Question of Palestine home
Division for Palestinian Rights (DPR)
26 March 1994
DEVELOPMENTS RELATED TO THE MIDDLE EAST
Issue 1 - January - March 1994
Text of the Jordanian-Palestinian economic agreement,
Amman, 7 January 1994
Text of speech by Crown Prince Hassan at the Conference on Economic and Business Implications of the Arab-Israeli Peace Process, London, 10 January 1994
Opening statements by President al-Assad and President Bill Clinton at a news conference, Geneva, 16 January 1994
Text of agreement on economic and technical cooperation
between Egypt and the PLO, Cairo, 25 January 1994
Text of the Cairo Agreement, 9 February 1994
Excerpts from a speech by King Hussein,
Amman, 13 February 1994
Opening statement at a news conference by the United States Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs, Washington, D.C., 16 February 1994
Text of a statement of the European Union on the Middle East, Brussels, 8 March 1994
Text of a European Parliament resolution on the Middle East
peace process, Strasbourg, 10 March 1994
Text of a joint Israeli-PLO communiqué on Hebron,
Cairo, 31 March 1994
Text of Israeli-PLO agreement on security arrangements in
Hebron and the renewal of negotiations on the Gaza Strip
and Jericho, Cairo, 31 March 1994
New York, April 1994
Since April 1991, at the request of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, the Division for Palestinian Rights of the United Nations Secretariat has prepared, for the use of the Committee, a compilation of statements, declarations, documents and other material pertaining to the various aspects of the Arab-Israeli conflict, the question of Palestine, and the Middle East peace process entitled "Approaches towards the settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the question of Palestine". Beginning with this issue, the bulletin will be renamed "Developments related to the Middle East peace process" and will include information material related to the bilateral Arab-Israeli negotiations, the multilateral negotiations on Middle East regional issues, as well as other aspects of the Middle East peace process.
The present issue covers the period from January to March 1994.
Text of the Jordanian-Palestinian economic agreement
Amman, 7 January 1994
The following is the text of the economic agreement signed by Jordan and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) on 7 January 1994, at Amman.
"As a result of the distinguished relations between the fraternal Jordanian and Palestinian peoples based on cohesion and integration; affirming the importance of cooperation in various fields and the need to provide the suitable atmosphere for the promotion of bilateral relations, especially in the economic and social fields; in view of the fact that building their joint future requires the highest degree of economic, social, scientific, technological, and organizational cooperation on both the official and popular levels, and the highest degree of coordination and participation by the two sides on various levels and in all domains, such as banks, development funds, insurance companies, investment and industrial and agricultural commodity production establishments and services in the field of tourism, health, education, reconstruction, construction work, and infrastructure works such as roads, electricity, water, energy, communications and others; emphasizing the desire of both sides to lay down effective bases and rules to facilitate the transfer of funds, labour, commodities, products, and services, the two sides discussed the draft economic cooperation agreement between the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the PLO and agreed that it constitutes an acceptable framework for cooperation between the two sides. In particular, the two sides agreed on the following:
"1. After reviewing the 3 January 1994 PLO Executive Committee decision to approve the reopening of the branches of the Jordanian banks which were closed after the occupation, and in light of their talks, the two sides agreed to reopen the branches of the Jordanian banks closed in 1967 and agreed that the Central Bank of Jordan will be the side accredited by them to arrange for the reopening of these branches and to monitor and supervise their work in accordance with valid Jordanian laws, regulations, and instructions in cooperation with the competent Palestinian body which will be given reports on the ongoing work of these branches. This agreement will continue to be applicable until the Palestinian currency authority is established.
"2. Establishing a joint technical committee which will meet regularly to cooperate in planning and coordinating financial, currency, and banking policies and maintaining currency stability during the transitional Palestinian period and until a central Palestinian currency authority is established.
"3. The Jordanian dinar will continue to be the legal tender in Palestine until the Palestinian currency is issued. Other Arab and foreign currencies will be used during this transitional period as economic requirements dictate.
"4. Cooperation in studies to establish specialized banks in the various fields of developments and participating in these banks as the committee sees fit.
"5. Establishing a joint company to promote trade exchanges of national industrial and agricultural products between the two countries and to taking the necessary measures to realize the following:
"a. Raising the volume of trade exchanges between the two countries to the highest level possible in accordance with an agreement to be reached later.
"b. Establishing a joint freeze zone in the Jordan Valley for transit trade, industry, and joint investments.
"6. During the transitional period, the two sides will facilitate the movements of the Palestinian trade, transportation, storage, and shipping for re-exporting Palestinian products to the Arab States and the rest of the world.
"7. Reconstructing the Prince 'Abdallah Bridge, and, simultaneously, expanding and developing other bridges to be operated by agreement between the Jordanian and Palestinian sides to facilitate the movement of people, commodities, and vehicles. The building of additional bridges will be considered.
"8. Establishing joint tourist projects in the tourist areas, and cooperation on organizing trips for tourist groups, as well as encouraging, promoting, and publicizing the tourist industries, and considering the possibility of establishing a joint tourist transportation firm.
"9. Working out an agreement to organize the exchange of manpower and the rights of workers to compensation and social security.
"10. Working out a special agreement to encourage and protect joint investments, and extending all necessary facilities to create climates of incentives for the private sector in a way that will enable the establishment of large and medium investment projects, as well as encouraging the Jordanian and Palestinian capitals abroad to participate in these projects.
"11. Encouraging the private sector in both countries to participate in designing and implementing housing and reconstruction projects and infrastructure; namely, electricity, energy, water, and telecommunications, and activating these efforts.
"12. Exchanging experience in the field of agricultural development by continuing the agricultural scientific researches and technical experience, and expanding the establishment of joint scientific research centers.
"13. Encouraging the private sector to establish joint firms in the Jordan Valley's free zone to store, refrigerate, market, and process agricultural products; namely, vegetables, fruit, animal products, and fish.
"14. Coordinating and closely cooperating on enhancing the infrastructure; namely, electricity, energy, water, and telecommunications to realize the common interests through competent organs in both countries to work out the best technical ways to achieve this objective.
"15. Conducting full coordination between the two sides in a way that will achieve their common interest, and calling on the six committees emanating from the Higher Jordanian-Palestinian Joint Committee to meet as soon as possible to hold talks and coordinate the issues of Jerusalem, economic cooperation, water, refugees, security, borders, and legislations. These committees will submit periodic reports to the Higher Jordanian-Palestinian Joint Committee.
"16. Continuing coordination and consultations as part of the peace process in a way that will achieve the common interest of the Jordanian, Palestinian, and other Arab sides while endeavouring to reach a just, lasting, and comprehensive peace that will secure the legitimate national rights of the Palestinian Arab people, including their right to repatriation, to self-determination, and to establishing an independent State on their national soil, with holy Jerusalem as its capital.
"Signed in Amman on Friday, 7 January 1994
"[signed] for the PLO
"[signed] for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,
"Foreign Minister of Palestine and
Acting Chairman of the Board of Governors
"[title as published]
"Dr. Said al-Tall
"Deputy Prime Minister
Text of speech by Crown Prince Hassan at the Conference on Economic
and Business Implications of the Arab-Israeli Peace Process
London, 10 January 1994
On 10 January 1994, in London, at the Conference on Economic and Business Implications of the Arab-Israeli Peace Process, Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan delivered the following speech:
"Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:
"It is an honour to deliver the keynote address to the Middle East Economic Digest (MEED) conference on the economics of peace in the Middle East. With so many distinguished thinkers on this subject gathered together today, I feel that we cannot but make significant progress in the understanding of this complex area. I would like to set the tone by presenting an approach that could help achieve a viable framework for the areas to be discussed in the three other sessions today: the future of the Palestinian economy, the reconstruction challenge and financing the peace.
"As all those involved with MEED are aware, the entire region has been shattered by decades of conflict. While the Middle East is potentially self-sustaining in every respect, the Arab-Israeli conflict has left the economies of the region insular in orientation and stunted in development. Crippled by debt and the demands of massive military expenditure, not one of the countries of the region - including Israel - could at present claim to be self-supporting in any meaningful way. Only peace can redeem this state of affairs.
"The Middle East peace process has weathered changes of administration in Israel and the United States; it has survived political and military crises, and its negotiations have come through periods of difficulty to provide fresh hope. If the process is currently encountering a number of technical obstacles, it has also demonstrated unprecedented resilience. Jordan believes that this opportunity to resolve the conflict cannot be missed. The no-war, no-peace status that holds us in its thrall has benefited none of the parties. The accumulation of weapons in the region, particularly since the second [Persian] Gulf war, means that the consequences of a future war are unthinkable. Peace is therefore the only viable path, and we in Jordan are pledged to do all in our power to pursue that path.
"The mutual recognition of the PLO and Israel last autumn was a significant breakthrough in Arab-Israeli relations. The Conference to Support Middle East Peace, held in Washington last October provided guarantees of support and assistance from the international community to the Palestinians, to help translate the promise of peace into tangible reality. The Jordanian-Israeli common agenda was likewise a bold step on the road to peace. However, the substance of peace is infinitely more complex than its rhetoric.
"Peace-making has entered a new phase which requires an extensive investment in detail and technicalities. Sound-bite diplomacy is no substitute for substantive negotiation. Jordan is engaged in serious and substantive discussions with its neighbours, with the aim of delineating areas of future cooperation in all spheres.
"We have just agreed with the Palestinians a cooperation agreement at the official bilateral level, at the private sector level, and at the Arab and international levels. We will explore the details of such fields as money and banking, trade, human resources development, tourism, investment promotion, taxation, health, agriculture, infrastructure: not the stuff of headlines, but the stuff of which true peace is made.
"For despite the 1988 severance of administrative links, the geographic, historic and demographic ties between Jordan and Palestine endure.
"Such factors lie behind our decision to reopen branches of Jordanian banks in the occupied territories and to encourage the Jordanian private sector to invest in the West Bank and Gaza: for these are designed to help the nascent Palestinian economy in its development.
"On the Jordanian-Israeli track, the Jordanian-Israeli-American economic committee will provide a valuable forum to address all aspects of human resource development, trade, finance, economic and monetary policy between Jordan and Israel. We now look forward to discussing other substantive issues such as water, boundaries and refugees, on the basis of international law.
"It is possible that in the long term, an arrangement similar to that which exists between Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg would give all parties the psychological and material sense of security that is vital to sustainable peace. Jordan's primary role in a Benelux-type arrangement would be to provide stability: a role for which it is well-qualified, having traditionally served as an island of moderation in an otherwise volatile region. In addition, Jordan's historic position at the crossroads of East and West, stretching back to antiquity, equips it well to be a window for the world on a new Middle East, one finally at peace.
"However, the disparities and distortions created by the conflict must be eliminated if such arrangements are to enjoy lasting success. Peace must be forged between partners, and the relationship that exists between Israel and the occupied territories is not one of partnership, but of hegemony. The Israeli occupation has destroyed the economies of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, preventing the development and expansion of Palestinian enterprise, and prohibiting free trade within the area. A recent World Bank study shows that in a "normal" situation, Israel would account for a fifth of the occupied territories' exports and a third of their imports; instead, 85 per cent of their trade is with Israel. Whatever the nature of the Palestinian entity agreed upon for the occupied territories, it would not serve the interests of any party for it to be subject to a single set of incentives.
"Even under conditions of peace, the disparity between the Israeli economy and those of the other core parties to the conflict would demand appropriate measures to fashion a balanced relationship in graduated manner. The examples of Spain and Portugal within the EU bear consideration in this regard. This is particularly vital as the Israeli economy has many restrictive features and is heavily subsidized. Given a negotiated peace, the complete removal of these features on both sides would be possible; but at the moment, when Israeli limits on our export to the occupied territories closely resemble boycott provisions, talk of lifting the Arab embargo is premature.
"A GATT-EU approach could be the best way to deal with the economic legacies of the conflict. Indeed, Jordan has decided to apply for membership of GATT; for we believe that in seeking to involve a health trade and investment regime, the experience of other countries - such as the Zone Franche arrangements between Geneva and France - will be invaluable. The European Commission recently approved a communication on "Future Relations and Cooperation Between the Community and the Middle East", illustrating the importance of experience in other parts of the world. The communication stresses the need for a common regional vision as a basis for cooperation in the Middle East. It states:
"Partnership requires balanced economic development. If cooperation is to succeed it is essential to reduce excessive disparities in income levels between potential partners in the region". It adds that:
"Cooperation should go in two directions: the pooling of common capacities and the tackling of common problems ... implying, at some stage, freedom of movement for goods, services, capital and labour".
"If one thing is clear at this point, it is that peace cannot be piecemeal. All the peoples of the region have suffered through the conflict; and just as all have their part to play in its rebuilding and renewal, so must its fruits be distributed equitably.
"For it should never be forgotten that peace is ultimately not in the hands of governments, but of individuals; and unless peace can be made attractive to the man on the street, the best efforts of negotiators will come to nought.
"Jordan, nearest to the core of the conflict, has shouldered an enormous human load. We have given shelter to three waves of displaced Palestinians. These refugees - about 1.7 million individuals - account today for one-third of Jordan's population. The demographic strain on my country is vast; and the conflict has also had consequences in terms of debt. We are grateful for President Clinton's public commitment on the part of the United States to debt relief for Jordan, as our $7 billion debt overhang is a real obstacle to the progressive policies which we wish to adopt. We seek to attract foreign investment, to upgrade infrastructure and to participate fully in regional projects. Jordan is committed to the peace process, to democratization and economic liberation, to human rights, sustainable development and regional cooperation. But if we are to promote these policies effectively, exceptional efforts will be needed in respect of our debt burden.
"Ladies and Gentlemen:
"International investment in development projects that serve the region and its peoples is vital. It is equally important that such projects be founded upon sound concepts, and that they receive the support of international financial institutions, governments and multinational cooperations alike. A basketing approach, covering human cooperation, resource cooperation and security, must be evolved. Peace requires an enduring structure that can tackle the 'over-arching' problems of economies of the region: disparities created by conflict, over-extended public sectors, addiction to aid on the one hand and oil revenues on the other. An economic framework is needed to deal with such problems. This must in turn be backed up by wide-ranging security and cooperation arrangements at the regional level, involving all players. The multilateral component of the peace process provides a possible framework for this enterprise.
"Given such arrangements, the reconstruction of the Middle East could proceed apace. In terms of economic development, a free-trade zone across the Middle East would be the ultimate goal. Arrangements for a Middle East Free Trade Agreement - a MEFTA along the lines of NAFTA - would allow the region to play a more creative role in the world economy. In aspiring to this goal, it will be necessary to consider the freedom of movement of all factors of production: labour, goods, capital and services. In this context, a dialogue on the rights of migrant labour emerges as a vital prerequisite; for the existence of surplus labour in the north, and capital in the south, immediately suggests a viable regional trade regime.
