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Les colonies Israélienne dans la bande de Gaza et la Rive Occidentale (Première partie) Français
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Source: Division for Palestinian Rights (DPR)
31 December 1982



Their Nature and Purpose

Prepared for, and under the guidance of
the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable
Rights of the Palestinian People

New York, 1982








General legal requirements under military occupation

The United Nations and the question of settlements

The nature and purpose of settlements

Acquisition of land and impact on the Arab residents






Notes and references




List of settlements

Settlements already established or being established in Judea and Samaria

Map showing Israeli settlements established, planned or under construction

in the territories occupied in June 1967





Map showing areas of expropriation in the West Bank and Gaza


The establishment of settlements in the occupied territories started immediately after the 1967 war. In July 1967, a group of young Israelis founded the first settlement in the Golan (Herom ha Golan). In September 1967, near the city of Hebron (West Bank), children of the pre-1948 settlers persuaded the Government to let them rebuild a kibbutz known as the Etzion Bloc. During Passover 1968, a group of religious nationalists went to Hebron and stayed there despite government reluctance to let them establish themselves in an Arab town. Finally, a settlement was established (Kirvat Arba) on the north-east side of Hebron with the Government's permission. (An ancient Jewish community had been settled in Hebron until 1929).

The first official support to settlement construction came in June 1967, when 160 Arab houses were demolished in the old city of Jerusalem in order to open a court in front of the Western Wall. Immediately, 600 buildings were expropriated and approximately 6,500 Arabs, both tenants and land owners, were removed. New buildings were late» occupied by Israeli residents.

From 1967 to 1970, the Government's settlement priorities appeared to be the southern part of the Golan Heights, where agricultural settlements were established, and the north side of East Jerusalem. 1/

The construction of settlements continued at an increased rate after the Likud Government came into power in 1977. According to a document of the World Zionist Organization entitled "Master plan for the development of settlement in Judea and Samaria, 1979-1983", 3/ 46 new settlements in Judea and Samaria would be added within five years, and inhabited by 16,000 families. Furthermore, following the policy of "thickening" the already established settlements, in five years 27,000 families will have settled down in the area. This plan has already been amended so that 22 more settlements will have been established there by the same date.

A more recent report entitled "Settlement in Judea and Samaria - strategy, policy and plans" by Matityahu Drobles, author of the master plan, is said to have been adopted by the Government of Israel in January 1981. In sending a copy of this report to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council, the Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People stated: "The perusal of this document leaves one in no doubt of Israel's intention to annex the Arab territories it has illegally occupied".

The report reads, in part:

According to the report of the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979): The number of settlers has also increased. According to the same source: A more recent (1981) estimate places the number of Jews in the West Bank at 20,000, an increase of 620 per cent. Including the settlers in East Jerusalem and the Jerusalem area, therefore, there were approximately 100,000 settlers. According to The Jerusalem Post, the Council of Jewish Settlements in the West Bank and Gaza had appointed a special team to seek ways to increase the Jewish population to 40,000 during 1981, 6/ not including Jerusalem.

In connexion with the acquisition of land, the Security Council Commission reported:

According to figures supplied by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, in 1947, on the eve of the Israeli statehood, Jewish possession of land in all of Palestine represented between 9 and 12 per cent of the cultivable land of the country, in 1977, of the total land surface of mandated Palestine, Arabs held 19 per cent and Israelis slightly more than 81 per cent. 8/

The United Nations General Assembly and Security Council have determined that the establishment of settlements in the occupied territories "constitute a serious obstruction to efforts aimed at achieving a just and lasting peace in the Middle East." 9/

On 27 January 1981, the following statement was made on behalf of the Secretary-General of the United Nations:


Israeli conduct in the occupied territories is assessed in light of the international law of military occupation. The basic rules of international law generally accepted as applicable to the Israeli occupied territories are given below.

The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949 (referred to as the fourth Geneva Convention), and the Hague Convention on the Laws and Customs of War on Land, signed on 18 October 1907. The fourth Geneva Convention has been ratified by all States party to the Middle East problem. Israel ratified the Convention on 10 April 1951;

The articles of the fourth Geneva Convention applicable to the situation are:

(a) Article 2, first paragraph, which reads:

(b) Article 47, which provides: (c) Article 49 is directly concerned with the question of transfer of civilian population. It states: (d) Article 53, which provides: The Government of Israel, which participated in the negotiations of the fourth Geneva Convention and was one of the first to ratify them, has not recognized its legal applicability to the occupied Arab territories and has not applied it.

According to Leonard C. Meeker, Attorney, Centre for Law and Social Policy, and former legal adviser to the United States Department of Labor, 10/ the Regulations annexed to the Hague Convention IV on the Laws and Customs of War on land are also applicable to the occupied territories. Article 2 of the Convention states:

In connexion with the applicability of this Convention, it is stated: 11/ Article 46 of the Hague Regulations provides: Leonard C. Meeker further notes: 12/ Articles 55 and 56 of the Hague Regulations are relevant here. They provide: In this connexion, Meeker argues; 13/ As regards the fourth Geneva Convention, the Government of Israel has refused its applicability in toto and in particular article 49 on the occupied territories. The main argument for the denial of the application of the Geneva Conventions given by the Israeli Government is that, previous to the 1967 war. Jordan and Egypt were not the legitimate sovereigns of the West Bank and Gaza Strip respectively. 14/

However, the applicability of the fourth Geneva Convention in the occupied territories has been asserted unequivocally by the International Committee of the Red Cross, by the United Nations, through both the General Assembly and the Security Council, and by most Governments in the world. 15/ Moreover, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 465 (1980) "Affirming once more that the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, is applicable to the Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem".

