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7 June 1990
GENERAL ASSEMBLY SECURITY COUNCIL
Forty-fifth session Forty-fifth year
Item 35 of the preliminary list
THE SITUATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Letter dated 6 June 1990 from the Permanent Representative of
Iraq to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General
On instructions from my Government, I have the honour to transmit to you herewith the text of the Final Statement of the Emergency Arab Summit Conference held at Baghdad from 28 to 30 May 1990.
I should be grateful if you would have this letter and its annex circulated as a document of the General Assembly, under item 35 of the preliminary list, and of the Security Council.
) Abdul Amir A. AL-ANBARI
Final Statement adopted at the Emergency Arab Summit Conference
held at Baghdad from 28 to 30 May 1990
At the kind invitation of His Excellency Mr. Saddam Hussein, President of the Republic of Iraq, Their Majesties, Their Excellencies and Their Highnesses the Kings, Presidents and Amirs of the Arab States held an extraordinary Summit Conference at Baghdad from 4 to 6 Dhu'lqa'dah A.H. 1410, corresponding to 28 to 30 May A.D. 1990.
The major rubric of the Conference
As its major topic, the Conference discussed the threats being made against pan-Arab national security and the adoption of the necessary measures to counter them.
Welcome for the establishment of the Republic of Yemen
At the commencement of its work, the Conference welcomed the establishment of the fraternal Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990. It expressed its full support and backing for the Republic of Yemen and conveyed its sincere congratulations to the great Yemeni people and to its dedicated national leadership. The Conference views this unification as an embodiment of the principles of magnanimity, high-mindedness, sincerity and brotherliness, as an indication of the capacity and unlimited potential of the Arabs to overcome difficulties and obstacles and as a magnificent example that will stimulate the Arab nation to pursue the achievement of its legitimate aspirations for complete unity, progress, cultural advancement and the assertion of its liberal humanitarian mission.
Changes at the international level, and the unified Arab position
In the framework of an objective, comprehensive and thorough analysis aimed at the formulation of a joint Arab position thereon, the Conference conducted an evaluation of the current inter-Arab situation, the changes taking place in the international arena and the threats posed to pan-Arab national security. It considered their present and future impact on the Arab nation and on the rights of the people of Palestine and higher Arab interests in particular.
While welcoming moves towards international detente, co-operation among peoples, a halt to the arms race, the banishment of the spectre of devastating wars and the establishment of international peace and security on the foundation of a common balance of interests, mutual respect, sovereignty and independence, the Conference is fully conscious that these changes, with all their positive and negative consequences, make it more than ever essential for the Arab nation to rely on its own capacities in coping with direct threats to its national security and in dealing with a reshaped international environment in which the Arab nation must maintain a status appropriate to its long history and its cultural endowment.
The valiant Palestinian intifadah
With great pride, the Conference saluted the endurance of the Palestinian Arab people under brutal Israeli occupation, the escalation of the valiant Palestinian
in confronting savage repression on the part of the Israeli authorities and the precious sacrifices made daily by the people of Palestine for the purpose of liberating its occupied homeland and establishing an independent State on its national soil and with its capital at Jerusalem under the leadership of its sole legitimate representative, the Palestine Liberation Organization.
The Conference stressed the need for all forms of material, political, governmental and popular support to be made available and for the strengthening of supporting activities at the national, regional and international levels in order to ensure the continuation and expansion of the
and the achievement of its lofty goal of liberation, independence and sovereignty.
Jewish immigration to Palestine and the other occupied Arab territories
The Conference addressed itself to the grave dangers arising out of directed and organized Jewish immigration to Palestine and the other occupied Arab territories: its implicit violation of the rights of the Palestinian people in its territory and its homeland; the consequences that Zionism is planning for it to have with the goal of expelling that people from its national territory; and the perpetuation and expansion of Israeli occupation through stepped-up Israeli settlement activities and the expulsion of Palestinian citizens and the confiscation of their property and land for the absorption of Jewish immigrants with a view to realizing the so-called "Greater Israel" plan. That plan is confirmed by statements made by Israeli officials and by the new maps that they have proposed for the achievement of their well-known expansionist ambitions.
The Conference is fully convinced that the immigration of Soviet and other Jews to Palestine and the other occupied Arab territories is a fresh act of aggression against the rights of the Palestinian people, a grave danger to the Arab nation and a blatant violation of human rights, the principles of international law and the fourth Geneva Convention of 1949.
Jewish immigration as a danger to national security
The Conference affirms that this extensive and organized undertaking represents a grave threat to pan-Arab national security, that it demands to be addressed in that perspective and in a collective manner and that it requires that all necessary measures should be taken to protect the rights of the Palestinian people and pan-Arab national security.
Condemnation of Jewish immigration, and illegality of settlements
The Conference, strongly condemning the immigration of Jews to Palestine and the other occupied Arab territories, calls upon the States directly involved in that immigration in particular and on the international community in general to take action for a speedy end to the Israeli immigration and settlement scheme. It calls for a guarantee of the national rights of the Palestinian people, including its right to return to its homeland in accordance with United Nations General Assembly resolution 194 (III) of 1948. It affirms the illegality of the establishment of Israeli settlements and the need for a halt to their construction, the dismantling of those that have been built and the creation of an international mechanism to monitor Israeli activities in this field.
The Conference further calls upon all States to refrain from providing any assistance or loans to the Israeli Government that might facilitate the settlement of immigrants in Palestine and the other occupied Arab territories.
Call for the formation of an international observer mission
The Conference stresses the need for a reappraisal of Arab relations with other States in the light of their positions on the issues of Palestinian national rights and Jewish immigration. The Conference calls upon the United Nations to meet its responsibilities, in accordance with the Charter, General Assembly and Security Council resolutions and the relevant international conventions, to ensure that Jewish immigrants are not settled in the Palestinian and other occupied Arab territories, including Jerusalem, and it calls for the formation of an international observer mission to ascertain that fact and for action to be taken for the adoption of a Security Council resolution to that effect.
Political efforts for the achievement of a just and comprehensive peace in the region
The Conference analysed the present conjuncture in the inter-Arab arena, and it reviewed the political efforts being made for the achievement of a just and comprehensive peace in the region. It expressed its conviction that escalating tension, which threatens to lead to an eruption, has its origin in the continuing Israeli occupation of Palestine and other Arab territories, the continuing denial to the Palestinian Arab people of its inalienable national rights and the continuing policies of aggression, intimidation and expansion pursued by the Israeli authorities. The Conference regards the United States of America as having prime responsibility for this situation, as the State which provides Israel with the military capacity, the financial assistance and the political cloak without
which it would be unable to persist in such policies in defiance of the will of the international community.
The International Conference, the Palestinian peace initiative, and the resolutions
of the Arab Summits
In its commitment to the Palestinian peace initiative and the resolutions adopted by the Arab Summits, in particular those held at Algiers in 1988 and Casablanca in 1989, the Conference affirms that the convening of the International Conference under the auspices of the United Nations and with the participation of all the parties to the conflict, including the Palestine Liberation Organization, on an equal footing, is now taking on an urgent and imperative character. The Conference affirms the commitment of the Arab States to the belief that the question of Palestine represents the core of the Arab-Zionist conflict and that a just and lasting solution to the human tragedy of the Palestinian people and crisis in the region lies in ensuring the exercise of the inalienable national rights of that people, including the right to return, to exercise self-determination and to establish an independent Palestinian State with its capital at Jerusalem.
Acclamation of the endurance of the Lebanese and Palestinian masses in southern Lebanon
The Conference further acclaimed the endurance of the Palestinian masses alongside their Lebanese brothers in southern Lebanon and their participation in repulsing Israeli land, sea and air attacks against villages and Palestinian camps in the South.
Development of Arab relations with the States of Eastern Europe
Given the ongoing changes in the countries of Eastern Europe, the Conference recommended the reappraisal of Arab relations with those States in the light of the positions adopted by them on the question of Palestine and on the basis of mutual interests.
Expression of satisfaction at the outcome of the Euro-Arab Ministerial Meeting
The Conference expressed its satisfaction at the outcome of the Euro-Arab Ministerial Meeting held at the end of 1989. Member States decided to make an active contribution to the development of the Euro-Arab dialogue and to endeavour to promote it in order to strengthen relations of co-operation and friendship between the two groupings.
Growth of international support for the cause of Palestine
The Conference notes with satisfaction and appreciation that international support for the just cause of the people of Palestine is growing and that an increasing number of States have recognized the State of Palestine.
Condemnation of the positions adopted by the United States Congress
The Conference expresses its censure and condemnation of the positions of partiality and political protectionism adopted by the United States Congress and the large-scale military and economic support for Israel that characterizes its positions and resolutions, most recently the nugatory resolutions on Jerusalem and on support and funding for Jewish immigration, which encourage settlement in the occupied territories.
Jerusalem: capital of the State of Palestine
The Conference affirms the religious and political status of Jerusalem and considers it to be an integral part of Palestine and the capital of the State. It rejects any encroachment on its religious and legal status as a flagrant violation of international conventions and resolutions.
The Conference endorses the decision of the Al-Quds Committee of the Organization of the Islamic Conference to hold an Islamic-Christian conference on the protection of Islamic and Christian Holy Places.
Condemnation of the United States Congress resolution on Jerusalem
In this connection, the Conference condemns the resolutions adopted by the United States Senate and House of Representatives. The Conference asserted in that regard that the Arab States would take political and economic measures against any State that considered Jerusalem to be the capital of Israel.
International protection for the Palestinian people
In the face of the persistence of the Israeli authorities in their heinous crimes against Palestinians, the Conference demands protection for the Palestinian people, under international supervision and United Nations auspices, against deliberately planned extermination and expulsion, as a preparatory step to the exercise of its right to self-determination and national independence.
The unified Arab position
The Conference is fully confident that rights can be safeguarded, the land protected and the Holy Places defended only through unanimity, the closing of ranks, unity of purpose, the strengthening of Arab solidarity, the settlement of inter-Arab differences, constant struggle by all possible means, the mobilization of all Arab capacities in the service of issues affecting the national destiny and energetic and effective action on all fronts and in all regional and international arenas.
On this occasion, the Conference records its deep gratitude to all States, organizations, bodies and personalities that have supported the national rights of the Palestinian people and the Arab nation, and it calls upon them for increased material and moral support for the promotion of justice and peace in the world and an end to Israel's arrogance and its inhuman practices.
Opposition to United States attempts to have the resolution equating zionism with
The Conference strongly opposed the United States attempts to have General Assembly resolution 3379 (XXX) rescinded, namely the resolution determining that zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination. It called for intensified efforts to thwart those attempts.
Threats and hostile campaigns against Iraq
The Conference accorded great attention to the threats, hostile and biased political and media campaigns and scientific and technical boycott measures to which Iraq is being subjected as well as to the dangers that they pose to the sovereignty of a State member of the League of Arab States and their impact on pan-Arab national security.
Active Arab solidarity with Iraq
The Conference, affirming its commitment to the Pact of the League of Arab States and to the Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty between the States of the Arab League, strongly condemns those threats and hostile campaigns and measures, affirms its active solidarity with fraternal Iraq and cautions against the continuation of campaigns which have the aim of impinging on its sovereignty and encroaching on its national security with a view to preparing and facilitating aggression against it.
Iraq's right to ensure and protect its national security
The Conference affirms Iraq's right to take all necessary measures to ensure and protect its national security and to provide itself with the prerequisites for development, including the possession of advanced scientific and technological equipment and its utilization for internationally lawful purposes.
The Conference further affirms the right of Iraq and of all Arab States to legitimate self-defence in response to aggression by whatever means they deem appropriate in order to ensure their security and sovereignty.
Solidarity with Jordan in strengthening its resolute stand
Fully aware of the organic link between national security and pan-Arab national security, and in appreciation of the steadfast and constant stance of Jordan on the longest lines of confrontation with the enemy, the Conference condemns Israel's settlement policy and its expansionist schemes, including the plan to settle new Jewish immigrants in the occupied Arab territories, which represent a direct threat to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and are thus a menace to the Arab nation and constitute aggression against it.
Support for Jordan
The Conference affirms its full commitment to the defence and protection of the national security of Jordan as an integral part of the national security of the Arab nation. Support for Jordan, solidarity with it and provision of the assistance required if it is to maintain its steadfastness are a national duty, given that it is a forward base of the Arab nation that protects its borders, defends its existence and helps to ward off the dangers threatening it. The Conference decided that support should be provided to Jordan through bilateral consultations so as to enable it to consolidate its steadfast position and strengthen its capacities in all fields, thereby providing a basic prop for the Palestinian cause, support to the blessed Palestinian
and assistance to the Palestinian people in its steadfast adherence to its occupied land.
Condemnation of the United States threats against Libya
The Conference condemned United States threats to use force against the great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and denounced the extension by the United States Administration of the economic blockade against it. It calls for the blockade to be lifted. The Conference affirmed the right of the great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to acquire modern technology for the achievement of development and progress. In its commitment to the Pact of the League of Arab States and the Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty between the States of the Arab League, and in an endeavour to strengthen the foundations of international peace and security, the Conference renewed its solidarity with the great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in coping with the economic blockade and the United States threats.
Solidarity with the Sudan and Somalia
With a view to strengthening security and stability in the Horn of Africa, the Conference affirmed its active and fraternal solidarity with the Sudan and Somalia against any threat to the national integrity of their territories or peoples.
Acclaim for the independence of Namibia
The Conference, acclaiming the independence of Namibia and the release of the African leader Nelson Mandela, and commending the struggle of the African peoples against apartheid and for freedom and progress, affirms the convergence of the Afro-Arab struggle and the closeness of Afro-Arab co-operation. It cautions against the danger for the security of Arabs and Africans alike of the wide-ranging co-operation between the racist régimes in Tel Aviv and Pretoria, particularly in the nuclear weapons field.
The Conference called for action to stimulate Afro-Arab co-operation by means of close collaboration between the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States and the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity, in consultation with the specialized organizations and institutions of LAS and OAU, in the implementation of the projects already approved by the Standing Committee on Afro-Arab Co-operation.
Developments in the situation between Iraq and Iran
The Conference reviewed developments in the situation between Iraq and Iran and the continued suffering and concern of the prisoners of war and their families despite the cessation of active hostilities on the entry into force of the cease-fire on 20 August 1988. The Conference noted with great satisfaction the peace initiatives taken by Iraq, most recently the peace message addressed by Mr. Saddam Hussein, President of the Republic of Iraq, to the Iranian leadership.
Resolution 598 (1987) as a comprehensive peace plan, and ensuring the rights of
Iraq and its sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab
The Conference, reaffirming its resolution 182 adopted at Casablanca, calls for continued efforts for the achievement of a comprehensive and lasting peace between Iraq and Iran on the basis of Security Council resolution 598 (1987), as a comprehensive peace plan, and of the agreement of 8 August 1988. This should be done by means of direct negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations so as to guarantee the rights of Iraq and its sovereignty over its territory, particularly its historic right to sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab, non-intervention in its internal affairs, the security of the Arabian Gulf and the freedom of shipping in international waters.
Release of prisoners of war
The Conference called for stepped-up efforts to be made at the various levels for the release of prisoners of war on both sides and their immediate repatriation, in implementation of the provisions of Security Council resolution 598 (1987) and the third Geneva Convention of 1949, as an issue of an independent legal and humanitarian character. It calls upon the United Nations, upon all international, regional, governmental and non-governmental organizations and bodies and upon the High Contracting Parties to the third Geneva Convention to meet their responsibilities and to take all the political and other measures in their power for the speedy release of the Iraqi and Iranian prisoners of war.
The Lebanese crisis
The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahd Bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia, on behalf of his colleagues, His Majesty King Hassan II of Morocco and His Excellency Mr. Chadi Bendjedid, President of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, addressed a letter to the Arab leaders transmitting the report prepared by the High-level Arab Tripartite Committee. The report contained an evaluation by the three leaders of the current situation in Lebanon and their recommendations on the steps to be taken to promote the implementation of the Taif Agreement and strengthen Lebanese legitimacy. In that light, the Conference discussed the various dimensions of the Lebanese crisis and their repercussions on Lebanon and on the Arab nation as a whole. It further reviewed the steps and measures that had been taken in Lebanon since the signing of the Charter of National Reconciliation following the meetings held by the Lebanese deputies at Taif under the auspices of the Tripartite Committee. Accordingly, the Conference expressed its deep pain at the bloody events taking place in Lebanon and its concern at the suffering of the Lebanese people. It affirmed that fighting was not a solution to the Lebanese crisis and could only further complicate and prolong it, would have an adverse impact on the integrity of the State, its people and its institutions, and would impede the process of recovery, reconciliation and peace. The Arab Summit was anxious for that process to continue so that it could bring an end to the tragedy and restore security, stability and prosperity to the country. It also expressed its deep grief that there were obstacles to the peace and reconciliation process begun by the adoption of the Charter of National Reconciliation, and it stressed its continued support for the legitimate Lebanese authorities and its unconditional readiness to do all in its power to bring an end to the Lebanese tragedy.
The Conference further condemned the repeated acts of aggression carried out by Israel against Lebanese territory and expressed its great admiration for the endurance of citizens in occupied southern Lebanon who valiantly continued to resist Israeli occupation and repeated Zionist acts of aggression against their land. In this context, the Conference called upon the international community to take action for the implementation of the Security Council resolutions calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanese territory, in particular resolution 425 (1978).
The Conference also affirmed that the Taif Agreement was the appropriate framework for safeguarding the interests of all Lebanese without exception and that it represented the way in which Lebanon could be extricated from continued violence and security and peace achieved.
In that connection, the Conference requested the Tripartite Committee to endeavour to follow up the implementation of the Taif Agreement. It affirmed its continued support for the efforts of the Committee and its readiness to do all that the peace process in Lebanon might require so that that fraternal country could regain its unity and independence and so that the authority and sovereignty of the Lebanese State could be extended over all Lebanese territory.
The Conference further decided to call for the establishment of an international fund to assist Lebanon and enable it to revive its institutions, operate its public services, rebuild its infrastructure and help it in its efforts to reconstruct and reinvigorate its economic structures. It called upon the international community to participate actively in that fund.
The scientific and cultural challenge
The Conference recognizes that the greatest challenge facing the Arab nation in the last decade of the twentieth century is the scientific and cultural challenge of securing a stake in the future and making an active contribution once again to the enrichment of human civilization on a basis of international understanding founded on tolerance, friendship and peaceful co-operation.
The right of the Arab nation to use science and technology freely
Given the inalienable right of peoples to full development and to the utilization of the achievements of science and technology in the service of mankind, the Conference affirms the inalienable right of the Arab nation to development and to the utilization of science and technology for the benefit of Arab citizens and all mankind.
Lifting of the scientific and technical embargo on the Arab nation
The Conference rejects all policies aimed at impeding the scientific and technological progress of the Arab nation as hostile acts incompatible with the legitimate human right of the Arabs to ensure for themselves a fitting, modern and civilized life in such a way as to ensure peace, security and stability. It points out that any individual or collective measures taken against any Arab country or countries that impose special restrictions inhibiting the transfer of technology to any such country will make it necessary for appropriate pan-Arab positions of solidarity to be adopted in order to preserve Arab interests.
The Conference further calls upon the developed countries to facilitate the transfer of technology to the Arab States on an equal footing with other nations and in a manner in keeping with the mutual interests of the Arab States and the countries in question.
Elimination of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East region
The Arab States, while supporting international efforts for the elimination of weapons of mass destruction with a view to ensuring peace and normal human life, which efforts have only been successful in the context of serious endeavours for the peaceful settlement of disputes and the reduction of international tension, affirms that such a process in the Middle East region must be based on the complete elimination of all weapons of mass destruction in the region and not of one type of weapon alone. It must also take place in the framework of a comprehensive and just settlement to the conflict in the region, and it must be accompanied by equal access to technology, including nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and conventional weapons, for all parties in the region without discrimination and without partiality towards any of the parties to the conflict.
The Conference points out that focusing on the elimination of only one type of weapon of mass destruction in the Middle East region means, in essence, the adoption of a selective approach for the region.
Appraisal of the role of the League
The Conference affirmed its pride in the national role performed by the League of Arab States, the primary national institution, which provided a comprehensive institutional framework for joint Arab action. It stressed the need to strengthen its effectiveness, to reinforce its organs, to provide the necessary resources for the implementation of its programmes of action, to co-ordinate its work with that of other Arab regional groupings and to consolidate its links with international and regional organizations.
Amendment of the Pact of the League
The Conference decided to request the Arab Ministers for Foreign Affairs to complete the procedures for the amendment of the Pact of the League of Arab States and to submit their recommendations to the next Summit Conference, to be held in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The Conference reviewed the "Draft Charter of the Arab Union", submitted by Libya, and it was of the view that that document should be considered as a draft amendment to the Pact of the League of Arab States.
Periodicity of Summit Conferences
The Conference decided that the Arab Summit Conferences should be held on a regular annual basis in November each year.
It further decided that the next regular Summit should be held in the Arab Republic of Egypt in November 1990.
Monitoring of Jewish immigration, and the Arab position with regard to international
In view of the importance of monitoring Jewish immigration and of the Arab position with regard to international economic groupings, the Conference decided to invite the Arab Ministers for Foreign Affairs and the Arab Ministers of Economic Affairs and Finance to hold an urgent meeting, within two months, in order to examine those two issues, and submit the necessary recommendations on modalities for dealing with them to the next Summit, and likewise to study the encouragement of Arab investment in the Arab world.
Great appreciation for the role of President Saddam Hussein in the success of the
The Conference expressed its great appreciation to His Excellency Mr. Saddam Hussein, President of the Republic of Iraq, for the valuable efforts he had made to ensure the success of the Conference and the sagacity with which he had conducted its meetings. It had thus achieved important results which would assist in strengthening joint Arab action and protecting pan-Arab national security.
The Conference also expressed its deep gratitude to Iraq for hosting the Conference and for its smooth organization and meticulous preparation. The Conference pays tribute to the combatant people of Iraq and conveys to it its sincere congratulations on the clear victory it has achieved in defence of the sovereignty and dignity of the Arab people at the Eastern gateway of its mighty homeland.