"Such a development would provide an impetus for a new relationship of hope in the Middle East. Many other instruments would back this up. First and foremost, there needs to be a commitment to arms control from the purchasers and suppliers of weaponry. Secondly, regional bodies and charters will help ensure equity in resource-related areas such as energy and water; while incentives for local sustainable development programmes can support policies that guarantee a future for all.
inally, a regional debt sinking fund, and a bank for Middle East reconstruction and development, will promote stable and open financial practices, improving the chances for the region to play a dynamic part in the world economy.
"For many of the problems of the Middle East stem from the fact that the climate of conflict has forced the diversion of funds away from long-term development and into the military. Generations have grown up in a region which has prioritized military security above health or education. In a Middle
East established by a negotiated peace, and upheld by structures of collective security and cooperation, these funds could at last be channelled into building the social and economic foundations of peace, which are the surest foundations of all.
"In all these areas, the experience and assistance of the international community of nations, and the international business community, will be indispensable to the Middle East. I am sure that conferences of this sort will help to deepen international understanding of the tasks at hand. I would like to thank the organizers for all their efforts; and I would like to thank you all for your attention."
Opening statements by President al-Assad and President Bill Clinton
at a news conference, Geneva, 16 January 1994
On 16 January 1994, at Geneva, President Hafez al-Assad of the Syrian Arab Republic and the United States President Bill Clinton made the following opening statements at their joint news conference:
"Syria seeks a just and comprehensive peace with Israel as a strategic choice that secures Arab rights, ends the Israeli occupation and enables our peoples in the region to live in peace, security and dignity. In honour we fought, in honour we negotiate, and in honour we shall make peace. We want an honourable peace for our people and for the hundreds of thousands who paid their lives in defence of their countries and their rights.
"There is hardly a home in Syria in which there is no martyr who fell in defence of his country, nation and of Arab rights. For the sake of all those, for their sons, daughters and families, we want the peace of the brave - a genuine peace which can survive and last - a peace which secures the interests of each side and renders all their rights."
"During our meeting, I told President Assad that I was personally committed to the objective of a comprehensive and secure peace that would produce genuine reconciliation among the peoples of the Middle East. I told him of my view that the agreement between Israel and the PLO constituted an important first step by establishing an agreed basis for resolving the Palestinian problem. I also told him that I believe Syria is the key to the achievement of an enduring and comprehensive peace that finally will put an end to the conflict between Israel and her Arab neighbours.
"President Assad, as you have just heard, shares this objective - not just an end to war, but the establishment of real and comprehensive peace with Israel that will ensure normal, peaceful relations among good neighbours. Crucial decisions will have to be made by Syria and Israel if this common objective is to be achieved. That is why President Assad has called for a "peace of the brave". And it is why I join him now in endorsing that appeal.
"Accordingly we pledge today to work together in order to bring the negotiations that started in Madrid over two years ago to a prompt and successful conclusion. Critical issues remain to be resolved, especially the questions relating to withdrawals, to peace and security - excuse me, the question of relating withdrawal to peace and security. But, as a result of our conversation today, I am confident that we laid the foundations for real progress in the negotiations between heads of delegations that will begin again next week in Washington.
"President Assad and I also discussed the state of relations between the United States and Syria and agreed on the desirability of improving them."
Text of agreement on economic and technical cooperation between Egypt and the PLO
Cairo, 25 January 1994
On 25 January 1994, at Cairo, the Foreign Minister of Egypt Amre Moussa and the Head of the Political Department of the PLO Farouk Kaddoumi signed an agreement on economic and technical cooperation between Egypt and the PLO. The following is the text of the document:
"AGREEMENT ON ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION
BETWEEN THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT AND
THE PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION
"The Arab Republic of Egypt and the Palestine Liberation Organization, affirming their joint perception of the need to establish a lasting, comprehensive and just peace in the Middle East region,
"Mindful of the impact of recent regional and international developments and of that fact that the requirements and challenges they impose confirm the need for enhanced cooperation between them in all fields,
"Proceeding from the deep-rooted and historical relations between the Egyptian and Palestinian peoples in the political, economic, social and cultural fields,
"Believing in the importance of the further development and consolidation of relations between them so as to advance the interests of their peoples and promote the strengthening of inter-Arab relations; and bearing in mind the contribution that can be made by economic coordination and cooperation to the attainment of their peoples' hopes of a better future through economic and social development,
"Have agreed as follows:
"1. To develop economic cooperation between the two Parties in all fields, including those of trade, industry, agriculture, investment, tourism, services, technical cooperation, health and education, in order to promote their common interests and mutual advantage;
"2. To promote and encourage cooperation between the Egyptian and Palestinian private sectors in all fields by such measures as the establishment of joint ventures;
"3. To promote cooperation and coordination in the establishment of infrastructure projects in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, particularly those having a regional dimension such as electric power stations, roads and communications, water desalinization and telecommunications;
"4. To grant to Egyptian companies, institutions and products, in accordance with the principles of reciprocity, the advantages and preferential treatment accorded by the Palestinian side to any other party;
"5. To achieve cooperation and coordination between the national institutions of the two Parties in promoting and exchanging information on development plans, programmes and projects in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in order to make optimum use of the expertise and capabilities available to each of them;
"6. To cooperate in exploring the possibility of establishing a free zone at Rafah for such purposes as trade, industry and investment.
"7. The Parties shall endeavour to encourage trade in their national products, subject to the settlement of transactions in freely convertible currency within the framework of the Parties' rules and regulations in force. Whenever they are accompanied by a certificate of origin issued by a competent and accredited official body, national commodities traded under this Agreement shall be regarded as being of national origin. Industrial products shall be regarded as being of national origin only where the local production cost - including the cost of the raw materials used in manufacture and of labour - is not less than 40 per cent of the total production cost.
"(a) Each Party shall endeavour to grant, on a reciprocal basis, preferential terms for the national products of the other Party in conformity with the Parties' rules and regulations in force;
"(b) Each Party shall endeavour to participate in the international and regional exhibitions and fairs held by the other and to provide the assistance necessary for that purpose;
"(c) Within the framework of its rules and regulations in force, each Party shall endeavour to facilitate the passage of goods in transit through its territory for purposes of re-exportation;
"(d) The Parties shall endeavour to encourage cooperation and the exchange of visits between businessmen and chambers of commerce and industry and other similar institutions;
"(e) The Parties shall set up a Joint Commission for Trade, as a subsidiary body of the Joint Commission for Economic and Technical Cooperation (referred to in paragraph 15 below). It shall be presided over by the Minister of the Economy and External Trade of either of the Parties, or his equivalent or deputy, who shall monitor the satisfactory observance and implementation of the commercial obligations entered into under this Agreement. The Joint Commission for Trade shall make recommendations and proposals with regard to this Agreement, and it shall meet, annually or at the request of one of the Parties, on a rotation basis.
"8. The Parties shall encourage and protect and shall endeavour to promote and develop investment and the movement of capital between them.
"9. In order to encourage mutual trade and investment, the establishment of branches of Egyptian financial institutions and banks in the West Bank and Gaza Strip shall be facilitated, and the same facilities shall be granted to the Palestinian side.
"10. There shall be an exchange of information between the two Parties on monetary, banking and taxation matters.
"11. There shall be cooperation in the field of tourism, and the setting up of joint tourism projects shall be encouraged.
"12. The parties shall ensure cooperation and coordination between themselves in the framework of the multilateral peace negotiations and of the committees stemming from the Washington Conference to Support Middle East Peace, with a view to advancing their own interests and those of the nation.
"13. Each side shall constantly hold prior consultations with the other, especially on projects of regional scope or on any arrangements on which agreement may be reached with third parties and which may affect the interests of the other Party to this Agreement.
"14. There shall be cooperation in such other fields as health, education, human development and technical cooperation.
"VIII. 15. The Parties have agreed to set up a Joint Commission for Economic and Technical Cooperation to be presided over by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of either of the Parties, or his equivalent or by his deputy, in order to agree on frameworks and mechanisms for cooperation in the relevant fields and to monitor the implementation of this Agreement.
"16. This Agreement shall remain in force for a period of five years and shall be automatically renewable. Either Party may denounce the Agreement by notifying the other of its wish to do so, and the Agreement shall be abrogated six months from the date of such notification, subject to agreement being reached on the settlement of the existing obligations of each Party within a period of six months or such other period as may be agreed by the Parties.
"Signed at Cairo on Tuesday, 25 January 1994.
"For the Government of the
Arab Republic of Egypt:
"For the Palestine Liberation
"Minister for Foreign Affairs
"Minister for Foreign Affairs of Palestine
"Acting Chairman of the Board
Text of the Cairo Agreement
9 February 1994
On 9 February 1994, at Cairo, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the PLO Yasser Arafat signed an agreement on security arrangements related to passages and border crossings in the Jericho area and in the Gaza Strip. The following is the text of the document:
"THE CAIRO AGREEMENT
"The two sides agreed on the attached text to be included in the Gaza-Jericho agreement.
"The Jericho Area
"1. The size of the Jericho area will be as depicted on the agreed map attached to this agreement.
"2. In addition, while not part of the Jericho area:
"a. Pending the entry into force of the interim agreement, the holy site of al-Nabi Moussa will be under the auspices of the Palestinian authority for religious purposes.
"b. During religious events that take place three times a year and other special occasions that will be coordinated with the Israeli authorities, Palestinians will have the right to religious pilgrimage to the al-Maghtis under the Palestinian flag.
"c. Palestinian private projects, as well as joint ventures in accordance with the "Declaration of Principles" [DOP], will be located as agreed on the shore of the Dead Sea.
"d. Safe passage will be provided from the Jericho area to al-Nabi Moussa, al-Maghtis and the projects and ventures as agreed in paragraph c. above on the shore of the Dead Sea for the above mentioned purposes. Details regarding the safe passage arrangements will be included in the Gaza-Jericho agreement.
"3. Roads within Jericho city will be under Palestinian control. Joint patrols on the main roads will be operated, led by the Palestinian vehicle. The issue of al-Awja and its roads will be negotiated in the immediate future in Taba.
"4. Religious affairs in the "Shalom Al Israel" Synagogue in Jericho will be under the auspices of the Israeli authorities.
"The Gaza Strip
"1. In accordance with the DOP, during the interim period the Gush Katif and Erez settlement areas, as well as the other settlements in the Gaza Strip, and the Israeli military installation area along the Egyptian border in the Gaza Strip, as indicated on the attached map, will be under Israeli authority. In the areas delineated in yellow on the attached map and without derogating from Palestinian authority, responsibility will be shared as follows: the Israeli authorities will have the overriding responsibility and powers for security and the Palestinian authority will have the responsibility and powers for civil affairs, subject to the Gaza-Jericho agreement. In addition, with regard to those areas delineated in yellow, cooperation and coordination in security matters, including joint patrols, as agreed, will be implemented. Possible changes in the area designated yellow in the southern Security Zone will be dealt with in Taba.
"2. Without derogating from Palestinian authority and in accordance with the DOP:
"a. On the three lateral roads connecting the Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip to Israel, namely: the Kissufim-Gush Katif road; the Sufa-Gush Katif road; and the Nahal Oz-Karni-Nezzarim road, including the adjacent sides upon which the security of traffic along these roads is dependent, the Israeli authorities will have all necessary responsibilities and powers in order to conduct independent security activity, including Israeli patrols.
"b. Joint Israeli-Palestinian patrols will operate along these roads and the adjacent sides. Such joint patrols will be led by the Israeli vehicle.
"c. Where the Israeli authorities carry out engagement steps, they will do so with a view to transferring, at the earliest opportunity, the continued handling of the incidents falling within Palestinian responsibility to the Palestinian police.
"d. Overpasses will be constructed on intersections between the lateral roads and the main north-south road.
"e. These arrangements will be reviewed by the JSCCC [Joint Security Coordination and Cooperation Committee] after one year from the date of completion of the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Gaza Strip.
"3. Zoning questions will be dealt with in Taba.
"The early empowerment agreement will be negotiated in Taba, after the completion of the Gaza-Jericho agreement. The interim agreement, including modalities for elections and redeployment of forces in the West Bank, will be negotiated in Washington, D.C.
"a. While Israel remains responsible during the interim period for external security, including along the Egyptian border and the Jordanian line, border crossing shall take place according to the arrangements included in this Article. These arrangements aim at creating a mechanism that facilitates the entry and exit of people and goods, reflecting the new reality created by the Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles, while providing full security for both sides.
"b. The arrangements included in this Article shall apply to the following border crossing:
"(1). the Allenby Bridge crossing, and
"(2). the Rafah crossing.
"c. The same arrangements will be applied by the parties, with the necessary adjustments to agreed seaports, airports or other international crossings such as the Abdullah and Damya bridges.
"d. The two sides are determined to do their utmost to maintain the dignity of persons passing through the border crossings. To this end the mechanism created will rely heavily on brief and modern procedures.
"e. In each border crossing there will be one terminal, consisting of two wings. The first wing will serve Palestinian residents of the Gaza Strip and West Bank and visitors to these areas (hereinafter "the Palestinian wing"). The second wing will serve the Israelis and others (hereinafter "the Israeli wing"). There will be a closed Israeli checking area and a closed Palestinian checking area, as set out below.
"f. Special arrangements will apply to VIPs crossing through the Palestinian wing. The liaison bureau to be established pursuant to paragraph 5 below (hereinafter "the Liaison Bureau") will define the scope and the nature of these special arrangements.
"2. Control and Management of the Passages
"a. For the purpose of this Article "passage" is defined to mean the area from the crossing barrier at the Egyptian border or the Allenby Bridge, passing through and including the terminal and:
"(1). with regard to the Allenby Bridge crossing, from the terminal up to the Jericho area, and
"(2). with regard to the Rafah crossing, from the terminal up to the outer limit of the Israel military location along the Egyptian border.
"b. (1). Israel will have the responsibility for security throughout the passage, including for the terminal.
"(2). An Israeli Director-General will have the responsibility for the management and security of the terminal.
"(3). The Director-General will have two deputies who will report to him:
"(a). an Israeli deputy who will be the manager of the Israeli wing. Israel will have exclusive responsibility for the management of the Israeli wing, and
"(b). a Palestinian deputy, appointed by the Palestinian authority, who will be the manager of the Palestinian wing.
"(4). Each deputy will have an assistant for security and an assistant for administration. The assignments of the Palestinian deputies for security and administration will be agreed up on by the two sides in Taba.
"(5). There will be maximum coordination between the two sides. Both sides will maintain cooperation and coordination on matters of mutual concern.
"(6). The Director-General will continue to use Palestinian contractors to provide bus services and other administrative and logistical services.
"(7). Palestinian policemen present at the terminal will be armed with handguns. Their deployment will be decided upon in Taba. Other Palestinian officials present at the terminal will be unarmed.
"(8). The details of management and security and Liaison Bureau issues will be dealt with in Taba.
"(9). The two sides will work together in Taba in order to seek ways for additional arrangements in the Rafah terminal.
"(10).Both parties will review these procedures in a year's time.
"c. Except for the arrangements included in this Article the current procedures and arrangements applicable outside the terminal shall continue to apply throughout the passage.
"d. (1). Once incoming passengers have crossed the terminal they will proceed to the Jericho area or Gaza Strip, as appropriate, without any interference from Israeli authorities.
"(2). Outgoing passengers may proceed to the terminal without any interference from Israeli authorities after joint verification that such passengers hold the necessary documents for exiting the area to Jordan or Egypt, as set out in this Agreement.
"3. Arrangements for Entry from Egypt and Jordan Through the Palestinian Wing
"a. At the entrance to the Palestinian wing there will be a Palestinian policeman and a raised Palestinian flag.
"b. Before entering the Palestinian wing, passengers will identify their personal luggage and it will be placed on a conveyor belt. Each side will be able to inspect such luggage inside its own checking area using its own personnel and, if necessary, may open the luggage for inspection in the presence of the owner and a Palestinian policeman.
"c. Persons entering the Palestinian wing will pass through a magnetic gate. An Israeli policeman and a Palestinian policeman will be posted on each side of this gate. In the event of suspicion, each side will be entitled to require a physical inspection to be conducted in inspection booths to be located adjacent to the gate. Passengers will be inspected by a Palestinian policeman in the presence of an Israeli policeman. Accompanying personal belongings may also be inspected at this point.
"d. Having completed the above phase, the person entering the Palestinian wing will pass through one of three lanes for the purpose of identification and document control, as follows:
"(1). The first lane will be used by Palestinian residents of the Gaza Strip and Jericho area, these passengers will pass via a Palestinian counter, where their documents and identity will be checked. Their documents will be checked by an Israeli officer who will also check their identity indirectly in an invisible manner.
"(2). The second lane will serve other Palestinian residents of the West Bank. These passengers will first pass via a Palestinian counter, where their documents and identity will be checked. They will continue via an Israeli counter, where their documents and identity will be checked. The two counters will be separated by tinted glass and a revolving door.
"(3). The third lane will serve visitors to the Gaza Strip and West Bank. An identical procedure as in paragraph 3.d.(2) above will apply to such visitors, except that they will first pass via the Israel counter and then continue via the Palestinian counter.
"e. In the event of suspicion regarding a passenger in any of the three lanes described in paragraph d. above each side may question such passenger in its closed checking area. Suspicion justifying questioning in the closed checking area may be one of the following:
"(1). the passenger was involved, directly or indirectly, in criminal or planned criminal activity, in terrorist or planned terrorist activity and is not a beneficiary of the amnesty provisions of this agreement.
"(2). the passenger conceals arms, explosives or related equipment.
"(3). the passenger holds forged or non-valid documentation or the details included in the documentation are inconsistent with those included in the population registry (in case of residence) or in the data base (in case of a visitor), except that questions relating to such inconsistency will initially be raised at the counter and the passenger will be questioned in the closed checking area only if the suspicion has not been removed, or
"(4). the passenger acts in an obviously suspicious behaviour during the passage via the terminal.
"If, at the conclusion of this questioning, the suspicion has not been removed, such passenger may be apprehended, after the other side has been notified. In case of a Palestinian suspect being apprehended by the Israeli side, a Palestinian policeman will be asked to meet with the suspect. Following notification to the liaison bureau, any further treatment of the apprehended person will be in accordance with Annex III (Protocol Concerning Legal Arrangements in Criminal Matters).
"f. In the Palestinian wing, each side will have the authority to deny the entry of persons who are not residents of the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
"For the purpose of this Agreement, "residents of the Gaza Strip and West Bank" shall mean persons who, on the date of entry into force of this Agreement, are registered as residents of these areas in the population registry maintained by the military government of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, as well as persons who have subsequently obtained permanent residency in these areas with the approval of Israel, as set out in this Agreement.
"g. Following the above procedure, the passengers will collect their luggage and proceed to the customs area. (The procedures will be agreed upon in Paris).
"h. The Palestinian side will provide passengers whose entry is approved with an entry permit stamped by the Palestinian side and attached to their documents.
"At the conclusion of the direct and indirect checking of passengers passing via the first lane and stamping their entry permits, the Palestinian officer will provide the passenger with a white card issued by the Israeli officer. A Palestinian official posted at the exit of the Palestinian wing will verify that the passenger holds such a white card and will collect the cards with indirectly an invisible Israeli checking.
"For passengers going through the second and the third lanes, the Israeli officer will provide the passengers with a blue card, after checking their documents and identity, and verifying their entry permits. An Israeli and a Palestinian official posted at the exit of the Palestinian wing will verify and collect the cards. White and blue cards collected will be checked by Israeli and Palestinian officials.
"In cases where either side denies the entry of a non-resident passenger, that passenger will be escorted out of the terminal and sent back to Jordan or Egypt, as appropriate, after notifying the other side.
"4. Arrangements for Exit to Egypt and Jordan Through the Palestinian Wing
"Passengers existing to Egypt or Jordan through the Palestine wing will enter the terminal without their luggage. Thereafter, the same procedures described in paragraph 3 above will apply to them, except that the order of passing via the Israeli and Palestinian counters will be reversed.
"For passengers going through the second and third lanes, the Israeli officer will provide the passengers with a blue card, after checking their documents and identify, and verifying their entry permits. An Israeli and a Palestinian official posted a the exit of the Palestinian wing will verify and collect the cards. White and blue cards collected will be checked by Israeli and Palestinian officials.
"In cases where either side denies the entry of a non-resident passenger, that passenger will be escorted out of the terminal and sent back to Jordan or Egypt, as appropriate, after notifying the other side.
"5. Liaison Bureau
"a. There will be a liaison bureau at each crossing point in order to deal with matters arising regarding passengers passing through the Palestinian Wing, issues requiring coordination, and differences regarding the implementation of these arrangements. Without derogating from Israel's responsibility for security, the bureau will also deal with incidents.
"b. This bureau will be comprised of an equal number of representatives from each side and will be located at a specified location inside each terminal.
"c. This bureau will be subordinate to the CAC [Civil Affairs Committee] and to the relevant RCCO [Regional Coordination and Cooperation Officer].
"a. Special arrangements will be agreed upon by the two sides regarding the passage of goods, buses, trucks and privately owned vehicles. Pending this agreement, the current arrangements will continue to apply.
"b. Israel will attempt to complete the structural alteration on the Rafah and Allenby Bridge terminals not later than the date of the completion of the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
"If these structural alterations are not completed by that time, the arrangements described in this Article shall apply, except for those arrangements that cannot be implemented without the structural alterations.
"c. In order to cross through the crossing points in and out of the Gaza Strip and Jericho area, residents of these areas will use documents as detailed in (the Annex developed by the Civilian Committee). Pending the entry into force of the interim agreement, other West Bank residents will continue to use the existing documents issued by the military government and its Civil Administration.
"d. Visitors to the Gaza Strip and Jericho area will be permitted to remain in these areas for a period of up to three months granted by the Palestinian authority and approved by Israel. The Palestinian authority may extend this three-month period for an additional period of up to three months and will inform Israel about the extension. Any further extensions require the approval of Israel. The Palestinian request for a four-month period and an additional four months will be negotiated in Taba in the immediate future.
"e. The Palestinian authority will ensure that visitors referred to in paragraph d. above will not overstay the duration of their entry permit and authorize extensions."
Excerpts from a speech by King Hussein
Amman, 13 February 1994
On 13 February 1994, at Amman, speaking before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, King Hussein stated the following
regarding the Jordanian position with respect to the Arab-Israeli peace process:
"We must look after the interests of the individual and his rights, as well as paying attention to the environment and whatever falls within the realm of our responsibility toward the coming generations. In a larger context, we decided, following a national convention here, to take the road of peace, beginning in Madrid, along with our brothers in the Arab world, particularly the Palestinians. In 1974, the Rabat summit decided that our Palestinian brothers should take charge of their own affairs in compliance with their own and the Arab nation's wishes at that time. Some of you here now took part in that meeting. Our position is clear. As of 1974, we promoted an implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution 242 [(1967)], which we co-authored in tough circumstances, and which was the best possible arrangement we could get at that time. Thereafter, our Palestinian brothers took responsibility for themselves. They have our full support.
"Things then evolved in a way favouring a settlement compatible with a world trend. We began in Madrid. The Jordanian umbrella was a vehicle for our Palestinian brothers to run their affairs, insofar as their rights on their national soil are concerned. We agreed to take part in various conferences including the multilateral talks, because we wanted the world to be involved in drawing the outlines of peace. Things developed in rapid succession until we came to the point where we could furl the umbrella and relegate it to the closet of history, so our Palestinian brothers might exercise their right to speak for themselves. Then, there was last September's Washington session and the agreement, followed by our signing of the agenda that addressed issues bearing on us here in Jordan, without prejudicing our brothers' rights on matters previously handled by us. I am speaking about resolution 242 [(1967)] and the Arab territories conquered in 1967. The responsibility for these was switched to our Palestinian brothers, who can count on our full support as they pursue their rights.
"There have been many proposals and attempts to get Jordan to sign a peace treaty with Israel before details are worked out. Our response was an outright rejection.
"We stand with a just and comprehensive peace, although we are now leading with our issues in this country, as well as its rights concerning occupied territories in the south and in the north. Jordanian sovereignty over them should be regained. Regarding water, which is also a topic on the agenda, a formula should be worked out in which we can know our country's share and the shares of other parties concerned. The question of human beings as well as other topics should also be discussed. We believe peace is a goal. It is our duty to seek to reach it.
"However, there will never be peace unless all these issues are resolved in a satisfactory and comfortable way. Peace comes at the end and not at the beginning. Then, all the elements that should be available to achieve peace should be discussed. We believe anyone who thinks of signing a peace treaty and then begins discussing details cannot reach peace, but will surrender. People will then try to improve their conditions and circumstances. We regret such a situation. We will never accept such a view or concept.
"Meetings and negotiations on the agenda are continuing in an attempt to deal with all the aspects and issues pertaining to us, through continued dialogue in Washington and other parts of the world. We believe the other tracks will also move. They are actually moving, particularly the Syrian-Israeli track and the Lebanese-Israeli track, in addition to the Palestinian side which is working continuously.
"We tried, and we will continue to try, to reach the required level to face the challenge and to face up to our responsibilities toward the present and the future, particularly toward our Palestinian brethren. There should be coordination, not only in terms of titles, but also details, in every area in order to extend our support and talk with one voice and in one logic to serve the goals we seek.
"The picture is improving, but I cannot say that we are 100 per cent satisfied with all the aspects that should be dealt with. There is a serious intention to achieve this. Therefore, we will march on this path. We will insist on total coordination on issues of mutual interest until a situation arises in which everyone in this country can choose either membership in this one family to which we belong, or repatriation, or compensation. We are one family. We should adhere to all that has united us in the past. This is a duty at this critical stage, which expresses the fact that we are one family regardless of any consideration.
"We are coordinating with our brothers in fraternal Syria. Regarding Lebanon, I also believe there is progress in the right direction. I believe there will be progress on the Syrian-Israeli track. Israel will have to recognize Syria's sovereignty over its occupied territories and over all of Golan.
"On the other hand, it has been said Israel has no claims on any inch of Lebanese territory. Israel's only demand is to guarantee its security which, I believe, can be provided.
"We, here, have many issues and matters that should be discussed and agreed upon before reaching the phase in which we will be reassured that all matters have been tackled.
"I believe that between now and the end of the year - perhaps by the beginning of next year - we might find that progress has been achieved on all tracks to reach the objective that is sought.
"What is this objective, as I, as well as my brothers, see it? The objective is to move from the current situation to a completely different one. The objective is that the coming generation will not live as we lived, that is, a life in which they will not be reassured about what will come in the future. We lived from one day to another. The objective is to see people living in an atmosphere that provides them with opportunities to advance in their life and to enjoy stability, democracy, participation in decision-making, and peace, that we hope will be just and honourable and accepted by the coming generations. The objective is to see that all opportunities will be available to all to achieve their aspirations and objectives, to live a free and honourable life, to remain steadfast on their land, and to exercise their rights in this life.
"We want to leave for the coming generations opportunities of which we were deprived. We believe our people have enough potential, if they are given opportunities to advance and to exercise their rights in normal circumstances. What makes us very satisfied is that our country and our people are not in danger and that this position - which we have safeguarded from the beginning as a genuine Arab - is not subject to any possibilities like those we have been confronting throughout our life.
"Our homeland is the homeland of the free people and its people's heads are high in the sky. Our people bow only to almighty God. We do not bargain over principle. We are not lenient vis-à-vis our rights. We seek to fully restore rights to their owners on their national soil and to carry our duties the best way we can for the sake of the coming generations.
"As regards Jerusalem and our holy places, we cannot forget them for one moment. We have no choice but to continue shouldering our full responsibilities in the terms of looking after them on behalf of our Islamic nation.
"As regards Gaza and Jericho, if the issue is the beginning of the implementation of Security Council resolution 242 [(1967)], the time will come when Jerusalem will be the Palestinian-Israeli meeting place. However, as regards our holy places - toward which we have shouldered our responsibilities and which belong to all Muslims throughout the world, in the past, in the present, and in the future - we found we had to propose and to endeavour to choose, from within our Islamic group, a good group of people who would represent all Islamic sects. This group of people, God willing, will not be politicized. In other words, they will not be affiliated with any school or be supportive of any one country's policy. We will support them with all our potential, because these holy places belong to all the Islamic world.
"What we have accomplished is an honour, whether in terms of rescuing these holy places in the first place or in seeking to preserve them despite all that has happened and all that we faced.
"We encourage dialogue among religions and demand that in terms of sovereignty the Holy Places be under the sovereignty of God Almighty and His worshippers under future circumstances. We hope that this will happen, so the only recognized sovereignty over these Holy Places will be that of God. We will seek to gain God's satisfaction. We will continue to fear him. The positive results of this will not be confined just to this part of the world, but will have effects on mankind throughout the world.
"Thanks be to God, during this month we will celebrate the completion of the project we have followed from the beginning, namely, the restoration of the Holy Dome of the Rock. We will continue to support our brethren to the best of our abilities in terms of their needs and desires.
"In my opinion, Palestine can either lean on this solid wall here [Jordan] or else lean in the other direction in the upcoming critical stage. Palestine represents our kinsfolk, our people, hopes, and aspirations. We are willing to carry out our duty. We never hesitated to do so at any time. We hope God will grant us success in cooperating with our brethren to support them in any way that can lead to well-being and success, God willing."
Opening statement at a news conference by the United States Deputy
Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs
Washington, D.C., 16 February 1994
On 16 February 1994, at Washington, D.C.., in a statement entitled "The direction of Middle East peace multilateral negotiations", The United States Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs Mr. Daniel C. Kurtzer described the status of the multilateral negotiations on Middle East regional issues. Speaking at a State Department briefing, he said,
"It is a rare moment when those of us involved in the peace process can step from behind the closed doors and share with you a little of the excitement that we enjoy behind those doors. But since the multilateral process is embarking on a new phase, which will be to the immediate benefit of people in the region, we thought it would be useful to share with you a little more perspective on the content and direction of the multilateral negotiations.