In connexion with article 2 of the Convention, Professor W. T. Mallison from George Washington University explained:

He continues: In Professor Mallison's opinion, the Governments represented at the Geneva Diplomatic Conference of 1949, including the Government of Israel, stated in the preamble to the Convention that they met "for the purpose of establishing a Convention for the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War". He argues, therefore, that the attempt to avoid humanitarian protection for civilians by alleging the existence of non-specified governmental rights is to turn the entire Convention upside down.

The same interpretation of article 2 of the fourth Geneva Convention has been given by other international lawyers. For instance, Stephen M. Boyd, Assistant Legal Adviser for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, United states Department of State, in 1971 stated:

The establishment of Israeli settlements in the occupied territories is closely linked with the issue of self-determination contained in Article 73 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Leonard C. Meeker gives the following view on the issue:


The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories, established by the General Assembly in resolution 2443 (XXIII), has expressed grave concern in several of its reports about the implications of the establishment of settlements in the occupied territories.

In its second report, of 17 September 1971, the Special Committee observed:

In its fifth report, of 25 October 1973, the Special Committee expressed: On 20 December 1971, the General Assembly adopted resolution 2851 (XXVI) in which it strongly called upon Israel to rescind forthwith all measures and to desist from all policies and practices such as:

(a) The annexation of any part of the occupied Arab territories;

(b) The establishment of Israeli settlements on those territories and the transfer of parts of its civilian population into the occupied territory;

(c) The destruction and demolition of villages, quarters and houses and the confiscation and expropriation of property.

General Assembly resolution 3525 (XXX) of 15 December 1975 condemns in particular the following Israeli policies:

(a) The annexation of parts of the occupied territories;

(b) The establishment of Israeli settlements therein and the transfer of an alien population thereto;

(c) The destruction and demolition of Arab houses;

(d) The confiscation and expropriation of Arab property in the occupied territories and all other transactions for the acquisition of land involving the Israeli authorities, institutions or nationals on the one hand, and the inhabitants or institutions of the occupied territories on the other.

General Assembly resolution 32/5 of 28 October 1977 reads, in part:

By Security Council resolution 446 (1979) of 22 March 1979, a Commission was established of which the main purpose is "to examine the situation relating to settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem".

In the same resolution, the Security Council further determines;

and: In its third report, the Commission came to the following conclusions: Taking note of the reports of the Commission established under resolution 446 (1979), the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 465 (1980) that reads, in part:


Settlements may be classified as military or civilian. The military settlements also called Nahal (Soldier-Pioneer Youth) outposts are both military installations and farming villages. Israeli leaders stress their fundamental strategic role. In January 1977, the Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin, declared that settlements increased Israel's security and provided a firm basis for its demand for peace with defensible borders. This type of settlement is the core of the Israeli Defence Force and combines agricultural tasks with military service.

Civilian settlements are of two kinds: the kibbutz, or collective farm, and the moshav, which is an individual farm benefiting from collective farming.

According to the report of the 1977 Middle East Delegation of the National Lawyers Guild:

On October 1979, the Israeli High Court of Justice ruled that the Elon Moreh settlement, near the West Bank city of Nablus, had to be dismantled within 30 days for it had been taken for political reasons and not for security needs. The High Court, in an unprecedented ruling, invoked articles 49 and 53 of the Geneva Convention and articles 23 (g), 46 and 52 of the Hague Convention.

In addition to the prohibitions provided by special conventions, article 23 (g) of the Hague Convention states that it is particularly forbidden "to destroy or seize enemy property, unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war".

Article 52 states that "requisitions in kind and services shall not be demanded from local authorities or inhabitants except for the needs of the army of occupation".

The High Court expressed the view that the Hague Convention was applicable in this case for it constituted customary international law and, in their view, was not contrary to specific Israeli legislation. This Convention permits settlements for the fulfilment of military needs and the principle does not apply to the purely civilian character of Elon Moreh. The Court also affirmed that "land expropriation for military purposes must, by nature, be temporary and that an outpost cannot be designed to outlive the temporary military administration of an occupied territory". 22/

Military encampments are often transformed into civilian settlements, though the "military disguise is not an innovation of the Likud Government which came to power in May 1977. Israel Galili, in charge of Israeli settlements policy in the previous Labour Government, undertook and authorized military 'stations' in Bethlehem and Kochar-Hashar "to avoid foreign policy problems and domestic opposition'. And in December 1976, Minister of Social Affairs Hammer suggested that new settlements be given the character of 'security settlements'".23/

Raymond Tanner, