was killed in a clash with border guards. Other violent clashes were reported in Nablus and the surrounding refugee camps, Yatta and the Tulkarem refugee camp. In East Jerusalem violent disorders were reported after several days of relative calm. (Ha'aretz, 26 February 1988)

144. On the weekend of 26 and 27 February 1988, 7 Palestinians were killed and at least 22 were injured during violent rioting that centred on Hebron and the surrounding villages. In the village of Arroub, Nihad al-Khamur, 21, was killed by a bullet in the chest and four others were injured. In Halhul, Baker Abdallah al-Ban, 18, was killed and seven others were injured. According to Palestinian sources, Jamal al-Atrash, 18, also died in that incident. The other victims were named as Fuad a-Shaarawi, 47, from Hebron, Hassan Mahmoud Abu Hayran, 20, from Arroub, Rashika Daraghmi, a 60-year-old woman from Tubas and a boy in Gaza who reportedly died when a rock hurled at Israeli soldiers hit him in the head. According to United Nations sources in Gaza, however, the boy died of beating by soldiers. The boy was named as Aid Ali al-Ashgar, from Beit-Lahiya. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 February 1988)

145. On 29 February 1988 Yasser Abdel Jabar (according to another report Yasser Daoud 'Id), aged 17, from the village of Burin, near Nablus, was shot dead by troops during a violent disturbance. Violent disturbances were also reported in the nearby villages of Assira al-Kibliya and Madaba, where several persons were injured, and in the Hebron and Ramallah areas. Ahmed Bitawi, 30, from the Jenin refugee camp, died of wounds sustained earlier in the week during a clash between troops and protesters. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 March 1988)

146. On 3 March 1988, violent incidents occurred in Rafah and in the West Bank
villages of Idna and Beita. Arab sources in Deir el-Balah and in Rafah alleged that the IDF threw tear-gas canisters from a helicopter on three girls' schools and that many pupils were injured. The same sources alleged that a baby girl died as a result of tear gas thrown at her home. An IDF spokesman denied the allegations but said they would nevertheless be looked into. (Ha'aretz, 4 March 1988)

147. On 4 March 1988, violent incidents occurred in many West Bank and Gaza Strip localities. Muhammad Saleh Ahmed, 18, from the village of Khader, was shot dead by troops during a riot following the Friday prayers. In a clash in the village of Araba a local man, Abd el-Latif el-Hada, was shot dead by troops. Incidents involving shooting by troops also occurred in Jenin, Balata, Nablus and Burka, where several people were injured. On 5 March 1988, two youths were killed in Dahiriya when a military commander opened fire after failing to disperse protesters with tear gas and rubber bullets. The two were named as Maher Araidat, 25, and Ghassem al-Hadairat, 30. In violent disturbances in the Gaza Strip Muhammad Sa'fan, 22, from Deir el-Balah, was shot dead by troops. During the weekend disturbances were reported in many areas, including Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Jenin, Tulkarem, Kalkiliya and numerous refugee camps and villages. (Ha'aretz, 6 March 1988)

148. On 6 March 1988, Khaled el-Aradeh, 17, from Askar was shot dead by troops who believed he and another person were involved in an attempt at shooting at them. At Mazraa Sharkiya north of Ramallah, Aiman Salim Aujak, 18, was shot dead by troops and another person was injured after soldiers who tried to remove Palestine flags in the village were surrounded by stone-throwing youths. Violent incidents were also reported in many other West Bank and Gaza Strip localities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 March 1988)

149. On 7 March 1988, a violent clash was reported in the village of Idna, near Hebron, between troops and villagers who were defying curfew orders. At one point a hand grenade was thrown at a border-guard jeep and one soldier was slightly injured. Other soldiers opened fire and injured seven villagers, including one seriously. Dozens were arrested. (Ha'aretz, 8 March 1988)

150. On 8 March 1988, the body of a murdered Arab policeman was discovered in
Jericho. IDF and police sources estimated that the murder was committed as part of the pressure exerted on Arab policemen and other employees of the civil administration to resign. In Mazraa Sharkiya an Israeli civilian, believed to be a settler, whose car was blocked by stone barricades, opened fire at a nearby house, killing Hader Muhammed Hamida, 42. Another violent incident involving an Israeli settler was reported in Balata. Two youths were injured, including one seriously. In the area between Ariel and the village of Haris settlers and villagers conducted a "stone-throwing fight" after a 3-year-old settler boy was hit by a stone. Troops intervened and separated the two camps. Eight Haris residents were arrested. In many localities women held silent demonstrations or marches, to mark the Palestinian Woman's Day proclaimed by the organizers of the uprising. In Ramallah troops dispersed such a demonstration with tear gas and rubber bullets. According to Arab sources a resident of Askar, Salah e-Din al-Nakib, 35, died the previous
day from tear-gas poisoning. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 March 1988)

151. On 9 March 1988, widespread unrest was reported in the territories to mark three months since the beginning of the uprising. A general strike was observed and workers did not go to work in Israel. In Silwad troops opened fire at protesters, killing Muhammad Othman Fares, 18. In Turmus Aya, north of Ramallah, Jamil Hassan Hijazi, 19, was shot dead by troops. According to Arab sources a third Arab was shot dead in Samu, near Hebron. He was named as Bassam Ibrahim al-Badarin, 25. Violent incidents were also reported in the
Gaza Strip where, according to Arab sources, a one-month baby girl from Deir el-Balah died from tear-gas poisoning. (Ha'aretz, 10 March 1988)

152. On 10 March 1988, a violent disturbance was reported in the Shati camp when the curfew was lifted for two hours. (Ha'aretz, 11 March 1988)

153. On 13 March 1988, Yussuf Ali Suleiman, 22, from Bidia, who was shot at by
troops on 9 March 1988, died of his wounds. (Ha'aretz, 14 March 1988)

154. On 15 March 1988, widespread unrest was reported in the northern part of the West Bank. A general strike continued through the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In the village of Deir Jarir, north east of Ramallah, troops opened fire at protesters, killing Arafat Hawih, 22. In the village of Anza, south of Jenin, there was a violent clash between troops and villagers, who declared their village a "liberated zone". Troops reportedly opened fire, killing Alam Said Nasrallah, 17. A violent clash also occurred in Kalkiliya between troops and local youths. Incidents were also reported in the Gaza Strip.
(Ha'aretz, 16 March 1988)

155. On 16 March 1988, violent disturbances continued, principally in the Tulkarem area. In the Nur Shams camp a 60-year old resident, Salim al-Yahya, was killed. According to Arab sources he was the victim of tear-gas poisoning. Military sources said the reason of the death was a heart attack. At least seven others were injured in the same incident. An adolescent, Ashraf Muhammad Ibrahim, who had been seriously injured the day before, died of his wounds. According to Tulkarem residents many were injured from tear-gas poisoning and beating. In Yabed, near Jenin, Oman Yassin Hamrashi, 25, was killed by troops during violent disturbances. In Nazlat Isa, Hisham al-Alushi was killed in unclear circumstances. In Al-Fawar camp, near Hebron, troops were attacked and opened fire, injuring two youths. Violent disturbances were reported in Gaza. (Ha'aretz, Ma'ariv, 17 March 1988)

156. On 18 March 1988, Muhammad Suleiman Khaled, 19, from the Ein Beit Alma camp, was killed in unclear circumstances. Arab sources said he died after being severely beaten, shot in the thigh and dragged, bleeding, to the main road - and then taken away in a jeep. Military sources said the youth died when a soldier whom he tried to attack with a dangerous object shot at his leg. In Ramallah troops raided the government hospital near the Kadura camp and arrested 12 persons, none of them patients. In violent disturbances in the Gaza Strip Hani Ibrahim Abu Haman, 24, from the Shati camp, was killed and three others were injured. The IDF used a helicopter throwing tear-gas canisters to disperse the crowds in Shati. On the hundredth day of the uprising it was reported that 87 people died and 860 were injured since the beginning of the movement. The IDF was investigating the death circumstances of seven persons who were not killed from shots fired by soldiers. According to another Israeli source the number of dead reached 99. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, Ma'ariv, 20 March 1988)

157. On 20 March 1988, an unidentified person fired, at very short range, at Moshe Katz, 28, an Israeli reserve soldier, killing him on the spot. The incident occurred in the centre of Bethlehem. Sergeant Katz was the first Israeli to be killed in the 100 days of the uprising in the territories. The area was sealed off and many arrests were carried out. Violent incidents occurred in various areas of the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, Ma'ariv, 21 March 1988)

158. On 21 March 1988, the entire West Bank and the Gaza Strip observed a general strike. Three West Bank youths who had earlier been injured from shots fired by troops died of their wounds. They were named as Namek Ahmed Milhem, 32, from the village of Dan, near Jenin, who was shot after throwing a petrol bomb at soldiers; Khaled Mohammad Taher, 25, from Nazlat Isa, and Mohammad Mahmoud Faraj, 25, from Silwad. In Rafah, Abed el-Abdallah, 18, was shot dead when troops opened fire at stone-throwers. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, Ma'ariv, 22 March 1988)

159. On 22 March 1988, a violent disturbance occurred in Tubas. Troops opened
fire. The body of Kidmet Dararme, 26, was later found. He was a student at a
Romanian university who was spending a holiday in the area. The circumstances of his death were not clear. He was the hundredth Arab to be killed since the beginning of the uprising in the territories. The figure included Palestinians shot dead either by troops or by Israeli civilians in the territories. According to Arab sources the number of dead reached 130, including victims of tear-gas poisoning and beating. A large number of the violent disturbances in recent days in the West Bank reported occurred late in the evening or during the night, coinciding with widespread arrests carried out by the security forces. According to Arab sources a 70-year old man from Kabatiya, Hussein Faris Ikmil, died from tear-gas poisoning. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 March 1988)

160. On 24 March 1988, two residents of Balata were killed when border guards
opened fire after being attacked during patrols in the camp. The victims were
named as Majed Muhammad Sawalmeh, 21, and Muhammad Ali Abu Zur, 18. For the first time since the beginning of the uprising two petrol bombs were thrown at a house in the Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem's Old City. (Ha'aretz, 25 March 1988)

161. On 25 and 26 March 1988, many violent disturbances were reported in the
territories in which five residents were shot dead and many other injured. Large areas in the West Bank and Gaza were closed to news media coverage. Widespread arrests continued in the Gaza Strip, where 200,000 residents were under curfew. On 25 March 1988, two youths were killed in Tarkumiya when troops opened fire at protesters. They were named as Walid Fatafta, 18, and Khaled Markatan, 18. On 26 March 1988, two youth from the village of Thulth, south of Tulkarem, were killed when troops opened fire. They were Majed Hussein Dib, 19, and Awad Khassem Ibrahim, 30. Ten persons were injured. In the village of Zuata, near Nablus, Ayad Turki Khalil, 25, died after being shot the previous day. Violent disturbances were reported in Hebron, Nablus and Dahiriya. Several persons were injured. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 March 1988)

162. On 27 March 1988, a clash was reported between troops and villagers in
Meithalun, north of Nablus, when troops went to the village to carry out arrests. Riots broke out when youths attacked the soldiers with stones, bottles and axes, and at a later stage, local drivers tried to run down the soldiers. The troops opened fire at the occupants of the cars. Three villagers were killed and two injured. The three dead were named as Mahmud Rabaiyedh, 23, Sahim Mahmud Noerat, 27, and Ghassan Kassem Noerat, 16. In Salfit, Yasser al Khirbawi, 14, was killed by troops after they were pelted with rocks and attacked with iron bars. Violent disturbances also occurred in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Beit Sahur and Kalandiya camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 March 1988)

163. On 28 March 1988, the IDF declared the territories closed military areas for 72 hours. The move coincided with the commemoration of Land Day on 30 March 1988. In connection with the three-day closure of the territories, Arab residents would not be allowed to enter Israel or to cross the Jordan bridges, and entry to the territories would be forbidden to non-residents, including journalists, except for a small number organized in pools and accompanied by an escort from the IDF spokesman's office. In addition, a curfew was imposed on the Gaza Strip for the entire closure period. In the West Bank, local residents would not be allowed to leave the immediate vicinity of their villages or towns, but would be allowed to btravel freely near their homes. Jewish settlers would be allowed to travel to work and "other normal activities", but not to gather for any other purposes. Humanitarian organizations such as the Red Cross and UNRWA would be allowed to perform their tasks. The measures imposed on the territories were seen by reporters as unprecedented in their scope since the 1967 war. According to security sources they were intended to thwart plans by the organizers of the uprising to turn Land Day into a particularly significant day "which would not be forgotten for a long time". The ban on movement into and out from the territories was principally intended in order to prevent contact between the Arabs in the territories and the Israeli Arabs. Among other measures preceding the closure of the territories it was announced that "extensive arrests" were carried out of youths suspected of participating, organizing or of being liable to take part in protest actions on Land Day. (Ha'aretz, 29 and 30 March 1988)

164. On 30 March 1988, Land Day was marked in the territories with many violent disturbances. Four Arabs were reported dead from shooting in the West Bank, some 50 were injured and 3 soldiers and 3 Israeli civilians were slightly injured from stone-throwing. The reported reason for the large number of casualties was the order given to troops to deal with any disorder "very toughly". There were many incidents of firing by troops and many of the injured had gun shot wounds. Most of the violent incidents and clashes occurred in villages and along main roads. In the towns residents stayed at home in a "self-imposed curfew". In Deir Abu Mash'al, near Ramallah, a 50-year-old woman, Wajiha Rabi, was shot dead and four other villagers were injured when troops opened fire at villagers who attacked them with axes, iron bars and sticks. One soldier was injured. In Shuyakh, troops shot and killed Abdel Karim Halaikeh, 25, and wounded six villagers, including a young boy, a teenage girl and an old man. Four others were injured by rubber bullets. In Burka troops shot and killed Khaled Aref Kassem, 22, and injured two villagers. In Deir Bazi', near Ramallah, Shaker Al-Malasa, 20, was shot dead during a riot. In Yamun troops shot and wounded seven villagers, including one critically. According to Arab sources, two villagers were seriously wounded. Other violent clashes were reported in Beit Ummar, Nur Shams camp, Isawiya, Bitunia, Shuweika, Kafr Dik, Atil, Deir Ghusun, Bani Naim, Yatta, Fawar, Jericho, Eizariya and Hebron area. Some 20 Arabs and a number of soldiers were hurt in the incidents. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 March 1988)

165. On 31 March 1988, the severe restrictions imposed on the territories before and during Land Day were lifted. In Yatta troops opened fire at protesters, killing Suleiman Ahmed Awad Al-Jundi, 18. Dozens of persons injured during Land Day were still in hospitals in the West Bank. Some were reported to be in a serious condition. In the Gaza Strip, immediately after the lifting of the curfew, disturbances again occurred in Jabaliya camp and in Rafah. Troops opened fire at protesters, injuring two. It was also reported that a Yamun villager, Mahmoud Zaben, who had been injured from shots earlier in the week, died of his injuries, in an Israeli hospital. According to Arab sources another Yamun villager, Hussein Shahin, was killed. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 April 1988)

166. On 1 and 2 April 1988, 8 Arabs were killed by troops, over 20 were injured and 2 soldiers were injured. On 1 April 1988, troops opened fire at protesters in Idna, killing 2 and injuring 13. Jamal a-Tamaizi, 20, was killed from a direct hit by a tear gas grenade and Ishak Salaimi, 18, was shot dead. On 2 April 1988, an army commander shot and killed Salim Khalaf a-Sha'er, 23, who was about to throw a petrol bomb at troops. At least three others were injured in the incident, which occurred in Bethlehem. In Beit Likia, near Ramallah, troops shot and killed Jihad Mustafa Asi, 18, and in the nearby village of Deir Sudan, Hamis Mahmoud Ahmed, 41, was killed. Several others were injured. In Gaza a violent clash was reported between soldiers and local youths during which one soldier was stabbed in the chest and seriously injured. Another soldier opened fire at the attackers killing three and injuring two. The three victims were all members of the Al-Kurdi family. In Jerusalem a police officer was stabbed in the abdomen when police dispersed worshippers in the Temple Mount after the Friday prayers. His attacker was captured. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 April 1988)

167. On 3 April 1988, three Arabs died in the West Bank. Khalil Hamzawi, 18, from Askar camp, was electrocuted when soldiers ordered him to remove an object, believed to be a Palestinian flag, from a power line. In Tulkarem Ma'mun Jarad, 15, was killed when he climbed an electric pylon to hang a Palestinian flag. The boy suffered an electric shock and fell to the ground. Ali Diab Abu-Ali, 40, from Yatta, who had been injured the previous day, died of his wounds. At least 120 Arabs had been killed since the start of the uprising on 9 December 1987. Several other disturbances occurred in the West Bank. One soldier was injured in the head from stone-throwing. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 April 1988)

168. On 4 April 1988, a total commercial and transport strike was observed in the territories to protest the visit of United States Secretary of State George Shultz. Nevertheless, some 40 per cent of the Gaza residents, went to their jobs. In Bani Naim, near Hebron, troops opened fire at protesters, killing Hamdi Abdel Mahdi Zeidat, 20. Other violent demonstrations took place in Bethlehem, A-Ram, Anabta, Nur Shams, Idna and elsewhere. Several persons were injured, including a five-year-old boy who was hit in the eye by a rubber bullet when troops dispersed protesters in Nablus. In Khan Yunis Hamza Abu Shaheb, 23, who had been injured on Land Day, died of his injuries. Incidents were also reported in several areas of East Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 April 1988)

169. On 6 April 1988, a violent clash occurred between a group of teenagers from the Eilon-Moreh settlement, accompanied by two armed guards, and villagers from Beita. The incident started when the group of 16 youths who were travelling in the area were surrounded by stone-throwing Arabs. One of the guards, Romam Aldubi, fired at the attackers, killing Musa Saleh Bani-Shamsa, 20 and Hatem Faiz Ahmed, 19, and seriously injuring a third villager. Many villagers then attacked the group. A settler girl, Tirza Porat, 15, was killed. The guard Aldubi was seriously injured when he was hit in the head by heavy stones. Some of the village women then took several settler girls to their homes and sheltered them there until the incident was over. Others called Red Crescent ambulances from Nablus, by which the dead and injured were evacuated. The journey had not been co-ordinated with the IDF and the military authorities learned about it only after three United States television crews arrived on the scene. On 10 April 1988, it was reported that Tirza Porat from Eilon-Moreh was killed by a bullet fired from the rifle of the guard Aldubi. During the weekend the IDF demolished 13 houses in Beita. Military sources said the homes belonged to persons suspected of "physically participating in the attack on the children, or who led and incited the attack". Troops shot and killed Issan Bani Shamsa, 14, who fled from them during searches near the village. Hundreds of villagers were detained for questioning and, except for 50, were later released. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 and 10 April 1988)

170. On 11 April 1988, troops opened fire at protesters in the village of Ra'i, near Jenin, killing three and injuring several others. The dead were named as Jalal Raja Abu-Hajir, 21, Muhammad Abd el-Kader Yahya, 20, and Fuad Aziz Muhammad Saleh, 22. (Ha'aretz, 12 April 1988)

171. On 13 April 1988, an IDF spokesman said the military authorities were investigating the death circumstances of Hassan Mahmud Kahud, 21, from Shati camp and of Wakfa Abd Latif, 70, who died after inhaling tear gas. According to Arab sources an elderly woman, Suad Ahmed Yussuf, 95, died two days earlier after being beaten by soldiers. The IDF flatly denied the allegation. Violent demonstrations were held in Jabaliya camp, Khan Yunis, Rafah and Gaza. Troops raided several West Bank villages. Dozens of villagers were arrested.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 April 1988)

172. On 14 April 1988, violent disturbances occurred in Nablus. Troops opened fire at youths who were hurling blocks at them from roof-tops. Wahif Taha Nazam, 24, was killed. His death triggered off a mass funeral demonstration, in which at least two persons were injured. In another area of the town Nafer Fahmi al-Lidawi, 22, was shot and killed by troops. His funeral turned into a violent demonstration, which troops tried to disperse. Seven more persons were injured from gunshots. In other incidents a youth from the Tulkarem refugee camp was shot and wounded after a border-guard patrol was attacked with stones. The camp was placed under curfew and troops sealed several entrances. Near the Tekon settlement an 8-year-old settler boy was injured in the head from stone-throwing. Violent disturbances were also reported in the Gaza Strip. According to Arab sources many people were injured from tear-gas poisoning and many arrests were made. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 April 1988)

173. On 16 April 1988, at least 11 Arabs - and according to Arab sources 15 persons - were killed in clashes with troops in a wave of violent protests and demonstrations in the territories following the murder in Tunis of Khalil el-Wazir (Abu-Jihad), the top PLO official. There were dozens of injured, including some seriously, and dozens were hospitalized with rubber-bullet and tear-gas injuries. The wave of demonstrations and clashes was described as the worst since the beginning of the uprising in December 1987. The following details were reported concerning the casualties: in the Gaza Strip seven Arabs were killed. They were named as Jamal Hassin Sharada, 18, from Bureij; Raman Amar Rabu Amar, 22, from Khan Yunis; Wahab Abd Atwa, 17, from Rafah; Dissar al-Bughi, 17, from Rafah; Jamal al-Jamal, 25, from Rafah; Shukri Ibrahim al-Durna, 22, from Abassan; and Mahmud Abu-Zigar from Rafah. Some 80 injured persons were hospitalized in the Gaza Strip, including 10 with serious injuries. All the injuries in that area were reportedly caused by IDF shooting. In the West Bank the following casualties were reported: in Jenin, three local residents were killed from IDF shootings: Hilmi Ibrahim Abdallah, 23; Saada Abdallah Kir'awi, a 40-year-old woman; and Bassam al-Hariri, 25. In Habla, near Kalkiliya, Hala Awad Amira, 20, was killed, probably by a settler. Her body was sent to the forensic institute for examination. In the same incident a 9-year-old boy, Yusuf Awad Shahwan, was seriously wounded in the head. In Kabatiya, Muhyi Ikmeil, 20, was shot and killed by troops. Another 15 villagers were injured. According to Arab sources Maher Hatabi, 17, was killed in a clash at Silwad. Other persons were injured at Mazraa Sharkiya, Tekna and Nablus. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 April 1988)

174. On 17 April 1988, a relative calm was restored in the territories due to a very heavy presence of troops, curfews and the beginning of the month of Ramadan. The news media were banned from entering most of the West Bank areas. Five of the persons injured the previous day died in hospital. They included Ziyad Taefik Amarna, 14, from Yabed, near Jenin; the other four were residents of the Golan whose names were not reported. There were several reports of clashes with troops and use of live bullets. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 April 1988)

175. On 18 April 1988, the general strike continued in the territories in protest over the killing of Abu-Jihad, and a population of over 400,000 was under curfew, for the second day running. The news media ban continued in the West Bank. In Tel el-Sultan neighbourhood in Rafah, Ahmed Musa A'iah, 20, was killed by an IDF officer, reportedly after resisting arrest. Aida Totah, a 26-year-old mother of six from the Zeitun neighbourhood in Gaza, was killed in unknown circumstances. Doctors at the Ahli Hospital said she died as a result of a gunshot injury in her neck. (Jerusalem Post, 19 April 1988)

176. On 19 April 1988, Nizar Masad, 23, who was seriously injured in the head the previous day from IDF shooting in the village of Fakn'a, near Jenin, died of his wounds. In the same incident a six-year-old girl, Farial al-Jaloudi, was injured in the leg and hospitalized. In the Gaza Strip there were demonstrations near the mourners' tent for Abu-Jihad, in the Daraj neighbourhood in Gaza. Troops used tear gas and fired in the air to disperse protesters. Similar demonstrations were reported in the Shati camp, where Allah ed-Din Abu-Hasara, 19, was injured and hospitalized. The general strike, curfews and news media ban continued. In Jalazun the IDF authorized three UNRWA trucks to bring in food supplies. (Ha'aretz, 20 April 1988)

177. On 21 April 1988, serious disturbances were reported in various areas of the Gaza Strip. At Nuseirat refugee camp hundreds of protesters defied a curfew and held a mock funeral for Abu-Jihad. Troops fired tear gas and rubber bullets, and later opened fire. Mohammad Hassan Nasser, 20, was killed and 12 others were injured by gunfire, including one seriously. Two others were hospitalized in Gaza with broken limbs. Mock funerals and clashes with troops were also reported in Ramallah, Beit-Sahur and Isawiya, in East Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 April 1988)

178. On 22 April 1988, serious disturbances occurred in the Gaza Strip and on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Faraj Ismail Yussuf, 26, from Idna, near Hebron, was killed after allegedly attacking a border-guard policeman. Mahmud Faiz Abu-Ali, 25, from Bani-Suheileh, in the Gaza Strip, was shot dead. In Jabaliya camp troops opened fire at stone-throwing crowds. Twelve Arabs were injured, including two seriously. They were hospitalized in Israel. Among those injured there were three nine-year-old children. In the rioting on the Temple Mount, following the Friday prayers, policemen used clubs and rubber bullets to disperse protesters. Some 30 were arrested. On 23 April 1988, Hamad Mustafa Abu-Zeid, 20, was shot dead in Kabatiya after allegedly trying to attack a border-guard policeman with an axe. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 April 1988)

179. On 24 April 1988, it was learnt that Ahmed Salem Amer, 22, from Beit Harush had been shot dead on 22 April 1988 after throwing a petrol bomb on troops. According to Arab sources a 60-year-old woman from Beit Ummar died on 23 April 1988 after inhaling tear-gas fumes of a grenade thrown into her home. IDF sources denied that any incident had occurred in that area. (Ha'aretz, 25 April 1988)

180. On 27 April 1988, a 14-year-old girl, Arij Salman Daoud, from A-Dik, near
Tulkarem, died of injuries sustained the previous day during a violent clash
between troops and villagers, who tried to prevent the soldiers from entering the local mosque to remove Palestinian flags and loud speakers. According to Arab sources some 30 villagers were injured in the clashes. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 April 1988)

181. On 28 April 1988, two serious incidents occurred in the West Bank villages of Ma'alek and Salem when troops entered the villages to clear road-blocks and remove Palestinian flags. In both villages clashes were reported. In Ma'alek, in the Ramallah district, Sari Hilal, 35, was shot dead when troops fired at a person who threw a petrol bomb at them. According to Arab sources Hilal was shot in the back. Several villagers were injured. In Salem, in Nablus district, two women and two men were injured in clashes between troops and villagers. Other incidents were reported in Hebron, Nablus, Beit Sahur and Abwin, near Ramallah. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 April 1988)

182. On 30 April 1988, a clash was reported in Hebron between Arab stone-throwers and settlers from Kiryat-Arba. On 1 May 1988, several serious incidents were reported in the West Bank, where a total business strike was observed. In the village of Faku'a, near Jenin, Naim Yussuf Abu Farha, 20, was killed when troops entered the village to clear road-blocks and remove flags. Villagers stoned the soldiers and they fired back. A preliminary investigation into the incident found that the firing was unjustified, and the deputy company commander responsible for the soldiers involved in the shooting was suspended from his post for the duration of the investigation. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 May 1988)

183. On 2 May 1988, Nidal Abu-Shomar, 17, from Beit Wazzan, near Nablus, died after being electrocuted on a high-voltage power line he had climbed to hang a Palestinian flag. Sources in Nablus said a 80-year-old man, Muhammad Hussein al-Muhi, from Ein Beit Alma camp, died of gunshot wounds suffered the previous day, but this could not be confirmed by the IDF. Arab sources also reported that Ossama Husni Abu-Rub, from Kabatiya, was seriously injured. An army spokesman said this would be investigated. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 May 1988)

184. On 3 May 1988, violent disturbances were reported in many areas, resulting in the death of three youths: Omar Muhammad Ali Manasra, 18, and Nidal Salem Balut, 19, from the village of Bani Naim, near Hebron, and Khaled Amira, 23, from Balata camp. Some 20 others were injured from shots or tear gas. Raid Mustabah, 18, from Sajai'ya, in the Gaza Strip, was shot and wounded after being involved in rioting. A 10-year-old boy from Khan Yunis, Ossama Abu Mustafa, who had been shot and wounded several days earlier, was said to be paralysed in both legs as a result of the wounding. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 May 1988)

185. On 4 May 1988, two youths were shot dead in the Jabaliya camp in the
Gaza Strip: Rizik Hussein Sabbah, 17, and Jamal Mahmud el-Mad'oun, 20; seven
others were injured. An IDF spokesman reported that the troops opened fire at
protesters after failing to disperse them and when it appeared that the soldiers were in danger. According to Arab sources a third Gaza resident, Hassan al-Najah, 52, died as a result of tear-gas injury. IDF sources said he could have died of a heart attack, and that the case was being investigated. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 May 1988)

186. On 9 May 1988, there were widespread demonstrations and disturbances, as well as a general strike, to mark five months of uprising in the territories. The most serious incident occurred in Dheisheh camp, where residents blocked the Jerusalem-Hebron highway and stoned cars, including military and settler vehicles. Settlers, members of the "Committee for Safe Roads" (known to be identified with the Kach movement) opened fire at protesters. Later troops arrived and clashed with protesters. Troops opened fire to disperse the protesters and two bullets hit the house of Ibrahim Ahmed Hussein, 35. The man was fatally wounded in the head and later died in hospital. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 May 1988)

187. On 12 May 1988, five persons were shot and wounded in Nablus when troops
opened fire to disperse demonstrators. It was also reported that a villager from Ibadiya, Abd el-Karim Atiyah, 22, died in Ramallah Hospital of wounds suffered in a clash with troops on 30 March 1988. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 May 1988)

188. On 16 May 1988, the first day of the Id al-Fitr holiday, violent incidents were reported in many areas. In Azmut, near Nablus, troops opened fire at protesters, killing Ala el-Din Salah, 15. Three other villagers were injured in the clashes. In Jabaliya camp, in Gaza, a military commander opened fire at a group of youths who stoned the soldiers. A youth, Jihad Nassam al-Abassi, 15, was

killed, and two others were injured. Other violent demonstrations were held in Kalkiliya, Tulkarem and El-Bireh. In Idna, near Hebron, three villagers were injured from border-guard policemen shooting. In Nablus and Ein Beit Alma camp residents defied curfews and demonstrated. According to Arab sources seven Gaza residents, including a woman, were injured from beating. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 May 1988)

189. On 18 May 1988, a serious clash took place between troops and villagers in Abwein, north of Ramallah. Troops backed by helicopters and bulldozers entered the village, and the nearby village of Arura - both self-declared "liberated areas" - to conduct house-to-house searches. They were attacked by hundreds of stone-throwing youths. The troops used tear gas and rubber bullets and, when the youth continued to attack, the force commander opened fire, killing Majdi Yussuf Hillal, 16, and critically wounding a 27-year-old woman, Fatman Yussuf Kassem. Several others were taken to Ramallah Hospital with injuries caused by beating. Three Nablus residents were injured from IDF shooting, and ten others were injured from rubber bullets. Near the Israeli locality of Beit Meir, west of Jerusalem, the body of Husni Muhammad Mahsiri, 40, from Dheisheh, was found. The man's funeral, in Bethlehem, developed into a demonstration, which was dispersed with tear gas and rubber bullets. Several persons were injured, and a curfew was imposed in the area. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 May 1988)

190. On the weekend of 20-22 May 1988, violent disturbances and incidents involving the throwing of petrol bombs were reported, mainly in the "Samaria" district, resulting in the death of three Palestinians and the wounding of several Israelis and Palestinians. On 20 May 1988, a 24-year-old woman from the Tulkarem refugee camp, Kawthar Khaled Mare'i, was shot in the chest by troops who were dispersing protesters. She died of her wounds the next day. On 21 May 1988, Muhammad Ka'adan, 38, and his mother, Shaseh el-Ka'adan, 65, from Deir Ghussun, were burned to death when a petrol bomb was thrown at their car at Shweika, near Tulkarem. Fierce clashes were reported during the weekend in Tulkarem and Nablus. Troops used tear gas, rubber bullets and live ammunition to disperse protesters. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 May 1988)

191. On 24 May 1988, Muhammad Saidi al-Ludi, 45, from the Bureij camp in the
Gaza Strip, died in unclear circumstances following a clash between troops trying to enforce a curfew on the camp and local residents. IDF officers were reportedly investigating the case. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 May 1988)

192. On 25 May 1988, many disturbances and clashes were reported, as the population of the West Bank and Gaza commemorated 40 days since the murder of Abu-Jihad. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 May 1988)

193. On 27 May 1988, Ayad Ibrahim Zeid, 16, who was injured on 7 February 1988, died and was buried in Kalkiliya. Amin Rajeb Abu-Radaha, who was injured on 25 May 1988, died and was buried in Jalazun. In Zeitun neighbourhood in Gaza, a three-year-old girl, Dunya Minir Wassiri, died, allegedly after inhaling tear-gas fumes. IDF sources said no tear-gas canisters were fired in the area on that date. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 May 1988)

194. On 29 May 1988, In'am Ghanam, 25, from the village of Jaba, north of Nablus, was shot in the heart and killed when troops opened fire at a crowd of villagers attacking them with stones. The woman had allegedly tried to assault the soldiers after one of her relatives was wounded. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 May 1988)

195. On 30 May 1988, a nine-month-old girl, Huda Mas'oud, lost an eye and suffered a fractured arm when troops opened fire with rubber bullets at protesters in Jabaliya camp. The child's mother, Najah Mas'oud, 29, was slightly injured. Violent disturbances were also reported in Rafah and Shati camps. Seventeen persons were hospitalized with beatings, tear-gas and rubber-bullet injuries. In Nablus, two persons were shot and wounded in clashes between troops and youths. (Jerusalem Post, 31 May 1988)

196. On 1 June 1988, rioting was reported in Tulkarem following the death of a
12-year-old boy, Majdi Abu-Safaka. Fierce clashes with soldiers erupted during the boy's funeral. Other disturbances were reported in the Al-Amary refugee camp and in other camps in the Ramallah region. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 June 1988)

197. On 3 June 1988, in a clash with IDF forces in the village of Safa, near
Ramallah, Muhammad Issa Ghanem, 26, was killed when an officer opened fire at
stone-throwers. Violent disturbances were reported during the weekend in several other West Bank localities and in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, Ma'ariv, 5 June 1988)

198. On 5 June 1988, a general strike was observed in the territories to protest against the visit of United States Secretary of State George Shultz.
Demonstrations were reported in several West Bank and Gaza localities. Arab
sources reported that Hassam Khader from the village of A-Sawiya, near Nablus, had been murdered on 4 June 1988. There was no confirmation of that information by Israeli sources. The Southern Region Commander, Yitzhak Mordekhai, instructed the civil administration in Gaza to grant "financial and moral assistance" to the family of the nine-month-old baby girl, Huda Mas'oud, who had lost an eye as a result of a rubber-bullet shooting.
(Ha'aretz, 6 June 1988)

199. On 6 June 1988, another 9-month-old baby girl from Jabaliya camp lost an eye as a result of rubber-bullet shooting. She was named as Saida Samir Al-Sharafi. Three other persons were injured in the incident and were hospitalized. The incident occurred when youths threw stones at troops when the curfew in the camp was lifted for two hours to allow residents to buy food. Troops fired rubber bullets to disperse the stone-throwers.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 June 1988) 200. On 7 June 1988, an unidentified assailant stabbed the appointed Mayor of El-Bireh, Hassan A-Tawil, seriously injuring him. A-Tawil was hospitalized in Ramallah and was operated on. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 June 1988)

201. On 8 June 1988, a clash between soldiers and villagers was reported in
Beit Fureik, near Nablus. The clash occurred following a night raid on the
village, during which it was placed under curfew and 19 cards were confiscated from residents who owed taxes. According to Arab sources Abdallah Khaled Khalaf, 25, who was injured three months earlier near Abu Dis when a tear-gas grenade hit him directly, died in Moqased Hospital in Jerusalem, reportedly from complications of spinal injuries. It was also reported that Hassin Jama' Abu-Jalaleh, 20, from Jabaliya refugee camp, died the previous night on his way to hospital. According to his family he had been caught by troops on suspicion of stone-throwing and was severely beaten in all parts of his body, including the head. The body was taken to the forensic institute and the IDF was reportedly investigating the case. (Ha'aretz, 9 June 1988)

202. On 9 June 1988, there were widespread demonstrations and disturbances to mark six months since the beginning of the uprising in the territories. In Sebastia a soldier opened fire at Imad Hassan Hawari, 17, who was reportedly about to throw a heavy stone at him. Most of the violent demonstrations started in the West Bank schools. In Nablus demonstrations were described as "the most serious and violent in six weeks". Soldiers used live ammunition and at least two youths were injured. Violent demonstrations and petrol-bomb attacks were also reported in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 June 1988)

203. On 10 and 11 June 1988, there were several petrod-bomb attacks on Israeli
cars, but there were no reports of casualties. It was also reported that the
security services had succeeded in identifying and arresting the man believed to be the assailant who tried to murder the Mayor of El-Bireh. He was named as Hamis Jawda Faraj, 26, from Jalazun. The suspect's house in Jalazun was
demolished. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 June 1988)

204. On 12 June 1988, violent clashes were reported in several localities in the territories. Two youths were killed and two others, as well as an Israeli settler, were injured. At Dheisheh camp soldiers shot and wounded three people, one of them seriously, during clashes with mourners at the funeral of a 13-year-old boy found dead in a well. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 June 1988)

205. On 13 June 1988, Deib Mahmud Hussein El-Ali, 43, from Abwein, near Ramallah, was killed in unclarified circumstances following a mass arrest operation in the village. His body, with gunshot injuries, was discovered after the operation. The IDF was investigating. Serious clashes were reported in Balata camp. In many localities women and children held demonstrations and marches. (Ha'aretz, 14 June 1988)

206. On 15 June 1988, several petrol-bomb attacks and other violent incidents were reported. A general strike was observed in the territories and all schools were closed in the West Bank, by order of the civil administration. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 June 1988)

207. On 17 and 18 June 1988, many serious clashes were reported, resulting in two deaths and many injured. On 17 June 1988, at dawn, a violent clash occurred in Beit Furik when troops arrived in order to demolish the house of Ahmed Hanani, who was serving a life sentence for the murder of Nablus Mayor Zafer El-Masri. A crowd of villagers threw petrol bombs and blocks at the soldiers and the commander, considering that there was danger to the soldiers' lives, ordered them to open fire. Taysir el-Meleitat, 25, was shot dead and several others were injured, including five seriously. The troops finally succeeded in imposing a curfew and proceeded to demolish the house. Serious disturbances were also reported in several Gaza Strip localities and in East Jerusalem. In Khan Yunis camp troops opened fire at a crowd of youths who threw petrol bombs and rocks at them. Ra'id Khaled Haj Yusuf, 17, was killed. A 14-year-old boy, Id Mahmud al-Ashali, was injured in the leg from shots. On 18 June 1988, violent incidents were reported in Brukin, south-west of Nablus, and in Balata. Several persons were injured. Pupils' protests were also reported in Ramallah and El-Bireh. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 June 1988)

208. On 19 June 1988, a villager from Salem, in Nablus area, was seriously injured in the neck when troops opened fire at rioters. Other disturbances were reported in Ramallah, Nablus, Askar camp and the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 June 1988)

209. On 20 June 1988, an Israeli civilian, Eli Cohen, 33, was stabbed to death in Moshav Shekef, located close to the Green Line, on the Hebron-Kiryat Gat road. The IDF imposed curfews on 8 West Bank villages in the region, and some 20 Arabs were detained for questioning. In Gaza, two soldiers were injured when a petrol bomb was thrown at a patrol in the town's main street. The entire Gaza Strip was placed under curfew and suspects were detained. Other disturbances were reported in Khan Yunis and the Amal neighbourhood. (Ha'aretz, 21 June 1988)

210. On 21 June 1988, several Arab youths were injured in clashes with troops.
Several West Bank villages were sealed off, in others, searches and arrest
operations were carried out, and several localities were still under curfew.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 June 1988)

211. On 22 June 1988, violent disturbances were reported in Rafah and in several West Bank towns. In Rafah troops opened fire at stone-throwers. Taled Raziz Zakut, 16, was killed, and several others were injured. A soldier was injured in the head. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 June 1988)

212. On 26 June 1988, violent disturbances were reported in high schools in
Nablus. Troops fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse rioters, injuring several of them. (Ha'aretz, 27 June 1988)

213. On 29 June 1988, a 15-year-old boy, Ibrahim Ghassan Anrukh, from Taiba, near Ramallah, was killed when troops opened fire at protesters. The demonstration followed a fire, allegedly started by settlers, which destroyed an olive grove. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 June 1988)

214. On 30 June 1988, Arafat Hanani, 17, from Beit Furik, died in Ramallah Hospital from injuries sustained earlier. Violent disturbances were reported in Nablus, Ramallah, Jenin and many villages. (Ha'aretz, Ma'ariv, 1 July 1988)

215. On 1 July 1988, it was reported that Arafat Awad Hanani, 20, from Beit Furik, who had been shot during a demonstration two weeks earlier, died at the Ramallah Hospital on 30 June 1988. Several Arabs were injured in Nablus and East Jerusalem when troops and police fired tear gas at demonstrators. Several persons were arrested. Several student demonstrations were reported in East Jerusalem. (Jerusalem Post, 1 July 1988)

216. On 3 July 1988, hundreds of Muslims rioted and stoned policemen in the Old City of Jerusalem following digging carried out by the Religious Affairs Ministry in the Via Dolorosa, in the Muslim Quarter. The rioting started after a muezzin on the Temple Mount called on Muslim worshippers to defend the mosques from Jews who were trying to penetrate the Temple Mount by digging a tunnel. Police and border police used tear gas and rubber bullets, sealed off the Temple Mount and cut off the loudspeakers used by the muezzins. Violent incidents and stone-throwing at Israeli traffic later spread from the Old City to other areas in East Jerusalem. Seven Arabs were arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 July 1988)

217. On 8 and 9 July 1988, many violent disturbances were reported in the West
Bank. In Tubas, north of Nablus, troops opened fire at demonstrators.
Abd el-Kader Dagharma, 22, was hit in the abdomen and later died in hospital.
Another villager was shot in the thigh. An IDF spokesman said an investigation was under way into the incident. In the Jabaliya refugee camp in Gaza, Fayek Salim Radwan Hussein, 25, was killed and two other residents were shot and injured. The circumstances of the incident were not clear. An IDF spokesman said an investigation was under way. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 July 1988)

218. On 10 July 1988, violent clashes continued in many West Bank localities. A general business and transport strike was observed and seven localities were under curfew. In a violent clash in Askar camp troops opened fire at stone-throwing youths, hitting Zuhadi Mansour al Zureiki, 17, in the thighs. He later died in hospital. In Nablus, Amjad Hawaja, 17, was shot in the chest and seriously injured after he was allegedly seen trying to throw a brick at IDF troops from a rooftop in the Old City. His shooting sparked off a wave of serious rioting in the town. Other clashes were reported in Idna, Yatta and Dhahiriya, near Hebron, and in Jenin. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 July 1988)

219. On 11 July 1988, serious rioting and clashes continued in Nablus for the
second day running. Faras Anabtawi, 17, was shot dead by troops in unclear
circumstances. At least nine others (16, according to Arab sources) were injured from gunshots. In Anabta troops opened fire at protesters who threw stones and empty bottles at them. Hassan Ahmed Adas, 16, was shot dead by the troops. Other violent demonstrations were reported in Dheisheh, Tulkarem and the nearby camp and Gaza. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 July 1988)

220. On 13 July 1988, two youths died in Nablus of wounds sustained earlier:
Amjad Hawaja, 17, and Samir A-Sayeh, 16. The news of the youths' death sparked off renewed rioting in the town, in spite of the curfew. Troops opened fire at rioters, seriously injuring Khaled Jabar, 25. Other clashes were reported in Tulkarem, the nearby camp and Nur-Shams camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 July 1988)

221. On 15 and 16 July 1988, violent clashes were reported in Tulkarem and in
Nablus. Faras A-Nimmim, 25, from Shati camp, died in Shifa Hospital in Gaza after being severely beaten four months earlier. His funeral sparked off serious rioting in the area. An IDF spokesman denied that the death was the result of the beating. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 July 1988)

222. On 17 July 1988, incidents were reported in Kabatiya, Anabta and Tulkarem. In Khan Yunis, a 14-year-old boy, Asanah Saleh Nasser, was injured in the head and abdomen when he fell from the local mosque after being ordered to climb and remove a Palestinian flag. Violent demonstrations were reported in Shati camp following the death, the previous day, of Faras A-Nimmim. In Petan-Tikva, Israel, a soldier, Yossi Hadassi, shot Ma'azuz Abdel Rahman Yamin, 22, to death after the Arab youth had allegedly attacked him and tried to grab his rifle. The attacker, a villager from Jit, near Nablus, died of his wounds after being operated on in hospital. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 July 1988)

223. On 18 July 1988, widespread demonstrations took place in Beit Sahur after the death of Edmond Elias Ghanem, 17. The youth was killed when a big brick dropped from a building used as a look-out post by troops. Local residents alleged that soldiers dropped the brick deliberately, but IDF senior officers investigated the death and said it was a "tragic accident". Troops imposed a curfew on the town, but thousands of residents violated the curfew and took to the streets. The troops did not intervene. Riots also broke out in Ein Beit Alma camp near Nablus, after it became known that Jamal al-Kadumi, 29, died after being injured in the head by IDF shooting near Far'a camp the previous week. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 July 1988)

224. On 19 July 1988, Nidal Fuad Rabadi, 16, from the Christian Quarter of
Jerusalem's Old City, was shot dead by troops after an Israeli bus was stoned near the Dahiat al-Barid neighbourhood, north of Jerusalem. Rabadi was the first Arab resident of Jerusalem who was shot dead since the beginning of the uprising. During his funeral rioting was reported and troops fired in the air to disperse protesters. Two policemen were injured, including one who was seriously injured in the head. Twenty Arabs were arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 July 1988)

225. On 20 July 1988, three West Bank youths were shot dead and seven were injured in several serious clashes. In Shuyukh, near Hebron, troops were assaulted by local youths as they were about to carry out arrests. Troops shot at a youth who was allegedly trying to throw a petrol bomb at an IDF jeep. The youth, Zaki Mahmud al-Halaika, 23, died in hospital. Three other youths were injured. In Jenin dozens of youths rioted on the main road. Troops opened fire, killing two youths: Hisham Ziad, 22, from the nearby Kufeirat village, and Fuad Bassam Urabi, 16, from Arabeh. Three others were injured from gunfire, including one, Abd el-Farah Alian, 25, very seriously in the head, and another, Hamani Mahawish, 26, in the arm and the head. Violent disorders and clashes also occurred in Ramallah, Bani-Naim and the Hebron and Nablus areas. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 July 1988)

226. On 21 July 1988, the last day of studies in the West Bank, serious rioting was reported in the Casbah area of Nablus and in other localities. Two persons were killed in the city when troops opened fire at hundreds of students demonstrating and throwing stones in the Casbah. Maher Abu-Ghazaleh, 24, and Hussam Abd el-Aziz, 23, were both shot in the chest. Their funerals sparked off even fiercer rioting and troops fired tear gas and rubber bullets and later imposed a curfew on the entire city and on nearby camps. In Danaba, near Tulkarem, Muhamed Taker Sif, 17, an Israeli Arab, was shot dead during riots. Other incidents involving students were reported in Ramallah, Hebron, Kabatiya, Dheisheh, Bethlehem, Kalkiliya and Beit Sahur, where a curfew was reimposed. Violent incidents were also reported throughout the Gaza Strip, where 10 persons were injured from rubber bullets. In East Jerusalem violence was described as the worst since the beginnning of the uprising. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 July 1988)

227. On 24 July 1988, two West Bank residents were killed from IDF shooting during serious clashes. In Kabatiya troops opened fire at hundreds of protesters who were blocking the main road and throwing objects at soldiers. Yasser Hanan Sabana, 25, was killed and three others were injured. An IDF officer was also injured. According to Arab sources two of the injured, Taleb Arabli, 28, and Khaled Abu Rub, were shot in the head and were in critical condition. In Beit Jala troops opened fire at a crowd of stone-throwers, hitting Jiris Yussuf Kunkar, 40, in the abdomen. He later died in hospital. Violent disturbances were also reported in the Gaza Strip. According to Arab sources a 25-day-old baby, Sair Adnun Bader, from Jabaliya, died from gas inhalation. IDF sources said the baby died "from natural causes", but the matter was under investigation. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 July 1988)

228. On 26 July 1988, a 13-year-old girl, Suheir Fuad Afana, from Shati camp, was killed when troops opened fire at youths who were throwing rocks and bricks at them. Clashes were reported in Jenin, Tulkarem and Kalkiliya. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 July 1988)

229. On 27 July 1988, it was reported that the Kach movement was operating 11 teams to patrol roads in the Jerusalem area where Israeli cars and buses had recently been attacked. Each team consisted of four to five persons armed either with firearms or with clubs and iron bars. A spokeswoman for the Jerusalem police said that two Kach members had been detained for questioning after police discovered loaded guns, clubs and iron bars in their car. (Ha'aretz, 27 July 1988)

230. On 28 July 1988, Hani Adel a-Turuk, 37, from Gaza, died in hospital after
being shot by troops one month earlier. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 July 1988)

231. On 1 August 1988, day one of a two-day general strike in the territories
declared by the leadership of the uprising to protest over the expulsion of eight Arabs to South Lebanon, violent clashes were reported in Nablus and in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 August 1988)

232. On 2 August 1988, violent clashes continued, for the second day, in protest over the recent expulsions. In Nablus, troops opened fire at demonstrators, killing Ala A-Din al-Aghbar, 18, and wounding three others. Another youth, aged 23, was injured in the abdomen when troops later clashed with participants in al-Aghbar's funeral. The IDF tried to disperse the participants with tear-gas grenades thrown from a helicopter. In Dura, south of Hebron, two youths were shot and injured by troops, reportedly after they tried to prevent local workers from going to their jobs in Israel. Violent demonstrations were also reported in Kalandiya camp and in the Shati and Bureij camps in Gaza. (Ha'aretz, 3 August 1988)

233. On 3 August 1988, violent riots continued in Nablus. In Bethlehem troops
opened fire at rioters, seriously injuring a youth from the Aida camp. In the
Gaza Strip clashes and disturbances erupted when the curfews were lifted to enable the population to buy food. In Shati dozens were injured from beating and gas inhalation. A 15-year-old boy was injured in the eye from a rubber bullet in Bureij. (Ha'aretz, 4 August 1988)

234. On 5 August 1988, troops opened fire at two youths who were seen throwing
petrol bombs at an Israeli car, without hitting it. On 6 August 1988, one of the youths, Ikab Jamil Abu-Yacub, 15, from Haris, near Ariel settlement, died of his wounds. The other, Nidal Abd el-Karim Buzia, 16, was still hospitalized. A Ramallah youth, Jalal Ismail Abu-hadija, died in hospital after being badly burnt when trying to throw a petrol bomb at a military vehicle. In Shati, Khalaf Salam Abu-Karesh, 18, was shot in the abdomen and hospitalized during violent disturbances in the camp. Other violent clashes were reported in Dheisheh, Hebron, Tulkarem and Al-Amary camp near Ramallah. Two youths were shot and injured in Dheisheh, one seriously. Disturbances were reported in refugee camps in Gaza. (Ha'aretz, 7 August 1988)

235. On 7 August 1988, the Mukhtar of Bidya, near Tulkarem, Mustafa Salim Abu-Baker, was shot in the abdomen by unidentified persons near his home. He was hospitalized. Villagers at Bidya had reportedly accused Abu-Baker of mediating land sales to Israelis. (Ha'aretz, 8 August 1988)

236. On 9 August 1988, a general strike was held and a wave of disturbances was reported in the territories to mark the beginning of the ninth month since the start of the uprising. The worst clashes were reported in Kalkiliya, where troops opened fire at a crowd of youths, killing Hussein Abd el-Rahim Sawa, 15. Four other youths were injured. The town was placed under curfew. It was reported that the second youth injured on 5 August 1988, when troops opened fire at two youths who were seen throwing petrol bombs near Haris, died of his wounds on 7 August 1988. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 August 1988)

237. On 10 August 1988, the occupants of a military vehicle that was attacked by stone-throwers near the town of Tubas opened fire on them, killing Ahmed Dagharma, 17. Violent demonstrations were reported in Tulkarem, Hebron, Jenin and the Gaza Strip.
(Ha'aretz, 11 August 1988)

238. On 12 and 13 August 1988, violent clashes were reported in the Gaza Strip and in Jenin. Three Arabs were killed. In Mughazi refugee camp in Gaza troops opened fire at rioters, killing Riad Sliman Abu-Madel, 23, and injuring two others. In Rafah, troops opened fire at rioters, killing Muhammad Iyad Abu-Razek, 52, and injuring three others, one seriously. Dozens of Gaza residents were reportedly injured from gas-inhaling and from beating. In riots in Jenin refugee camp, Yusuf Muhammad Damaj, 18, was shot in the chest by soldiers and later died in hospital. Other violent clashes were reported in the Tulkarem refugee camp. (Ha'aretz, 14 August 1988)

239. On 14 August 1988, violent clashes continued throughout the Gaza Strip.
Thirty five residents of Jabaliya camp were severely beaten, as a result of which one died. It was reported that two Arabs who had been injured earlier died of their wounds. They were Hisham (or Maher) Mekkad, 20, and Muhammad Hamad Abu Razek, 20, both from Rafah. In the West Bank, clashes were reported in Balata, Nablus, Jalazun and Tulkarem. Several persons were wounded. (Jerusalem Post, 15 August 1988)

240. On 15 August 1988, a clash was reported in Jabaliya camp between youths
violating the curfew and security forces. Other violent clashes were reported in the Tulkarem refugee camp, where an 18-year-old youth, named Jamal Muhammad Mussa Odeh, was killed. Other clashes were reported in Nablus and in East Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 August 1988)

241. On 17 August 1988, clashes were reported in Jenin. Troops opened fire, killing a 9-year-old girl who was reportedly in her home during the incident. She was named as Rasha Mazen Arkawi. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 August 1988)

242. On 18 August 1988, riots were reported in several localities in the West Bank following the announcement that 15 persons were to be expelled from the area. Three Arabs were injured. In the Gaza Strip four residents were injured in Shati, Nusseirat and Bureij camps, including two boys aged 14 and 17. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 August 1988)

243. On 20 August 1988, Saud Hasan Mustafa from Yamun, near Jenin, died of injuries he had sustained the previous night, when troops raided the village to carry out arrests. Other violent clashes were reported in Beit-Anan, near Ramallah, where a youth was shot and injured, Jenin, Artas and Al-Amary camp. Several persons were shot and injured. A curfew was imposed on Tulkarem camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 August 1988)

244. On 21 August 1988, violent riots were reported throughout the territories, in response to a call by fundamentalist groups and the leadership of the uprising. In Tubas, Raja Muhammad Hamdan Fawafta, 17, was killed when troops opened fire. In Bureij, Nail Mahmud Maslah Hamad, 18, was killed. In Dheisheh, Muhammad Abu-Akar, 17, was critically injured after being shot a fortnight earlier. In Bal'a, near Tulkarem, a 14-year-old boy was injured in the head and another one was wounded by a rubber bullet. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 August 1988)

245. On 22 August 1988, violent clashes were reported, mainly in refugee camps, as a total general strike paralysed the territories. In Askar camp five youths were shot and injured, and one of them later died of his wounds. He was named as Ahmad Shaghrubi, 22. The IDF imposed a "preventive curfew" on Nablus and the nearby camps. According to Arab and foreign observers, the number of persons injured from shooting of live bullets had sharply increased in recent weeks. A curfew was still in force in Bureij camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 August 1988)

246. On 24 August 1988, violent clashes were reported in and around Nablus. Over 15 persons were shot and injured, and some were in a serious condition, including a 17-year-old girl. According to Arab sources, Hani el-Shami, 43, from Jabaliya, died after being severely beaten by troops the previous day. Serious clashes were reported in Shati, Nuseirat and Rimal camps. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 August 1988)

247. On 25 August 1988, Saadi Hazaza, 34, from the village of Yatta, south of
Hebron, was murdered by unidentified persons, reportedly after he was known as a collaborator. Near the village of Zawiya, close to Elkana settlement, the body of Mahmud Ghaleb Shukeir, 31, was discovered. He was one of the prisoners released in the prisoner-exchange operation with Ahmed Jibril's organization. Following discovery of the body, a clash broke out in the village. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 August 1988)
2. Other general policy developments

Written information

248. On 13 September 1987 it was reported that the West Bank Data Base Project, headed by Dr. Meron Benvenisti, had issued its yearly study reviewing demographic, economic, legal, social and political developments in the West Bank in 1986 and early 1987. According to the study services and the infrastructure in the West Bank were becoming increasingly divided along ethnic lines, with separate facilities for Jews and Arabs. According to the study a computerized data bank of the territories had been set up by the Defence Ministry, at a cost of $8.5 million, and was made operational in August 1987. The computerization could provide the authorities with extensive information on property, family ties and political attitudes of Palestinians in the territories, thus enabling civil administration officials to prepare "black lists", which might be consulted while granting permits, licences and travel documents. According to Dr. Benvenisti there was no law banning linkage of data banks in the territories. With regard to violent incidents and their consequences, the study noted, during the period April 1986-May 1987, 3,150 incidents of violent demonstrations, 65 incidents involving firearms, explosives and stabbings and 150 petrol-bomb attacks; 22 Palestinians were killed during that period and 67 were injured; 2 Israelis were killed and 62 were injured. Some 9 Palestinians were deported, 99 put in
administrative detention, 102 put on town arrest and 70 homes were demolished or sealed. The rise in Palestinian casualties should be attributed, according to the report, principally to the IDF's "procedure for stopping suspects", which allowed soldiers to open fire at suspects fleeing a demonstration. During the period under consideration Jewish settlements continued to be increasingly brought under the jurisdiction of Israeli law, through a series of military regulations copying Israeli municipal laws. Annexes to these regulations reportedly applied 28 Israeli laws and administrative systems to Jewish enclaves in the territories, thus continuing the de facto annexation of Jewish enclaves to Israel. Public spending in the Palestinian sector by the civil administration and local authorities reportedly rose sharply, with budgets doubled for schools and quadrupled for health services. The budget for improving the services could come from an "occupation tax", which residents of the territories paid to the Israeli authorities, according
to the study. By adding up the taxes paid by Palestinians and subtracting
permanent subsidies given to Israeli products sold in the territories, the study found that $50 million a year, or $800 million since 1967, had been contributed by Palestinians to the Israeli treasury. (Ha'aretz, 13 September 1987; Jerusalem Post, 13 and 15 September 1987)

249. On 6 November 1987, the findings of a new report on the Gaza Strip were made public. According to the report, written by a team of Israeli experts in the fields of planning, architecture, economics and sociology, the population of the Gaza Strip, which at present stood at 630,000, in an area of 365 square kilometres, could reach 1,053,000 by the year 2000, including 550,000 refugees. The Jewish settler population in the area would grow from 25,000 to 30,000. About 8 per cent of the total area of the Gaza Strip, and half of the vacant state land have been given to the Gaza Coast Regional Council for settlement. As regards the living conditions of the Arab population, since the area already suffered from an acute housing shortage and since new construction lagged far behind the growth of new families, there were crowded slums in the cities where health conditions were poor. The report forecasts that, in three or four years, these conditions could result in serious social deviations, including increased juvenile delinquency, more illegal construction and rising nationalist tensions. As to the area's resources, the report said that, owing to the salination of water sources caused by years of over-pumping, by the year 2000 there would be a shortage of 37 million cubic metres of drinking water. Water available for agriculture would also drop, resulting in a reduction of agricultural land from 175,900 dunams to 148,000 dunams. (Jerusalem Post, 6 November 1987)

250. On 27 November 1987, it was reported that Col. Aryeh Ramot was to be appointed head of the Gaza Strip civil administration. He would replace Brig.-Gen. Yeshayahu Erez.
(Ma'ariv, 27 November 1987)

251. On 28 January 1988, Defence Minister Rabin instructed the civil administration to increase the number of authorizations for family reunification given to residents of the territories. The move was explained as an attempt at soothing tempers in the territories. It was reported that over the past two years some 1,200 requests for family reunification had been granted yearly. On 7 February 1988, it was reported that the last village league still active in the West Bank, that of the Hebron area, was dismantled. Its head, Jamil al-Amla, said he was resigning after realizing the league could no longer function in the light of recent developments in the territories. On 8 February 1988, it was reported that the Southern Region Commander had granted several dozen family reunification permits to Gaza Strip residents in an attempt to restore calm in the region. On 13 April 1988, it was reported that the civil administration had issued eight authorizations for family reunification for residents of the Bethlehem area. On 3 August 1988, the Governor of Ramallah, Lt.-Col. Yosef Yehuda, granted entry permits to 59 Jordanian citizens, in what was described as the largest family reunification operation since the beginning of the uprising. Sources in the civil administration said that permits were given for humanitarian reasons. It was reported that over 100 Jordanian citizens had recently been authorized to join their families in the West Bank. (Ha'aretz, 29 January, 7 February, 13 April and 4 August 1988; Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 February 1988)

252. On 7 February 1988, the High Court of Justice recommended that the Defence Ministry set up a court of appeals for reviewing rulings of the military tribunals in the territories. In his ruling, Justice Shamgar said that the establishment of a court of appeals in the territories would enhance the uniformity of sentences and strengthen the perception of the justice meted out by the system of military tribunals. He rejected the argument of the Defence Minister that establishing such a court would make the process of military justice more cumbersome and would thus hamper the fight against terrorism. On 11 February 1988, it was reported that Defence Minister Rabin decided to act according to the High Court recommendation. (Ha'aretz, 8-11 February 1988)
B. Administration of justice, including the right to fair trial

Oral evidence

253. A number of witnesses described their personal experience with regard to the administration of justice in the occupied territories. In this connection reference was made to the lack of adequate judicial remedies and the fact that most trials were a pretence of justice rather than fair trials. Mr. Walid Mahmoud, a former detainee, stated in this connection:

"The way the courts operate there, it is usually in the form of a closed hearing, and that was the case with me. I was not allowed to contact a awyer; they provided a lawyer. I was not allowed to see what the charges were, I was not told what the charges were in detail. The lawyer had everything and they just carried on the process.

"The CHAIRMAN: In what language did they carry on those proceedings?

"The WITNESS (interpretation from Arabic): In Hebrew. ...

"The CHAIRMAN: Did you understand what was happening in court?


"The WITNESS (interpretation from Arabic): It happened so quickly. They were moving us in and out of court in one row. They were reading the sentences aloud, and some people didn't understand because it was read out in Hebrew. I didn't understand what my sentence was. Then I was taken outside the room and eventually someone explained to me.

"The CHAIRMAN: So would it be correct to say, then, that you had
absolutely no opportunity even to present a defence?

"The WITNESS (interpretation from Arabic): Not once.

"The CHAIRMAN: Nor was the charge read out to you?

"The WITNESS (interpretation from Arabic): No one gave me anything to
see and no one read anything to me. I just knew that the charge was
`resistance to the occupation'." (Mr. Walid Mahmoud, A/AC.145/RT.487)


254. Asked whether he would describe the existing penal law as affording minimum legal protection, as required by international law and practice, another witness, Mr. Bashir Ahmed El-Khairi, who is a lawyer, stated:

"It is very difficult to speak of protection when we look at the facts,
and I am going to give you some of them: 54 per cent of the land in the
occupied territories, in the West Bank and in Gaza, has been seized illegally, through falsifying of papers, uprooting of trees, setting up of barbed wire round territory, the destruction of homes. ... This is a State run by Fascist gangs, by a mafia: there is no rule of law there.
"...

"On the books, the laws are still there. There is a penal code, there
are laws regarding trade, commercial relations, civil relations: all this is
there, on the books, but it is not applied." (A/AC.145/RT.488)

255. Accounts of the administration of justice in the occupied territories may
be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.487 (Mr. Walid Mahmoud); A/AC.145/RT.488
(Mr. Bashir Ahmed El-Khairi); and A/AC.145/RT.492 (an anonymous witness).
1. Palestinian population

(a) Consequences of the uprising

Written information

256. On 15 December 1987, it was reported that in view of the wave of unrest that continued in the Gaza Strip for the fifth consecutive day the army authorities in the region decided to put detained suspects on speedy military trial at the Gaza military court. In recent days many youths, aged 14-18, were put on such trial on charges of disturbing the order and stone-throwing. In most of the cases the youths pleaded guilty and were sentenced to prison terms of two to four months. They were also fined NIS 500-1,000 ($330-660). (Ha'aretz, 15 December 1987)

257. On 20 December 1987, it was reported that 60 East Jerusalem residents were being detained, 22 were arrested on 18 December 1987 and another 8 on 19 December 1987. In the Gaza Strip there were reports of massive arrests. According to Arab lawyers some 300 persons were being detained in the Ansar 2 facilities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 December 1987)

258. On 21 December 1988, 200 local residents were reported arrested in Rafah
following violent disturbances in the town. (Attalia, 24 December 1987)

259. On 22 December 1987, it was reported that owing to overcrowding in Fara the military court in Nablus decided to postpone all pending hearings in order to examine cases of 295 Palestinians detained in the prison on charges connected with the recent disturbances in the territories. (Attalia, 24 December 1987)

260. On 24 December 1987, it was reported that the security forces had embarked on a large-scale operation of arrests in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. As existing detention facilities in the West Bank were full to capacity the IDF opened a new facility near Dhahiriya, south of Hebron, where many suspects were already being detained. According to Arab sources some 150 persons had been detained in the past 48 hours. Most of the detainees were from the northern part of the West Bank. Some of them were sent to military detention facilities inside Israel. The mass arrests were reportedly part of a new tough policy aimed at quelling the unrest. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 December 1987)

261. On 24 December 1987, it was reported that lawyers from the Gaza Strip had been on strike for the third consecutive day in protest over alleged heavy sentences imposed on persons convicted of disturbing the order by the Gaza military court. According to one lawyer heavy sentences were imposed even when there was no evidence that the accused participated in stone-throwing. (Ha'aretz, 24 December 1987)

262. On 25 December 1987, it was reported that the wave of mass arrests had been resumed over the past 24 hours, bringing the number of persons arrested so far on suspicion of disturbing public order to 1,000. The Ansar 2 detention camp in Gaza was reportedly expanded to absorb the influx of detainees, while others were being held in prisons in Nablus and Hebron. It was reported that demonstrators tried in previous days had been sentenced to up to a year in gaol. According to an army source military investigators were using video tapes of IDF and foreign network television news film taken over the two weeks of rioting in order to identify and collect evidence against demonstrators. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 December 1987)

263. On 24 and 25 December 1987 there were reports of 308 persons being detained in Nablus and neighbouring villages. (Attalia, 31 December 1987)

264. On 28 December 1987, it was reported that 1,038 Palestinians were being
detained in the West Bank, 600 of them having been arrested during the past week. Another 350 were being held in Gaza. Military sources also confirmed that the detainees were being held in the Far'a detention camp near Nablus, in the new detention facility in Dhahisiya, in Prison No. 6 near Atlit, in Israel, and in Tulkarem. Three new military courts were reported opened in Hebron, Tulkarem and Ramallah in order to handle the overwhelming case-load of security detainees. A military source reported that most of the detainees were aged 17 to 27. There were several children aged 12 to 14, held for suspected serious offences, "but only with the special approval of the legal adviser in the territories". Gaza lawyers said in a press conference that they would continue their strike to protest against new courtroom procedures allegedly used in the security trials. They complained that unusually stiff fines were being imposed on detainees who had been given suspended sentences and that this constituted a collective punishment, affecting entire families. It was reported that the trials of suspected demonstrators in the Gaza Strip had begun. On 27 December 1987 alone, 23 youths were tried. The military prosecution reportedly intended to file charge sheets against all those detained in the Ansar 2 camp (some 340), and speedy trials would be held for them shortly. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 December 1987)

265. On 29 December 1987, several dozen Palestinians, most of whom were former
administrative detainees and former prisoners released in the prisoner exchange with Ahmed Jibril's organization, were arrested. According to Arab sources those arrested were "prominent figures in the Palestinian national struggle in the territories", and it was feared that they were to be deported. In another development it was reported that MK Matti Peled of the Progressive List for Peace had sent a cable to Defence Minister Rabin, calling on him to stop the summary trials in the territories. He said the courts in the territories had ceased to be institutions of justice and were instead "automatic machines to produce judgements in assembly-line fashion". He charged that the judges refused to enter into the record claims by prisoners that they had been beaten or tortured. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 December 1987)

266. On 30 December 1987, it was reported that lawyers defending West Bank Arabs arrested during the riots in the territories had decided to boycott the "quick justice" hearings at military courts. They described the proceedings as "humiliating and illegal". Arab lawyers complained that they had no chance to see their clients before they were brought before the military judge, and that in many instances they did not even know where their clients had been detained. It was reported that, on 29 December 1987, 70 defendants appeared before military tribunals in Gaza. The majority pleaded guilty to charges of throwing stones and disturbing the peace and were sentenced to prison terms of up to six months and to fines. Four youths, aged 15 to 18, who confessed to having thrown petrol bombs at IDF vehicles, were sentenced to two to two and a half years' imprisonment at the Gaza military court. Over 30 defendants appeared in military court in Nablus. Most of them were sentenced to prison terms of one to eight months. At the newly set military court in Hebron 17 defendants appeared before the judge; they pleaded not guilty and their trials continued. A military source said that, despite the enormous case-load and the need for quick progress, "all legal proceedings are adhered to to the letter". An IDF spokesman announced that the detention and questioning of hundreds of suspects over the past fortnight led to the uncovering of organized groups of youths in Hebron, Tulkarem, Eizariya, El-Bireh and East Jerusalem whose members were suspected of various terrorist acts in recent months. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 December 1987)

267. On 30 December 1987, speedy trials continued in Nablus and Gaza military
court. In Gaza some 20 defendants were tried and sentenced to prison terms of
several months. Dozens more demonstrators were reportedly arrested over the past 48 hours. In Nablus 47 defendants appeared before the judge. Thirty-eight of them pleaded not guilty and were remanded on custody. The nine who confessed were gaoled for periods of one to four and a half months and fined. Two children aged 14 and 15 charged with disorderly conduct were released on bail. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 December 1987)

268. On 31 December 1987, it was reported that some 1,000 persons were detained in the Gaza Strip alone since the beginning of the disturbances. Five hundred were held in Ansar 2, but the place of detention of the other 500 was not known. There were reports that detainees from Bureij (100), Rafah (100), Khan Yunis (150) and Nuseirat (150) were held in police stations and at military command headquarters. (Al-Ittihad, 31 December 1987)

269. On 7 January 1988, it was reported that since 23 December 1988 600 Palestinians were tried and taking part in the recent demonstrations that took place in the occupied territories. Some 200 were sentenced to prison terms between one to six months, and fined up to NIS 1,500. (Attalia, 7 January 1988)

270. On 7 January 1988, it was reported that Defence Minister Rabin had told the Knesset that since 9 December 1987 (the beginning of the wave of unrest in the territories), 1,978 arrests had been made; of the detainees, 908 had been freed. Some 300 people had already been tried, six had been acquitted. (Jerusalem Post, 7 January 1988)

271. On 11 January 1988, it was reported that since 6 January 1988 29 residents of the occupied territories had been placed in administrative detention for six months. They were named as Luey Abdo, Ghazi Al Shayshetri, Adnan Al-Hindi, Naim Al-Saadi, Ziad Ibrahim Amer, Hassan Sherim, Mohammed Rohi Howeysha, Amr Nazal, Faek Marei, Adnan Al-Assi, Jamal Diab, Sami Ali Hassan, Jamal Issa Hamidan, Sabri Ali Hussein, Issa Abdel Samed, Kefah Nazmi, Aiád Ali Al-Saleh, Essam Mustafa Salama, Assaad Abdel Rehim Awda, Kefah Badran, Majid Al-Labdi, Mosaad Mohammed Ammar, Ahmed Al-Balbul, Jawad Abd Raboh, Mohammed Ata Al-Issa, Alla Abdel Kerim Jabr, Ahmed Ragheb Al Saadi, Ibrahim Abd Amer, Wasim Al-Kurdi. (Attalia, 14 January 1988)

272. On 14 January 1988, 35 Palestinians were brought before the military court in Nablus to face various charges connected with their participation in the disturbances. The detainees said Arab and democratic Jewish attornies were on strike to protest "summary trials". Therefore, there were no lawyers to defend their case. (Al-Ittihad, 15 January 1988)

273. On 21 January 1988, it was reported that, since the beginning of the unrest in the territories on 9 December 1987, 1,440 persons had been detained in the Gaza Strip; over 400 of them had already been released and 440 had already been put on trial; of those who were convicted, 370 were imprisoned in military gaol No. 6 in Israel. The average sentences were terms of one to two months and fines of several hundreds new shekels. In exceptional cases sentences of one to two years were given. At present 534 Gaza Strip residents were being detained. (Ha'aretz, 21 January 1988)

274. On 29 January 1988, it was reported that over the past seven weeks administrative detention orders had been issued against 90 residents of the territories, 74 from the West Bank and 16 from the Gaza Strip. At present 114 West Bank residents and 18 Gaza Strip residents were under administrative detention. (Ha'aretz, 29 January 1988)

275. On 14 February 1988, children between 9 and 11 were arrested allegedly for throwing stones at Israeli soldiers. (Attalia, 18 February 1988)

276. On 18 February 1988, the IDF carried massive arrests in many towns and camps in the territories, including Balata and Shu'fat camps, Barka and Eyzereya. (Attalia, 25 February 1988)


277. On 24 February 1988, following an incident where local residents killed a man named as Muhammed Ayed a-Zakharra, 40, and known as a collaborator with Israel, ver 100 residents were arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 and
26 February 1988)

278. On 4 March 1988, scores of persons were arrested in the Jalazun camp (50), Araba village (9) and A-Dik village (5). (Ha'aretz, 6 March 1988)

279. On 9 March 1988, two men from Isawiya, Mussa Muhammad Darwish, 32, and his brother Ali, 26, were charged in the military court in Lod with operating a printing house in which leaflets numbers 2, 3, 5 and 6 of the leadership of the uprising in the territories were printed. The two were remanded in custody until the end of their trial. Four other persons, including Nasser Juaba, 28, from El-Bireh, and Rahim Baghdadi, 32, from Anata, were charged with assistance in printing and distribution of the leaflets, which were described as inciting material. In another development, a lawyer for Faisal Husseini, an alleged top PLO activist in the territories who is serving a six-month administrative detention, said that his client's detention had been extended for an additional three months. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 March 1988)

280. On 10 March 1988, seven administrative detention orders were issued against public figures from East Jerusalem. They included journalists, a member of the East Jerusalem Electric Company Employees' Committee and two ex-prisoners. Over 230 persons were at present held in administrative detention: some 100 from the West Bank, 30 from the Gaza Strip and 10 from East Jerusalem. It was also reported that the IDF was currently holding some 2,600 Palestinian demonstrators in its military prisons. These included both those awaiting trial and those already sentenced. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 March 1988)

281. On 20 March 1988, it was reported that the Chief of Staff had approved a new version of the order on administrative detentions in the territories. According to the new version, which was reportedly a return to an old version prevailing until 1979, military commanders were authorized to issue administrative detention orders for up to six months, with a possible extension. The detentions would not be subjected to judicial review, and the only body before which a detainee would be able to appeal the order would be a military appeal board. The provisions of the new order would also apply to all the administrative detention orders issued under the former order. According to a report it was intended to increase considerably the use of administrative detentions in the territories in order to weaken the leadership of the uprising and detain hundreds of persons suspected of political activity. (Ha'aretz, 20 March 1988)

282. On 20 March 1988, it was reported that among the residents of the territories arrested in recent waves of arrests were one of the youths buried by soldiers at Kaf Salim, Mustafa Abdel Hamid Hamdan, and a popular nationalist singer, known as Walid Abdel Salam, brother of the deported editor of the Al-Sha'ab newspaper, Akram Haniyeh. Also arrested were several journalists, including a reporter for the Palestine Press Service in Tulkarem, Adnan Damiri, and two other journalists who worked for the communist newspaper Al-Taliah. It was also reported that the vice-chairman of the Gaza Strip Bar Association, Adv. Muhammad Hashem Abu-Shaaban, 34, was placed under a six-month administrative detention, reportedly on suspicion of hostile and subversive activity. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 March 1988)

283. On 22 March 1988, some 3,000 persons were under detention; some 1,000 others had been arrested and later released. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 March 1988)

284. On 23 March 1988, it was reported that following the entry into force of the new procedure regarding administrative detention orders, the office of the Judge Advocate-General intended to issue six-month administrative detention orders against some 300 of the 600 persons arrested in the territories over the past week. The orders would be issued against those suspected of incitement, who were identified as local leaders or took active part in the unrest, and whom the IDF had no interest in putting on trial. It was reported that the number of persons arrested since the beginning of the uprising in December 1987 was 4,000. About 1,000 were already released. Under the new procedure concerning administrative detention a military commander was authorized to issue orders for up to six months, at his discretion, against anyone suspected of activity against the region's security or the public security. Unlike under the past procedure, administrative detainees would not be brought before a judge within 96 hours following their detention, and the military prosecution and the security authorities would not have to explain the reasons for the detention. Another recent development was the imprisonment of the hundreds of new detainees, including those under administrative detention, in special IDF-run detention facilities, and no longer in prisons administered by the Prisons Service. The reason given for that new development was that the prisons where security prisoners were held were full to capacity. (Ha'aretz, 23 March 1988)

285. On 25 March 1988, it was reported that a six-month administrative detention order had, for the first time, been issued against a woman, Maryam Ismail Mussa, 27, from Khader, south of Bethlehem. She was arrested on 20 February 1988 on suspicion of distributing leaflets. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 March 1988)

286. On 28 March 1988, it was estimated that some 3,500 persons were at present being detained in various detention centres and prisons, including 600 who were under six-month administrative detention orders. (Ha'aretz, 29 and 30 March 1988)

287. On 31 March 1988 the Southern Region Commander, Maj.-Gen. Yitzhak Mordekhai, disclosed that over 300 Gaza Strip residents had been placed under administrative detention in recent weeks. The arrests were based on clear-cut evidence gathered by legal authorities, he said. "No one, regardless of position, title, age, social condition, is exempt from arrest if he has shown that he intends to act against our forces. In our view, it is preferable to arrest such a person an hour before he acts to prevent the situation from deteriorating." (Jerusalem Post, 1 April 1988)

288. On 1 April 1988, Arab sources reported that a second woman had been placed under admiministrative detention for six months. She was named as Nahida Nazal, from Kalkiliya, a journalist, member of the editorial board of the East Jerusalem Al-Awdah newspaper. (Ha'aretz, 1 April 1988)

289. On 11 April 1988, it was reported that the security forces in the Gaza Strip had recently arrested 10 of the leaders of the uprising in the region and those responsible for leaflets nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6. The 10 were held in the so-called Ansar 3 detention facility in Ketziot. (Ha'aretz, 11 April 1988)

290. On 14 April 1988, according to a report quoting from a letter by MK Dedi Zucker to Defence Minister Rabin, 1,200 administrative detainees were being held in IDF prisons: 900 from the West Bank and 300 from the Gaza Strip. MK Zucker added that some 4,800 detainees were at present being held in various prisons and detention facilities; all of them were detained over the past 4 months. A large number of these detainees ("thousands") were being held in the detention facility in Ketziot. (Ha'aretz, 14 April 1988)

291. On 22 April 1988, two brothers, aged 15 and 18, from Shu'fat camp, appealed to the Supreme Court over the severity of the sentences they received for stone-throwing. The older brother was sentenced to one year in prison and fined NIS 5,000 (approximately $3,300) and the younger was given a nine month gaol term and fined NIS 4,000 (approximately $2,700), for six stone-throwing attacks at a bus going to Neve-Yaacov. One passenger was slightly injured in the attacks. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 April 1988)

292. On 24 April 1988, the military court in the Gaza Strip sentenced Atouri Issa Aid, 15, from Zeitun, to 20 months' imprisonment, four years' suspended term and a fine of NIS 2,500 (approximately $1,700), for stone-throwing at IDF troops. Fifteen youths charged with breaking the peace pleaded guilty and were given prison sentences ranging from one to four months. (Ha'aretz, 25 April 1988)

293. On 4 May 1988, it was reported that Raji a-Surani, one of the three Gaza Bar Association officials recently placed in six months' administrative detention, appealed against the measure before an IDF Southern Command advisory board. The appeal was the first case of one of the estimated 1,700 administrative detainees in the territories appealing against their sentence. (Jerusalem Post, 4 May 1988)

294. On 8 May 1988, it was reported that over the past week dozens of children aged 8-12 were arrested in the Gaza Strip after throwing stones at soldiers. The children were released after their parents signed an undertaking that their children would no longer participate in such activity. It was also reported that during the five months of uprising some 3,000 persons, including 20 minors, were tried in Gaza for breaking the peace. Only 20 were acquitted. The rest were sentenced to prison terms and fines. The severest sentence was four years' imprisonment for throwing a petrol bomb. Most of the defendants were not represented by lawyers. (Ha'aretz, 8 May 1988)

295. On 19 May 1988, it was reported that MK Dedi Zucker had prepared a report in which he affirmed that there were at present 1,900 inhabitants held in administrative detention. They constituted 0.5 per cent of all the men over 18. Two thirds were from the West Bank and the rest from the Gaza Strip. Some 75 per cent of the administrative detainees were held in the Ketziot detention centre. Among those detained were 28 journalists and press agency employees, 9 research officers of Palestinian human rights associations and 7 women. The

304. On 29 June 1988, it was reported that the Gaza military court had recently sentenced Yussuf Hatur, 22, from the Sabra neighbourhood in Gaza, to 15 years' imprisonment for throwing petrol bombs and planting improvized charges in Israeli cars. (Ha'aretz, 29 June 1988)

305. On 1 July 1988, it was reported that the military court in Nablus had decided to suspend the trial of 19 residents of Beita pending provision by the prosecution of more detailed information on the charges against them. The villagers were charged with offences ranging from stone-throwing to assault, arising from their alleged involvement in an incident in April 1988 in which a group of young settlers from Eilon-Moreh were attacked near Beita. One of the settlers, a girl, and two Palestinians were killed in the incident. The court rejected the defence attorney's request that the charge sheet be dismissed as "defective", but it asked the prosecutor to prepare a supplement providing all the details asked for by the defence. (Jerusalem Post, 1 July 1988)

306. On 5 July 1988, Muhammad Abu-Sha'aban, deputy director of the Gaza Bar Association, was released from gaol after serving four out of six months of administrative detention. It was also reported that an amnesty committee headed by S/A (Lt.-Col.) David Hakham, advisor on Arab affairs in the civil administration, recommended the release of 25 security prisoners held in Gaza gaol and a reduction of sentence to nine others. (Ha'aretz, 6 July 1988)

307. On 6 July 1988, it was reported that the High Court of Justice would consider a petition by four administrative detainees against the new procedure introduced by the IDF commander in the territories regarding the possibility to appeal against administrative detention orders. The High Court would sit in a three-justice panel. The four petitioners were named as Ahmed Abu-Srur, Salim Abu-Ziad, Araf Musa Abu-Yassin and Khaled Matar. The petition was filed through Adv. Lea Tsemel. (Ha'aretz, 6 July 1988)

308. On 7 July 1988, the IDF released 92 detainees from the Gaza Strip held in Gaza gaol and in the detention facility in Ketziot. A spokesman for the civil administration in Gaza said that 53 of the prisoners had been sentenced for security offences and the other 39 were administrative detainees held without trial. The release was described as a "goodwill gesture" on the eve of the Id al-Adha holiday. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 July 1988)

309. On 11 July 1988, eight residents of Beit-Sahur, members of the local "popular uprising committee", were arrested and placed under administrative detention for six months. They included Dr. Jad Isaac, a Bethlehem University professor who set up a garden shop to sell seedlings for kitchen gardens, but was forced to close the shop under pressure from the authorities who considered it as an attempt to organize an alternative home economy.
(Jerusalem Post, 12 July 1988)

310. On 20 July 1988, Defence Minister Rabin announced that the IDF would set up a court of appeal to review sentences pronounced by military courts in the territories, as at 1 January 1989, following a recommendation to that effect by the High Court of Justice. Mr. Rabin was speaking at the Knesset, in reply to a question by MK Dedi Zucker. (Ha'aretz, 22 July 1988)

311. On 22 July 1988, it was reported that a three-month administrative detention order had been issued against Dr. Amin el-Hatib, a well-known East Jerusalem physician. He was said to be involved in raising funds for hostile elements, through his activity in charity associations. (Ha'aretz, 22 July 1988)

312. On 24 July 1988, the IDF Central Command unveiled a computerized command and information centre, said to ensure up-to-date monitoring of the location and Status of every person held in army prisons in the West Bank. An officer in charge of the centre said that information on any prisoner could be obtained on request within 48 hours. Under the new orders the civil administration was responsible for notifying, without delay, the detainees' families and lawyers of the arrest. The commander of the detention centre had to notify the detainee of his right to name the relative and the lawyer who should be notified of his arrest. Nevertheless, judges were authorized to delay such notifications by 96 hours. It was reported that, as at 24 July 1988 there were 4,091 detainees in IDF detention centres in the West Bank and in the Ketziot detention centre in the Negev. Of these, 1,994 were administrative detainees. (Ha'aretz, 26 July 1988, Jerusalem Post, 25 July 1988)

313. On 1 August 1988, it was reported that Faisal Abdul Kader Husseini, Chairman of the Arab Research Institute in East Jerusalem, was placed under administrative detention for six months, allegedly for his activity in the PLO. His Institute was closed for one year. The Chairman of the East Jerusalem Merchants' Association, Mustafa Abu Zahara, was also placed under administrative detention. On 25 August 1988, Faisal Husseini petitioned the High Court of Justice to issue an order nisi against the vice-president of the Jerusalem District Court, Judge Eliahu Noam, ordering him to show cause why he should refrain from revealing to Husseini's attorneys the evidence, opinions and recommendations that the Defence Minister had before him and on the basis of which he had decided to place Husseini in administrative detention for six months. Husseini also asked that the High Court order the judge to authorize his family and journalists to attend the hearing. He argued that this was his fourth administrative detention in the past 18 months, and that he had not seen one piece of evidence that would justify such a measure. (Ha'aretz, 1 and 26 August 1988)

314. On 1 August 1988, Jihad Ahmed Mustafa Abeidi, 21, of Ramallah, was sentenced by the military court in Lod to 25 years' imprisonment. He was convicted of attempting to murder Shalom and Eli Ohayon of Jerusalem on 17 January 1987, by stabbing them in the neck. (Jerusalem Post, 2 August 1988)

315. On 7 August 1988, it was reported that the military court in Gaza had
acquitted two residents of Jabaliya camp who had been charged with failing to erase hostile slogans that were painted on the walls of their house; this was the first charge sheet filed by the civil administration under a rule issued two months earlier. The court determined that the defendants lived some 150 metres from the place where the IDF declared that all slogans should be erased, and that the prosecution had failed to prove that the two had heard the declarations. Earlier, the same court acquitted a youth from Shati camp from a charge of throwing petrol bombs at IDF patrols. In four hearings held by the court, no IDF soldiers appeared as witnesses for the prosecution. (Ha'aretz, 7 August 1988)

316. On 10 August 1988, it was reported that three youths aged 17 from Jabaliya camp in Gaza had been arrested on suspicion of murdering an Israeli woman, Rachel Weiss, 69, from Moshav Shafir. (Ha'aretz, 10 August 1988)

(b) Other developments

(i) Arrests and administrative detention orders

Written information

317. During the period preceding the uprising, the Special Committee had received several reports from various newspapers providing information on arrests and the issuing of administrative detention orders concerning Palestinians in the occupied territories. This information included, in most cases, relevant details such as the date, the subject(s), the place, the duration (in the case of administrative detention) and the motive invoked.

(ii) Sentences

Written information

318. During the same period up to early December 1987, the Special Committee received information on sentences passed against Palestinians in the occupied territories. Information was also provided on sentences passed since the beginning of the uprising but concerning events prior to or not related to the uprising. This information included relevant details such as the date, subject(s), place, duration and motive of the sentence.

2. Israeli settlers, underground activists and others

Written information

319. During the period under consideration, it was reported that a few Israelis charged with murder or mistreatment of Palestinian civilians had been put on trial or sentenced to various terms, as illustrated below.

320. On 14 June 1988, the Judge Advocate-General told military correspondents that since the beginning of the uprising over 350 investigation files had been opened by the military police against IDF soldiers. Some 110 files concerned death cases of Arab residents of the territories. In 100 cases the inquiry was over and charge sheets were filed with military courts against 12 soldiers. Fifteen other soldiers were put on disciplinary trial following the investigation. (Ha'aretz, 15 June 1988)

321. On 2 August 1988, it was reported that the Attorney-General, Yosef Harish, had decided that Pinhas Wallerstein, head of the Binyamin Regional Council, should be put on trial on a charge of manslaughter. Wallerstein would be charged with the killing on 11 January 1988 of Rabah Mahmud Hussein Hamad, 17, and the wounding of Ziad Hamad, during a demonstration in Beitin, near Ramallah. On 11 August 1988, Wallerstein was charged at the Jerusalem District Court with manslaughter and causing injury in aggravated circumstances. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 and 12 August 1988)

322. On 4 August 1988, it was reported that Dina Ben-Har, 48, from Kiryat-Arba, was charged at the Jerusalem District Court with stoning an Arab car. It was the first case of a charge sheet being filed against a Jewish settler for an offence of stone-throwing. (Ha'aretz, 4 August 1988)

323. However, in general, in contrast to harsh sentences passed on Palestinian
civilians, the sentences passed on those Israelis denoted the relative leniency of the authorities. A few cases are cited below as an illustration of this situation.

324. On 29 February 1988, four soldiers and an officer who were arrested following the screening of a CBS film in which they were seen beating two youths in Nablus, were released from detention and returned to their units following a consultation between Central Region Commander Amram Mitzna and the Judge Advocate-General. The four soldiers were named as Yehuda Angerl, Aryeh Mualem, Ronen Sasson and Sagui Harpaz. On 16 March 1988, it was reported that Ronen Sasson had been sentenced to 21 days' detention and Aryeh Mualem to 10 days' detention, following a disciplinary hearing before a brigadier-general. A Military Police investigation found the two had played a minor part in the beating. It was also reported that the other two soldiers and their commander, Seren (Capt.) Yosef Haddad, would be put on trial. On 18 March 1988, it was reported that the three had rejected charges of assault. Attorneys for the two soldiers said that their clients had kicked and beaten the two Arabs, but that they had been following orders given to them regarding stone-throwers. The captain's counsel said that the officer was not involved in the beating. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1, 16 and 18 March 1988)

325. On 17 May 1988, the military court of appeals accepted the appeals of
Privates Yair Nessimi and Dror Segen-Cohen against their sentence. Nessimi, who had been sentenced to five months' imprisonment for his part in the incident in Salem in which four villagers were buried by a bulldozer, had his sentence reduced to two and a half months. Segen-Cohen's sentence was reduced from four to two months imprisonment. In its verdict the military court of appeals said the district court was wrong in not taking into account the circumstances of time and place where the soldiers were operating, and the exceptional events and extreme situations in which they had to restore order in the recent wave of unrest. (Ha'aretz, 18 May 1988)

326. On 23 May 1988, it was reported that State President Chaim Herzog reduced the prison terms of three convicted members of the Jewish terrorist organization who had originally been sentenced to life imprisonment and later had their sentence reduced to 24 years. The President now further reduced it to 15 years. The prisoners concerned were Menahem Livni, Shaul Nir and Shaul Sharabah. They were convicted of murder in the case of the attack on the Islamic College in Hebron, in 1984, in which three were killed and over 30 were injured. They were also convicted of planting bombs in Arab buses and of threatening to blow up the Temple Mount mosques. (Ha'aretz, 23 May 1988)

327. On 21 June 1988, the Central Region Judge-Advocate-General decided to end the investigation without filing charges against a soldier who shot and killed a 25-year-old woman in A-Ram, north of Jerusalem, on 3 January 1988. A military police investigation found that "the soldier's life was in danger when he found himself isolated inside the village, surrounded by a crowd, and he fired into the air to protect his life". (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 June 1988)

328. On 1 July 1988, it was reported that the Supreme Court had increased the
sentence of Nissan Ishigoyev, a settler from Hinanit who had been convicted of
manslaughter in the death of an Arab boy from Balata camp near Nablus. In October 1982, when his truck was stoned by youths in the camp, the settler opened fire at them, killing Hashem Lutfi Ib-Maslem, 13. A Tel Aviv district court had sentenced him to six months' community service. The State Attorney appealed to the Supreme Court against the leniency of the sentence, and the Supreme Court accepted the appeal and increased the sentence to three years' imprisonment and two years' suspended term. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 July 1988)

329. On 7 July 1988, it was reported that the High Court of Justice had rejected a petition by family members of Jodeh Abdallah Awad, from Turmus Aya, who asked that Israel Ze'ev, the Shilo settler suspected of killing Awad, be charged with murder and not merely with manslaughter. The High Court justices ruled that there was no ground for intervening in the Attorney-General's discretion, when he determined that the evidence held by the prosecution did not contain the element of intentionto kill necessary for a murder charge. (Ha'aretz, 7 July 1988)

330. On 31 July 1988, it was reported that the police had recently recommended that Israeli civilians be prosecuted in 3 out of 13 killings in the territories, which, according to the IDF, were not caused by soldiers. Police Minister Haim Barlev gave further details concerning these cases when he replied to a parliamentary question by MK Dedi Zucker: the three cases were the following: the shooting of Nasser Ghanem Hamad, 17, of Beitin, on 11 January 1988, allegedly by settler leader Pinhas Wallerstein, head of the Binyamin Regional Council; the shooting of Abdel Baset Jum'a, 27, of Kaddum, on 7 February 1988, allegedly by a settler from Kadumim; and the shooting of Abdallah Awad, 28, of Turmus Aya, on 4 May 1988. Regarding the death of Rawda Najib Hassan, 13, of Baka esh-Sharkiya, on 27 February 1988, the findings of the investigation had been forwarded to the IDF Judge dvocate-General for a decision. (According to eyewitness accounts the girl was shot at by Israeli civilians after they drove up to her house accompanied by a military jeep.) In three other cases the police had turned over results of its investigations to the Attorney-General's office with recommendations that there should be no prosecution for lack of evidence. These cases concerned the killings of Raed Barghouti, 17, and Ahmad Barghouti, 12, at Abud, near Ramallah, on 27 February 1988, and of Hamad Muhammad Hamida, 42, from Mazraa esh-Sharkiya, on 7 March 1988. Police were still investigating the deaths of two Beita villagers allegedly killed on 6 April 1988 by settler Romam Aldubi from Eilon-Moreh. The investigations of three other deaths had been transferred to the military police because of alleged IDF involvement. These were the cases of Kamal Darwish, 23, from Deir Ammar, killed on 21 February 1988; Tukan Misbah, 32, from Sijaiya, killed on 10 January 1988; and Hassan Hizaj, 18, from Turmus Aya, killed on 9 March 1988. Regarding the death of Talaat Hawihi, 17, from Beit Hanun, killed on 15 February 1988, the police had no information concerning that death. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 July 1988)

331. On 17 August 1988, it was reported that the Chief-of-Staff had decided that a brigade commander with the grade of colonel, who was in charge of IDF forces in the Hebron region, would be suspended from his post and would face a disciplinary trial. This followed a shooting incident on 4 April 1988 in which Abd el-Mahdi Ziadat, 18, was shot from a helicopter in the course of a demonstration in Bani-Naim; he later died of his wounds. According to witnesses there were no grounds for opening fire at the demonstrators, since the soldiers' lives were not in danger. The IDF forces reportedly failed to give medical treatment to the injured youth, or to evacuate him with the helicopter that was available. The reason for putting the officer on disciplinary trial before the Deputy Chief-of-Staff rather than trying him by court martial was reportedly his "past career as a combatant", and the fact that he was already suspended from duty. On 23 August 1988, the disciplinary hearing of the colonel began before Deputy Chief-of-Staff Ehud Barak. He was being charged with illegal use of a weapon. On 25 August 1988, the colonel was severely reprimanded after being found guilty. According to the findings of the disciplinary hearing, the shots fired at the demonstrators were fired from the ground in the midst of a pursuit, and not from a helicopter as had been alleged. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17, 24 and 26 August 1988)

332. On 17 August 1988, it was reported that a sergeant in the IDF was sentenced by the Northern District military court to two months' suspended prison term for two years, after he shot and wounded a resident of Tubas during riots in the village. He was also demoted to the rank of corporal. The prosecution was reportedly appealing against the leniency of the sentence. (Ha'aretz, 17 August 1988)
C. Treatment of civilians, including fundamental freedoms
1. General developments

(a) Harassment and physical mistreatment

Oral evidence

333. Numerous accounts were made of the plight of the civilians and the constant threats to physical integrity and security that they were enduring in their day-to-day lives as a result of the uprising. References were made to the atmosphere of violence and insecurity and to the heavy toll of casualties among the civilians:

"The soldiers came into our house to arrest my brother. We of course
refused to let them arrest my brother and there were clashes. They started
breaking and smashing the doors and the light bulbs. My mother received three bullets in a gunfire incident in her arm, and my brother had a rib broken. Then they walked into the kitchen and they started mixing all the foodstuffs, throwing the oil on the flour and the sugar. Then with a knife they just tore the fridge to pieces." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1)

"They have stormed the houses and arrested the inhabitants. Some of the people were beaten and died later; one was a citizen called Ibrahim and he was 34 years old; he had five children. When his house was stormed his brother was in the house. After Ibrahim was beaten up and his bones broken, a seven-man force attacked his brother. When Ibrahim's wife saw that the soldiers were beating her brother-in-law, she ran to bring a medical certificate to prove that that young man was ill and had undergone surgery, that he had 40 stitches in his chest and abdomen. But when she brought the medical certificate to show to the soldiers, they took no notice and carried on beating the brother of Ibrahim until his wounds were reopened and he had to be taken into hospital." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.480)

"I can say that I have seen a 15-year-old in a Gaza hospital who had been
mutilated in a horrible and gratuitous manner by the soldiers. They had
broken his jaw, his arms and his legs, and the marks of their army boots
could be seen on his thorax." (Dr. Nago Humbert, A/AC.145/RT.491)

334. The storming of hospitals was also mentioned as a usual practice:

"We have been subjected in the last six months to attacks by the military forces on some of the hospitals. One incident occurred in Hebron when soldiers entered the hospital and fired a couple of tear-gas bombs, claiming that there were some volunteers there, who are not allowed to work in the hospitals helping the wounded. In April the military forces in Ramallah occupied Ramallah Government Hospital for two weeks and three or four times - I don't remember - they kept on attacking the hospital with tear-gas bombs and rubber bullets, terrifying all the employees. Finally they occupied the hospital for a couple of weeks; they assumed control in the hospital, they mounted round-the-clock patrols around the hospital, on the roof and inside, checking identities, terrifying the employees." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.482)

335. Many witnesses referred to the used of gas and its harmful effects on the
health of the civilians. Dr. Nago Humbert, a Swiss medical psychologist who had recently visited the occupied territories, stated in this regard:

"On the question of gas, I am not a specialist, but I have breathed that gas in the open air, and the effect is horrible. Not only do one's eyes run, but I had the impression of needles in my lungs; so you can imagine the effect on a small infant in a confined space. It could well die from the effects, that is plain, and the same would apply to anyone suffering from asthma or lung complaints: if they breathed that, they too would die." (Dr. Nago Humbert, A/AC.145/RT.491)

336. Mr. Faris Glubb, a writer on international law, also referred to this question:

"A lot of information has been received from various sources in occupied Palestine to the effect that on numerous occasions the Israeli occupation forces have imposed curfews on villages, areas in towns and refugee camps, and frequently Israeli patrols have circulated in these places, throwing canisters of CS tear gas into people's houses, to which they are confined by the curfew. There have been many instances of pregnant women having miscarriages after being subjected to this sort of treatment, and also of very small infants - that is, less than one year old - and of elderly people of maybe 60 to 70 years or more, dying as a result of exposure to this gas." (Mr. Faris Glubb, A/AC.145/RT.484/Add.1)

337. Reference was also made to the harassment suffered by the civilians as a
result of administrative measures, such as the establishment of new identity cards with different colours in the Gaza Strip, apparently meant to impose a tighter control on the Palestinians:

"If the card is green, that means that the bearer is a youth or a citizen considered by the occupation authorities as being a danger to state security. The bearers of those cards are those considered to be the leaders of the uprising in the Gaza Strip. The individuals bearing the green cards are not allowed to enter Haifa, Jaffa, Lid or any other places in the north that are under Israeli administration. Blue identity cards mean that those citizens have not paid the taxes they owe to the military administration. Red identity cards mean that the bearer of the card is in the most dangerous category of civilian; the bearer of such a card is considered a real leader who will become a threat to the security of Israel in the future." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.480)

338. Testimonies relating to various aspects of the harassment and physical
mistreatment of civilians may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.480 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.481 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.482 (two anonymous witnesses); A/AC.145/RT.484 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.484/Add.1 (Mr. Faris Glubb) and A/AC.145/RT.487 (Mr. Walid Mahmoud); A/AC.145/RT.491 (Dr. Nago Humbert and Miss Kirsten Ruud); and A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1 (five anonymous witnesses).

Written information

339. During the period covered by the present report, the Special Committee
received a number of communications from various sources concerning the misuse of tear gas against civilians in the occupied territories. In one of these communications, transmitted by Amnesty International and dated 1 June 1988, it was stated that tear gas had often been used in high concentration in residential areas, and that tear-gas containers had been deliberately thrown or fired by Israeli soldiers into people's homes, health clinics, schools and mosques, even though they were meant only to be used outdoors. The report also stated that according to local medical personnel tear gas appeared to have been the cause of or a contributory factor in the deaths of more than 40 Palestinians in the occupied territories. The report further described two types of gas allegedly being used by the Israeli army in the occupied territories.

340. On 29 October 1987, Advocates Lea Tsemel and André Rosenthal filed with the Gaza district court a civil claim for damages for their client, Ahmed Abu-Marhil of Gaza, who became invalid after being beaten by IDF soldiers. The incident giving rise to the claim occurred in February 1986. The civil claim was filed against the IDF after one of the soldiers involved in the incident had been charged in a military court with beating the complainant and was found guilty. (Ha'aretz, 30 October 1987)

341. On 10 November 1987, it was reported that the Central Region Commander,
Maj.-Gen. Amram Mitzna, had ordered that a thorough investigation be held into the behaviour of IDF soldiers at road-blocks at the entrances to Nablus on 2 November 1987. On that date, the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, Maj.-Gen. Mitzna told reporters in the morning that no curfew would be imposed on Nablus, but the soldiers manning the road-blocks blocked all the entrances to the town and told people who wanted to enter that it was under curfew. (Ha'aretz, 10 November 1987)

342. On 13 December 1987, according to Arab sources, troops penetrated into Shifa Hospital, used tear gas and arrested persons suspected of disturbing the order. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 December 1987)

343. On 13 December 1987, several reporters who toured the Balata refugee camp
following the previous day's clashes between local residents and border guards
reportedly saw traces of vandalism in many homes in the camp. Local residents
alleged that border guards, while looking for suspects, had forced their way into homes and beaten men and women inside. Elderly people were also allegedly harassed and brutalized. The troops threw tear-gas grenades into homes and cursed inhabitants. A senior military source described the allegations as serious and said they were under investigation. On 16 December 1987, a group of 12 Balata residents petitioned the High Court of Justice for an order requiring the Defence Minister and the IDF Commander in the West Bank to show cause why they should not stop the alleged brutality, insults and shooting by border guards, and prosecute those who took part in such actions. The petitioners said, in affidavits attached to their petition, that border guards had shot at them without provocation, one petitioner lost a kidney and was paralysed in one leg after being shot at. Rubber bullets were fired at children aged 4 and 9, and some of the petitioners were still in hospital with wounds incurred during the clashes. A top military source declared that conclusions had been drawn and changes made as a result of an investigation into the incidents at Balata. On 17 December 1987, a border-guard source defended the conduct of the force in Balata, and opposed any punitive steps against its officers. The border-guard source argued that it was the residents' attacks, with iron bars, catapults and bicycle chains, that had caused the trouble. The source insisted that the commanders of the unit operating in Balata would not be punished for their mens' conduct, and that there would be no personnel changes in the command of the unit. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 and 22 December 1987; Jerusalem Post, 18 December 1987)

344. On 16 December 1987, doctors at the Shifa Hospital in Gaza said that, in
contrast to the gunshot wounds of the past seven days, most of the injuries
suffered by demonstrators were caused by beatings, apparently with clubs.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 December 1987)

345. On 21 December 1987, serious incidents were reported in Issawiya, north of Jerusalem, where police and border guards clashed with local youths. After the clash troops charged the village and allegedly broke into houses and beat men and women inside. A local woman, Nama Hassun Mahmoud, 24, was hospitalized, suffering from a kidney injury and fractured ribs. Two Arabs were also injured, as well as several policemen. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 December 1987)

346. On 21 December 1987, eight Gaza Strip residents petitioned the High Court of Justice for an order against the Defence Minister and the IDF commander in the region, asking them to show cause why they should not refrain from instructing, guiding and encouraging the IDF troops in the region to ill-treat the petitioners and others, shoot at them, injure them and humiliate them constantly. In affidavits attached to the petition there are descriptions of beating, kicking and injuries allegedly caused by IDF soldiers. (Ha'aretz, 22 December 1987)

347. On 28 December 1987, it was reported that tension was high in the Jabaliya and Shati refugee camps in Gaza following five days of curfew and alleged ill-treatment of civilians by IDF troops. It was also reported on 28 December 1987 that an army officer who had opened fire in an unspecified locality in "Samaria", wounding two Arabs, when there was no immediate risk to his or any other soldier's life, was relieved of his command pending investigations by Military Police. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 December 1987)

348. On 11 January 1988, it was reported that IDF troops used tear gas and live ammunition in large quantities, and resorted to severe beatings to disperse demonstrators. In the Gaza Strip alone, 30 residents were hospitalized, 2 with serious injuries. (Attalia, 14 January 1988)

349. On 15 January 1988, it was reported that 15 pregnant women had recently been hospitalized in Gaza with tear-gas injuries. It was also reported that
Azazma Mahmoud, 36, from Rafah, was hospitalized in Ashkelon with severe beating injuries in the head. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 January 1988)

350. On 20 January 1988, doctors and other medical staff in two Gaza hospitals
declared a sit-in strike to protest IDF practices, after troops allegedly beat
patients and staff and prevented ambulances from entering or leaving refugee
camps. Dr. Ibrahim al-Hour of the UNRWA Clinic in the Bureij Camp was allegedly beaten up after he went out to treat sick children in the camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 January 1988)

351. On 21 January 1988, there were reports that IDF troops raided houses in Arab localities and beat residents either inside their home or took them, handcuffed and blindfolded, to isolated areas where they were severely beaten. More than 87 Jabaliya residents were admitted to hospital with club-beating injuries. A 17-year-old boy, Yehia Zakaria Abu Karub, was severely beaten by Israeli soldiers in Shu'fat and had to undergo brain surgery. Another youth was also injured in the same incident. (Attalia, 28 January 1988, Al-Ittihad, 22 January 1988)

352. On 22 January 1988, it was reported that some 200 Gaza Strip residents had received treatment in hospital over the past couple of days for beating injuries. Similar reports came from the Ramallah area, where shopkeepers and others who did not take part in the disturbances were severely beaten by troops in order to deter others from taking part in violent activity. In Jalazun camp troops, including officers, forcibly took out residents from their homes and beat them in front of other residents, for deterrence purposes. (Ha'aretz, 22 January 1988)

353. On 25 January 1988, a 26-year-old woman who was eight months pregnant from the Jabaliya camp, was allegedly beaten by troops and was hospitalized in Gaza. She was named as Sabah al-Aman'. She alleged that soldiers had burst into her home and started clubbing her husband, whose arm was broken. Soldiers also beat children and the woman's father, aged 70. When she protested, she was beaten all over her body, including her abdomen. A doctor in the Shifa Hospital in Gaza said that 27 pregnant women had been hospitalized in recent weeks with injuries from beating and tear gas. Badariya Yussuf Samur, 42, was nine months pregnant when she was involved in a violent disturbance. Troops threw tear-gas canisters inside her home, causing her injuries, as a result of which she lost her baby.
Muaghar Lahidi, 80, from Jabaliya, was injured when 30 or 40 soldiers entered his home and beat him all over his body. Dozens of others were reportedly hospitalized with injuries caused by beating. Dozens of children, aged from 3 months to 10 years, were hospitalized with tear-gas injuries. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 January 1988)

354. On 26 January 1988, a renewed outbreak of violent disturbances were reported in various localities. Several persons were injured. Three men from Silwad were being treated in the Ramallah Hospital for massive bruises in various parts of their bodies. In Jalazun troops fired tear gas at women gathered at the local UNRWA office where flour was being distributed. Four women and a boy were hospitalized with rubber-bullet and beating injuries. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 January 1988)

355. On 28 January 1988, there were reports that over the past week IDF troops
continued the policy of "breaking the bones" of Palestinian youths in the occupied territories. Two hundred persons from Jabaliya camp were beaten during the curfew. One hundred persons were reported to have been hospitalized in Nablus, Ramallah and Jenin suffering from beating injuries. In another development, IDF soldiers forced over 1,000 persons in Nuseirat to stand at dawn in the cold for several hours. The Israeli military spokesman explained that the measure was aimed at forcing parents to prevent their sons from protesting. (Attalia, 28 January 1988)

356. On 8 February 1988, the parents of a 16-year-old youth, Ayed Muhammad Agal, from Bureij camp, said their son had been beaten to death by troops and his body was found in a nearby orchard. The report was not confirmed by military sources. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 February 1988)

357. On 11 February 1988, a fact-finding team of United States physicians who
visited hospitals in the territories said in a press conference that they had found medical evidence of "an uncontrolled epidemic of violence by the army and the police in the West Bank and Gaza". One team member said that "the sheer number of wounded that we have estimated indicates that the rate and scope of beating and other forms of violence cannot be considered deviations or aberrations, and they come closer to being the norm". The team was led by Dr. Jack Geiger from the City University of New York. Other members were Dr. Leon Shapiro, Dr. Jennifer Leaning and Dr. Bennet Simon, all three from Harvard Medical School. Dr. Leaning said the injuries seen by the team indicated "a systematic pattern of limb injury, guided by the intent to accomplish a fracture which will not result in mortality". According to estimates by Palestinian and Israeli lawyers and doctors monitoring the casualties, there were between 630 and 766 injuries in the West Bank and 450 to 1,320 in the Gaza Strip. Some 5 to 10 per cent of the injuries were persons 10 years old or younger; 20 per cent were women. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 February 1988)

358. On 14 February 1988, two soldiers were arrested in connection with an incident the previous week in the village of Salem, near Nablus, in which an army bulldozer reportedly buried alive four Palestinian youths after a protest. The youths had previously been severely beaten. After being buried the youths lost consciousness. They were rescued by other villagers and were taken to hospital. According to military sources the youths had been partially covered with sand. It was also reported that four soldiers were sentenced to 21 to 28 days in gaol for "unreasonable use of force" against Gaza residents. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 February 1988)

359. On 25 February 1988, it was reported that an IDF officer was removed from his duty in the Gaza Strip following an incident in which Suheil Bader Fahm Kahil, 18, from the Shati camp, was hospitalized with serious injuries in the head. (Ha'aretz, 26 February 1988)

360. On 29 February 1988, in Gaza, Faisal Omar al-Ashi, described as a 21-year-old retarded Arab, was severely beaten by troops. He was hospitalized with a fractured skull and other injuries. Military sources confirmed that the case was being investigated. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 March 1988)

361. On 21 March 1988, the body of a youth was discovered in an isolated orchard. He was identified as Omar Abu Marabil, 27. He had multiple skull fractures. Two days earlier villagers reported that he had been seen being led away by IDF soldiers. An IDF spokesman denied the allegations and said police were investigating the case. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, Ma'ariv, 22 March 1988)

362. On 10 April 1988, it was reported that extensive damage had been caused in the village of Beit Ummar, north of Hebron, after IDF bulldozers had cleared road blocks at the village following disturbances. A reporter who visited the village saw some 70 damaged structures, shop shutters that had been wrenched off and bent, stone staircases, walls and fences that had been knocked down, and many windows smashed, including those in the local mosque and in several cars. A glass front of a bookcase inside the mosque was broken and some of the books torn. Senior officers were to investigate the incident. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 April 1988)

363. On 13 April 1988, the IDF refuted a claim by the medical director of UNWRA that soldiers had been using new and highly toxic gases in quelling demonstrations in the territories. According to the UNRWA medical director, John Hiddlestone, at least two youths had died after being sprayed, and in two camps 60 women had allegedly had miscarriages after being affected by gas. He asserted that one kind of gas being recently used by the IDF caused severe abdominal pain and another immobilized its victims by weakening the muscles when inhaled. IDF sources stressed that the army was using only gases that were permitted by international conventions. (Jerusalem Post, 14 April 1988)

364. On 14 April 1988, a physician from the Shifa Hospital, Dr. Kamal Abdul Hay Abu, alleged that during the unrest in the Shati camp, he was taken out of his home and beaten by troops. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 April 1988)

365. On 24 April 1988, it was reported that, according to a survey conducted by the civil administration in the Gaza Strip, there was a 10-per-cent increase in the number of miscarriages among Gaza women in the months of December 1987 to March 1988 - the first four months of the uprising - in comparison with the same period in the previous years. It was reported that during that period 240 miscarriages were registered. In 166 cases women said they had miscarried as a result of tear gas they inhaled during the disturbances. (Ha'aretz, 24 April 1988)

366. On 26 April 1988, it was reported that the IDF and the civil administration in the Gaza Strip had been confiscating identity cards of many adult males in the camps of Shat, Deir el-Balah and Jabaliya. Persons whose identity cards were confiscated were given papers restricting them to the Gaza Strip until they fulfilled certain requirements, including payment of income tax, customs and value added tax, a police stamp certifying that they had no outstanding traffic or other violations, payment of water and electricity bills, etc. The measures were described as aimed at "taking the initiative" in the area. Many residents whose cards had been confiscated and who were suspected of having played active roles in the uprising reportedly received orders prohibiting them from leaving the Gaza Strip and forcing them to register at the central police station twice daily. It was further reported that troops had broken into the offices of the Gaza Bar Association, the Red Crescent Society and the Palestinian Women's Union, and that files were confiscated for examination by income tax officials. According to the president of the Bar Association, Fayez Abu Rahme, the soldiers also confiscated records, including affidavits signed by hundreds of Gaza residents alleging irregularities by security forces. (Jerusalem Post, 26 April 1988)

367. On 26 April 1988, it was reported that the IDF had recently introduced, for use in the territories, two new sorts of truncheons, described as "more comfortable for the users, more efficient and unbreakable". Unlike the old wood truncheons, which often got broken while being used, the new ones were unbreakable. (Ha'aretz, 26 April 1988)

368. On 28 April 1988, a new order was published in the territories making parents responsible for their children's acts. The order concerned parents of children aged up to 12. In case such children were caught throwing stones, burning cars or blocking roads, their parents would be required to guarantee their good behaviour. If these guarantees were violated the parents would be made to pay fines, and, in serious cases, face criminal charges. Under the military law applicable in the territories children over 12 were criminally liable. (Ha'aretz, 29 April 1988)

369. On 10 May 1988, the civil administration in the Gaza Strip began an extensive operation of replacing the identity cards of all Gaza Strip residents over the age of 16. Some 350,000 people would have to change their cards; if they failed to do so they would have to go underground or leave the region. According to Gaza residents they were awakened at 5 a.m. by soldiers who entered their home and took away their identity cards, telling them they had to go and replace their cards. (Ha'aretz, 11 May 1988)

370. On 16 May 1988, it was reported that, according to reservists who finished doing their service in the territories, acts of vandalism, ill-treatment and degradation of Arab civilians by some of the soldiers have become a norm that no one was trying to combat. Such acts ranged from forcing persons to take off their clothes during searches to beating and acts of vandalism inside homes, after the arrest of their occupants. (Ha'aretz, 16 May 1988)

371. On 8 June 1988, a report prepared by a team of six Israeli doctors concerning hospitals in the Gaza Strip was submitted to the Health and Defence Ministers and to the Attorney-General. The team had full co-operation from the IDF. Among the team's findings were the following: the use of tear gas in closed areas had almost certainly caused some 30 miscarriages. The IDF did not reveal information about the types of tear gas employed, although this would help in medical treatment. Exposure to CS and CN gas carried with it the risk of toxic effect, and that risk rose when used in a closed area. Infants, children and those suffering from heart or respiratory ailments may die if exposed to more than 10 minutes of CS gas. Both CS and CN could be dangerous even to healthy persons when the gas was not used in the open. The team checked the cases of a 74-year-old woman, who was hospitalized in the intensive care unit with a cardiac infarct after a tear-gas grenade was
thrown into her home, and a 54-year-old woman, known to have high blood pressure and diabetes, who was hospitalized with paralysis of the right side of her body and a stroke after inhaling gas. Fifteen babies aged one year reportedly died after exposure to tear gas. Two boys aged 14 and 15 died after inhaling gas. The report criticized the use of certain rubber bullets that could penetrate the body and cause serious injuries. It also criticized the transfer by the IDF of wounded persons to Israeli hospitals for interrogation. (Jerusalem Post, 9 June 1988)

372. On 10 and 11 June 1988, sources in Nablus said that troops took about 70 men out of their homes in the town and beat them on the head and other parts of their bodies, following stone-throwing in the area. The troops also allegedly cursed and threatened the men. Some of the men allegedly needed medical treatment, but could not be admitted to hospital for lack of room. A military source denied the allegation but said that troops shot and wounded several rioters in the legs when they resisted arrest after clashes in the old town of Nablus. Local sources said that two girls, aged 10 and 11, were shot in the shoulder and that others were injured by rubber bullets and beating. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 June 1988)

373. On 20 June 1988, Central Region Commander Amram Mitzna ordered the closure for two years of a welfare society in El-Bireh, the "In'ash al-Usra", headed by Samiha Khalil, 65. The reason for the closure was the distribution of anti-Semitic material and hostile activity. Another part of the institute, consisting of a day-care centre and a home for 132 orphan girls aged 5-15, would remain open. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 June 1988)

374. On 22 June 1988, a senior military source said, in response to the publication of an Amnesty International report accusing Israel of contributing to the death of 40 Arabs from the territories by using tear gas, that the IDF did not know of any cases of death caused by tear gas. The official insisted that the IDF used tear gas only to break up demonstrations and not as a means of punishment. He said that, in any event, the charges would be checked. He added that the tear gas used by the IDF was the same as that used by police forces in other Western countries, and that it had been used out of doors and not inside buildings, "with the possible exception of a very few cases". (Jerusalem Post, 23 June 1988)

375. On 23 June 1988, residents of the Al-Amary refugee camp near Ramallah alleged that an IDF paratroop unit had run amok the previous night, knocking down doors, breaking into houses, smashing furniture and beating residents, including children. Some residents were reportedly taken to hospital with beating injuries. The IDF was investigating the allegation. (Jerusalem Post, 24 June 1988)

376. On 26 June 1988, it was reported that residents of Al-Amary camp had alleged that troops had been ill-treating residents, by administering hypodermic injections, or threatening to do so. At least four persons, Nadir Mahmud, 24, Muhammad Mimi, 25, As'ad Shaf'i, 17, and Midhat Jaber, affirmed having received such injections. A doctor's report from the East Jerusalem Mukassed Hospital said that Nadir Mahmud was suffering from "chemical poisoning". Residents also alleged that troops had been threatening them with hatchets. A paratroop unit had been carrying out searches in the camp for 10 days and there were numerous allegations of damage caused to furniture, windows, etc., as well as allegations of beatings. On 26 June 1988, the IDF reportedly opened an investigation into the allegations of use of hypodermic needles to intimidate residents. On 26 June 1988, the IDF denied the allegations. An IDF investigation reportedly found that no excesses had been
committed by troops at the camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26, 27 and
28 June 1988)

377. On 8 July 1988, it was reported that the IDF commander in the Gaza Strip,
Brig.-Gen Yaacov Or, had suspended an entire unit of reserve soldiers from current operative activity in the region for one week after it was established that the unit members were involved in the severe beating of an Arab youth. The case occurred on 10 May 1988. The youth was captured after he threw stones, hitting a soldier in the chin. He was badly beaten by the soldiers and a physician in Ansar 2 camp who was asked to accept him for treatment refused to do so given his serious condition. He ordered them to transfer him to Shifa Hospital, but even at that stage the soldiers continued to beat him. One of the soldiers was reportedly put on trial for his role in the beating. (Ha'aretz, 8 July 1988)

378. On 13 July 1988, it was reported that reserve soldiers serving in Rafah had knocked local residents to the ground, broken their bones and then dumped them into thorn bushes. On 13 July 1988, the IDF said it would investigate the allegations. (Ha'aretz, 13 July 1988; Jerusalem Post, 14 July 1988)

379. On 11 August 1988, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel accused the
military government in the Gaza Strip of acting illegally in refusing to issue new identity cards to residents who could not prove they had paid all their taxes. The head of the civil administration in Gaza said he had no authority to discuss the matter with the media. (Jerusalem Post, 12 August 1988)

380. On 16 August 1988, riots were reported in several localities in the Gaza
Strip. Assar Mahmud Hawaji, 60, from Shati camp, died after inhaling gas used by troops. It was reported from hospitals in the region that over the past two days, during which the region had been under curfew, some 80 persons were hospitalized with injuries caused by severe beating or gas inhalation. (Ha'aretz, 17 August 1988)

381. On 22 August 1988, in serious riots in the Shati and Jabaliya camps in Gaza, several persons including children were injured. Twelve persons were injured from beating and others from inhaling gas. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 August 1988)

382. On 23 August 1988, Alla Abu Foul, 12, from Shati, died from gas inhalation. Khalil Balowsha, 42, of Jabaliya, died following the use of tear gas by the IDF. Five people were shot and wounded in Jabaliya when clashes broke out after it was reported that Balowsha had died when helicopters dropped tear gas and troops delayed him on his way to hospital. Nineteen persons required treatment for beatings. A curfew was imposed on Jabaliya, Sheikh Radwan and Bureij camps. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 August 1988)

(b) Collective punishment

Oral evidence

383. Various accounts were given of the repression suffered by a group of people or whole community, or even sometimes by the entire Arab population in the occupied territories, as a form of collective punishment by way of demolishing or sealing houses or rooms, or imposing curfews or economic sanctions.

384. In this regard, reference was made to the various difficulties resulting from the imposition of prolonged curfews and various other restrictive collectives measures:

"We went inside a refugee camp, where we met a woman whose husband was in administration detention. That refugee camp had been under siege for 43 days, which was the longest period so far in the West Bank, we learned. We heard of the difficulties they had had during this long siege, the lack of food and milk; the electricity had been cut off and telephone lines had also been cut.

They had not been cut all the time, but for various periods, some days. It was the cutting of the telephone lines which made them very scared because they could not communicate with the world outside to tell if somebody came to hurt them." (Miss Kirsten Ruud, A/AC.145/RT.491)

"We have eye-witnesses who say that the occupation authorities attacked a truck which was carrying foodstuffs and they destroyed the food in the truck. Another truck which was carrying bread to Nablus during the blockade of that city was stopped and the bread was confiscated." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.480)

"In Dheisheh camp near Bethlehem, with 14,000 inhabitants, troops fired on the water tanks at night and deprived the population of drinking water. They also destroyed the water pump serving the Bethlehem area. It was very difficult to get anyone to repair that water station for fear of being attacked by the Israeli authorities. They were without water for 20 days, while Israel also imposed a curfew and operated a blockade on the camp."
(Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.482)

"At the entrance to any of the cities or villages, in Jerusalem and in the West Bank, the security forces have erected barricades, and from 9 December 1987 until the end of March 1988 those barricades were manned only by military personnel. But now those barricades are manned by civil police as well as by the occupation forces. The police have a list of the names of those citizens who owe taxes, and the soldiers have a list of the names of those citizens wanted by the Government." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.480)

385. Such accounts may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.480 (an anonymous
witness); A/AC.145/RT.482 (two anonymous witnesses); A/AC.145/RT.487 (Mr. Walid Mahmoud); A/AC.145/RT.491 (Dr. Nago Humbert and Miss Kirsten Ruud) and A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1 (an anonymous witness).

Written information

(i) Demolition of houses

386. During the period under consideration, the Special Committee received reports from various newspapers providing information on various forms of collective punishment imposed on the civilian population in contradiction with the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention. This period witnessed a noticeable increase in cases of house demolition used as a form of such punishment. Among those cases, reference should be made in particular to that of the 13 houses demolished on 10 April 1988 in the village of Beita, following the violent clash that occurred between a group of teenagers from the Eilon-Moreh settlement and villagers from Beita, and in which a young settler girl was killed. It was reported that one of the houses demolished in Beita belonged to a villager who had helped and saved several members of the settlers' group. Mention can also be made of the statement by MK Dedi Zucker, in a letter sent to the Israel Bar Association, the head of the Law Faculties and the Civil Rights Association, that since February 1988 65 houses had been demolished in the territories, 13 sealed and 19 partially destroyed, and that 4 houses had been demolished in East Jerusalem.

(ii) Imposition of curfews

Written information

387. According to information received by the Special Committee, since the
beginning of the uprising in December 1987, the Israeli authorities have
systematically resorted to the practice of establishing curfews, sealing off
refugee camps or declaring certain areas closed military areas. Owing to the
extreme frequency of such measures collectively restricting freedom of movement in the occupied territories, which if listed individually would have taken up considerable space, only a few examples are cited below in order to illustrate the situation in that regard.

388. On 12 January 1988, all the refugee camps in the Gaza Strip and six refugee camps in the West Bank were under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post,
13 January 1988)

389. On 7 February 1988, close to 200,000 Palestinians were under curfew, including the inhabitants of Nablus, Tulkarem and Kalkiliya. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 February 1988)

390. On 27 March 1988, a report described the situation in the village of Kabatiya after 33 days of complete closure and other sanctions, following the lynching there of Muhammad al-Awad, a suspected collaborator. There was no water, no electricity and gas, and no access to medical facilities. The village received food supplies from neighbouring villages using tractors and camouflaged sacks of chemical fertilizers to conceal food and other basic commodities. (Ha'aretz, 27 March 1988)

391. On 28 March 1988, the IDF declared the territories closed military areas for 72 hours. The move coincided with the commemoration of Land Day on 30 March 1988. In connection with the three-day closure of the territories, Arab residents would not be allowed to enter Israel or to cross the Jordan bridges, and entry to the erritories would be forbidden to non-residents, including journalists, except for a small number organized in pools and accompanied by an escort from the IDF spokesman's office. In addition, a curfew was imposed on the Gaza Strip for the entire closure period. In the West Bank, local residents would not be allowed to leave the immediate vicinity of their villages or towns, but would be allowed to travel freely near their homes. Jewish settlers would be allowed to travel to work and "other normal activities", but not to gather for any other purposes. Humanitarian organizations such as the Red Cross and UNRWA would be allowed to perform their tasks. The measures imposed on the territories were seen by reporters as unprecedented in their scope since the 1967 war. According to security sources they were intended to thwart plans by the organizers of the uprising to turn Land Day into a particularly significant day "which would not be forgotten for a long time". The ban on movement into and out from the territories was principally intended in order to prevent contact between the Arabs in the territories and the Israeli Arabs. (Ha'aretz, 29 and 30 March 1988)

392. On 21 April 1988, 400,000 Palestinians were under curfew in 20 refugee camps in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and in the localities of Nablus, Anabta, Azzoun and Albassan. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 April 1988)

393. On 22 April 1988, the entire Gaza Strip was under night curfew from 10 p.m. Some 300,000 inhabitants of refugee camps were still under full curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 April 1988)

394. On 13 May 1988, the entire Gaza Strip and large areas of the West Bank were sealed off; Nablus and the nearby refugee camps were under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 May 1988)

395. On 12 and 13 August 1988, four localities in the Gaza Strip, Khan Yunis,
Bureij, Shabura neighbourhood in Rafah and "IPK neighbourhood", were under curfew. The measure affected a population of 150,000. Other curfews were imposed on Dheisheh and Tulkarem camps. (Ha'aretz, 14 August 1988)

(iii) Economic sanctions

Written information

396. According to reports received by the Special Committee from various
newspapers, the Israeli authorities have, since the beginning of the uprising,
resorted to a number of economic sanctions in addition to other forms of collective punishment against the Palestinian population.

397. Such sanctions have included the breaking open of shops closed by strikers; the blocking of food and fuel deliveries; the banning of fuel delivery to most Arab-owned gas stations; the cutting off of water, electricity and telephone lines; the severing on international telephone links; the limitation of funds allowed inside the occupied territories through the Jordan bridges; the disruption of exports from the occupied territories; the uprooting of trees; the obligation to prove payment of taxes before receiving permits and licences, the fining of occupants of houses on whose walls there were hostile slogans, and of parents of stone-throwing children.

(c) Expulsions and deportations

Oral evidence

398. The practice of expulsion and deportation of Palestinians from the occupied territories, which has been used repeatedly by the Israeli authorities, in particular since the beginning of 1988, in violation of article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which prohibits individual or mass forcible transfers from occupied territory, was evoked by a number of witnesses.

399. In the course of the hearings on the subject, many witnesses stressed the
illegal nature of the deportation procedure, and the political motives behind this practice. Reference was made to the fact that the intended deportees were deprived of the opportunity to see the charges brought against them. Mr. Ghassan Ali Aref Al-Masri, a deported journalist, stated in that connection:

"The Judge said that there was something called a classified file and I said: 'It is my right to know what the charges brought against me are'. They told me that this was classified information which they could not reveal and I said that I wanted a lawyer and they said: 'Well, anyway, revealing the information in your classified dossier would jeopardize our security so we cannot tell you what there is in this dossier'. Therefore, I would say that it is just a formality because everyone says that there are channels and then there are decisions taken. But then finally I found out that the decision of
my expulsion is political and has nothing to do with security."
A/AC.145/RT.495)

400. Mr. Ahmad Khalid Al-Dik, a deported student, stated:

"There are two files for every Palestinian, there is a secret file and a public file. Now the public file is available to the accused and his lawyer for consulting, but the confidential file cannot be communicated either to the accused or to his lawyer. The public file was read out to the courts and it contained exactly the same charges that had been made against me during previous arrests. For example there was an accusation that I had been arrested in 1980, and condemned to three years in prison at that time, for
belonging to a Palestinian organization. The file also said that in 1987 I
had been accused and detained likewise. But as far as the information in the
confidential file is concerned, and I think that the main reasons for my
expulsion were in the confidential file, those are unknown items, the
intelligence services receive information from their informers and no one
knows what is in their confidential file. Therefore I believe that the whole
procedure was void, the so-called court was merely a farce, and the conclusion
is that the real motive is the original Zionist idea to drive out Palestinians
to expel as many Palestinians as possible from their homeland."
(A/AC.145/RT.494)

401. A number of witnesses referred to the harsh physical and psychological
treatment they received while they were kept in custody prior to their
deportation. Mr. Jibril Mahmud Al-Rajoub, another deported journalist, stated the following:

"I was arrested in my house, I was on my honeymoon. The army stormed my house and the forces were led by the military commander of the region and they told me that I was to be detained. I asked the military commander what was the reason behind my detention, I was insulted, so they took me to the headquarters of the military commander and there I was beaten up rather brutally and it was a kind of vengeance, they told me that 'you were
imprisoned before and you should have died in prison, you should have not been
released, you should not have come out'. On the following day I was taken to
Atlit prison in the north of Palestine. On 3 January 1988, I was taken to the
Jneid prison and there I was told that I was to be deported or expelled from
the country because I'm a persona non grata." (A/AC.145/RT.496)

402. Mr. Fureij Ahmad Khalil Khairi, a deported engineer, stated:

"On 24 December 1987, I was at home with my children and members of my family; I was with my family, my parents, my wife, my two children ... Forty soldiers armed to the teeth came and broke into my house without prior authorization. I was attacked by these soldiers who dragged me away from my family and my children, I was not even allowed to kiss them. I was detained in Ansar 2 prison, which is at the seaside in Gaza town. It rains frequently there, it was in winter. We did not have enough blankets. The food was
poor. I was ill-treated by the soldiers in charge of that prison, not by the warders of the police. At 12 o'clock in the morning I was made to remove my clothes and stand up naked, then they proceeded to inhuman practices which I cannot describe and in fact, all those who were there testified to the fact that I was ill, that I could not stand in the cold, naked, without any clothing whatsoever. But they refused to listen to them and they retorted arrogantly to any such requests. We were informed of the deportation on
3 January 1988, we were expelled from our home, snatched away from our families and our children." (A/AC.145/RT.494)

403. The difficult conditions of the actual expulsion process were also described by a number of witnesses. Mr. Abd 1-Nasser Mohamed Abdel Aziz, a deported student, said in the course of his testimony:

"On the 11th, it was a Monday at 11.15 precisely, an intelligence officer came to see me in the Jneid central prison and he asked what my identity was. I told him my name was Abdel Aziz and he asked me to gather up all my personal effects, my clothing, and I was to go to the prison administration. I asked whether I was about to be released or moved to another prison. He didn't reply and when I collected my belongings he informed me that there was a decision and order to deport me immediately. I asked whether I could contact my family to inform them that I was deported so that they would have some idea where I was. He said that it was impossible for anyone to be informed of this and at 11.30 on that same Monday, 11 April 1988, I was put in a car with Jamal Shati Hindi and Bashir Nafa, we were each in a car alone, and our hands and feet were bound. We were covered with blankets so that we could not see out of the car and after 20 kilometres by car we were taken to a Zionist camp. From my knowledge of the country's geography this was Huwara prison near Nablus and we were placed in a helicopter - a huge helicopter - which took us into Lebanon and when our blindfolds were removed we realized that there were eight of us in all, five from Gaza and three from the West Bank." (A/AC.145/RT.494)

404. Testimonies referring to the problem of expulsions and deportations may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.485 (Mr. Zudhi Sa'id); A/AC.145/RT.488 (Mr. Bashir Ahmed El Khairi); A/AC.145/RT.494 (Mr. Fureij Ahmad Khalil Khairi, Mr. Jamal Shati Al-Hindi, Mr. Abd el-Nasser Mohamed Abdel Aziz and Mr. Ahmad Khalid Al-Dik); A/AC.145/RT.495 (Mr. Abd el-Bashir Mahmud Nafa Hamad and Mr. Ghassan Ali Aref Al-Masri) and A/AC.145/RT.496 (Mr. Jibril Mahmud Al-Rajub).

Written information

405. On 8 September 1987, the Central Region Commander, Amram Mitzna, ordered the deportation of a former Al-Najah University student who was at present serving a prison term for acting on behalf of the PFLP on the campus. The man was named as Abh el-Nasser Mohamed Abdel Aziz, 31, of Jenin. (Jerusalem Post, 9 September 1987)

406. On 8 October 1987, an IDF spokesman reported that a West Bank resident,
Zakarya Nahas of El-Bireh, had been deported to Jordan earlier in the week. Nahas had served 22 months of a two-and-a-half-year sentence for membership of the Popular Front
and providing services to the organization. (Jerusalem Post, 9 October 1987)

407. On 3 December 1987, an expulsion order was issued against Jamal Yunes el-Hindi, 29, an Al-Najah University student. According to the security authorities he was directly responsible for organizing disturbances in the University, and was a senior activist of the Fatah in Nablus, and in the Al-Najah University in particular. He was also suspected of incitement in his place of residence, the Jenin refugee camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 December 1987; Al-Ittihad, 4 December 1987)

408. On 6 December 1987, the Israeli authorities ordered the expulsion of Abdel Fattah Ziyara, 49, a Gaza resident. The petition filed by his lawyer to the Israeli Supreme Court concerning the expulsion order was rejected. (Attalia, 10 December 1987)

409. On 3 January 1988, nine orders of expulsions were issued against Palestinian activists - five from the West Bank and four from Gaza - charged with hostile activity with the Fatah and other organizations, and with extremist Islamic bodies. According to military sources some of the persons to be expelled were among the leading inciters and organizers in the current wave of unrest in the territories and most of them had served long prison terms for hostile activity. The nine were named as follows: Jibril Rajub, 35, from Dura, near Hebron; Bashir Ahmed el-Khairi, 44, a lawyer from Ramallah; Jamal Jabrat, 28, from Kalkiliya; Adel Nafah Hamad, 28, from the Kalandiya refugee camp; Hussam Khader, 27, from Balata camp; Fureij Khalil al-Khairi, 40, from Gaza; Mohammed Abu-Samara, 27, from Gaza; Hassan Abu Shakra, 38, from Khan Yunis; Khalil Koka, 40, from the Shati camp near Gaza. It was reported that the four Gaza Arabs facing expulsion declared a hunger strike "until their release or until their death". They were being held in the Ansar 2 prison. Their attorney, Felicia Langer, lodged an appeal with the military review board against their expulsion. On 7 January 1988, it was reported that 11 lawyers representing the 5 West Bank residents faced with expulsion threatened to apply to the High Court of Justice after the military review board barred them from representing Jibril Rajub jointly. According to the lawyers the military board asked them to decide on three lawyers who could
represent Rajub, and the other lawyers had to leave the room. The lawyers refused to comply and all of them left, leaving Rajub without an attorney. In the case of the four Gaza men facing expulsion the prosecution presented its argument and lawyers from Gaza and Israel representing the four appealed for more time to study documents presented as evidence against their client. They said the classified documents had been unavailable to the defence before they were submitted to the court. On 12 January 1988, it was reported that the five West Bank residents facing expulsion had decided to drop their appeals against the expulsion orders. This followed a decision by the military review board not to allow their lawyers access to classified material the board had before it. It was later reported that one of the five, Adel Nafah Hamad, decided not to drop his appeal. At a press conference held by the lawyers, attorney Lea Tsemel explained that her client believed that pursuing a High Court of Justice appeal would only legitimize a process that they deemed unjust. Attorney Felicia Langer reported that the four Gaza men whom she represented were in the tenth day of hunger strike. They intended to take their case to the High Court of Justice, she said. On 13 January 1988, Hussam Khader, Bashir Ahmed el-Khairi, Jamal Jabrat and Jibril Rajub were expelled to Lebanon. On 17 January 1988, the High Court of Justice issued an interim injunction against the expulsion of the four Gaza residents. Duty Justice Shelomo Levin ordered that the deportation orders be suspended until an application to cancel them could be heard. On 26 January 1988, the fifth West Bank man who had earlier decided not to drop his appeal, Adel Nafah from Kalandiya, also decided to withdraw his appeal. On 28 January 1988, it was reported that defence officials were inclined to postpone the planned deportation of the five remaining men faced with expulsion, for fear of causing a further outbreak of disturbances. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4, 7, 12, 13, 18 and 26 January 1988; Ha'aretz, 14 January 1988; Jerusalem Post, 28 January 1988)

410. On 13 March 1988, the High Court of Justice rejected the applications of three residents of the territories against whom expulsion orders were issued. The court said that from a legal point of view there was no impediment to carrying out the expulsion orders forthwith. The three were Abdul Aziz Odeh, 33, from Gaza, Jamal Shati al-Hindi, 30, and Abd el-Nasser Afu, 32, from Jenin. On 11 April 1988, the three, together with five other residents of the territories, were expelled to South Lebanon and taken by Lebanese cabs to Syrian-held territory. The other five deportees were ordered expelled in January but had petitioned a military review board and the High Court of Justice. Their petitions were also rejected. All were deported on the grounds that they had incited unrest during the uprising. They were Fureij Ahmad Khalil Khairi, 40, from Gaza; Muhammad Abu-Samara, 27, from Gaza; Khalil Koka, 40, from Gaza; Hassan Abu Shakra, 38, of Khan Yunis, and Bashir Nafa Hamad, 28, of the Kalandiya refugee camp. In addition to the expulsions the IDF issued expulsion orders against 12 others, 6 from the village of Beita, where a settler girl was killed the previous week, and 6 others believed to be organizers of recent protests and strikes. The Beita residents were: Muhammad Bani Shamra, 36, Mustafa Mahmoud Hamail, 28, Sari Halal Hamail, 26, Omar Mahmoud Daoud, 32, Najah Jamil Dweikat, 25, and Ibrahim Khader Ali Jarub, 27. Two of them had served prison terms in the past for belonging to the Fatah. Two others were leaders of the disbanded "Shabiba" movement. All six were said to be among the organizers and inciters of the attack against the group of Eilon-Moreh youths. The other six were Adman Dahir, 37, from El-Bireh, an alleged communist activist; Ahmed Suleiman, 35, an alleged activist of Hawatmeh's Democratic Front; Ghassan al-Masri, 30, from Ramallah, an alleged Fatah organizer; Ahmad A-Dik, 28, from A-Dik, a suspected Fatah activist; Ziad Rushdi Nahalla, 35, from Gaza, a suspected activist of the Islamic Jihad; and Jamal Zakut, 31, from Gaza, a suspected DFLP activist. On 19 April 1988, eight West Bank residents were expelled to Lebanon following their announcement that they were dropping their appeals against the expulsion orders issued to them. Six of the deportees were residents of Beita. The other two deportees were Ahmed Fawzi a-Dik and Ghassan al-Masri. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 March and 12 and 20 April 1988)

411. On 14 April 1988, the five members of the High Court of Justice made public the reasons for their earlier decision to reject the applications by three West Bank and Gaza Palestinians against their expulsion order. The three, together with five other residents of the territories, were expelled on 11 April 1988. The court, by a majority of four to one, ruled that the intention of the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 was to prevent the mass expulsion of populations from militarily occupied territories and not to bar the deportation of individuals. Justice Shamagar, the President of the Supreme Court, described the historical background of the adoption of the Convention and noted that there was not even a hint in it of its possible application to prevent the expulsion of a terrorist infiltrator or of an enemy agent. Justice Shamgar also ruled on the question of whether the Convention could be considered to be a binding part of Israeli law. He found that specific legislation by the Knesset would be needed for such a purpose, either to declare the Convention Israeli law or accepted international practice also binding on Israel. No such legislation had been passed. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 April 1988)

412. On 7 June 1988, the High Court of Justice issued two provisional injunctions banning the deportation of two West Bank residents, Adnan Da'er, from El-Bireh, and Ahmed Suleiman, from Turmus Aya. Both had orders of expulsion issued against them, and their appeals to advisory boards were rejected. In both cases the High Court instructed that the petitions be heard by a three-justice panel. (Ma'ariv, 7 June 1988)

413. On 7 July 1988, Edwan Dahar, 38, from El-Bireh, announced that he was
retracting his petition to the High Court of Justice against an expulsion order issued against him following the Beita incident in April 1988. (Ma'ariv, 8 July 1988)

414. On 8 July 1988, deportation orders were issued against six West Bank and four Gaza Strip residents described as "activists in Palestinian organizations" who played a major role in organizing the uprising. They were named as follows: Luai Nafa' Abdo, 33, of Nablus; Fathi Ibrahim Shakahi, 35, from Rafah; Muhammad Labadi, 33, from El-Bireh; Samir Sbeihat, 34, from El-Bireh; Radwan Ziadeh, 31, from Hebron; Mursi Abu-Aweila, 21, from Kalandiya; Jamal Abu-Latifa, 31, from Kalandiya; Ahmad Mustafa Abu Mailak, 29, from Gaza; Muhammad Abdallah Jarabli, 45, from Gaza; and Yusri Darwish al-Hamas, 36, from Rafah. The 10 had served various prison terms in the past for security offences. Some had been placed in administrative detention. On 19 July 1988, it was reported that Luai Nafa' Abdo had informed the appeal committee in the Central Region Command of his wish to suspend the appeal procedure against the expulsion order issued against him. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 July 1988; Ha'aretz, 19 July 1988)

415. On 20 July 1988, it was reported that an advisory committee at the Southern Region Command had recommended to the Region Commander, Yitzhak Mordekhai, to go ahead with the expulsion of two Gaza residents against whom expulsion orders had been issued three months earlier. They were named as Ziad Rushdi Nahla, 35, and Jamal Awad Zakut, 28. (Ha'aretz, 20 July 1988)

416. On 1 August 1988, the IDF expelled eight Palestinians from the territories to Lebanon. Some of those expelled had been in gaol since the early stages of the uprising, but were accused of continuing their hostile activity in prison. Six of the deportees were from the West Bank. They were named as: Lu'ai Abdo, 32, of Nablus, a journalist and translator who had been released in 1985 in the prisoner exchange with Ahmad Jibril's organization; Adnan Daher, 37, a Communist activist from El-Bireh; Ahmad Suleiman, 36, of Turmus Aya, an activist of the DFLP; Jamal Abu Latifa, 23, of Kalandiya; Mursi Abu Aweila, 21, of Kalandiya; and Samir Sbeihat, 34, of El-Bireh. The three latter deportees were leaders of the outlawed Shabiba organization. Two of the deportees were from Gaza: Jamal Zakut, 31, a DFLP leader, and Ziad Nahale, 35, an Islamic Jihad activist. All were accused of incitement and subversive activity. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 August 1988)

417. On 17 August 1988, the IDF expelled four Arabs to Lebanon and issued expulsion orders to 25 others. Those expelled were: Muhammad Jarabli, 45, from Gaza; Yusri al-Amasi, 36, from Rafah; Fat'hi Shakaki, 35, from Rafah; and Ahmad Abu Ma'ilek, 29, from Gaza. The expulsions brought to 33 the number of Palestinians deported since the beginning of the uprising in December 1987. According to the IDF, the 25 others, 10 from Gaza and 15 from the West Bank, were also leaders of the uprising and had direct ties to the popular committees. The names of the 25 men served with expulsion orders were reported as follows: Muhammad Abd el-Jalil Matawar, 38, from El-Bireh; Tayassir el-Arwi, 43, from El-Bireh, a Communist activist and lecturer at Bir Zeit University; Majed Muhammad Abdullah Labadi, 28, from Abu Dis; Akaf Wahid Abdallah, 27, from Anabta; Odeh Yusef Ma'ali, 30, from Niama, near Ramallah; Abd el-Hamid Baba, 25, from Al-Amary camp; Tayassir Muhammad Salah, 27, from Balata camp; Hani Muhammad Halub, 28, from Tulkarem; Bilal Shahshir, 36, from Nablus; Mas'ud Othman Zaifar, 42, from Nablus; Jamal Ibrahim Freij, 25, from Dheisheh camp; Othman Dweirat, 29, from Balata camp; Issam Amin Dabai, 24, from Nablus; Yusuf Harb Odeh, from Balata camp; Othman Muhammad Daoud, 27, from Kalkiliya; Sayed Hussein Baraka, 32, from Bani Suheila in the Gaza Strip; Nabil Muhammad Tamus, 21, from Gaza; Fathi Omar Hajaj, 36, from Gaza; Riad Wajih A'gur, 26, from Gaza; Abdallah Abu-Samhadna, 38, from Gaza (a lecturer
at Gaza University); Aish Abu-Saada, 30, from Jabaliya camp; Rizek Mahmud Biari, 28, a journalist from Gaza; Muhammad Saadi Madwah, 38, from Gaza; Munaim Muhammad Abu-Ataya, 33, from Gaza; and Attah Muhammad Abu Karesh, 54, from Shati camp. Most of the men had received prison sentences in the past for security offences or served periods of administrative detention. Many were suspected of activity in the framework of the Fatah or other organizations, and were believed to be leaders of popular committees in their towns. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 August 1988)

418. On 19 August 1988, it was reported that the office of the Judge Advocate-General had prepared 15 additional expulsion orders against Arabs from the territories believed to be leaders or members of popular committees. (Ha'aretz, 19 August 1988)

(d) Economic and social situation

Oral evidence

419. A number of witnesses referred to the deterioration of the living conditions of the civilian population in the occupied territories, in particular since the start of the uprising.

420. Dr. Nago Humbert stated in this connection:

"The social condition had markedly deteriorated - and when I speak of the social situation I include the economic situation. The plight of the civilian population, and especially in Gaza, is - it is an extreme word - catastrophic." (Dr. Nago Humbert, A/AC.145/RT.491)

421. An anonymous witness reached the same conclusion in his testimony:

"The economic situation indeed has deteriorated. A family which in the past relied on the head of the family or one or two members of the family can no longer go on in this way. Practically all members of all families are unemployed; most schools are closed; money transfers to the West Bank are very difficult since no more than JD [Jordanian dinars] 400 can cross the border with any one person - whether through the airport or travelling by road - and therefore there is no possibility for people to live at the same standard as they did before the uprising. They have no means of continuing their
livelihood. Therefore the situation has indeed deteriorated and there is no
source of income for the inhabitants of the occupied territories. Most of
these inhabitants are poor, working-class people, and this is a fact which has
been taken into consideration by the authorities since June 1967. The
authorities want to attach the occupied territories to the central economy of
Israel, imposing taxes, imposing restrictions on the citizens and turning them
into a cheap source of labour within Israeli power. This is also a way of
uprooting people from the land because they have to go and work somewhere
else, and of course the land then becomes fallow because it is not worked by
the citizens. Then the authorities confiscate it." (Anonymous witness,
A/AC.145/RT.480)

422. Another witness referred to present difficulties concerning the transfer of funds and donations to the occupied territories:

"All the time the Israelis object to any external plans, or plans from other countries to develop our existing institutions or to build new health institutions. The only thing they will permit is for the money to be given to them, and they will start it by themselves. That was the case with the Al-Hussein Hospital, where the Swedish Government was trying to participat actively in the development of that hospital. The Israelis insisted that the plans be made according to their own interests; they would carry out the plans with the Swedish funds, the Swedes could not fund their own plans. So if you
wanted to donate money to any of our institutions in the West Bank, you have
to follow the Israeli plans and make the funds over directly to them. There
were exceptions in respect of certain donations to some hospitals, but in
general, up to now, they are not allowed. The Committee of the Friends of the
Alia Hospital in Hebron was planning to donate an ambulance, but the Israelis
objected. They refused without giving any reason. Some other cities tried to
establish a volunteer service to help with the shortage of staff in the
hospitals, but the Israelis would not allow it. Others have tried to donate
special beds for surgery, for paediatrics, for new-born babies, but the
Israelis would not allow us to take those donations. Most of the time they
claim that that money is for the PLO and that is why it is refused. Actually
we are helpless in this matter. We receive many offers of donations or help
but we cannot receive it because the military forces will not allow it. There
was one exception recently when the Jordanian Government was allowed to make a
donation to the laboratory of the Al-Hussein Hospital in Bethlehem, an amount
of $55,000, so we re-established the whole laboratory, but that is the only
thing I remember in this field. They continue to refuse such assistance.
Perhaps in the future they will be less hard-headed." (Anonymous witness,
A/AC.145/RT.482).

423. Specific reference was also made to problems faced in the agricultural
sector. An anonymous witness mentioned some of the issues that farmers were
confronted with:

"I have a citrus grove and I sell my produce mostly to companies which use it to produce fruit juice; part of it I export to Amman. In either case the price is not very favourable. The Israeli authorities will not allow us to export our produce elsewhere in the world, especially to the EEC countries. We are not allowed to do that. Were we able to export to the EEC countries the dividends would be much higher and our circumstances would be very much eased. I have been selling my produce, like other farmers, to the
merchants in the Gaza Strip. The merchants take the produce and either export
it to Amman or sell it to the companies who make juice. But for the past two
months no funds have been allowed to come in from Amman, so for the past two
months I have not made any money. I have been selling, but the funds are
being blocked and cannot come into the Golan Heights. The money is held in
Amman. The money is there, but we cannot receive it. The merchants
themselves cannot receive the money and bring it into the occupied
territories. Since the beginning of the uprising money has not been allowed
to enter the occupied territories.

"...

"There is one bank in the Gaza Strip called the Bank of Palestine. That bank grants loans to farmers for improvement of the land or agricultural
techniques. The loan would be for a period of 11 months, but the problem is
that you have to pay 18 per cent interest, so it isn't in any way profitable
to us to apply for a loan. There are other Israeli banks operating in the
Gaza Strip who will grant loans, but the interest you have to pay is above
50 per cent.

"...

"The Israeli authorities control the use of water resources. Everyone who owns a well is responsible for the irrigation of a number of dunams of land. The Israeli authorities impose a quota per dunam of land. There are water meters attached to the wells. If you exceed the amount of water allocated to you in proportion to the number of dunams you can irrigate, you have to pay a fine commensurate with the excess water you have used. Every month someone comes to read the water meter." (Anonymous witness,
A/AC.145/RT.492)

Written information

424. On 1 September 1987, a second branch of the Jordanian Cairo-Amman Bank was opened in the West Bank. The new branch was opened in Ramallah. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 September 1987)

425. On 26 October 1987, the Knesset passed a bill enabling the Minister of Energy and Infrastructure to transfer the right to supply electric power to certain areas from the East Jerusalem Electric Company to the Israel Electric Company. The Arab company would be permitted to supply electricity only to Arab towns and villages. On 6 December 1987, the Energy Minister, Moshe Shahal, began disconnecting Jewish neighbourhoods in Jerusalem across the Green Line served by the Arab-owned Jerusalem District Electricity Company, linking them to the national power grid. The move followed Knesset legislation to issue the Arab company a new reduced concession for 12 years, excluding Jewish neighbourhoods and West Bank settlements. On 7 December 1987, directors of the Arab company reportedly indicated their de facto acceptance of the new arrangement, pledging to continue supplying power to their remaining 70,000 clients (out of the former 100,000). However, workers at the firm staged a strike and said they would wage a protest campaign against the move.
(Ha'aretz, 27 October 1987; Jerusalem Post, 29 October and 7 and 8 December 1987)

426. On 28 January 1988, it was reported that the head of the West Bank civil
administration, Yeshayahu Erez, had authorized in the past week over 400 construction projects in rural areas in the West Bank; this followed a year of almost total paralysis in that field following a police inquiry into allegation of corruption and embezzlement.
(Ha'aretz, 29 January 1988)

427. On 17 February 1988, it was reported that the Employment Service had set up a special unit to supervise the employment in Israel of workers from the territories. Over 50,000 workers from the territories were reportedly employed in Israel without permits and were not paying taxes. According to another report 40 per cent of the workers in the territories were employed in Israel (some 110,000 out of 285,000). Some 46 per cent of them were employed in construction and 18 per cent in agriculture. (Ha'aretz, 17 February 1988)

428. On 6 March 1988, the co-ordinator of activities in the territories, Shmuel Goren, referring to the economic repercussions of the uprising, said the administration was seeking ways to ensure that residents paid their taxes. These included a requirement from residents seeking driving licences, travel documents and export permits to appear at the administration offices to obtain an additional permit. Residents who had not paid their taxes were not issued the documents. Goren added that the third branch of the Cairo-Amman Bank in the territories, after Nablus and Ramallah, had recently been opened in Hebron.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 March 1988)

429. On 1 June 1988, a West Bank civil administration official told reporters that, owing to the drop in tax collection, many development projects, including funds for local authorities, electricity grids, water works and phone systems, as well as welfare assistance and medical care payments, had been frozen. (Jerusalem Post, 2 June 1988)

430. On 31 July 1988, it was reported that an interministerial committee had
decided to grant five citrus-growers from Gaza, including former Mayor Rashad A-Shawa, export licenses that would enable them to export directly to the European Community. This would be the first time that exports from the territories to Europe would not be handled by the Israeli Citrus Marketing Board. (Jerusalem Post, 31 July 1988)

2. Information on measures affecting certain fundamental freedoms

(a) Freedom of movement

Oral evidence

431. New measures implemented in the occupied territories and restricting the
freedom of movement were described in some testimonies. An anonymous witness
stated in this connection:

"In Gaza, at the beginning, we all had the same identity card. Then they divided the Gaza into regions and every region started having its own card. But then there is another thing, because the card would also bear a mark or some sort of sign related to the identity of the person. If the person is a demonstrator or is known to be an agitator or has been involved in protests, there is a certain mark on his card which would prevent him from moving freely, from coming and going." (A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1)

Written information

432. During the period under consideration, the Special Committee received reports from various newspapers providing information on measures affecting the freedom of movement of the civilian population. Such information included relevant details such as the date, the subject(s) of restriction, the place and type of restriction applied and, when available the motive of the restriction. According to the information provided, restrictions such as travel bans or town restrictions have been applied both individually, against specific persons, or collectively, against the totality of residents of a given area. With regard to such collective restrictions, reference has already been made in paragraphs 387-395 to the severe and systematic measures implemented by the Israeli authorities since the beginning of the uprising, such as the imposition of curfews, sealing off camps or villages, or declaring certain areas closed military areas. Other measures further restricting the freedom of movement in the occupied territories have been reported, such as new administrative measures in the Gaza Strip aiming at the replacement of identity cards of all residents over the age of 16. Some 350,000 persons would reportedly have to change their cards; if they failed to do so they would have to go underground or leave the region. These measures have also reportedly been used by the occupying authorities to prohibit many residents whose cards have been confiscated and who were suspected of having played active roles in the uprising from leaving the Gaza Strip (see also paras. 337, 366 and 369 above).

(b) Freedom of worship

Written information

433. On 10 October 1988, it was reported that a scuffle had taken place at the
Patriach's Cave in Hebron, between Jewish and Arab worshippers, after a Muslim
funeral procession entered the area during Sabbath prayers. Jewish worshippers threw chairs at the Muslim mourners and tried to force them out of the area. IDF soldiers and border guards rushed in and separated the two camps. Some of the soldiers were beaten by worshippers. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 and 12 October 1987)

434. On 11 October 1987, it was reported that some 200 Muslims demonstrated and threw stones and bottles when a group of five members of the "Temple Mount Faithful" group entered the area and walked around it under heavy police guard. Troops used tear gas and fired shots in the air to disperse the crowd. Three policemen were slightly injured and 12 protesters were arrested. Some 25 Arabs were treated in hospital for the effects of tear gas. (Jerusalem Post, 12 October 1987)

435. On 7 January 1988, for the first time since the Israeli occupation, the IDF declared the area of Salah El-Din Mosque in al-Awamid, Gaza, a closed military area and barred worshippers from entering the mosque. (Al-Ittihad, 8 January 1988; Attalia, 14 January 1988)

436. On 15 January 1988, a violent demonstration was held on the Temple Mount, outside the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Police, after being pelted with stones, used a large quantity of tear gas and clubbed protesters. A border guard was captured by Muslim protesters, taken inside the Al-Aqsa Mosque and beaten on the head. He fired in the air and could escape. Scuffles were reported between Muslim protesters and policemen. Some 30 protesters were hospitalized with tear-gas and beating injuries. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 January 1988)

437. On 20 February 1988, violent incidents were reported in the Patriarch's Cave in Hebron, where troops used force to disperse Muslim worshippers who had penetrated into a hall where Jewish worshippers were praying, according to an arrangement with the Defence Ministry. (Ha'aretz, 21 February 1988)

438. On 4 March 1988, it was reported that the security authorities in the territories were confiscating loudspeakers used in mosques so as to prevent their use for transmitting inciting messages. (Ha'aretz, 4 March 1988)

439. On 11 March 1988, in Gaza, for the first time since the start of the uprising, the IDF closed three mosques on Friday, alleging that stone-throwers had come out of them. Three soldiers were slightly injured from stones. (Ha'aretz, 13 March 1988)

440. On 12 July 1988, it was reported that a decision had recently been taken by the security authorities to step up the control over the activities of the Supreme Muslim Council on the Temple Mount, including the control over senior religious officials and the heads of the Muslim waqf. According to security officials the waqf officials have been increasingly involved in the uprising and were allegedly involved in drafting one of the recent leaflets concerning Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, 12 July 1988)

(c) Freedom of expression

Oral evidence

441. A number of witnesses testified on the various restrictions imposed by the occupying authorities on the right to freedom of expression. Reference was made in particular to the black-out that the Israelis have been trying to implement in order to prevent the news media, both international and local, from reporting on the uprising in the occupied territories:

"In March 1988 alone, 1,800 newspapermen and correspondents were barred from the territories and some of the photographers were attacked. The representative of NBC was in Ramallah and prior to that he was in Jerusalem when there were women demonstrating, rejecting the acts of the Israeli authorities. The occupation forces attacked the demonstration, they hit the women and detained some of them. The NBC correspondent tried to photograph this, to film it, and he was detained, he was hit by the occupation
authorities. When the police found out who he was, they released him and he
went back to his hotel and set a telex to the United States, recounting the
incident. Many correspondents have been prevented from covering these events,
so that the world outside does not get to know what is happening." (Anonymous
witness, A/AC.145/RT.480)

442. Various other infringements on the right to freedom of expression were
mentioned in testimonies, such as the closure or expropriation of newspapers and news agencies, the censorship or banning of newspapers, or the harassment of journalists, many of whom were held under administrative detention.

443. Testimonies relating to restriction of the right to freedom of expression may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.480 (an anonymous witness); and A/AC.145/RT.484/Add.1 (Mr. Faris Glubb).

Written information

444. On 8 September 1987, it was reported that the head of the East Jerusalem
Palestinian Centre for the Study of Non-violence, Mubarak Awad, had been summoned to the Jerusalem police for questioning, following a petition to the High Court of Justice by lawyer Elyakim Haetzni of Kiryat-Arba and right-wing activist Shelomo Baum. The petition requested action on a complaint submitted by Baum in 1986, in which he claimed that Awad's advocacy of civil disobedience by Palestinians in the territories was "incitement to civil rebellion". The questioning at the police was done on instruction from the
Attorney-General. Awad was the author of publications on methods of non-violent resistance to Israeli occupation, including acts of civil disobedience, such as refusal to show identity cards to police and soldiers and non-payment of taxes. (Ha'aretz, 8 September 1987; Jerusalem Post, 8 and 9 September 1987)

445. On 25 October 1987, the Central Region Commander, Amram Mitzna ordered the
closure for two years of a Nablus news office run by Muhammad Amira, 47, a former
correspondent of Al-Quds, who reportedly confessed to maintaining contacts with
central figures of Fatah and receiving money from the organization. (Ha'aretz,
Jerusalem Post, 26 October 1987)

446. On 15 November 1987, it was reported that the civil administration had imposed
a week-long ban on the distribution in the territories of two pro-PLO newspapers,
Al-Fajr and Al-Sha'ab. On 15 November 1987, a press conference was held in East
Jerusalem in which managers of the two papers announced that they had ceased
publication for the duration of the ban, in protest against the civil
administration decision. (Ha'aretz, 16 November 1987; Jerusalem Post, 15 and
16 November 1987)

447. On 11 December 1987, it was reported that the distribution of the East
Jerusalem newspaper Al-Fajr in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank was banned for
10 days. In protest, the managers of the newspaper decided to stop printing it altogether. On 16 December 1987, it was reported that another East Jerusalem newspaper, Al-Sha'ab, was banned for distribution in the West Bank until 26 December, on the grounds that it had violated censorship in an editorial published earlier, which described recent shooting of Palestinian rioters as "cold-blooded murder". On 22 December 1987, the head of the civil administration in the West Bank, Yeshayahu Erez, ordered a one-month ban on the distribution of the East Jerusalem daily Al-Quds in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip for alleged censorship violations. (Ha'aretz, 11 December and 23 December 1987; Jerusalem Post, 16 December 1987)

448. On 9 January 1988, Hanna Siniora, editor of the East Jerusalem daily Al-Fajr, was questioned for over two hours at the police headquarters in the Russian Compound in Jerusalem over his call for civil disobedience. The questioning was ordered by the Attorney-General. Siniora was released on bail. He later told reporters that he was told that he was suspected of sedition, plotting to cause damage to others and incitement to refrain from paying taxes. (Ha'aretz, 10 January 1988)

449. On 11 January 1988, two East Jerusalem journalists were placed in administrative detention for six months. They were named as Saman Khoury, 39, a part-time correspondent in the West Bank for Agence France-Presse, and Hani Issawi, a freelance journalist. (Jerusalem Post, 12 January 1988)

450. On 14 January 1988, Hanna Siniora was detained and questioned for five hours, just before he was to hold a press conference in East Jerusalem in which he intended to announce new measures in the framework of the "civil disobedience" he had announced earlier. Three other East Jerusalem journalists were detained on suspicion of membership of a hostile organization. They were named as Mohammed Zheikeh, correspondent of Al-Fajr, Saleh Zuheiki, one of the editors of Al-Sha'ab, and Abdel Latif Rith, a former editor of Al-Fajr and member of the Arab Journalists' Association. The police also questioned Ibrahim Kara'in, partner of Raymonda Tawil in the Palestinian Press Agency and editor of the weekly Al-Awdah, and Ghassan Ayub, an active member of the Palestinian Workers' Association. The two were about to attend a press conference in East Jerusalem on recent events in the territories. They were questioned on "suspicion of planning and holding an illegal meeting", and were later released. (Ha'aretz, 15 January 1988)

451. On 10 February 1988, the Jerusalem police raided a printing house in Isawiya, East Jerusalem, and confiscated machines and other material. According to reports the printing house served for the printing of the first six numbers of leaflets on behalf of the "United National Committee for the Uprising in the Territories", which issued guidelines to the inhabitants of the territories. (Ha'aretz, 11 February 1988)

452. On 16 February 1988, the High Court of Justice rejected an application by the owner of the East Jerusalem newspaper Al-Quds against its distribution ban in the territories for 45 days, imposed 25 days earlier by the censorship. (Ha'aretz, 17 February 1988)

453. On 6 March 1988, it was reported that the four major towns in the West Bank and parts of the Gaza Strip had been declared "closed military zones" to
journalists. Road-blocks were placed on access roads to Ramallah, Hebron and Bethlehem and cars belonging to reporters, press photographers and television crews were prohibited from passing. News media personnel were also banned inside Nablus, Ramallah, Bethlehem, Hebron and populated areas around these towns. Soldiers manning the road-blocks showed reporters orders signed by the military governors declaring the areas closed military zones. Soldiers took down the registration numbers of reporters' cars, so that they could be identified should they defy the ban. Commanders in the areas concerned were given instructions to confiscate journalists' cards to reporters and photographers seen in the closed areas. According to military sources, the presence of news media personnel in tense areas exacerbated the tensions. (Ha'aretz, 6 March 1988)

454. On 18 and 19 March 1988, many West Bank areas were closed to news media
coverage and in particular to television crews. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post,
Ma'ariv, 20 March 1988)

455. On 24 March 1988, nearly all 21 printing plants in the Gaza Strip were ordered to close down by the region's IDF commander. The order specified that only those printers licensed directly by military authorities might continue to operate. The closures were reportedly part of a widespread campaign to curb the production and distribution of leaflets. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 March 1988)

456. On 29 March 1988, the Foreign Press Association in Israel petitioned the High Court of Justice for an order nisi against the closure for three days of the entire West Bank and Gaza Strip to news media. The applicants also asked the Court to issue an interim injunction ordering the Government and the Defence Minister not to prevent journalists and radio and television personnel from carrying out their work and cover events in the closed areas pending a decision on the petition. On 10 March 1988, the High Court of Justice issued an order nisi instructing the Government, the Defence Minister and the IDF commanders in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to show cause within 30 days why they should not refrain from prohibiting journalists, members of the Foreign Press Association in Israel, from entering the territories and carrying out their journalistic tasks. The High Court refused to issue an interim injunction that would have enabled foreign journalists to cover events in the territories until 1 April 1988, when the three-day closure to the news media would expire. At the hearing a representative of the State Attorney said that two "pools of journalists", with 8-16 journalists each, were present in the territories in the past 2 days, representing the entire domestic and foreign press. Another pool was covering the Gaza Strip. According to a representative of the IDF spokesman, the "pool arrangement was very flexible, the foreign journalists could decide on the itinerary in the area, could co-ordinate the target, and could modify the itinerary even in its course. An accompanying officer on behalf of the IDF spokesman, who accompanied each pool, enabled the members to carry out their tasks freely. They could interview any local resident without restrictions, to the extent that no immediate operational activity was under way". However, a lawyer for the foreign journalists criticized the pool arrangement, describing it as an organized journey that did not befit a democratic State. (Ha'aretz, 30 and 31 March 1988)

457. On 30 March 1988, the Central Region Commander, Maj.-Gen. Amram Mitzna,
ordered the closure for six months of the Palestine Press Service. The order was based on the Defence (Emergency) Regulations of 1945. According to security sources, the East Jerusalem news agency, owned by Raymonda Tawil and Ibrahim Kara'in, was closed because it was financed by the PLO. Ibrahim Kara'in denied the allegation and said he was sure that the real reason for the closure was the desire to suppress news on what was happening in the territories, and to leave journalists with one version only, that of the IDF spokesman. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 March 1988)

458. On 17 April 1988, the East Jerusalem weekly Al-Awdah received a warning from the Interior Ministry that it was considering a withdrawal of the magazine's publication licence. A letter sent to Ibrahim Kara'in, the publisher and co-owner, with Raymonda Tawil, of the Palestine Press Service, which was closed down for six months on 30 March 1988, said that material received by the Ministry indicated that the weekly magazine was supported and directed by a terrorist organization and served its goals. It ordered the publishers to present their arguments against closure by 1 May 1988. On 2 May 1988, the Interior Ministry closed Al-Awdah. The Arab Journalists' Association in the territories charged in a statement that the closure was "designed to stifle the Palestinian voice and impose a black-out on events in the occupied territories". (Jerusalem Post, 18 April 1988; Ha'aretz, 3 May 1988)

459. On 5 May 1988, Elias Zananiri, one of the editors of Al-Awdah magazine, was arrested for 48 hours by the Jerusalem police on suspicion of organizing a demonstration in East Jerusalem on 7 January 1988. (Jerusalem Post, 6 May 1988)

460. On 11 May 1988, three editors from the Al-Fajr newspaper and one from the
banned Al-Awdah magazine were arrested and put in administrative detention. They were Talal Abu-Afifeh, Riad Jubran, Musa Jaradat and Hassan Abed Rabo. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 May 1988)

(d) Freedom of association

Written information

461. On 1 May 1988, it was confirmed that Dr. Zakaria el-Agha, 45, the President of the Gaza Medical Association, had been placed in six months' administrative detention. (Jerusalem Post, 2 May 1988)

462. On 5 May 1988, Elias Zananiri, one of the editors of Al-Awdah magazine, was arrested for 48 hours by the Jerusalem police on suspicion of organizing a
demonstration in East Jerusalem on 7 January 1988. (Jerusalem Post, 6 May 1988)

463. On 20 May 1988, the head of the West Bank Trade Unions Federation,
Shaher Shaab, and a member of the unified direction of the Red Crescent
Association, Mrs. Jenan el-Bittar, were arrested in Nablus. (Ha'aretz, 23 May 1988)

464. On 5 July 1988, Muhammad Abu-Sha'aban, deputy director of the Gaza Bar
Association, was released from gaol after serving four out of six months of
administrative detention. (Ha'aretz, 6 July 1988)

465. On 21 August 1988, it was reported that the civil administration and the
Jerusalem police on 18 August 1988 thwarted a meeting in East Jerusalem of a new association, called the Economic Development Association, whose aims were to reorganize some aspects of the West Bank economy not in connection with either Israel or Jordan. According to the report, the security authorities considered the new association to be an illegal body similar to the popular committees. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 August 1988)

466. On 23 August 1988, the IDF closed the offices of three community associations in Nablus, Tulkarem and Kalkiliya. The closure was described as part of the campaign against popular committees in the territories. On 26 August 1988, it was reported that the Tulkarem-based Association of Friends of the Ill, a philanthropic medical institute that was closed for two years by order of the Central Region Commander, would apply to the High Court of Justice against the closure order. The head of the Association, Dr. Riad Shalbi, said his Association dealt only with providing medical care to needy people in the northern West Bank and that it had never received money from illegal sources, nor had it ever been involved in activity against the public order. Security sources reported that they had evidence that the Association had been involved in hostile subversive activity. It was also reported that the association closed in Nablus was the General Federation of Trade Unions, headed by Shaher Saad, who had been held in administrative detention for four months. That association was also closed for two years. In a related development, it was reported that on 26 August 1988 police in East Jerusalem closed down a centre serving seven Palestinian professional associations in Beit Hanina, the Union of Charitable Societies and the Al-Hayat press office. All three bodies were closed for one year by order of the Central Region Commander. (Ha'aretz, 24 and 26 August 1988)

(e) Freedom of education

Oral evidence

467. Several witnesses provided the Special Committee with information on problems and restrictions affecting the right to freedom of education in the occupied territories.

468. Mention was made of the deterioration of the situation of education in the course of the current academic year, which has witnessed the killing of several students, the physical mistreatment and the breaking of bones of many others, the detention (including administrative detention) of some thousand students, as well as a number of teachers, and the fining of students.

469. Concern was expressed regarding the prolonged closure of all education
institutions and the transformation of a number of those institutions into military camps:

"From the beginning of January 1988 all universities and institutions of higher education, as well as all schools, were closed by military order; when that military order expired on 8 May 1988 it passed one single decree which closed all the universities, institutions of higher education and schools, including the kindergartens. No academic staff or member of the administration is allowed to enter the university grounds, otherwise they would be brought before the courts, because the campuses were declared to be `closed military areas'." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.482)

470. Several witnesses mentioned restrictions faced by educational institutions in various fields. An anonymous witness stated in this connection:

"Israel has tried to change the entire structure of the universities by issuing orders which allow it to interfere in the very business and internal affairs of those universities, which contravenes all academic and democratic practice everywhere in the world. It has taken decisions which give it the right to prevent any professor from being appointed to a university or achieving tenure. It has also prevented the administration from accepting students without the agreement of the occupation authorities." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.482)

471. The financial constraints and taxes imposed on educational institutions were denounced in some testimonies:

"Israel started imposing taxes and the taxes have accumulated. They amount to thousands of Jordanian dinars, enough to buy a whole laboratory or build a whole university building. Israel claims to protect education but in reality it is hindering education and imposing various measures to curtail all educational activities. In the last month or so, university staff members have found it impossible to cash the cheques issued by the university. What they have to do is to travel across the bridge and come into Amman in order to cash their cheques. That causes difficulties to the staff members and their
families." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.484)

"There is indeed a problem of funding from abroad, `over the bridge', and there are other difficulties. If Israel discovers that a West Bank university is receiving financial assistance from outside, the funds would be blocked, even if it is through a European or an American bank. There is a danger if these circumstances continue that the universities will be unable to create an academic life with research, teaching, books and education services for the Palestinians." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.482)

472. Some testimonies also outlined the efforts of the Israeli authorities to
modify the curricula in accordance with their views.

473. Testimonies relating to restrictions to the right to freedom of education may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.480 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.482 (two anonymous witnesses); A/AC.145/RT.484 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.484/Add.1 (Mr. Jihad Karashouli); A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1 (an anonymous witness); and A/AC.145/RT.494 (Mr. Jamal Shati Al-Hindi).

Written information

474. On 20 September 1987, it was reported that the Central Region Commander,
Amram Mitzna, had ordered the closure for two weeks of the Islamic college in
Hebron, following disturbances there on the Sabra and Shatila anniversary.
(Ha'aretz, 20 September 1987)

475. On 16 November 1987, the Council for Higher Education in the territories held a press conference in East Jerusalem, in which it charged that the army's three-month closure of Bethlehem University following a violent demonstration constituted a collective punishment and would only exacerbate student unrest. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 November 1987)

476. On 22 November 1987, two schools in Gaza, the Al-Azhar High School and the UNRWA Vocational Training College, were ordered closed for two weeks following violent demonstrations. (Jerusalem Post, 23 November 1987)

477. On 2 December 1987, it was reported that graduates of West Bank universities, and in particular Bir Zeit University, who wished to work as teachers in schools in East Jerusalem, were being turned down by the Jerusalem municipality and the Ministry of Education unless they produced a certificate issued by the security authorities attesting that they did not have "nationalistic views". According to Arab teachers in East Jerusalem, teachers were also required by the Jerusalem municipality and the Ministry of Education to report on students who did not show up in school on "critical days", such as the Balfour Declaration Day, the Land Day or on 29 November. Parents of such students were summoned by the principals and warned that any further absence of their children on such days would result in their temporary or definitive dismissal from school. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 December 1987)

478. On 3 December 1987, the IDF searched the premises of Bethlehem University and seized books and documents. Twenty-two students were arrested. (Attalia, 3 and 10 December 1987; Al-Ittihad, 4 December 1987)

479. On 3 December 1987, it was reported that Maj.-Gen. Amram Mitzna, Central
Region Commander, ordered the Contemporary Social College in Beituniya closed for three days following stone-throwing and protest incidents by local students. (Attalia, 3 December 1987)

480. On 20 December 1987, the Islamic College in Hebron was ordered closed for one month and all the other schools, both elementary and secondary, in the West Bank were ordered closed for two days. That measure was described by military sources as unprecedented. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 December 1987)

481. On 20 December 1987, the Israeli officer in charge of education ordered all schools of the West Bank closed for two days, later extended until 27 December 1987. Maj.-Gen. Amram Mitzna, Central Region Commander, issued an order closing Hebron University as at 21 December 1987 alleging that public order was being disturbed by students. (Attalia, 24 December 1987)

482. On 22 December 1987, four colleges were ordered closed for one month:
Abu Dis, the UNRWA training colleges for men and women in Ramallah and Shayukhi College in Beituniya. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 December 1987)

483. On 11 January 1988, Central Region Commander, Amram Mitzna, ordered the Bir Zeit University closed for one month, following reports that violent demonstrations were planned there. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 January 1988)

484. On 2 February 1988, schools in the northern West Bank were ordered closed
after students rioted when they opened earlier in the week. Bethlehem University, the Islamic University and the Hebron Polytechnic were also ordered closed. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 February 1988)

485. On 4 February 1988, the Israeli authorities ordered all educational
institutions in the territories closed as at that day until further notice. The order affected 800 schools, including those run by UNRWA. (Attalia,
4 February 1988)

486. On 7 February 1988, schools were closed throughout the territories.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 February 1988)

487. On 17 February 1988, all Arab schools in East Jerusalem remained closed.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 February 1988)

488. On 22 February 1988, two schools were closed in Khan Yunis following
stone-throwing incidents. (Attalia, 25 February 1988)

489. On 9 May 1988, it was reported that the civil administration had extended the order closing down all schools in the West Bank until 8 June 1988. Some 250,000 pupils were affected by the closure, which would reportedly result in a loss of the entire academic year. Palestinian education sources charged that the reason for the extension of the closure order was the fact that many schools in the West Bank had been turned into army camps over the past four months, but civil administration officials said the reason was the fear that the reopening of schools might enable "inciting factors" to turn the schools into centres of rioting and disturbances. On 17 May 1988, the civil administration announced that it would allow a phased reopening of schools in the region, in response to the decline in rioting. Universities would nevertheless remain closed. A civil administration spokesman said that 203,000 pupils in 611 kindergartens and elementary schools would go back to school on 23 May 1988; 69,000 pupils in 321 junior high schools would return to classes on 29 May 1988, and 36,000 pupils in 262 high schools would return to school the following week. The school year would be extended until August. The Jerusalem municipality also announced that schools in the city would be reopened after three months' closure. (Ha'aretz, 9-15 May 1988; Jerusalem Post, 18 May 1988)

490. On 23 May 1988, it was reported that the Al-Khalduniya School in the centre of Nablus - one of the 30 West Bank schools that had been turned into a military base over the past five months - had been badly damaged and vandalized by troops. IDF sources said all the damage would be repaired before the reopening of the school and that the Ministry of Defence would bear the costs of the reparations. Each one of the schools used by the army would be checked by representatives of the civil administration before the reopening of classes, to verify that it was in a condition fit for studies, the sources said. (Ha'aretz, 23-24 May 1988)

491. On 12 June 1988, for the first time since the reopening of schools in the
West Bank, the authorities ordered the closure of the Husan School in Hebron,
following violent demonstrations by pupils. (Ha'aretz, 13 June 1988)

492. On 15 June 1988, it was reported that all schools in the West Bank were
ordered closed for two days. The head of the civil administration in the region described the move as a "preventive closure", in view of disturbances that were forecast in compliance with a call by the clandestine leadership of the uprising (Ha'aretz, 15 June 1988)

493. On 19 June 1988, the civil administration in the Gaza Strip ordered closed the UNRWA School in Bani Suheila, following disturbances by pupils. Schools were also ordered closed in Tubas and Ein Sultan camp near Jericho. (Jerusalem Post, Ha'aretz, 20 June 1988)

494. On 26 June 1988, the military authorities ordered a four-day closure of all secondary schools in Nablus following widespread violent protests by pupils. The Jerusalem municipality and the Education Ministry decided to close the Rashidiya Municipal High School for one week, following a partial strike by the pupils. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 June 1988)

495. On 29 June 1988, the head of the civil administration in the West Bank said that the academic year in the region would be extended until the end of August to enable pupils to take the matriculation examinations. (Ha'aretz, 30 June 1988)

496. On 12 July 1988, it was reported that some 16,000 university students in the territories would lose an entire school year owing to the extended closure of universities by the civil administration. Higher education institutions in the territories had been closed since January 1988 and the civil administration recently announced that they would remain closed for a further month. (Ha'aretz, 12 July 1988)