"By way of background, you will recall that in the run-up to the Madrid Peace Conference in 1991, we envisaged two sets of negotiations - the bilateral negotiations involving Israel, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinians and Jordan, that would be directed at the core issues of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Those issues related to [Security Council] resolution 242 [(1967)], territory, peace and security. And there was a complementary set of negotiations intended to address issues that had not been discussed by the regional parties for over four decades, and to which the regional parties, we felt, needed to address themselves in order to begin correcting some problems that have beset this region for much too long.
"At the earliest phases of the multilateral process, which was launched in fact in early 1992 in Moscow, there was a great deal of getting to know one another. There were seminars that were conducted. There was a process of mutual familiarization. It was also a process of educating the parties as to the depth and scope of the problems they had agreed to address.
"What buoyed us in this earliest phase was the fact that even as the bilateral negotiations went through their ups and downs - as they were bound to do - 11, 12, sometimes 13 Arab parties joined together with Israel and a number of extra-regional parties in trying to address problems in five discrete areas - areas related to regional economic developments, refugees, arms control and regional security, environment and water. The multilateral process is, of course, amenable to the inclusion of additional issues, but it was these issues on which the parties embarked in an effort to try to fix some of these problems.
"After this period of familiarization, the sharing of ideas and some education, during the last year we've seen an increasing pace and scope of activity in the process in which the regional parties, themselves, have begun to insist that more concreteness be included in the discussions, and more visible activity be undertaken to address specific problems, and begin to be seen by the people in the region as meeting their concerns.
"We saw this quite directly in the last round of working group meetings that were held in October and November 1993, when several of the working groups actually formulated and began implementing concrete projects: a rainwater catchment project in Gaza; a mutual declaration on arms control and regional security; and environmental issues, waste water treatment, and desertification. In other words, each of the groups began to focus in on one or two specific projects that could be seen by people in the region, and show them that there could potentially be fruits of peace that would come at a time when the core issues of the conflict were also being addressed.
"To reflect this increased urgency which was adduced by us from the parties in the region, the multilateral steering group decided to hold an extraordinary session last week in Ottawa. I headed the US delegation. That group decided on three issues which are designed to give even more impetus to this process.
"First, at the urging of the regional parties in the multilateral steering group, the steering group will now take a much more active role in trying to increase the pace and scope of the working groups - in other words, to bring even more concreteness to the activities that the five working groups have engaged in thus far.
"Second, we have a very useful discussion on relations among people in the region. This was stimulated by a discussion we started in Tokyo which asked the question: "Is this region going to be ready for peace when peace breaks out?" Since there is a great deal of optimism - again, notwithstanding the ups and downs of the bilateral talks - but since there is a great deal of optimism that there will be agreements signed between Israel and the Arabs, and that these agreements will be implemented over the course of the next several years, has the region really begun to grapple with some of the issues that will perhaps retard economic development if they are not addressed even now. So the multilateral steering group decided to try to formulate some guidelines that, perhaps, the working groups could begin working on in order to bring about an environment that would be conducive to the implementation of agreements as they are reached in the bilaterals.
"Third, the steering group has given urgency to the formulation of a set of regional developmental priorities, much akin to what was undertaken about 1 1/2 years ago with regard specifically to the West Bank and Gaza.
"As you recall, a study was commissioned on the development priorities for the territories which proved to be very useful immediately after September 13, when an international effort was mobilized to bring about support for the Palestinian-Israeli agreement. We have decided to do the same thing now on a region-wide basis in order to stimulate economic development and, again, more concrete projects on the part of the working groups.
"So I wanted to convey to you, in these few opening remarks, a sense of movement on the part of the multilateral process. I also don't want to convey to you a sense of over-optimism about the prospects for the multilateral process outstripping the pace of the bilaterals. After all, the bilateral negotiations remain at the core of resolving the Arab-Israeli dispute. All the parties in the Middle East - Israel and the Arabs - insist that the core issues of this conflict be addressed before a more normal relationship develops among them. But as that relationship develops as a result of successes in the bilaterals, I think the multilaterals have now begun to move further and faster to begin addressing some of these concrete problems and again, to create an environment in which implementation of agreements will make much more sense."
Text of a statement of the European Union on the Middle East
Brussels, 8 March 1994
The following statement on the Middle East was issued by the European Union on 8 March 1994, at Brussels:
"Whereas the recent tragic events in Hebron, which the European Union has already condemned, should not interrupt the peace process in the Middle East, the Council of the European Union:
"1. Encourages the resumption of the peace process negotiations between all parties and appeals to the Security Council to adopt an appropriate resolution swiftly;
"2. While welcoming the measures recently adopted by the Government of Israel to ensure the safety of Palestinians, notes that Israel is responsible for the safety and protection of all inhabitants in the occupied territories;
"3. Appeals to the parties to discuss the question of the safety of Palestinians, including the issue of certain settlements, and to agree on appropriate measures;
"4. Supports the establishment, by the Security Council, in the occupied territories of an international presence in which the European Union declares its willingness to participate."
Text of a European Parliament resolution on the Middle East peace process
Strasbourg, 10 March 1994
Meeting at Strasbourg, on 10 March 1994, the European Parliament adopted the following resolution on the Middle East peace process:
The European Parliament,
"having regard to its previous resolutions on the peace process in the Middle East,
"A. deeply shocked by the massacre perpetrated in the City of the Patriarchs in Hebron on Friday, 25 February 1994,
"B. profoundly alarmed at the impact this tragedy may have on the peace process and the fact that it may exacerbate tension in the occupied territories,
"C. alarmed also by the outbreaks of fanaticism which ensued on both sides and by the repressive measures taken by the Israeli armed forces which have claimed more lives and left scores of people wounded,
"D. noting the regret expressed by Prime Minister Rabin and the highly responsible attitude displayed by Mr. Arafat, and welcoming the large 'Peace now - Shalow achshaw' demonstration held in Tel Aviv,
"E. recalling that the Declaration of Principles refers to a temporary international or foreign presence to be agreed between Israel and the PLO in the Gaza/Jericho Agreement,
"F. insisting that the establishment of peace between Israel and her neighbours on the basis of security for Israel and of justice for the Palestinians is in everybody's interest,
"G. welcoming the efforts of President Clinton to ensure the resumption of negotiations between Israel and the PLO,
"1. Expresses its heartfelt solidarity with the families of the victims and with the injured;
"2. Emphasizes the need to achieve peace and a lasting and equitable solution to the Middle East conflict as rapidly as possible through the prompt application of the Declaration of Principles concluded between the PLO and Israel on 13 September 1993;
"3. Reaffirms its wholehearted support of the current peace process and its wish to contribute in any way possible to its successful conclusion, in particular by promoting regional cooperation and strengthening its relations with the peoples of the region;
"4. Reiterates its unequivocal condemnation of all forms of extremism, and calls for the most stringent measures to be taken against all those who jeopardize the peace negotiations by their acts of violence;
"5. Welcomes the measures taken by the Israeli Government to prevent similar acts of terrorism but recognizes that further steps will have to be taken if the confidence of the Palestinians in the value of negotiations with Israel is to be restored, and therefore calls upon the Israeli authorities to deal firmly with any provocative action by armed settlers;
"6. Reaffirms its belief that all the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention concerning the obligations of an occupying power should be fully respected in all the territories which came under Israeli administration in 1967;
"7. Calls on the Israeli Government to take measures to dismantle certain Israeli settlements in the occupied territories which are not covered by the Declaration of Principles, a step which may contribute to reducing tension locally, although this cannot be a substitute for an overall solution to the settlements problem;
"8. Calls for the question of Jewish settlements and an international presence in the occupied territories to be placed on the agenda for the negotiations;
"9. Considers that, in the interests of both parties, international monitoring measures should be taken to ensure security and respect for human rights in all the occupied territories, and calls on the Council and the Commission to offer their good offices to further the wider negotiating process;
"10. Calls for the peace negotiations to be resumed immediately and for all possible measures to be taken to achieve that objective and therefore calls on the Jordanian, Lebanese and Syrian governments to resume negotiations with Israel;
"11. Instructs its Delegation for relations with the PLO to visit the occupied territories without delay;
"12. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the United Nations Secretary-General and the participants in the peace negotiations."
Text of a joint Israeli-PLO communiqué on Hebron
Cairo, 31 March 1994
The following is the text of a joint Israeli-PLO communiqué regarding an agreement on security arrangements in Hebron and the renewal of negotiations on the Gaza Strip and Jericho, issued on 31 March 1994, at Cairo:
"On 31 March 1994, the Israeli and Palestinian delegations reached an agreement on security arrangements for Hebron and on the immediate resumption of the Gaza and Jericho area negotiations.
"The two sides have agreed on a set of measures which include,
, a temporary international presence in Hebron to assist in promoting stability and restoring normal life in the city and on modalities for resuming negotiations on Gaza and Jericho. The two sides have also agreed on a gradual movement of Palestinian policemen into Gaza and the Jericho area, starting next week.
"The two delegations have also set out an agreed agenda in order to accelerate their negotiations and the implementation with the objective of making up for lost time. Israel agreed to shorten the withdrawal schedule and accelerate the withdrawal, being guided by the target dates set in the DOP ["Declaration of Principles"].
"The two sides have expressed their strong resolve to pursue their negotiations in order to reach agreement as soon as possible.
"The Israeli and Palestinian delegations express their gratitude to President Mubarak, his Government and the Egyptian people for the assistance and hospitality they bestowed.
"Finally, the Israeli and Palestinian delegations express their hope that the measures taken will ensure success in their efforts to reach a real peace and coexistence."
Text of Israeli-PLO agreement on security arrangements in Hebron
and the renewal of negotiations on the Gaza Strip and Jericho
Cairo, 31 March 1994
On 31 March 1994, at Cairo, Israel and the PLO signed the following agreement on security arrangements in Hebron and the resumption of negotiations regarding the Gaza Strip and Jericho:
"March 31, 1994
"In the aftermath of the horrendous massacre in Hebron, and in response to the heightened needs of the Palestinians for security throughout the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and particularly in Hebron and in accordance with Security Council resolution 904 [(1994)], delegations of Israel and the PLO met and agreed to take the measures set out in this Agreement.
"As soon as this Agreement is signed, its implementation will begin and the Gaza-Jericho negotiations will be resumed, as set out below.
"A. Temporary International Presence in the City of Hebron
"1. In response to the unique situation created in Hebron in the aftermath of the massacre, a Temporary International Presence will be established in the city of Hebron (TIPH). As detailed in paragraph A.3 below, the TIPH will assist in promoting stability and in monitoring and reporting the efforts to restore normal life in the city of Hebron, thus creating a feeling of security among Palestinians in the city of Hebron.
"2. The two sides shall request the donor countries to provide 160 persons, citizens of Norway, Denmark and Italy, as TIPH personnel, consisting of field observers, office staff and support personnel, as agreed between the two sides. Changes in the composition of the TIPH may be made from among the donor countries with the consent of both sides. Consistent with its stated tasks, the TIPH personnel shall have no military or police functions.
"3. The tasks of TIPH personnel will be:
"a. to provide by their presence a feeling of security to the Palestinians of Hebron;
"b. to help promote stability and an appropriate environment conducive to the enhancement of the well-being of the Palestinians of Hebron and their economic development;
"c. to monitor the efforts to restore the safety of Palestinians and events affecting it and the return to normal life in the city of Hebron; and
"d. to provide reports as set out in paragraph A.5 below.
"4. In order to facilitate the carrying out of TIPH tasks, a building will be chosen in the city of Hebron as a seat for the TIPH.
"5. The TIPH will report to the following:
"a. on specific events - to a Joint Hebron Committee (JHC), comprised of two representatives from each side. The senior Palestinian representative will be the Mayor of Hebron and the senior Israeli representative will be the Head of the Civil Administration in the District of Hebron. A representative of the TIPH will be invited on a bi-weekly basis to participate in the JHC meeting in order to report on the TIPH activities.
"b. periodically - to the Joint Israeli-Palestinian Liaison Committee established pursuant to the DOP.
"In addition, the TIPH will provide periodic reports to the Chair of the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee of the Donors.
"6. The members of the TIPH shall wear distinctive uniforms with a special emblem, as agreed by the two sides, and their vehicles shall be marked with the same emblem. TIPH members may carry pistols for self-defence purposes.
"7. The TIPH will enjoy freedom of movement for the performance of its tasks within the city of Hebron. Such freedom of movement shall not be restricted, except for reasons of imperative military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure.
"8. The TIPH will establish the modalities of its presence and activity with the agreement of the two sides, with due regard being given to its aforementioned tasks.
"9. The expenses of the TIPH will be borne by the donor countries.
"10. The TIPH may commence its operation immediately after the signing of this Agreement and continue to function for a period of three months. With the consent of the two sides the TIPH may extend the period or change the scope of its operation, as agreed.
"B. The Gaza-Jericho Negotiations
"1. The Gaza-Jericho negotiations shall be resumed in Cairo on Thursday, 31 March 1994. These negotiations shall be accelerated with the objective of making up for lost time.
"2. Israel agrees to shorten the withdrawal schedule and accelerate the withdrawal, being guided by the target dates set in the DOP.
"3. Immediately after the conclusion of the Gaza-Jericho Agreement, early empowerment negotiations will commence, and the two sides will explore possible expansion of the scope of these negotiations beyond the five spheres.
"4. The two sides will intensify the negotiations on the interim arrangements consistent with the DOP and guided by its target date.
"5. The two sides reiterate their commitment to commence permanent status negotiations as soon as possible, but not later than the beginning of the third year of the interim period, as provided for in Article V of the DOP.
"6. Gradual movement into Gaza and Jericho of Palestinian policemen will start one week after the resumption of the Gaza-Jericho negotiations, in order to commence preparations for assuming powers and responsibilities, as agreed by the two sides.
"Major-General Amnon Lipkin-Shahak
Dr. Nabeel Shaath"
* * *
1. Foreign Broadcast Information Service,
Daily Report: Near East & South Asia
, No. FBIS-NES-94-006, 10 January 1994, pp. 38-39.
., No. FBIS-NES-94-009, 13 January 1994, pp. 25-27.
The New York Times
, 17 January 1994.
4. As per text provided on 14 February 1994 by the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt to the United Nations (translated from Arabic); also see
(in Arabic), 26 January 1994.
5. Foreign Broadcast Information Service,
Daily Report: Near East & South Asia
, No. FBIS-NES-94-030, 14 February 1994, pp. 1-4.
., pp. 48-50.
United States Department of State Dispatch
, February 28, 1994, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 111-112.
8. See letter dated 10 March 1994 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General (A/48/903-S/1994/292), Annex, p. 2.
9. As per text provided on 8 April 1994 by the Delegation of the European Commission to the United Nations.
dispatch from Cairo dated 31 March 1994; see also
dispatches of the same date.
11. As per text provided on 11 April 1994 by the Office of Public Affairs of the Embassy of Israel to the United States.