497. On 14 July 1988, the civil administration closed down all schools in Tulkarem and Kalkiliya until 15 August 1988 - the end of the school year - because of persistent demonstrations by pupils in recent weeks. (Jerusalem Post, 15 July 1988)

498. On 7 August 1988, it was reported that the IDF had extended by one month the military order closing all the higher education institutions in the West Bank. The measure affected universities, colleges and teacher training colleges, which had been closed by military order since the beginning of the uprising. (Ha'aretz, 7 August 1988)

3. Information on settlers' activities affecting the civilian population
Oral evidence

499. The Special Committee heard several statements on the noticeable increase of aggressiveness in settlers' behaviour towards the civilian population in the occupied territories. Reference was made in particular to the killing and
kidnapping of civilians:

"The settlers ... represent an invisible military wing of the occupation authorities. They have free rein to adopt any measures that they deem appropriate. Even their official circle said that the Israeli settlements are storage areas against the Arab citizens. Before the uprising the settlers used to resort to brutal and inhuman practices because they daily attacked the citizens without any reason and without any justification. They attempted to kill some of the Arab inhabitants, and this is what took place in the cities of Hebron, Nablus and Bethlehem. The settlers have a militia or a military group called `The Combating Vanguards'. They are very dangerous. They train on racism and violence, and they are probably more fanatical than any Israeli circle; therefore the Israeli authorities want them to be the protectors of the settlements. They want them to be the protectors of security, even more than the regular forces. Therefore it is enough for the authorities that the settlers carry out some military acts. Since the uprising - here I have some statistics - among the Arab martyrs now estimated at 283, 23 were killed by the bullets of the settlers in the West Bank and in Gaza. The settlers kill in cold blood, as was the case of the citizen Al-Ma'siri. A citizen is simply kidnapped from his place of work, taken to a settlement, beaten - beaten to death in some instances - strangled or shot or they concentrate the beating on his head. There is no stopping these settlers. They stop at nothing, and the Government has no one to answer to concerning the practices of those settlers. All the settlers are armed, even the children are armed and any child can use the arm he is carrying. They train to face any danger that they may have to encounter one day. An example is what happened in Beita." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.480)

"The Israeli settlers also come and kidnap the children. A week or two later some of the children come back, while others never return: they have been killed. One of the serious problems, in my opinion, is that the settlers have taken actual power, actual authority, in some villages and camps, so that the population is dealing with armed settlers who are not under military regulations but acting according to their own whims, without discipline." (Anonymous witness, A/AC.145/RT.482)

Written information

500. On 19 October 1987, students of the "Shuvu Banim" yeshiva in the Muslim
Quarter of Jerusalem's Old City attacked and beat Arab shopkeepers and passersby. Three yeshiva students were arrested and questioned by police about the incident. Following the incident Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek urged Prime Minister Shamir to help remove the yeshiva from the Muslim Quarter, and replace it with a yeshiva "capable of behaving as a good neighbour with the residents". On 9 November 1987, it was reported that Prime Minister Shamir had rejected the request by Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek. In a letter received by Kollek it was stated that "the Prime Minister does not deal with removing Jews from the place where they are settled, either in Old Jerusalem or elsewhere in the Land of Israel". (Ha'aretz, 22 October 1987 and 9 November 1987; Jerusalem Post, 20 and 25 October 1987)

501. On 10 November 1987, four settlers from the Gaza Strip were held for
questioning following a stone-throwing incident near Deir el-Balah in which
settlers opened fire after their cars were stoned, allegedly killing a 17-year-old pupil, Intisar el-Atar. Settlers in the Katif bloc reacted angrily to the detention of four of their members and demanded that civil guards be reintroduced to the region. They claimed stone-throwing incidents occurred daily. On 12 November 1987, the Ashkelon magistrates' court ordered that two of the suspects, Menahem Beit-Halahmi, spokesman of the Gaza District Regional Council, and Avner Shimoni, secretary of the Katif council, be released on NIS 10,000 ($6,500) bail, with the provision that they remained in Ashkelon and reported to the police in that town twice daily. The other two suspects, Yosef Fishheimer and Shimon Mar-Yosef, were released on bail without any conditions. Security sources confirmed on 12 November 1987 that the slain girl was found inside the school courtyard, and not near the barricades at which the settlers' cars were allegedly stopped. Her shooting was a clear violation of standing orders, but it was not clear who was responsible. On 4 December 1987, it was reported that the Gaza district police was holding a settler from the Neve-Dekalim settlement, on suspicion of having killed Intisar el-Atar. On 6 December 1987 it was reported that the settler Shimon Yifrah, 30, had admitted to having fired the shot that killed el-Atar. On 7 December 1987, it was reported that the police had transmitted the file of the four settlers to the Southern Region Attorney, with a recommendation that Yifrah be put on trial on a charge of manslaughter, and the other three settlers who were with him in the car on charges of assistance and failure to prevent the offence. On 13 December 1987, it was reported that Yifrah had been charged, at the Beersheba district court, with acting with criminal negligence when he opened fire on the courtyard of the girls' school in Deir el-Balah, killing Intisar el-Atar. On 17 December 1987, Justice Efraim Laron of the Beersheba district court ordered that Yifrah should be released on bail of NIS 30,000 ($20,000), and that he should stay in Arad (near Beersheba) and avoid any contact with the settler population of the Katif bloc. The office of the Southern Region Attorney announced that it would lodge an appeal with the Supreme Court against the decision. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11, 12, 13 and 18 November 1987; Ha'aretz, 4, 6, 7, 13 and 18 December 1987; Jerusalem Post, 6, 13 and 16 December 1987)

502. On 26 November 1987, the Southern Region Attorney, Yaacov Krosser, ordered the authorities to close the inquiry file against three settlers from the Katif bloc who, on 21 April 1987, abducted and detained an Arab boy. The incident occurred after their car was pelted with stones near the Bureij refugee camp. They noticed one of the stone-throwers, Raid al-Mamri, chased after him to his home and forced him to accompany them to a police station. The boy's grandfather later complained to the police that the boy had been beaten. (Ha'aretz, 27 November 1987)

503. On 11 January 1988, two Palestinians were shot dead and a third died of wounds received earlier. Rabah Hussein Mahmoud Ghanem, 17, was shot dead by two Israeli settlers whose car was stopped at a barricade in the village of Beitin, near Ramallah. The settlers, from the nearby Ofra settlement, were named as Pinhas Wallerstein, the head of the Binyamin Regional Council and a Gush Emunim member, and Shai Ben Yosef, a regional security officer. After the incident they were questioned by police and were later released on bail. On 16 May 1988, it was reported that the family of Rabah Ghanem had petitioned the High Court of Justice, demanding that Pinhas Wallerstein be tried for murder and causing serious injury to the victim's brother. The family also demanded that the results of the autopsy be released to them. According to the petition, submitted by the family's lawyer Felicia Langer, Wallerstein fired at the two youths from a distance of 70 metres. After hitting Rabah Wallerstein did not try to give him first aid. Wallerstein told the police after the incident that he acted in self-defence, after stones were thrown at him. He was detained, but was released the same evening, following intervention by Prime Minister Shamir. On 31 May 1988, it was reported that Attorney General Yosef Harish had decided to summon Wallerstein for questioning, before he decided whether the settler should be put on trial. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 January 1988; Ha'aretz, 16 and 31 May 1988)

504. On 13 January 1988, the Tel Aviv District Court passed a six-month suspended sentence on Ephraim Segal from the Eilon-Moreh settlement for his role in a shooting incident that occurred on 26 July 1987 in Nablus, in which a local woman was killed and another was injured. The incident occurred during a stone-throwing demonstration during which Segal's car was attacked. Judge Uri Strausman said it was clear that Segal had not fired in the air, but the court bore in mind the fact that he was acting under pressure in an attempt to extricate himself and his family from danger. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 January 1988)

505. On 14 January 1988, a group of settlers raided the village of Kissan,
Bethlehem, and tried to seize the cattle. Settlers used live ammunition when the villagers showed resistance, killing Ahmed Ali Alabiyat, 45, and injuring his brother. (Al-Ittihad, 15 January 1988)

506. On 2 February 1988, settlers raided Al-Aza, Aida and Dheisheh camps, firing bullets and causing serious damage to residents' property. Security forces and military officers reportedly participated during the settlers' assaults. (Attalia, 4 February 1988)

507. On 4 February 1988, Kiryat-Arba and Hebron settlers started operating patrols on the Jerusalem-Kiryat-Arba road. According to a settlers' spokesman, should the vehicles be stoned the settlers would act in the framework of the self-defence rules. The Central Region Commander Amran Mitzna said that the IDF was the sole body responsible for security in the area; but if the settlers' objective was merely to demonstrate a sense of security then he had nothing against it. (Ha'aretz, 5 February 1988)

508. On 6 February 1988, Kiryat-Arba settlers, including members of the Kach
movement, set up a new committee of action to act against Arab inhabitants of the area. (Ha'aretz, 7 February 1988)

509. It was reported that on 7 February 1988, Jewish settlers kidnapped five young girls of Khula Bent Al-Azur school in El-Bireh. They were released the same day after having been beaten. Three residents were also kidnapped and beaten by settlers in Silwad, triggering serious clashes. (Attalia, 11 February 1988)

510. On 8 February 1988, settlers helped IDF troops in raiding houses and assaulting local residents in Kalkiliya. They also attacked the villages of Kafr Malik, Ein Yabrud and Silwad where they fired at residents, injuring three persons. Two other residents were detained by them. (Attalia, 11 February 1988)

511. On 9 February 1988, Itzak Rabin promised Kiryat-Arba settlers to increase IDF troops on Jerusalem-Hebron road. Israeli settlers carried out works, under the protection of border guards, on land that belongs to residents of Husan and Nahalin near Bitar settlement. The case of the land in question is still pending before the courts. (Attalia, 11 February 1988)

512. On 28 February 1988, a settler from Neveh Tzuf shot and killed two youths near the village of Abud. They were named as Ibrahim al Barguti, 22, and Raid Mahmud al-Barguti, 17. The settler was detained for questioning. (Ha'aretz, 29 February 1988)

513. On 1 March 1988, it was reported that an Israeli student from Jerusalem,
Danny Kirtchuk, had witnessed an incident that occurred on 26 February 1988, in which several settlers from Homesh attacked the village of Burka, near Jenin, following a stone-throwing incident. The settlers were accompanied by soldiers, some of them reservists from the same settlement of Homesh. Together they entered Burka, armed with assault rifles and sub-machine-guns, and fired bursts in and around the village. MK Amira Sartani reportedly asked Defence Minister Rabin to open an immediate inquiry into the report. No casualties were reported. (Ha'aretz, 1 March 1988)

514. On 10 March 1988, it was reported that Defence Minister Rabin described the organized acts of vengeance by settlers from Ariel against Arab passers-by and villagers from Haris, two days earlier, as "a very serious development that will aggravate the problem". The settlers reportedly went to the main road, blocked it, stopped Arab cars, beat their passengers and set fire to the cars. They subsequently conducted "stone-throwing battles" with villagers of Haris and Kifl Harith. The Ariel settlers were also operating an armed patrol, which consisted of vehicles with armed settlers that accompanied settlers' cars travelling on the Trans-Samaria road. The IDF reportedly did not prevent the operation of the settlers' patrols. (Ha'aretz, 10 March 1988)

515. On 11 March 1988, it was reported that settlers had thrown stones at Arab
rioters in Hebron and fired bursts of machine-gun fire. According to Arab sources six quarters of Hebron were attacked by settlers on the night of 8 March 1988. The settlers allegedly damaged cars and fired at homes before bursting inside, smashing windows and vandalizing furniture. (Jerusalem Post, 11 March 1988)

516. On 27 March 1988, yeshiva students in the Old City of Jerusalem attempted to evict an elderly Arab woman from her room in the Muslim Quarter. The students had a court order, but they tried to apply it on their own, without notifying the police. Their action sparked off a riot, and police quickly intervened and put the old woman's belongings back in the room. The woman was named as Rafikah Salamiyeh. The students belonged to the "Ateret Layoshna" yeshiva. (Jerusalem Post, 28 March 1988)

517. On 11 April 1988, it was reported that settlers attacked two villages,
Deir el-Hatab and Burin, near Eilon-Moreh, following the incident in which a group of settlers were attacked in Beita. (Ha'aretz, 11 April 1988)

518. On 5 May 1988, Jodeh Muhammad Awad, 28, a shepherd from Turmus Aya, was shot and killed by a settler from Shilo, Israel Ze'ev. The circumstances of the incident were not clear. The settlers alleged that Awad, together with several other shepherds, had thrown stones at the settlers, but Arab sources denied this and said the settlers opened fire without any provocation. The incident occurred near Shilo. Another Arab shepherd was injured. On 8 May 1988, more details were published on the incident. On 1 May 1988, the police maintained in the Jerusalem magistrates court that Shilo settler Israel Ze'ev had shot the shepherd Awad because of a land dispute and not because the shepherd attacked him. The police said there was no evidence that there was provocation on the shepherd's part, and that Ze'ev was suspected of murder and attempted murder. The court remanded Ze'ev for a further 10 days. (Ha'aretz, 6 and 8 May 1988; Jerusalem Post, 6 and 17 May 1988)

519. On 10 May 1988, the Chief of Staff, Maj.-Gen. Dan Shomron, addressed the
Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee. Referring to relations between
settlers and Arabs in the territories he said that prevailing tension in the
West Bank was due partly to acts by the Jewish settlers. "When stones are thrown (at settlers), but there is no danger to life, (the settlers) should report to the army and the army will deal with the case", he said. Referring to the incident in the village of Beita (in which a settler girl and two Arabs were killed) he said: "The bodies investigating and judging Jews function at a slower pace than those dealing with Arabs, but despite this difference the law will be observed and some of the settlers mentioned in the report on the Beita incident will have to stand trial, at least with regard to the co-ordination of their excursion (with the army). We have an interest that justice should be done, and seen, regarding both Jews and Arabs". (Ma'ariv, 11 May 1988)

520. On 19 May 1988, it was reported that MK Dedi Zucker had submitted to Police Minister Haim Bar-Lev a list of 13 Arabs from the territories believed to have been killed by settlers. In all those cases the IDF maintained that the death had not been caused by troops. MK Zucker asked the Minister to report on the state of the investigation into those cases, and what the police had recommended to the State Attorney's office with regard to each of them. The cases were the following: Tabat Hawihi, 17, from Beit-Hanun, killed on 15 February 1988; Tukan Misbah, 32, from Bak'iya camp, killed on 10 January 1988; Ghanem Hamed, 17, from Beitin, killed on 11 January 1988; Abdul Basat Jum'a, 27, from Kaddun, killed on 7 February 1988; Kamal Darwish, 23, from Deir Amar, killed on 21 February 1988; Radda Najib Hassan, 13, from Bak'a Sharkiya, killed on 27 February 1988; Rahed Barguti, 17, and Ahed Barguti, 12, from Abud, killed on 27 February 1988; Hamed Muhammad Hamida, 41, from Mazra'a Sharkiya, killed on 9 March 1988; Nujah Hassan Hizag, 18, from Turmus Aya, killed on 9 March 1988; Musa Salah Musa, 20, and Hatem Ahmed el-Jaber, 19, both from Beita, killed on 6 April 1988; and Abdallah Awad, 28, from Turmus Aya, killed on 4 May 1988. (Ma'ariv, 19 May 1988)

521. On 29 May 1988, it was reported that the Ministry of Justice, the defence
establishment and the Police Investigations Department had set up a joint team to look into complaints by Arab residents of the territories against Jewish settlers. Most of the complaints, filed through the Red Cross or the complainants' lawyers, concerned alleged violent acts by settlers that had not been duly investigated by the police, owing to a shortage of investigators. The number of such complaints had reportedly increased since the beginning of the uprising in the territories. (Ha'aretz, 29 May 1988)

522. On 2 June 1988, it was reported that the Judea district police were investigating the circumstances of an incident in which Rabbi Moshe Levinger had allegedly beaten Arabs of the Samuh family, who live near the Hadassa house in Hebron. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 June 1988)

523. On 3 June 1988, a group of Israeli civilians believed to be settlers entered the village of Shuyukh, provoked villagers, beat some of them and opened fire at houses. Mustafa Ahmed el-Halaika, 20, was shot in the chest and died of his wounds. A 15-year-old boy was injured in the arm, and two others, a 15-year-old boy and a man aged 42, were hospitalized in Hebron with broken limbs. The IDF announced that its forces were not involved in the incident. According to one report, Kach movement members privately admitted to being responsible, saying they acted in retaliation to the killing in Jerusalem of a yeshiva student, several days earlier. (Ha'aretz, Ma'ariv, 5 June 1988)

524. On 3 June 1988, five young armed settlers arrived at Si'ir, near Hebron, and asked for the location of the mosque, built on the traditional site of Esau's grave. The settlers told villagers they wanted to live near the mosque and asked whether there was a house for rent. They then opened fire, wounding a local youth. From Si'ir the settlers went to the nearby village of Shuyukh, where they broke windows and doors in three houses and attacked and beat Nai'm Khalaika, 46, and his wife. On their way out the settlers opened fire, killing Mustafa Khalaika, 20, who was grazing sheep nearby. The settlers were seen leaving the area in jeeps. According to one press report, Kach movement members were responsible for the acts, but a spokesman for the movement denied that report. (Jerusalem Post, 6 June 1988)

525. On 5 June 1988, it was reported that settlers from Ramat-Mamre, near
Kiryat-Arba (the former "Porcelain Hill"), had severely beaten an Israeli,
Shmuel Cohen, after mistaking him for an Arab. The man needed medical treatment. In another development, it was reported that two settlers had been caught by IDF officers destroying wheat sacks belonging to Arabs in the Mas'ha region. The two were handed over to the police, which opened a file against them and started an inquiry. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 June 1988)

526. On 10 June 1988, it was reported that the Attorney-General, Yosef Harish,
decided to set up a team to look into complaints by Arab residents against Israeli civilians suspected of committing offences in the territories. The team would be headed by a representative of the Attorney-General. Representatives of the IDF and the police would also take part in the team. (Ha'aretz, 10 June 1988)

527. On 24 June 1988, two incidents involving settlers were reported. In Nablus a settler's car was stoned and its occupants opened fire at stone-throwers. Troops arrived on the scene and dispersed the crowd with tear gas and rubber bullets. According to Arab sources 13 persons were hospitalized. In Hebron a settler living in the Hason house in the town was stabbed in the shoulder. The settler, Yona Cheikin, a member of the Kach movement, chased after his assailant, shot at him and injured him. The assailant was named as Abd el-Majid Sharawna. He was later discovered in hospital. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 June 1988)
D. Treatment of detainees

Oral evidence

528. In the course of its hearings the Special Committee heard extensive evidence on the treatment of detainees and harsh conditions of detention in the occupied territories. It was pointed out that the exceptional situation created by the uprising of the Palestinian population against occupation had resulted in an unprecedented increase in the number of detainees, which in turn had led to the opening of new detention centres and to the worsening of already critical conditions of detention.

529. Most testimonies denounced the physical and psychological ill-treatment that prisoners were confronted with. It was stressed that detainees were usually subjected to the worst conditions during the investigation procedure. The frequent transfers from one detention centre to another and the physical hardships endured during such transfers were also referred to by several witnesses. Mention was made of various forms of torture, beatings, psychological stress and humiliation, sexual assaults, lack of sleep, gas spraying, solitary confinement, and so on, suffered by the prisoners. The overcrowding and exiguity of cells, the lack of sanitary facilities and adequate health services, the malnutrition and inadequate clothing were also referred to in the course of the hearings, as well as the denial of the right to receive visits and cultural and information material, and restrictions to visits by Red Cross representatives.

530. One particular aspect mentioned by a number of witnesses was the problem of detained children. Mention was made of the detention of very young children, sometimes only 11 or 12 years old. The overcrowding of prisons where minors were held, and the beating and sexual harassment of minor detainees were denounced. Reference was also made to the mistreatment of women prisoners.

531. The testimonies also referred to the practice of repeatedly detaining the same persons, turning them into "special cases" spending most of their life in prison, as well as that of arbitrarily detaining several members of the same family.

532. It was pointed out that such conditions of detention often gave rise to hunger strikes aimed at the amelioration of the treatment of prisoners.

533. Testimonies relating to the treatment of detainees may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.482 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.483 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.483/Add.1 (Mr. Mohammed Lutfi); A/AC.145/RT.485 (Mr. Zuhdi Sa'id); A/AC.145/RT.487 (Mr. Walid Mahmoud); A/AC.145/RT.488 (Mr. Bashir Ahmed El-Khairi); A/AC.145/RT.491/Add.1 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.492 (an anonymous witness); A/AC.145/RT.494 (Mr. Fureij Ahmad Khalil Khairi, Mr. Abed Al-Nasser Mohamed Abel Aziz and Mr. Ahmad Khalid Al-Dik); A/AC.145/RT.495 (Mr. Abdel Bashir Mahmud Nafa Hamad and Mr. Ghassan Ali Aref Al-Masri); and A/AC.145/RT.496 (Mr. Jibril Mahmud Al-Rajoub).

Written information

534. During the period covered by the present report, the Special Committee
received a number of communications from various sources concerning the situation of prisoners, and stressing the worsening of the treatment of detainees as a consequence of the arrest of thousands of Palestinians since the beginning of the uprising. In a communication transmitted by the Palestine Liberation Organization, reference was made to the opening in March 1988, of a new detention camp called Ansar 3 (Ketziot), in the Negev desert in Israel itself, in violation of relevant provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention. It was asserted in that communication that 3,000 Palestinian administrative detainees were held in that camp under very harsh conditions. Another communication transmitted to the Special Committee by Mrs. Lea Tsemel, advocate, enclosed a petition signed by detainees from Ansar 3 calling for the immediate closure of that camp. A copy of that petition is reproduced in annex II of the present report.

535. On 9 September 1987, a press conference was held in East Jerusalem by two
researchers from the United States of America, Kameel Nasr and his wife
Dina Lawrence. At the press conference three youths from the Dheisheh refugee
camp, who had been held in the Far'a detention camp, described their treatment in that place. They charged that they had been severely beaten for hours, hung by their wrists, hooded, and made to stand for days with their arms extended. The youths, named as Adnan Shehadeh, 15, Riad Farraj, 15, and Wahil Tawfik, 16, had been taken to Far'a for questioning about stone-throwing at soldiers. They were sentenced to prison terms of three to eight months after signing confessions and were recently released. The youths said they had been pressured several times by their interrogators to become informers. At the press conference Kameel Nasr said that the accounts revealed a pattern of "pervasive and systematic torture" at Far'a, and "a planned policy of abuse against Palestinian children" by the IDF. A military source reacted by affirming that there was a strict prohibition against violent methods of interrogation. Every complaint received had been checked and investigated and every future complaint would be immediately examined. He added that there had been cases in which security personnel had been prosecuted for abusing prisoners.
(Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 September 1987)

536. On 30 September 1987, it was reported that the parents of Awad Salam Mahmoud Hamdan, 23, had applied to the High Court of Justice saying that their son died while being interrogated by the Security Services. The son was arrested in the end of July 1987. Two days later the Red Cross informed the family that Awad had died of a heart attack in an Israeli hospital. The body, which was taken to the forensic medicine institute in Tel Aviv, allegedly bore marks of violence. A post mortem report apparently disappeared, and these two elements led the family to believe that Awad had died while being interrogated by the Security Services. On 11 November 1987, Attorney-General Yosef Harish ordered an investigation into the death of Awad Abdel Salem Mahmoud Hamdan. The decision followed a report that three General Security Service (GSS) agents involved in Hamdan's interrogation had been suspended by the head of the GSS two weeks earlier, on suspicion of lying about the circumstances of Hamdan's death. At the time the authorities informed the International Red Cross that Hamdan died of a heart attack. On 15 November 1987, it was reported that the Investigation Department of the police would set up a special team to investigate the circumstances of Hamdan's death and the allegations that the three GSS agents involved in his interrogation had lied to their superiors. On 19 February 1988, it was reported that Attorney-General Yosef Harish had decided that a GSS interrogator would face criminal charges and two others would be put on disciplinary trial following an inquiry into the circumstances of the death of Awad Hamdan, 23, from the village of Ruman near Tulkarem. The Attorney-General ruled that the GSS interrogator was suspected of causing Hamdan's death as a result of negligence and the two other interrogators would be charged with giving a false report to their superiors on Hamdan's interrogation and circumstances of death. On 24 February 1988, the High Court of Justice issued an order nisi at the request of Adv. Felicia Langer, representing the Hamdan family, ordering the Defence Minister to show cause within 15 days why he would not hand over to the family the post mortem certificate made at the forensic institute following Hamdan's death. It was reported that the security authorities had refused to hand over to the family any material concerning the inquiry into the circumstances of death, for fear of revealing the GSS methods of interrogation. On 10 March 1988, the State Attorney told the High Court of Justice that an autopsy on Awad Hamdan showed that his death was a result of negligence, not violence. The State asked to withhold the detailed findings from the dead man's family, which had petitioned to see them. The State contended that these findings should be presented only during the trial of Hamdan's Security Service interrogator, who was to be tried behind closed doors for criminal negligence. (Ma'ariv, 30 September 1987; Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12, 13 and 15 November 1987 and 11 March 1988; Ha'aretz, 19-25 February 1988)

537. On 1 November 1987, the findings of the Judicial Commission of Inquiry into the interrogation methods of the GSS were made public. The Commission was headed by former Supreme Court president Moshe Landau. It concluded, inter alia, that the GSS, as a matter of policy, had been committing perjury in proceedings related to the admissibility of confessions since 1971, in order to conceal its interrogation methods and ensure that the accused were convicted. The Commission nevertheless concluded that the use of harsh interrogation methods and the commission of perjury were not meant to convict innocent people. The Commission agreed that "limited and clearly delineated psychological and physical pressures may legitimately be exerted in the interrogation of persons suspected of terrorism". The Commission recommended that no criminal action be taken against GSS agents who committed perjury or employed illegal interrogation methods in the period prior to the
publication of its report. (Jerusalem Post, 1 and 3 November 1987)

538. On 2 November 1987, the Central Region Commander, Maj.-Gen. Amram Mitzna told military affairs reporters that he was troubled by the situation at the Far'a prison and that, for that reason, the commander of the prison, as well as almost the entire staff, had been replaced. The latter were replaced by military policemen, who were more competent to deal with the detainees. Furthermore, detention in Far'a of children under 14 would in future necessitate a special authorization by the legal adviser for the Judea and Samaria Region. (Ha'aretz, Ma'ariv, 3 November 1987)

539. On 2 November 1987, the Southern Region military court sentenced five soldiers to prison terms, suspended terms and demotion for ill-treatment of detainees in the Ansar 2 facility in the Gaza Strip. According to the charge sheet, the five soldiers, including the commander of the local Military Police, with the rank of lieutenant, had beaten and kicked children aged 12 to 14 from Gaza who were detained following disorders. (Ha'aretz, 3 November 1987)

540. On 24 November 1987, Defence Minister Rabin, answering parliamentary
questions, said he had ordered a military inquiry into all aspects of the Far'a prison, following the Government's adoption of the Landau report on the GSS. He added that the probe would include investigative methods used in the facility and would ensure that the recommendations on proper interrogation methods made by the Landau Commission were implemented. (Jerusalem Post, 25 November 1987)

541. On 9 December 1987, it was reported that a Palestinian security prisoner,
Walid Abdel Aziz Jarar, who was arrested on 21 October 1987 and accused of
membership of the Fatah while living in Europe in 1981, charged in an affidavit that four GSS agents had tortured him and that he confessed to the charges brought against him under duress. The affidavit was sent, with a complaint, to Defence Minister Rabin and the IDF Judge Advocate-General in the West Bank by Jarar's attorney, Felicia Langer. In her complaint Adv. Langer said Jarar had been denied access to a lawyer during the interrogation. She said prisoners' rights were violated systematically at the Jenin gaol. (Jerusalem Post, 9 December 1987)

542. On 9 December 1987, it was reported that the Southern Region military court had sentenced Sergeant David Nissimian to four months' imprisonment for serious ill-treatment of detainees at the Ansar 2 camp. The court also demoted Nissimian to the rank of private. The defendant had been charged with dozens of counts of ill-treating detainees, including beating, slapping and kicking chained detainees who were made to stand outside on a cold winter day, wearing only underwear. Five other soldiers who had been put on trial with the defendant had been sentenced to prison terms six weeks earlier. (Ha'aretz, 9 December 1987)

543. On 28 December 1987, it was reported that a group of lawyers who regularly appeared before the military courts in the territories told a press conference of their frustration at what they described as their lack of capacity to defend the hundreds of detainees held in the recent wave of arrests. Attorney Muhammad Sha'ban of Gaza described the situation in Ansar 2, which he said was very bad. He affirmed having seen in the detention camp injured, bleeding detainees. Conditions were abhorrent; food was inadequate and insufficient. Attorney Felicia Langer said that detainees in Gaza were being deprived of medical care and were denied basic rights. There were also allegations of overcrowding in tents, owing to lack of space in regular prisons, and of beating and humiliation of detainees. Mrs. Langer said she had three clients who had been held incommunicado for 10 days. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 December 1987)

544. On 29 December 1987, attorney Felicia Langer said at the Hebron military court that Palestinians were being kept in wretched conditions and were subjected to harassment, humiliation and beatings at the nearby Dhahiriya prison camp. According to sworn statements made to her, detainees in the camps were suffering from lack of food, overcrowding and a lack of sanitary or washing facilities. Prisoners where constantly harassed and cursed and occasionally beaten. A military source reacted to the allegations by saying that all the detainees in the camp were housed in permanent buildings and were not exposed to the elements. They had the same conditions as IDF men incarcerated for various reasons. Special care had been taken to instil in the guards the realization that it was "absolutely necessary" to maintain the human dignity of the prisoners, he said. (Jerusalem Post, 30 December 1987)

545. On 30 December 1987, Defence Minister Rabin visited the Dhahiriya prison
camp. After speaking to military officials, medical officers and prisoners
themselves, he said: "The conditions are acceptable". It was also reported that Gaza Strip lawyers renewed their pleas to military authorities to improve conditions in Ansar 2, where some 800 detainees were suffering from severe overcrowding and cold. (Jerusalem Post, 31 December 1987)

546. On 6 January 1988, it was reported that attorney Mazan al-Kubti of the Al-Haj legal foundation alleged at a press conference in East Jerusalem that the son of the former Mayor of Hebron, Fahed Kawasmeh, Moawiya Kawasmeh, 17, and his cousin Osama Fayez Kawasmeh, also 17, had been tortured with electric shocks in the legs and toes at the Far'a prison after being arrested at their homes on December 1987 for allegedly taking part in high school demonstrations. Adv. al-Kubti lodged a formal complaint with the Defence Minister and the Legal Adviser for the West Bank military government. Senior military sources said the complaint was being investigated. In another development it was reported that seven West Bank residents detained in the Tulkarem gaol had applied to the High Court of Justice against alleged torture by interrogators and against inhuman detention conditions. The application was filed through Adv. Felicia Langer. (Ha'aretz, 6 January 1988; Jerusalem Post, 7 January 1988)

547. On 18 January 1988, it was reported that the East Jerusalem journalist
Muhammad Zheikeh, night editor in Al-Fajr, who was detained for interrogation the previous week, alleged in a complaint sent to the Police Inspector-General, through his lawyer, Adv. Felicia Langer, that border guards had beaten him severely while he was handcuffed and his eyes covered. The guards also cursed and humiliated him. The Jerusalem police commander said the complaint would be investigated. (Ha'aretz, 18 January 1988)

548. On 30 March 1988, it was reported that the IDF had recently set up a new
detention facility, close to Ketziot in the Negev desert, where some 1,000 of the 3,000 residents of the territories arrested since the beginning of the uprising were being held, including many in administrative detention. Detainees were held in large tents, similar to the ones used by the IDF in the Ansar camp in Lebanon. As a similar tent camp near Gaza was known as Ansar 2, the new facility was nicknamed "Ansar 3". A security source said that conditions in the new facility, like all other facilities where Arabs from the territories were held, were according to the normal standards in practice in the IDF. ICRC representatives could come and visit it any time they wished, he said. (Ha'aretz, 30 March 1988)

549. On 5 April 1988, it was reported that a delegation of the Ramallah-based "Law in the Service of Man" organization (known as Al-Haq) had visited the new detention facility near Ketziot. Following the visit members of the delegation alleged that detainees were being held in unsanitary conditions with inadequate water, and that one detainee, Gaza lawyer Radi Sourani, complained of "harsh and inhuman conditions". Despite the desert heat, water was supplied only several times a day, an open sewer ran through the camp, food was inadequate, only one open shower served 125 detainees and detainees were not allowed to receive visits by their families or lawyers. IDF sources denied claims of water shortage in the facility. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 April 1988)

550. On 15 April 1988, it was reported that a committee of three investigating, on behalf of UNICEF, detention conditions of Arab minors arrested by security forces since the beginning of the uprising in the territories, found that the minors, aged 12-18, were being held in very harsh conditions and "atrocious overcrowding". The members of the committee, former Supreme Court Justice Moshe Etzioni, former Labour and Social Affairs Ministry official Dr. Menahem Herowitz and Dr. Leslie Saba of the Hebrew University, visited a detention camp in Dhahiriya, where they saw 35 young detainees in a hut 10 x 6 metres. They also visited the camp of Far'a and the military prisons in Gaza and Atlit. The committee members complained about procedures of informing detainees' families about their sons' detention. Some of the detainees said their families had not been notified of their detention. The committee did not witness cases of ill-treatment or torture. The committee members did not see detainees during the interrogation carried out by the General Security Service, but some detainees complained of being beaten during the interrogation. (Ha'aretz, 15 April 1988)

551. On 20 April 1988, it was reported that the IDF had set up a new detention
facility, located near Ofer base, north of Jerusalem. This was reportedly because of the large number of detainees held for offences related to the uprising. (Ha'aretz, 20 April 1988)

552. On 24 April 1988, it was reported that the IDF had modified regulations
concerning visits by families of detainees and prisoners held in detention
facilities in the territories. Such visits had hitherto been held under the
auspices of the Red Cross and there were no restrictions on their number. Under the new regulations family members wishing to visit a relative should get an authorization from the IDF. It was explained that the IDF and the civil administration could thus use the visits as a tool for punishment, by preventing visits to certain detainees on certain dates. (Ha'aretz, 24 April 1988)

553. On 26 April 1988, MK Dedi Zucker charged, in a letter to Defence Minister
Rabin, that the 2,200 inmates in the Ketziot detention camp in the Negev desert were totally isolated from outside news and from their families. Faulty IDF records had made it impossible to locate detainees in response to queries by their families, and many prisoners lacked proper legal representation. According to the report prepared by MK Zucker, prisoners complained of beatings on the way to the gaol, but said beatings were rare inside the prison. (Jerusalem Post, 27 April 1988)

554. On 28 April 1988, it was reported that 14 Arab detainees from the territories held at the Ketziot prison had petitioned the High Court of Justice asking to be transferred forthwith to a prison in the territories. Three more detainees held in a prison in the territories petitioned the High Court asking for an injunction that would prevent their transfer to Ketziot prison. The detainees, held under administrative detention orders, argued in their petition that their detention in prisons inside Israel violated both local legislation and the Geneva Conventions. The administrative detention orders under which they were held referred specifically to detention in a facility located in an area under the command of a military commander, which was not the case of Ketziot prison. Adv. Felicia Langer, one of the lawyers representing the detainees, further argued that conditions in Ketziot prison were extremely hard, and that prisoners there were suffering from wardens' brutality and from bad hygiene, owing to water shortage and inadequate
medical care. (Ha'aretz, 28 April 1988)

555. On 2 May 1988, MK Dedi Zucker submitted to Defence Minister Rabin information he had received from reserve soldiers who had finished their service in the territories, concerning the situation in the detention facility located at the Tulkarem police courtyard, where detainees were being held until they were brought before a judge. According to the soldiers some 30 to 40 detainees were being held at any given time in the courtyard, which was only 20 square metres large. Detainees were being held blindfolded and handcuffed, some for 24 hours; but according to the soldiers some detainees were held in such conditions for a week or even a fortnight. Detainees had to eat with their hands tied in front of them. (Ha'aretz, 3 May 1988)

556. On 10 May 1988, it was reported that, following a visit to prisons in
Dhahiriya and the Ofer camp, near Beituniya, MK Dedi Zucker wrote to Defence
Minister Rabin describing the situation there. Detainees complained of beatings during transfer to the prison, while their hands were tied behind their backs. In Dhahiriya prison overcrowding was very serious, and detainees were denied books and newspapers, except the Koran. Complaints were voiced about conditions for family visits. Such visits were authorized once a fortnight. Visitors had to stay at a distance of three metres from the detainee and this resulted in shouts and tense atmosphere. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 May 1988)

557. On 10 May 1988, it was reported that the three Israeli journalists of the
outlawed left-wing newspaper Derech-Hanitzotz who were being held for interrogation charged that Palestinian detainees were being tortured in front of them as a means of pressure in order to extract statements from them. Lawyer Felicia Langer was to lodge a complaint with the Prime Minister's office regarding that allegation. (Ha'aretz, 10 May 1988)

558. On 14 May 1988, military sources "appeared to confirm" findings by
MK Gadi Yatziv, who reported after a visit to the Dhahiriya gaol that a detainee had been held there for two months without an arrest order, after his last order expired on 15 March 1988. According to the military sources "there were faults in
the detainee's file", and the army was checking whether he had been gaoled
unnecessarily. (Jerusalem Post, 15 May 1988)

559. On 23 May 1988, it was reported that a 16-year-old resident of East Jerusalem was released from detention after proving to a Jerusalem magistrate court that he had been beaten during his detention. The judge decided to release the youth on bail of NIS 10,000 (approximately $6,500), and ruled that he should undergo a medical test. (Ha'aretz, 23 May 1988)

560. On 25 May 1988, it was reported that lawyers representing persons detained in the Dhahiriya gaol said detainees had been on hunger strike for three days to protest conditions in the prison. Military sources denied that information. (Ha'aretz, 25 May 1988)

561. On 31 May 1988, it was reported that a complaint by a number of reservists, concerning a case of ill-treatment of detainees, had been submitted to the investigating Military Police. According to a reservist, Ariel Stemker, from Petah-Tikva, a number of other reservists had severely beaten Arab detainees during a transfer from the military government headquarters in Hebron to the Dhahiriya gaol, and immediately upon their arrival in the gaol. Ariel Stemker signed his account of the incidents and submitted it to MK Dedi Zucker. The latter sent it to Defence Minister Rabin and, at the same time, released it to the press. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 May 1988)

562. On 1 June 1988, it was reported that the Ramallah-based Palestinian human
rights organization Al-Haq had published the text of a letter that had allegedly been smuggled recently out of the Ketziot detention camp, known as Ansar 3. In the letter, detainees referred to the camp as the "slow death camp in the Negev desert". They complained about humiliating treatment, lack of water and food, severe climate, a ban on books and stationery, and a severe shortage of medical services to sick detainees. (Ha'aretz, 1 June 1988)

563. On 2 June 1988, it was reported that the investigating Military Police, which had been investigating allegations of ill-treatment of detainees at the Ofer installation near Ramallah by members of the "Gadna" cadet corps, concluded that a soldier (a private) had indeed overstepped his authority and introduced two Gadna youths into the installation. One of the youths slapped an Arab detainee on the face. The investigation file was handed over to the Judge Advocate-General's office. Following the incident new regulations were issued excluding the Gadna youth corps from IDF camps where detention installations for Arabs from the territories were located. (Ha'aretz, 2 June 1988)

564. On 4 June 1988, two attorneys for the Association for Civil Rights in Israel said that a 15-year-old youth, Muhammad Naim, who was apparently suffering from neurological problems, had been in administrative detention in the Ansar 2 camp in Gaza since April 1988. The youth reportedly had dizzy spells and fainted as often as three times a day. He could neither state his date of birth nor his address. Camp officials reportedly showed the attorneys a document signed by an IDF physician certifying that the youth had been "fit for incarceration and labour" at the time of his arrest. (Jerusalem Post, 5 June 1988)

565. On 8 June 1988, it was reported that according to a procedure introduced at the Central Region Command, the IDF must either transfer any detained person to an established detention installation within 48 hours from his detention or release him. The procedure was set out in order to avoid keeping persons who were detained during disturbances in military installations that were not fit for detention purposes over long periods of time. (Ha'aretz, 8 June 1988)

566. On 13 June 1988, Jamal Jabari A-Dik, 20, from A-Dik, was hospitalized in
Tulkarem after being allegedly severely beaten by soldiers while in custody.
(Ha'aretz, 14 June 1988)

567. On 21 June 1988, MK Ran Cohen sent a letter to Defence Minister Rabin alleging that a Palestinian prisoner, Mahmud Yusuf Zakarana, 22, had been severely beaten and tortured at the Jenin interrogation centre. As a result, he allegedly became paralysed and dumb. Zakarana was reportedly arrested on 22 February 1988 in Kabatiya following the lynching of a local resident suspected of collaboration with the Security Services. Zakarana was reportedly in perfect health at the time of his arrest. He was initially held at the Jenin interrogation centre and later transferred to a detention centre in Tulkarem where he arrived with a spinal injury. In response to these allegations the IDF issued a statement saying that the detainee was suffering from a "hysterical reaction", and that Israeli and Red Cross doctors "had found nothing physically wrong with him". On 28 June 1988, the ICRC reportedly "disputed the IDF statement". No other details were given.
(Jerusalem Post, 22-29 June 1988)

568. On 29 June 1988, female security prisoners at Neve-Tirza gaol declared a
hunger strike for 48 hours to press their demands for improved conditions. The prisoners had reportedly presented a list of demands to the prison directors. Their principal demand was to be kept in a separate ward and enjoy more autonomy. (Ha'aretz, 30 June 1988)

569. On 7 July 1988, it was reported that according to relatives of Eid Abu Nadi from Jabaliya camp the man, who was arrested a fortnight earlier, had been beaten by soldiers at his home and in gaol. (Jerusalem Post, 7 July 1988)

570. On 13 July 1988, the Attorney-General, Yosef Harish, and the State Attorney, Yona Blattman, visited the detention facility at Ketziot, in the Negev, to look into detention conditions of the administrative detainees held there. The commander of the facility told the visitors that 1,500 detainees had appealed against their detention. Some 900 appeals had already been heard and in 450 cases the judges' decision had been given. In 100 cases it was decided to reduce the detention period or to release the detainees. The commander also told the visitors that detainees' families refrained from visiting their relatives owing to the fact that they had to co-ordinate such visits in advance with the civil administration, something they refused to do. Several detainees asked that working conditions in the facility be improved and that access to the detainees be facilitated.
(Ha'aretz, 14 July 1988)

571. On 17 July 1988, military sources reported that sanitary conditions in the Ansar 3 detention facility in Ketziot were very bad and that detainees were suffering from diarrhoea and vomiting. (Ha'aretz, 18 July 1988)

572. On 21 July 1988, it was reported that military sources had confirmed that five soldiers, including an officer and a woman soldier, were being put on trial on charges of beating prisoners on 22 occasions at the Dhahiriya detention centre. (Jerusalem Post, 21 July 1988)

573. On 25 July 1988, the contents of a letter from Defence Minister Yitzhak Rabin to MK Dedi Zucker was made public. MK Zucker had complained to the Minister that detainees from the territories were being held at the Tulkarem detention facility for several days, with their hands tied and their eyes covered. Mr. Rabin replied that this practice had now ceased. He added that new rules of procedure had recently been issued regarding military lock-up facilities, where detainees from the territories were being held before their transfer to detention facilities. Under the new rules detainees should not be held in such lock-up facilities for over 48 hours. The facility in Tulkarem entered this category of lock-up facilities. (Ha'aretz, 25 July 1988)

574. On 25 July 1988, the authorities released 147 detainees who were held in
Ketziot. The release was described as a "good-will gesture". The detainees were warned by an officer against continued involvement in disturbances. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 July 1988)

575. On 1 August 1988, it was reported that 25 Arab women prisoners, both
administrative detainees and convicted security prisoners, had been transferred from Neve-Tirza prison to Tel Mond prison, near Netanya in central Israel. The prisoners were reportedly being held in a newly built wing, under "improved conditions". (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 August 1988)

576. On 10 August 1988, Samir Abu Shawish from Ramallah, who had recently been
released from administrative detention in the Ansar 3 prison camp at Ketziot, told a meeting held by the "Stop the Occupation" movement of mistreatment in the prison and in other facilities in Dhahiriya and Nablus. He said gaolers often forced inmates to spend hours in the hot sun, trussed up in uncomfortable positions. He also complained of water shortages and insufficient food in Ansar 3. In a related development, it was reported that on 10 August 1988 some 2,000 inmates in Ansar 3 went on a hunger strike to protest against conditions and degrading treatment in the prison. The hunger strike reportedly ended with a meeting between the warden and a delegation of prisoners. It was further reported on 11 August that a delegation of American physicians and attorneys who had visited the prison harshly criticized conditions there, in particular the overcrowding, shortage of water and
food, and the lack of adequate medical care. An IDF spokesman reponded that
Ansar 3 met with international standards and was operated in accordance with
military law. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 and 12 August 1988)

577. On 15 August 1988 it was reported that three Supreme Court judges were
planning to investigate personally conditions in the Ansar 3 prison at Ketziot. This was announced during the hearing of a petition by 17 prisoners who asked to be transferred to a prison in the territories or that conditions be improved in Ansar 3. The petitioners' lawyers, Lea Tsemel and Abed Assali, told the High Court that conditions in Ansar 3 were inhuman. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 August 1988)

578. On 16 August 1988, it was reported that a Kalandiya youth, Yusuf Ayad
(according to another report, the name was Attah Yusuf al-Artufi), aged 21, was discovered dead in his cell at the Dhahiriya detention centre. Military sources said he committed suicide on 14 August 1988 and was found hanging in his cell. The family alleged he had been beaten and wounded in the head, and was later placed in an isolated cell, where he died. The family intended to petition the High Court of Justice to request that the circumstances of death be investigated. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 August 1988)

579. On 16 August 1988, troops opened fire at hundreds of rioting Arab prisoners at the Ansar 3 prison at Ketziot, killing two of them and wounding a third. The dead were named as: Asad Jabariya Shawa, 25, from Saja'iya in Gaza, and Bassam Ibrahim Samudi, 27, from Yamun. The injured prisoner was only slightly wounded and was hospitalized. The riots reportedly broke out in response to newsof a wave of violence in the Gaza Strip, but were also fuelled by growing tension over prison conditions. During the riots, prisoners attacked guards with iron poles and wooden planks taken from tents. On 17 August 1988, prisoners at the Ansar 3 prison were confined to their tents and many were reported to be in solitary confinement. The area around the prison was declared a closed military zone. The Southern Region Commander, Yitzhak Mordekhai, who investigated the incident personally, concluded that the soldiers who had opened fire on the inmates had acted appropriately. According to a lawyer who visited the facility, the prisoners declared a three-day hunger strike. On 19 August 1988, the Chief of Staff was reported as saying that there was no intention of closing the detention facility in Ketziot. He said improvements there were under way. It was also reported that some 1,000 detainees who had participated in the riots were denied their rights and were being kept in their tents without receiving newspapers or other facilities they had received before. On 21 August 1988, it was reported that, according to inmates who spoke to visitors during the past few days, one of the prisoners killed in the rioting was deliberately shot at close range by a top officer of the facility and his evacuation delayed. Officers told visitors that troops had opened fire with live ammunition after they ran out of tear gas and their rubber-bullet canisters jammed. On 23 August 1988, it was reported that, according to the findings of an inquiry carried out by an examining officer designated by the Southern Region Commander, the troops had acted according to the rules and regulations, and the firing at inmates was justified, since the crowds of prisoners were threatening the soldiers' lives. The examining officer, a lieutenant-colonel, also concluded that only one of the prisoners had been shot dead by troops; the other had died as a result of a ricochet hitting him. The examining officer did not recommend any measures or changes in the facility. (Ha'aretz, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 29 and 31 August 1988; Jerusalem Post, 17, 18 and 21 August 1988)

580. On 16 August 1988, Nabil Mustafa Idbach, 20, of Beit Hanina, was found dead in an isolation cell in the Russian Compound in Jerusalem. The youth had been arrested six days previously on suspicion of security offences and participation in recent rioting. According to police sources, he had hanged himself with a sheet. The Jerusalem police were investigating the death. At the request of the family lawyer, an autopsy was ordered. (Ha'aretz, 17 August 1988; Jerusalem Post, 18 August 1988)
E. Annexation and settlements
1. Policy

Written information

581. On 6 September 1987, Rabbi Dov Lior was appointed Chief Rabbi of Hebron and Kiryat-Arba. Jewish settlers in the area described the appointment as the
culmination of the first stage in their drive to return to Hebron following the 1929 massacre of Jewish residents there. (Jerusalem Post, 7 September 1987)

582. On 18 October 1987, the first Jewish higher education institute in the West Bank was inaugurated near the settlement of Kedumim. At the inauguration ceremony the Prime Minister, Yitzhak Shamir, stated that "Jerusalem, Samaria, the Sharon, the Galilee and the Golan Heights were one entity, and it was a dangerous illusion to say that the people of Israel would ever cut itself from these areas". (Ha'aretz, 19 October 1987)

583. On 12 November 1987, it was reported that, according to the head of the
Defence Ministry's Youth and Nahal Department, Aryeh Simhoni, Defence Minister Rabin had recently decided that Nahal outposts in the territories would only be set up in sites likely to become permanent civilian settlements. (Jerusalem Post, 12 November 1987)

584. On 17 November 1987, the Knesset Finance Committee approved by a majority of votes the allotment of NIS 13 million ($8 million) to three new settlements in the territories: Avney-Hefetz, Assael and Beitar. The Committee also allotted money for further construction on the Trans-Samaria road. (Ha'aretz, 18 November 1987)

585. On 22 November 1987, it was reported that the Ministry of Housing was planning the construction of 1,500 apartments in the Jerusalem area by the end of 1988. (Jerusalem Post, 22 November 1987)

586. On 19 February 1988, it was reported that the Director-General of the Housing Ministry, Amos Unger, announced that a sum of NIS 10 million ($6.5 million) had been earmarked for road building in the West Bank during the fiscal year 1988/89. The Defence Ministry was also reportedly involved in the projects. In addition to the Kalkiliya bypass road, a 15 kilometre road would link Jerusalem to the Etzon bloc, by passing the Dheisheh refugee camp and serving Efrat and Kiryat-Arba. Other stretches of road would be built near Ariel and around Beit Ur a-Tahta. (Jerusalem Post, 19 February 1988)

587. On 4 March 1988, it was reported that Industry and Trade Minister Ariel Sharon and Finance Minister Moshe Nissim had struck a secret deal that would enable Sharon to boost development projects in the West Bank settlements before the coming elections. According to a report, the Finance Minister agreed to add NIS 10 million ($6.5 million) to the funds available for Jewish settlements in the territories. (Jerusalem Post, 4 March 1988)

588. On 28 March 1988, Housing Minister David Levy, speaking in Kiryat-Arba,
pledged to construct 2,000 more flats in settlements in the West Bank and Gaza. (Jerusalem Post, 29 March 1988)

589. On 10 April 1988, it was reported that the Housing Ministry intended to
increase the number of housing units in the territories in 1988 by 30 per cent. The Ministry's Director-General, Amos Unger, said that following the drastic drop in sales of flats in the territories in recent months, owing to the unrest, it was decided to adopt a series of measures to boost construction in the territories.(Ha'aretz, 10 April 1988)

590. On 22 June 1988, Housing and Construction Minister David Levy declared that 10 provisional settlements would be converted into permanent ones, and thousands of housing units would be built in settlements located on the Green Line. "These housing units will obliterate the former Green Line", he said. He added that "nothing will deviate us from our determination to continue and intensify the accelerated construction in Judea and Samaria". (Ha'aretz, 23 June 1988)
2. Measures

Written information

591. On 2 September 1987, the cornerstone-laying ceremony was announced for a new settlement, Avney-Hefetz, located 8 kilometres south-east of Tulkarem. Most of the lands for the new settlement had been bought from private land-owners. Avney-Hefetz was one of the six settlements whose construction was decided by the National Unity Government. (Ha'aretz, 2 September 1987)

592. On 2 October 1987, it was reported that the Jewish National Fund had seized in recent months three houses in the village of Silwan, in East Jerusalem. Local residents said that Jewish families would move in shortly. (Ha'aretz, 2 October 1987)

593. On 5 November 1987, the Central Bureau of Statistics reported that the number of Jewish settlers in the territories had increased by 21,000 since the formation of the National Unity Government at the end of 1984, passing from 36,900 to approximately 58,000. The number of Jews settling in the territories was 9,200 in 1985, 7,300 in 1986 and about 5,000 in 1987. (Jerusalem Post, 6 November 1987)

594. On 16 November 1987, a source close to Industry and Trade Minister Ariel Sharon revealed that the Minister was buying an apartment in the Muslim Quarter of Jerusalem's Old City. Sharon's new residence was reportedly located in the same complex of apartments that students from the "Ateret Cohanim" yeshiva moved into about two months earlier. Arab tenants still lived in parts of the building. (Jerusalem Post, 17 November 1987)

595. On 10 December 1987, it was reported that the Israeli authorities seized
1,200 dunams from the village of Burin. Villagers, who filed a complaint against the measure, believed the seized land would serve the expansion of the nearby settlement of Bragha. In another development, the village council of Beit Amr was notified of the seizure of a large area of land of the village on the eastern hills alongside the Jerusalem-Hebron road. Villagers feared the land would later be confiscated. (Attalia, 10 December 1987)

596. On 2 February 1988, Housing Minister David Levy said that his Ministry had started the construction of a Kalkiliya bypass road and that a new road, from Gilo to the Etzion bloc, would be built before the end of the present financial year. He promised settlers' representatives that many more houses would be built in their settlements. (Ha'aretz, 3 February 1988)

597. On 18 May 1988, the cornerstone-laying ceremony took place for a permanent settlement at Ateret, north-west of Ramallah. Ateret was described as a religiouscom munal settlement with 35 families, affiliated to the Amana movement of Gush Emunim. (Ha'aretz, 18 May 1988)

598. On 22 June 1988, Housing and Construction Minister David Levy inaugurated-a new construction site at the Alfei-Menashe settlement. He declared at the ceremony that the construction of a road bypassing Kalkiliya would be over before the end of the year. (Ha'aretz, 23 June 1988)

599. On 12 July 1988, the Nahal outpost at Shim'a, in southern Mount Hebron, was converted into a civilian settlement. It would be a communal settlement of Gush Emunim. Shim'a was one of six new settlements whose establishment was decided under the coalition agreement of the present National Unity Government. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 July 1988)
F. Information concerning Syrian territory under occupation

Oral evidence

600. In a statement delivered before the Special Committee at Damascus on
25 May 1988, Mr. El-Fattal, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Syrian Arab Republic, referred to the situation in the Syrian territory under occupation and stated in this connection:

"The Israeli violations of human rights there continue: in fact, they have intensified their aggressiveness and their intransigence. Annexation, introduction of settlers, judaization and expropriation of water still continue, and official statements by the Israeli authorities confirm this. In addition, we see that there is continued detention and imprisonment, repression and oppression, house arrest and house raids, impositions of curfews and repression of freedom of expression, all continue to escalate in
the territories.

"The economic position of the population of the occupied Golan is
increasingly deteriorating as a result of Israeli policies which treat the
occupied areas as dependent upon the Israeli economy and as a major consumer
market for Israeli products. Recently it has blocked the marketing of

agricultural produce, which is the mainstay of the population of the occupied Golan. The situation of Syrian workers is no different from the general inhuman situation of the population there in the absence of any civilized norms applied in any territory under Israeli occupation: they are subjected to racial discrimination and exploitation. They have no guarantees, no social insurance and no health care. Thus these people are paying the price of occupation. Also, I should like to refer to the dangers to education because the occupation authorities insist on eliminating any national character from the population of the occupied Arab Golan, and cutting the people off from their national historic, and cultural roots, severing their links with their original mother country, Syria. In addition, there is a deterioration in the level of education and of health care provided in the schools. The Israelis are preventing children from receiving the necessary education and will not provide the Arab population with the means of building Arab schools or improving the health situation in them. Through these policies they are trying to paralyse the work of the few Arab health institutions left there, in order to eliminate any Arab character from the area and to allow to deteriorate the present preventive and treatment services that are provided for the population in the area." (Mr. Dia El-Fattal, A/AC.145/RT.486)

601. Reference to the situation in the Syrian territory under occupation may also be found in document A/AC.145/RT.487 (Mr. Walid Mahmoud).

Written information

602. On 23 October 1987, it was reported that hundreds of Golan residents had
recently asked the Israeli authorities to allow them to visit their relatives in Syria and to resume monthly meetings with them along the border - a practice halted six years earlier. Over 50 residents have also reportedly asked the authorities to permit their close relations living in Syria to return to their homes and villages under the family unification scheme. A senior official at the Interior Ministry said that as far as he knew there was no intention to change the current policy, which prohibited contacts between Golan residents and Syrian residents. (Jerusalem Post, 23 October 1987)

603. On 14 February 1988, riots were reported in Majdal Shams, northern Golan
Heights, on the sixth anniversary of the application of Israeli law in the region. In clashes with police four demonstrators and four policemen were injured, 25 persons were arrested. Police used a tear-gas-firing helicopter to chase the protesters. In another development, it was reported that 16 adults and 4 children were to cross the border into Kuneitra to visit their families in Syria for up to 30 days. This was the first time such visits were authorized since the 1967 war. The Ministry of the Interior reportedly intended to continue the policy of authorizing such visits. The co-ordination with the Syrian authorities was done through the Red Cross representatives in Tel Aviv. On 7 March 1988, a group of residents of the Golan crossed into Syria to meet relatives. The visit was organized jointly by Israel, the United Nations and ICRC. The visitors were from the villages of Majdal Shams, Bukata and Ein-Kinya. (Ha'aretz, 15 February and 7 March 1988; Jerusalem Post, 8 March 1988)

604. On 14 February 1988, the Northern Region Commander declared the border area alongside Majdal Shams a closed military area. (Attalia, 18 February 1988)

605. On 19 February 1988, it was reported that the police had arrested three
physicians living in the northern Golan, on suspicion of giving medical care to demonstrators who were injured in the riots in Majdal Shams earlier in the week. The three were suspected of setting up medical clinics in two houses and giving medical care without reporting about it to the police. The clinics were set up before the disturbances started. The three were named as Ali Awad, Ysef Hattar and Fawzi Elkish. A Kiryat-Shmona magistrate remanded the three in custody for a further week. Police also arrested a Majdal Shams resident who unfurled a Syrian flag on the local school. On 28 February 1988, it was reported that the police arrested six more inhabitants of the Golan on suspicion of participating in the disturbances a fortnight earlier. This brought the total of detainees to 50. More arrests were expected. Charge sheets had already been filed against many of the detainees, including the three physicians mentioned above. (Ha'aretz, 19 and 28 February 1988)

606. On 17 April 1988, 10 residents of Majdal Shams were arrested following rioting, when police prevented residents from staging a demonstration to commemorate the anniversary of Syria's independence. Several villagers and four policemen were slightly injured in the clashes, in which police used tear gas to disperse the stone-throwing crowd. (Jerusalem Post, 18 April 1988)
V. CONCLUSIONS

607. The present report has been prepared in accordance with the mandate of the Special Committee as renewed by the General Assembly in its resolution 42/160 D.

608. Section II contains a description of the organization by the Special Committeeof its work during the period from 4 September 1987, the date of adoption of its last report(A/42/650). As may be ascertained from section II, the Government of Israel continued to withhold its co-operation from the Special Committee. On the other hand, the Special Committee benefited from the co-operation of the Governments of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic, and of the Palestine Liberation Organization. Section III spells out the mandate of the Special Committee as defined in previous years. This includes the extension of the mandate of the Special Committee to include the investigation of allegations of "exploitation and looting of the resources of the occupied territories", "pillaging of the archeological and cultural heritage of the occupied territories" and "interference in the freedom of worship in the holy places of the occupied territories", as reflected in General Assembly resolution 3005 (XXVII).

609. Section IV contains a summary of the oral evidence and written information received by the Special Committee. The Special Committee, having been precluded from visiting the occupied territories, conducted a series of meetings at Geneva, Amman, Damascus and Cairo in May/June of this year. At Amman, Damascus and Cairo, it heard the evidence of persons who had first-hand knowledge and personal experience of the human rights situation in the occupied territories. The Special Committee also conducted a series of hearings at Geneva in August 1988, when it heard the evidence of seven persons who had recently been deported from the occupied territories. In addition, the Special Committee followed the situation in the occupied territories on a day-to-day basis through reports appearing in the Israeli and Palestinian press. The Special Committee examined a number of valuable communications and reports from Governments, organizations and individuals in the occupied territories that reached it during the period covered by the present
report.

610. The overall picture drawn from the information available to the Special
Committee reflects a new phase in the evolution of the situation in the occupied territories, characterized by a level of violence and repression never reached before in the course of the 21 years of occupation. In the conclusions to its report last year, the Special Committee had warned that there existed in the occupied territories "... an explosive situation that seems bound to provoke yet more dramatic events in the future". This prediction has unfortunately proved to be accurate in the light of the dramatic events that, since December 1987, have cast such a tragic shadow over an already severely stricken civilian population, bringing to it its daily lot of death and suffering.

611. Such tragic developments stem from the basic reality, denounced by the Special Committee since the outset of its activities, that occupation in itself constitutes a violation of human rights. This fact, however, has been consistently denied by the Government of Israel, whose general policy towards the occupied territories is based on the principle that the territories occupied by Israel in 1967 constitute part of the State of Israel and that therefore measures such as the establishment of colonies in the occupied territories and the transfer of Israeli citizens thereto did not constitute a process of annexation. Such an attitude represents a flagrant violation of the international obligations of Israel as a State party to the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. It may be recalled that this Convention stipulates that military occupation is to be considered as a temporary, de facto situation, giving no right whatsoever to the occupying Power over the territorial integrity of the occupied territories. Various illustrations of the Israeli attitude are provided in the present report, in particular, as reflected in paragraph 582, where reference is made to the statement (reported in Ha'aretz on 19 October 1987) by Prime Minister Shamir that Jerusalem, Samaria, the Sharon, the Galilee and the Golan Heights were one entity, and it was a dangerous illusion to say that the people of Israel would ever cut itself from these areas.

612. The various restrictive measures implemented against the civilian population in the framework of the "iron-fist policy" since 1985 have contributed to the deterioration of the situation leading, during the period covered by the present report, to the uprising of the Palestinian population against the occupation, and provoking an unprecedented wave of disturbances in the occupied territories. This new phase has been marked by a further outburst of violence and by repressive measures raised to the status of an official policy by the Israeli authorities. In this context, reference can be made to the statement on 19 January 1988 by Defence Minister Rabin that violent demonstrations would be prevented with "force, power and blows", as reported in Ha'aretz and the Jerusalem Post on 19 and 20 January 1988 (see para. 42). Mr. Rabin further stated on 24 February 1988 (as reported in Attalia on 25 February 1988), that force, rubber bullets, tear gas and beating would continue to be used against protesters (see para. 51). On 1 June 1988, he was reported by Ha'aretz as having stated that the economic pressure exerted on the Palestinian population, as well as mass arrests, were the principal elements contributing to what he described as an "attrition in the Arab population's motivation" to pursue the uprising (see para. 63).

613. This determination to resort to physical violence against demonstrators has resulted in a heavy toll of casualties; several hundreds of civilian Palestinians have been killed and thousands have been injured in the course of the uprising,including small children, women and old people (see the list of casualties reproduced in annex I). The harassment and physical ill-treatment of civilians have reached a dramatic level, as illustrated, among others, by the findings of a team of United States physicians who visited hospitals in the territories and stated in a press conference held on 11 February 1988 that they had found medical evidence of "an uncontrolled epidemic of violence by the army and the police in the West Bank and Gaza", as reported in Ha'aretz and the Jerusalem Post of 12 February 1988 (see para. 357). Numerous cases of severe beatings and bone-breaking have been reported to the Special Committee. One particularly odious incident was that referred to in Ha'aretz and the Jerusalem Post on 15 February 1988, which occurred in the village of Salem. The allegation was that soldiers driving an army bulldozer had attempted to bury alive four Palestinian youths. The youths, who had previously been severely beaten and had lost consciousnss after being buried, had reportedly been rescued by other villagers and were taken to hospital (see para. 358). Another development had been the use of various kinds of gases against demonstrators. As reflected in paragraph 365, on 24 April 1988 it was reported in Ha'aretz that, according to a survey conducted by the civil administration in the Gaza Strip, there was a 10 per cent increase in the number of miscarriages among Gaza women in the first four months of the uprising, in comparison with the same period in the previous years. In 166 cases women said they had miscarried as a result of tear gas they inhaled during the disturbances.

614. The information and evidence gathered by the Special Committee also illustrate an extension and intensification of various practices of collective punishment and a recourse to new forms of collective reprisal, such as economic sanctions and the bulldozing of houses. Perhaps the most regrettable well-known case of house demolition during the period covered by the present report was that of the 13 houses demolished in Beita by the IDF on 10 April 1988, following the violent clash that occurred between a group of teenagers from the Eilon-Moleh settlement and villagers from Beita, and in which a young settler girl was killed. The illegal practice of the demolition of houses has been used on an unprecedented scale by the Israeli authorities since the beginning of the uprising. Another repressive collective measure has been the systematic and prolonged use of curfews, as well as the sealing off of entire localities, which in several instances have provoked food and fuel shortages. One particularly illustrative example of this policy was the move, on 28 March 1988, by the IDF to declare the occupied territories closed military areas for 72 hours; such measures were unprecedented in their scope since the 1967 war. In addition to these measures, harsh economic sanctions have also been imposed on the civilian population, including the cutting of water or electricity supplies; limitation of funds allowed inside the occupied territories; or the severing of telephone links. Such measures have contributed to the further deterioration of an already critical economic and social situation.

615. The period covered by the present report, and in particular the period since the beginning of the uprising, has also been characterized by a noticeable increase in the number of expulsions and deportations from the occupied territories carried out in spite of an international campaign of protest against such illegal practices. These expulsions have taken place in violation of article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which states that individual or mass forcible transfers from occupied territory are prohibited, regardless of their motive.

616. The deterioration of the human rights situation in the occupied territories has also been witnessed in the field of the administration of justice. The period covered by the present report has been marked by new court procedures denounced as "quick justice", as illustrated by the report in Ha'aretz and the Jerusalem Post of 29 December 1987, according to which MK Matti Peled had sent a cable to Defence Minister Rabin, calling on him to stop the summary trials in the territories and stating that the courts in the territories had ceased to be institutions of justice and were instead "automatic machines to produce judgements in assembly-line fashion" (see para. 265). It was further reported in Ha'aretz and the Jerusalem Post of 30 December 1987 that lawyers defending West Bank Arabs arrested
during the riots had decided to boycott the "quick justice" hearings at military courts, which they described as "humiliating and illegal". This period has also witnessed a large increase in the number of detentions, including administrative detentions. Ha'aretz reported on 19 May 1988 that, according to a report prepared by MK Dedi Zucker, there were at that time 1,900 Palestinians held in administrative detention. Some of the detainees did not know whether they were administrative or regular detainees, and in some cases the decision on the type of detention was made only after they arrived in the detention place. In contrast members of the Jewish underground, settlers, IDF members or other Israelis charged with murder or mistreatment of Arab civilians seem to have been treated with relative leniency by the authorities. Reference can be made in this regard to the
further reduction, to 15 years, by President Herzog, of the prison terms of three convicted members of the Jewish underground originally sentenced for murder to life imprisonment, and who later had already had their sentence reduced to 24 years (see para. 326).

617. Such an unprecedented increase in the number of Palestinian detainees had
contributed to a worsening of the situation and treatment of prisoners. The recent period has been marked by an increase in the number of detention centres as a consequence of the arrest of thousands of Palestinians since the start of the uprising. In addition to the existing prisons, army detention centres have been increased. Israeli military government buildings and police stations have also often been used as temporary detention centres. Furthermore, detainees have alsobee n held in prisons and detention centres inside Israel itself, in violation of relevant provisions of article 76 of the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949. Among the problems encountered by detainees have been the overcrowding of cells, physical and psychological ill-treatment, the lack of adequate health services, nutrition and clothing. Newly opened detention centres such as Dahriyeh or Ansar 3 were

reported to be notorious for particularly cruel conditions, including systematic beating, overcrowding, forced labour and lack of hygiene. Such harsh treatment has frequently led to hunger strikes in the prisons and detention camps.

618. The report also contains information on measures affecting the enjoyment of various fundamental freedoms. Reference has also been made to the systematic recourse to curfews, sealing off of localities or declaring the entire territories closed military areas, thus seriously hampering the right to freedom of movement. Several incidents that occurred in or around holy places have illustrated the restrictions upon the exercise of the right to freedom of worship. The right to freedom of expression has also been seriously affected by a series of measures including bans on the distribution of newspapers, issuing administrative detention orders against journalists, declaring various areas "closed military zones" to news coverage or the closure of press agencies and newspapers. Freedom of education was also severely restricted, in particular with the closure order affecting all universities in the occupied territories and resulting in the loss of the entire academic year, as well as the closure of all schools in the territories for several months.

619. During the period under consideration, acts of violence and aggression by
Israeli settlers against the civilians has reached an unprecedented level.
Illustrative of this situation is the report in Ma'ariv of 19 May 1988 that
MK Zucker had submitted to Police Minister Bar-Lev a list of 13 Arabs from the
occupied territories believed to have been killed by settlers since January 1988. Arab sources provide an even higher estimate of victims of settlers, as reflected in the oral testimony of an anonymous witness who referred to 23 Arabs killed by the bullets of the settlers in the West Bank and in Gaza (see para. 499 above).

620. Finally, the report of the Special Committee also contains information on the tension prevailing in the Syrian territory under occupation, where serious incidents continued to occur. Reports mentioned disturbances and arrests of residents of Majdal Shams on various occasions (see paras. 603, 605 and 606).

621. In view of the gravity of these developments, the Special Committee wishes to stress that the responsibility of the international community is more manifest than ever before and that urgent measures must be taken in order to prevent further deterioration of the situation and ensure an effective protection of the basic rights of the civilians in the occupied territories. Such protection can only be ensured, in the long run, through the negotiation of a comprehensive, just and lasting settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict acceptable to all concerned. Until such a settlement is achieved, the following measures could contribute, in the view of the Special Committee, to the restoration of the basic human rights of the civilians in the occupied territories:

(a) The full application, by Israel, of the relevant provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which remains the main international instrument in humanitarian law that applies to the occupied territories, and whose applicability to those territories has repeatedly been reaffirmed by the Security Council, the General Assembly and other relevant organs of the United Nations;

(b) The full co-operation of the Israeli authorities with the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to facilitate efforts to protect detained persons, in particular by ensuring full access of ICRC representatives to such persons;

(c) The full support, by Member States, of the activities of ICRC in the
occupied territories, and positive response by Member States to eventual appeals for additional assistance, including funds to finance the extra activities required by the unprecedented increase in the number of detained persons;

(d) The full support, by Member States, of UNRWA activities in the occupied territories in order to enable UNRWA to improve the general assistance provided to the refugee population.
VI. ADOPTION OF THE REPORT

622. The present report was approved and signed by the Special Committee on
26 August 1988 in accordance with rule 20 of its rules of procedure.
Notes

1 Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, agenda item 101, documents A/8089; A/8389 and Corr.1 and 2; A/8389/Add.1 and Add.1/Corr.1 and 2; A/8828; A/9148 and Add.1; A/9817; A/10272; A/31/218; A/32/284; A/33/356; A/34/631; A/35/425; A/36/579; A/37/485; A/38/409; A/39/591; A/40/702; A/41/680; and A/42/650.

2 Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 101, document A/8237; ibid., Twenty-sixth Session, Annexes, agenda item 40, document A/8630; ibid., Twenty-seventh Session, Annexes, agenda item 42, document A/8950; ibid., Twenty-eighth Session, Annexes, agenda item 45, document A/9374; ibid., Twenty-ninth Session, Annexes, agenda item 40, document A/9872; ibid., Thirtieth Session, Annexes, agenda item 52, document A/10461; ibid., Thirty-first Session, Annexes, agenda item 55, document A/31/399; ibid., Thirty-second Session, Annexes, agenda item 57, document A/32/407; ibid., Thirty-third Session, Annexes, agenda item 55, document A/33/439; ibid., Thirty-fourth Session, Annexes, agenda item 51, document A/34/691 and Add.1; ibid., Thirty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 57, document A/35/674; ibid., Thirty-sixth Session, Annexes, agenda item 64, document A/36/632/Add.1; ibid., Thirty-seventh Session, Annexes, agenda item 61, document A/37/698; ibid., Thirty-eighth Session, Annexes, agenda item 69, document A/38/718; ibid., Thirty-ninth Session, Annexes, agenda item 71, document A/39/712; ibid., Fortieth Session, Annexes, agenda item 75, document A/40/890; ibid., Forty-first Session, Annexes, agenda item 71, document A/41/750; and ibid., Forty-second Session, Annexes, agenda item 75, document A/42/811.
Notes (continued)

3 Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 101, document A/8089, annex III.

4 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, No. 973, p. 287.

5 Ibid., No. 972, p. 135.

6 Ibid., vol. 249, No. 3511, p. 215.

7 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Hague Conventions and
Declarations of 1899 and 1907, New York, Oxford University Press, 1915.

8 General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI).
ANNEX I

List of victims of the uprising submitted by the Palestine Liberation Organization



Name Age Place Date Remarks

1. Taleb Mohammad Abu Zeid 46 years Maghazi refugee camp 8 Dec. 1987
2. Ali Mahmud Ismael 25 years Maghazi refugee camp 8 Dec. 1987
3. Yunis Jarbu 18 years 14 Dec. 1987
4. Zaher Salhi 23 years 15 Dec. 1987
5. Ibrahim Dahqan 23 years 15 Dec. 1987
6. Najwa Hassan Al-Misri 17 years Beit Hanun 15 Dec. 1987
7. Talal Ahmed Al-Huwayhi 17 years Beit Hanun 15 Dec. 1987
8. Nafiz Aqtifar 15 years Deir El-Balah 15 Dec. 1987
9. Fuad Tamraz 14 years Deir El-Balah 15 Dec. 1987
10. Abdul Al Salam Fatihiya 25 years Shaja'ia refugee camp 20 Dec. 1987
11. Jihad Ahmed Matar 2 months Nuseirat refugee camp
12. Ismael Zaki Muslim 25 years Maghazi refugee camp 7 Jan. 1988
13. Khaled Ibrahim Awada 22 years 8 Jan. 1988
14. Maher Al-Talbani 20 years Maghazi refugee camp 8 Jan. 1988 Shot by oldiers
15. Mazin Zaki Maghazi refugee camp 9 Jan. 1988
16. Touqan Misbah 30 years 10 Jan. 1988
17. Mohammad Ramadan Tabara 18 years Nuseirat refugee camp 13 Jan. 1988
18. Ramadan Yunis Ramadan 14 years Beit Lahiya 14 Jan. 1988
19. Imad Hamdi Abu Asi 15 days Jabaliya refugee camp 14 Jan. 1988
20. Mohammad Khalid Shahin 75 days Bureij refugee camp 14 Jan. 1988
21. Ibrahim Mahmud Abu Nahl 31 years Shata refugee camp 15 Jan. 1988
22. Ossam Mohammad Hamuda 29 years Beit Lahiya 8 Dec. 1987
23. Shaaban Said Nibhan 26 years Jabaliya refugee camp 8 Dec. 1987
24. Kamal Qadurah Hamuda 23 years Beit Lahiya 8 Dec. 1987
25. Hatem Al Sissy 17 years Jabaliya refugee camp 9 Dec. 1987
26. Raid Shehada 20 years Jabaliya refugee camp 9 Dec. 1987
27. Ahmad Abu Khusah 20 years Jabaliya refugee camp 15 Dec. 1987
28. Khalid Abu Takya 20 years Jabaliya refugee camp 15 Dec. 1987
29. Miriam Zuheir Al-Rafid 70 years 15 Dec. 1987
30. Mahmud Al-Sakhla 17 years 15 Dec. 1987
31. Ibrahim Ali Daqar 23 years 15 Dec. 1987
32. Khalid Taleb Hamid 19 years Jabaliya refugee camp 22 Dec. 1987
33. Mustafa Isa Al-Beyk 25 years Jabaliya refugee camp 22 Dec. 1987
34. Yussef Mohammad Al-Najar 17 years 26 Dec. 1987
35. Ra'ed Salman 10 years 13 Jan. 1988
36. Unknown martyr 15 Jan. 1988
37. Wahid Abu Salem 11 years 11 Dec. 1987
38. Hassan Jarhoun 25 years Khan Yunis 13 Dec. 1987
39. Ali Atif Dahlan 25 years Khan Yunis 14 Dec. 1987
40. Ahmad Al Nabrisi 15 years 14 Dec. 1987
41. Abdullah Abu Al-Hasyn 17 years Khan Yunis 15 Dec. 1987
42. Bassam Kader Salem 9 Jan. 1988
43. Wijdan Hafiz Rajab 35 years Khan Yunis 10 Jan. 1988
44. Basam Khedr Muslim 57 years Khan Yunis 10 Jan. 1988
45. Mohammad Fayad 20 years Khan Yunis 10 Jan. 1988
46. Ata Mustafa Khudir 25 years Khan Yunis 11 Jan. 1988
47. Atwa Abu Samhadna 21 years 16 Dec. 1987
48. Maisira Al-Batnigi 25 years 18 Dec. 1987
49. Khalil Abu Louli 50 years Rafah 10 Jan. 1988
50. Basel Yazuri 20 years Rafah refugee camp 11 Jan. 1988
51. Ibrahim Al-Aklik 11 years Tubas 10 Dec. 1987
52. Ali Ismael Musaid 11 years Balata refugee camp 11 Dec. 1987
53. Abdullah Qa'ur 14 years Balata refugee camp 11 Dec. 1987
54. Suhila Saleh Kaabi 57 years Balata refugee camp 11 Dec. 1987
55. Sahar Ahmad Al-Jarmy 17 years Balata refugee camp 11 Dec. 1987
56. Khalil Hussein Al-Mahisri 75 years Jerusalem 18 Dec. 1987
57. Khamis Al-Bakri 20 years Jerusalem 19 Dec. 1987
58. Sahar Al-Misri Jerusalem 19 Dec. 1987
59. Basem Faysal Sawafta 19 years Tubas 21 Dec. 1987
60. Nazek Ahmad Sawafta 20 years Jenin 21 Dec. 1987
61. Yussef Mohammad Ararawi 25 years Jenin 21 Dec. 1987
62. Mahmud Rashed Al-Kadisi 20 years Jenin 21 Dec. 1987
63. Muhand Hassan Al-Ghul 17 years Jenin 11 Dec. 1987
64. Mahmud Rashed Abu Aziza 18 years Jenin 21 Dec. 1987
65. Mohammad Abdel Al-Qadir
Jadallah 25 years Idna 31 Dec. 1987
66. Ghasan Abdullah Mutlaq 20 years Jenin 22 Dec. 1987
67. Irahim Al-Atlit Nablus
68. Haniya Ghazawna 25 years Ramallah 5 Jan. 1988
69. Rabeh Hussein Mahmud 16 years Ramallah 11 Jan. 1988
70. Husam Al-Maali 12 years Kafr Neema 13 Jan. 1988
71. Naji Akmil 40 years Qabatiya 13 Jan. 1988
72. Sami Jum'a 4 months Ramallah 13 Jan. 1988
73. Lubna Al-Shubki 12 years Ramallah 13 Jan. 1988
74. Mahmud Ahmed Badawi 70 years Kalandiya 13 Jan. 1988
75. Ahmad Ali Awda Al-Ghazal 45 years Bethlehem 14 Jan. 1988
76. Kafi 35 years Balata refugee camp 14 Jan. 1988
77. Omar Aiash 19 years Kafr Neema 13 Jan. 1988
78. Najih Kamil 40 years Qabatiya 13 Jan. 1988
79. Ramadan Salman 10 years Jabaliya refugee camp 13 Jan. 1988
80. Ibrahim Anu Nahl 31 years Gaza 15 Jan. 1988
81. Unknown Bani Naim
82. Ahmed ... Bani Naim
83. Fatma Ishak Rashid 55 years Beit Safafa 24 Jan. 1988
84. Abdel Ra'uf Rihan Jabaliya refugee camp 28 Jan. 1988
85. Abdel Fattah Aweida 60 days Kalkiliya
86. Amna Darwish 100 years 16 Jan. 1988
87. Rafa' Al-Afifi Khan Yunis 16 Jan. 1988
88. Subheya Hashash 52 years Balata refugee camp 18 Jan. 1988
89. Haytham Shakiru 17 months
90. Abdekl Fattah Samara 2 months Kalkiliya
91. Muayed Al-Sha'ar 21 years Anabta 1 Feb. 1988
92. Murad Al-Hamadallah 17 years Anabta 1 Feb. 1988
93. Asma Sabuba 24 years Anabta 1 Feb. 1988
94. Halima Al-A'raj Anabta 1 Feb. 1988
95. Mohammad Mahmud Badran 34 years Jabaliya refugee camp 4 Feb. 1988
96. Ibrahim Mansour 21 years Nablus 4 Feb. 1988
97. Tamir Jalal Al-Suki 10 years Nablus 7 Feb. 1988
98. Asma Abdel Ati 17 years El-Arrub refugee camp 6 Feb. 1988
99. Imad Khedr Al-Sabarna 24 years Ramallah 7 Feb. 1988
100. Mohammad Ibrahim Shuyha 25 years Ramallah 7 Feb. 1988
101. Teysir Abdullah Al-Jarad 18 years Ramallah 7 Feb. 1988
102. Rami Abdel Rahim Al-Akluk 15 years Deir el-Balah 7 Feb. 1988
103. Anwar Mohammad Ali Juweid 15 years Halhul 7 Feb. 1988 Seriously wounded
104. Iyad Shana'a 21 years Kalkiliya 7 Feb. 1988
105. Hael Abdel Karim Baraha 23 years Jericho 7 Feb. 1988 Seriously wounded
106. Ayman Akl 16 years Bureij refugee camp 16 Feb. 1988
107. Abdel Baset Mahmud 25 years Kafr Qaddum 7 Feb. 1988
108. Nabil Abdel Latif 16 years Utayl 9 Feb. 1988
109. Khedr Fuad Al-Tarzi 23 years Gaza 9 Feb. 1988
110. Imad Mohammad Al-Hamalawi 20 years Maghazi refugee camp 10 Feb. 1988 Wounded
111. Majdi Mohammad Hashishu 25 years Shata refugee camp 10 Feb. 1988
112. Ahmad Abdullah Bekhit 36 years Tulkarem refugee camp 12 Feb. 1988 Shot
113. Al Sheikh Afif Al-Darduk 60 years Nablus 12 Feb. 1988 Beaten
114. Bishar Al-Misri 17 years Nablus 12 Feb. 1988 Shot in the heart
115. Basil Hitan 12 years Nablus 12 Feb. 1988 Shot in the head
116. Tewfik Kasab 36 years Al-Shuweika Stabbed to death
117. Ismail Mohammad Hassan 45 years Shuyukh 17 Jan. 1988 Shot
118. Ismail Mohammad Hussein
Al-Halayfa 22 years Shuyukh 18 Feb. 1988
119. Ayub Abdullah Al-Halayfa Shuyukh 18 Feb. 1988
120. Abdullah Ata Abdullah 20 years Kafr Neema 22 Feb. 1988 Shot
121. Nasr Allah Abdul Kader
Nasr Allah 12 years Tulkarem
122. Rana Yussef Adwan 3 months Rafah 18 Feb. 1988
123. Kamal Faris 24 years Deir Amar
124. Ragheb Abu Amara 24 years Nablus 21 Feb. 1988
125. Ahmad Sadek Abu Salhiya 60 years Nablus 21 Feb. 1988 Tear gas
126. Kamal Mohammad Faris 24 years Deir Ammar camp 21 Feb. 1988
127. Mahmud Na'man Hushiya 13 years Al-Yamun 23 Feb. 1988
128. Atif Abdel Mohsen Fayad 30 years Khan Yunis 23 Feb. 1988
129. Rawda Lutfi Najib 13 years Baka Al-Sharkeya 23 Feb. 1988
130. Mohammad Kassem Mohammad
Abu Zeid Kamil 4 years Qabatiya 25 Feb. 1988
131. Fadila Al-Ghandur 42 years Gaza 25 Feb. 1988
132. Anwar Al-Hihi 29 years El-Bireh 25 Feb. 1988
133. Isam Said Abu Khalifa 18 years Jenin refugee camp 25 Feb. 1988
134. Nihad Abdel Ghafar 21 years El-Arrub refugee camp 27 Feb. 1988
135. Nafez Al-Baw 17 years Halhul 27 Feb. 1988
136. Rachika Muslih Darghama 50 years Tubas 27 Feb. 1988
137. Saleh Mahmus Hamad 17 years Khan Yunis 21 Feb. 1988
138. Khetam Sabri Imran 10 years Khan Yunis 21 Feb. 1988 Tear gas
139. Iyad Al-Ashkar 12 years Jabaliya refugee camp 26 Feb. 1988
140. Raed Mahmud Awad
Al-Barghuthi 17 years Abud/Ramallah 28 Feb. 1988
141. Ahmad Ibrahim Mustafa
Al-Barghuthi 22 years Abud/Ramallah 28 Feb. 1988
142. Bakr Abdullah 22 years Halhul/Hebron 28 Feb. 1988
143. Jamal Al-Atrash 18 years Halhul/Hebron 29 Feb. 1988
144. Yasser Daoud Eid 18 years Burein/Nablus 29 Feb. 1988
145. Ahmad Bitawi 30 years Jenin refugee camp 1 March 1988
146. Suleiman Abdel Ghani Taher 80 years Baka Al-Sharkeya/Tulkarem 2 March 1988
147. Mohammad Ahmad Saleh 18 years Bethlehem 4 March 1988
148. Maher Ruwaydat 24 years Dhahiriya/Hebron 6 March 1988
149. Jamil Hassan Hejazi 19 years Ramallah 9 March 1988
150. Sami Ghaleb Al-Deya 14 years Nablus
151. Hassan Mohammad Abu
Khayrat 22 years El-Arrub refugee camp
152. Mohammad Ahmad Sherif Silwad 9 March 1988
153. Zakariya Mohammad Ali
Abu Suniyna 32 years Hebron 11 March 1988
154. Mohammad Radwan 25 years Shata 11 March 1988
155. Kamila Abu Sharaf 55 years Bureij 11 March 1988
156. Yussef Ibrahim Suleiman 22 years Ramallah 12 March 1988
157. Yehya Khalil Al-Maghrabi 2 months Gaza/Zeitoun 14 March 1988
158. Arafat Abdel Aziz Al-Hewehi 22 years Ein-Yabrud 15 March 1988
159. Taleb Said Al-Atar 22 years Rafah 15 March 1988
160. Salem Al-Yehya 60 years Tulkarem 16 March 1988
161. Arafat Haweish 22 years Ramallah 16 March 1988
162. Said Nasrallah 16 years Jenin 16 March 1988
163. Jomaa Khalil Al-Tukhi 50 years Al-Amary refugee camp 17 March 1988
164. Naji Hassan Mohammad
Al-Haj Ali Qabatiya 18 March 1988
165. Saleh Al-Damuni Qabatiya 18 March 1988
166. Mohammad Kassem Abu Zeid Qabatiya 18 March 1988
167. Hani Ibrahim Abu Hamam 24 years Shata refugee camp 18 March 1988
168. Mohammad Mahmud Suleiman
Khaled Al-Fahmawi 19 years Ya'bad refugee camp 18 March 1988
169. Awla Amr Abu Sherifa 5 years Shata refugee camp 19 March 1988
170. Nimr Muwafi 45 years Kalkiliya 19 March 1988
171. Mohammad Mahmud Abdel Rahman
Hamed 25 years Silwad 20 March 1988
172. Nafe' Ahmad Al-Haj
Hussein Muslim 30 years Kafr Dan/Jenin 20 March 1988
173. Khaled Mohammad Taher 25 years Tulkarem 20 March 1988
174. Mohammad Mahmud Morbeh 25 years Silwad 20 March 1988
175. Nazlat Issa 15 years Tulkarem 20 March 1988
176. Adel Ahmad Jaber 17 years Rafah 21 March 1988
177. Omar Hussein Abu Marahil 27 years Beit Lahiya 21 March 1988
178. Hikmat Mustafa Daraghma 26 years Tubas 22 March 1988
179. Haj Hussein Faris Kamel 70 years Qabatiya 22 March 1988
180. Majid Mohammad Ahmed
Sawalma 21 years Balata refugee camp 22 March 1988
181. Mohammad Ali Abu Rizk 19 years Balata refugee camp 22 March 1988
182. Khalid Hassan Al-Markatin 18 years 25 March 1988
183. Abdel Fattah Hassan Taher 18 years Halhul 25 March 1988
184. Khalid Mohammad Taher Tulkarem 22 March 1988
185. Omar Ahmad Robaya 19 years Meithalun/Jenin 27 March 1988
186. Ghassan Kassem Awida
Nuseirat 17 years Meithalun/Jenin 27 March 1988
187. Fahim Mahmud Mohammad Daoud
Nuseirat 27 years Meithalun/Jenin 27 March 1988
188. Yasser Asaad Ibrahim 14 years Salfit 27 March 1988
189. Majdi Hussein Dib 19 years Nablus 26 March 1988
190. Awad Kassem Ibrahim 30 years Nablus 27 March 1988
191. Ayed Turki Mohammad Salah 21 years Nablus 27 March 1988
192. Omar Rababa 21 years Meithalun/Jenin 28 March 1988
193. Fahim Nawirat 27 years Meithalun 28 March 1988
194. Ghasem Nawirat 17 years Meithalun 28 March 1988
195. Sakr Ali Al-Malsa 20 years Ramallah 30 March 1988
196. Hussein Mahmud Shahin 24 years Nablus 30 March 1988
197. Wajiha Yussef Rabi' 50 years Ramallah 30 March 1988
198. Ahmad Ghazi Gharib 10 years Hebron 30 March 1988
199. Abdul Karim Mussa Taha
Haleyka 25 years Hebron 30 March 1988
200. Khaled Mohammad Aref Salah 22 years Nablus 30 March 1988
201. Suleiman Ahmad Al-Jindi 17 years Hebron 1 April 1988
202. Mohammad Faris Al-Zein 25 years Al-Yamun/Jenin 1 April 1988
203. Jamal Khalil Al-Tamizi 25 years Hebron 1 April 1988
204. Ishak Nemr Salama 18 years Hebron 1 April 1988
205. Jamil Rashid Al-Kurdi 55 years Gaza 2 April 1988
206. Ahmad Khamis Al-Kurdi 40 years Gaza 2 April 1988
207. Alaa Ahmad Khamis Al-Kurdi 21 years Gaza 2 April 1988
208. Selim Khalaf Selim
Al-Sha'er 23 years Nablus 2 April 1988
209. Arif Jamil Barakat 70 years Jerusalem 1 April 1988
210. Hamid Abdul Mahdi Al-Zeidat 18 years Hebron 4 April 1988
211. Khalil Safyawi 18 years Askar/Nablus 4 April 1988
212. Ma'mun Abdul Rehim 15 years Tulkarem 4 April 1988
213. Ali Diab Abu Ali 40 years Yatta/Hebron 4 April 1988
214. Nasser Kamil 20 days Jenin 4 April 1988
215. Rajab Ahmed 80 years Shata refugee camp/Gaza 4 April 1988 Tear gas
216. Hamza Ibrahim Abu Shehab 20 years Qabatiya 4 April 1988
217. Rajab Ahmad Al-Alibi 75 years Gaza 5 April 1988 Tear gas
218. Mustafa Farukh 27 years Shata refugee camp 4 April 1988
219. Ishak Abu Shaaban 31 years Gaza 4 April 1988
220. Sabiha Rashid Al-Bakoush 55 years Shata refugee camp 9 April 1988
221. Essam Abdel Halim 15 years Nablus 9 April 1988
222. Yussef Rabi' 75 years Ramallah 9 April 1988
223. Fuad Aziz Mohammad Saleh 22 years Jenin 11 April 1988
224. Jalal Mohammad Abu Aris 21 years Jenin 11 April 1988
225. Mohammad Kamel Abdul
Kader Yehia 20 years Jenin 11 April 1988
226. Ibrahim Mahmud Raei Zeid 28 years Kalkiliya 11 April 1988 Died in prison
227. Fatma Faraj Allah 70 years Jabaliya refugee camp 13 April 1988 Tear gas
228. Hassan Mohammad Ka'oud 20 years Shata refugee camp 12 April 1988
229. Soad Ahmad Yussuf 90 years Zeitoun/Gaza 12 April 1988 Beaten to death
230. Wael Hassan Taha Al-Asmar 24 years Nablus 14 April 1988
231. Jamal Al-Jamal 35 years Rafah 16 April 1988
232. Ayman Abu Omar 22 years Khan Yunis 16 April 1988
233. Jamal Hussein Shehada 18 years Bureij refugee camp 16 April 1988
234. Mohammad Amer 21 years Khan Yunis 16 April 1988
235. Tahseen Al-Bouji 17 years Rafah 16 April 1988
236. Atwa Abu Erar 17 years Rafah 16 April 1988
237. Yasser Al-Sherif 13 years Bureij 16 April 1988
238. Bassam Al-Hariri 25 years Jenin 16 April 1988
239. Munir Mohammad Katkut 22 years Jenin 16 April 1988
240. Soada Abdallah Karawi 40 years Jenin 16 April 1988
241. Fikri Ibrahim Al-Daghnin 22 years Abasan/Khan Yunis 16 April 1988
242. Mohammad Abu Hazar 24 years Rafah 16 April 1988
243. Helmi Ibrahim Abdallah 23 years Jenin 16 April 1988
244. Nizar Mohammad Ahmad Ayad 26 years Jenin 20 April 1988
245. Farid Ahmad Abu Deras 25 years Khan Yunis 18 April 1988
246. Aida 'Osman Tutah 26 years Zeitoun/Gaza 18 April 1988
247. Ahmad Mussa Mahmud Za'rab 20 years Rafah 19 April 1988
248. Ismail Abu Al-Sheikh 20 years Kalkiliya 20 April 1988
249. Mohammad Hassan Nassar 24 years Nuseirat refugee camp 20 April 1988
250. Mohsen Kamel 20 years Qabatiya
251. Hala Awad Amiri 20 years Habla 20 April 1988
252. Munir Ismail Al-Tatri 32 years Jabaliya refugee camp 17 April 1988
253. Mohammad Awad Al-Balbesi 20 years Rafah 20 April 1988
254. Zeid Tewfik 14 years Ya'bad/Jenin
255. Iman Omar Abu Kamar child Khan Yunis 20 April 1988
256. Nizar Mohammad Ahmad Nazal Jenin 20 April 1988
257. Mohammad Mussa
Mohammad Hamad 20 years 23 April 1988 Kfar Yona prison
258. Nai'm Yussef Taha 22 years Jenin 1 May 1988
259. Mohammad Fayez Abu Ali 25 years Khan Yunis 21 April 1988
260. Faraj Ismail Yussef
Farajallah 26 years Idna/Hebron 21 April 1988
261. Mohammad Abdu Hassan 90 years Beit Alma/Nablus 3 May 1988
262. Hussein Mohammad Ka'ud 21 years Shata refugee camp 14 April 1988
263. Intisar Mabruk 30 years Shata refugee camp 14 April 1988
264. Wael Hassaan Al-Asmar 24 years Nablus 15 April 1988
265. Nassar Fahmi Ahmad Al-Dawi 22 years Nablus 15 April 1988
266. Mohammad Isam Jamad 28 years Silwad 24 April 1988 Died in Jneid prison
267. Mohammad Samhan Abdul-Kader 64 years Ramallah 29 April 1988
268. Naim Yussef Abu Farha 22 years 1 May 1988
269. Mohammad Mahmud Al-Khatib 41 years Hebron 25 April 1988
270. Mohammad Abdul Hamid
Al-Nasera 18 years Bani Naim/Hebron 3 May 1988
271. Nidal Salem Balut
Al-Nasera 19 years Bani Naim/Hebron 3 May 1988
272. Nidal Abdu Shumar 17 years Nablus 3 May 1988
273. Amina Ahmad Ali 45 years Jenin refugee camp 8 May 1988
274. Ibrahim Mohammad
Hussein Haneya 24 years Dheisheh refugee camp 10 May 1988
275. Abdul Karim Suleiman 21 years Bethlehem 13 May 1988
276. Mahmud Mufleh Abu Zeid 30 years Jenin 14 May 1988
277. Mufleh Zaydan 30 years Jenin 14 May 1988
278. Al Sheikh Ibrahim
Muslim Abu Icha 71 years Hebron 15 May 1988
279. Alaa El-Din Mohammad
Saled 15 years Azmut 16 May 1988
280. Jihad Bassam Al-Absi 17 years Jabaliya refugee camp 16 May 1988
281. Raafat Al-Najar 17 years Jabaliya refugee camp 18 May 1988
282. Majdi Yussef Hilal 16 years Ramallah 19 May 1988
283. Kawsar Khalid
Mohammad Mar'i 23 years Tulkarem refugee camp 21 May 1988
284. Mohammad Saleh Ka'dan 35 years Deir Alghasun 21 May 1988
285. Shams Kadah Deir Alghasun
286. Ahlam Said 11 years Shata refugee camp 6 May 1988
287. Soad Abdul Nabi 11 years Shata refugee camp 6 May 1988
288. Abir Al-Madhun 16 years Shata refugee camp 6 May 1988
289. Arih Ismail Al-Dik 15 years Kafr Al-Dik/Nablus 6 May 1988
290. Dia El Din Al-Khazindar 35 years Gaza 23 May 1988
291. Dina Al-Sewaniri 3 years Gaza 27 May 1988
292. Ayman Rajab Abu Rawaha 14 years Jalzun refugee camp 28 May 1988
293. Amjad Abu Safaka 12 years Tulkarem 1 June 1988
294. Mustafa Ahmad Al-Haleyka 20 years Shuyukh/Hebron 3 June 1988
295. Mohammad Ghanem 26 years Jerusalem 4 June 1988
296. Hamad Selim Al-Haleyka Shuyukh/Hebron 3 June 1988
297. Ezzeldin Al-Attar 14 years Beit Lahiya 6 June 1988
298. Hussein Jomaa Abu Jalala 19 years Jabaliya refugee camp 7 June 1988
299. Emad Hassan Atwari 16 years Qabatiya 9 June 1988
300. Abdallah Khalid Khalaf 22 years Azzariya 8 June 1988
301. Zahed Mohammad Al-Hayek 18 years Jericho 12 June 1988
302. Mohammad Anwar Kharsa 2 years Nablus 9 June 1988
303. Dib Mohammad Hussein 42 years Ramallah 13 June 1988
304. Teysir Hassan Malitat 27 years Nablus 19 June 1988
305. Sayed Khalil Al-Ghaghabli 66 years Shata refugee camp/Gaza 21 June 1988
306. Sultan Abu Khuda 23 years Lod 48 22 June 1988
307. Raed Al-Haj Yussef 17 years Khan Yunis 19 June 1988
308. Maysa Mohammad Hafal 40 days Dheisheh/Bethlehem 12 June 1988
309. Rawhi Mohammad Abdul Hamid 40 years Si'ir/Hebron 14 June 1988
310. Nidal Ibrahim Abu Hussein 21 years Betir/Bethlehem 15 June 1988
311. Nassar Sherif Salama 25 years Nablus 25 June 1988
312. Basem Issa Al-Sabagh 21 years Jenin 13 June 1988
313. Ibrahim Ghassan Arnaki 15 years Ramallah 1 July 1988
314. Nasser Suleiman Dweidar 25 years 20 June 1988 Died in Jericho prison
315. Talaat Khalil Rakut Gaza 22 June 1988
316. Mahmud Diab Al-Ghandur 13 years Gaza/Al-Rimal 4 July 1988
317. Arafat Ahmad Hanifi 18 years Nablus 1 July 1988
318. Tewfik Jaafar Malalha 50 years Qabatiya 1 July 1988
319. Mohammad Khalid Sheblu 26 years Gaza 1 July 1988
320. Nael Yussef Mohammad
Khamasa 17 years Jenin 2 July 1988
321. Zuhdi Mansur Zarika 17 years Nablus 11 July 1988
322. Faek Suleiman Hussein 25 years Jabaliya refugee camp 11 July 1988
323. Abdullah Khalil Abu
Shamekh 51 years Maghazi refugee camp 10 July 1988
324. Hassaan Ahmad Hadassi 17 years Anabta 11 July 1988
325. Faris Anabtawi 17 years Nablus 11 July 1988
326. Fatma Yussef Samuel 26 years Abdin 1 July 1988
327. Amjad Khawaja 17 years Nablus 14 July 1988
328. Samir Al-Sabeh 16 years Nablus 14 July 1988
329. Jamal Jawdat Abdul
Karim Al-Kaduli 29 years Nablus 18 July 1988
330. Edmond Elias Ghanem 17 years Nablus 18 July 1988
331. Jalal Issa Ghanem Beit Sahur 19 July 1988
332. Nidal Fuad Al-Rebadi 17 years Ramallah 19 July 1988
333. Sobhi Ahmad Kassem 22 years Nablus 19 July 1988
334. Saber Faris Shata refugee camp 18 July 1988
335. Salem Mahzul Nablus 18 July 1988
336. Maazuz Abdul Rahman Yamin 22 years Nablus 18 July 1988
337. Mohammad Ahmad Taher Seif Ar'ara 23 July 1988
338. Abdul Fattah Yussef Abdul
Rahman 17 years Jenin 20 July 1988
339. Abdul Kader Kassem
Abu Amer Tubas 9 July 1988
340. Abdul Razik Abu Shami' 54 years Abawin 9 July 1988
341. Abdul Fattah Yussef Alyan 24 years Jenin 29 July 1988
342. Hisham Khalid Abu Zeid 20 years Jenin 20 July 1988
343. Zaki Ali Khalifa 23 years Hebron 21 July 1988
344. Maher Abu Ghazala 23 years Nablus 21 July 1988
345. Hosam Abdul Aziz 18 years Nablus 21 July 1988
346. Fuad Rabdi 16 years Jerusalem 20 July 1988
347. Bassam Al-Orabi 15 years
348. Adnan Khedr 25 years Jabaliya refugee camp 27 July 1988
349. Tha'er Badr 25 days Jabaliya refugee camp 25 July 1988
350. Nasser Hanun Rihana 17 years Jenin 25 July 1988
351. Greiss Yussef Kanfar 25 years Beit Jala 25 July 1988
352. Soheir Afana 15 years Shata refugee camp 27 July 1988
353. Hani Adel Al-Turk 37 years Gaza 28 July 1988
354. Saida Jabr 25 years Jenin 29 July 1988
355. Alaa El Din Al-Aghbar 18 years Nablus 2 Aug. 1988
356. Zaki Ali Al-Haleyka 25 years Hebron 20 July 1988
357. Fuad Orabi 16 years Jenin 20 July 1988
358. Nidal Abdul Karim Buzeya 16 years Nablus 2 Aug. 1988
359. Jalal Ismail Abu Khadija 24 years Ramallah 7 Aug. 1988
360. Mohand Ahmad Seif 17 years Ar'ara 22 July 1988
361. Yasser Hanun Raba'na 25 years Qabatiya 24 July 1988
362. Mohammad Said Khalid
Katana 27 years Nazla Al-Sharkeya 24 July 1988
363. Soheir Fuad Asala 13 years Shata refugee camp 26 July 1988
364. Rabhi Barakat Keyed Beitin 30 July 1988
365. Jamil Ghaleb Abu Yakub 15 years Nablus 6 July 1988
366. Hussein Abdul Rahim
Hassan Suri Kalkiliya 9 Aug. 1988
367. Eyad Mohammad Said
Hammand 14 years Kalkiliya 9 Aug. 1988
368. Abdullah Khalil Abdullah 30 years Khan Yunis 10 Aug. 1988
369. Said Ismail Salah Abed 22 years Rafah 12 Aug. 1988
370. Riad Suleiman Abu Mandil 23 years Maghazi refugee camp 12 Aug. 1988
371. Ahmad Salah Daghaghma 17 years Nablus 12 Aug. 1988
372. Khalid Mohammad Rabeh 12 years Jenin refugee camp 14 Aug. 1988
373. Ata Yussef Ayad 21 years Qalandiya 14 Aug. 1988
374. Jamal Mohammad Mussa Awda 22 years Tulkarem refugee camp 15 Aug. 1988
375. Assaad Jabr Al-Shawa 25 years Gaza 16 Aug. 1988
376. Bassam Ali Al-Samudi 27 years Al-Yamun 16 Aug. 1988
377. Nabil Mustafa Ebdah 29 years Beit Hanina 16 Aug. 1988
378. Mohammad Ghaleb Shukeir 21 years Al-Zawya village 25 Aug. 1988
379. Nael Hammad 18 years Bureij refugee camp 21 Aug. 1988
380. Ahmad Mohammad
Al-Sharnawi 22 years Askar refugee camp 21 Aug. 1988
381. Raja Mohammad Hamdan
Dawafta 17 years Tubas 21 Aug. 1988
382. Maysara Ahmad Matar 25 years Gaza 21 Aug. 1988
383. Hisham Jamil Mekded 23 years Shata refugee camp 14 Aug. 1988
384. Nessim Mohammad Abed 24 years Bureij refugee camp 16 Aug. 1988
385. Rasha Ma'zin Arkawi 12 years Jenin 17 Aug. 1988
386. Sa'ud Hassan Abdullah 22 years Tamun 20 Aug. 1988


ANNEX II
Petition signed by detainees from Ansar 3

Complaint calling for the immediate closure of Ansar 3 (Ketziot)

We, the undersigned, in the name of all Ansar 3 administrative detainees who
are currently serving six months' administrative detention in Ansar 3 (Ketziot)
prison camp, hereby file a complaint to the international relief organizations and
other concerned groups, as stipulated in article 101 of the Fourth Geneva
Convention, regarding the violation of our rights and privileges under the Fourth
Geneva Convention.

1. Israel's administrative detention policy is illegal under the Fourth Geneva
Convention. Article 6, paragraph 3, prohibits administrative detention beyond one
year after the cessation of military operations.

2. It is illegal to detain Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza in the Negev
according to article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949, which states that
it is illegal to transfer the inhabitants of the occupied territories to any place
outside the occupied territory.

3. Contrary to section 4 of the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949, we do not have:

(a) Twenty-four-hour access to water for drinking and washing;

(b) Enough food to keep us in good health, nor are we provided with
facilities to prepare our own food (according to our religious traditions) that we
have received as legitimate gifts from our families;

(c) Civilian clothing; instead we are given army uniforms, which are too
heavy for the hot desert sun;

(d) Visits from our families, which we are supposed to receive at least twice
a month. These visits should be facilitated by the International Committee of the
Red Cross and not conditional on rigid IDF approval, which consists of a security
clearance, proof of payment of all taxes and an unreasonable travelling fee;

(e) Access to all medical facilities and to a Palestinian doctor of our
choice, including one who is detained with us;

(f) A religious minister who is detained with us who has free access to all
prisoners and free access to visit all detainees in military hospitals outside the
camp;

(g) A canteen and money for the canteen that will provide cigarettes, food,
toiletries and other such amenities that will improve the quality of life for us in
the camp;

(h) Families housed together;

(i) Sufficient protection from the sun during the 45-minute prison counts,
which are held under the blazing noon-time sun, which has caused many of us to
faint from the heat and lack of water;

(j) Regular housing; instead we are housed in tents that are not sufficient
to protect us against the desert heat and the cold desert nights;

(k) Permission to send at least four postcards and two letters a month (at
the authorities' expense) to our families and friends;

(l) Postcards sent to our families immediately upon our detention listing our
location, an address at which we can be reached and our state of health;

(m) Sufficient pens, pencils and paper;

(n) Regular cutlery or proper dishes; instead we are forced to eat our food
with our hands using one tray for two persons;

(o) Daily newspapers or access to radios, televisions, books and educational
and recreational materials;

(p) Access to all our possessions (like extra clothing) that are currently in
storehouses in the camp.

4. In addition we demand an end to:

(a) Military punishments like prolonged standing under the sun;

(b) All collective punishments.

We call upon all those concerned with the preservation of the human rights
guaranteed under the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 to support the closure of
Ansar 3 (Ketziot).


28 June 1988
ANNEX III
Map showing Israeli settlements established, planned or under
construction in the territories occupied since 1967.





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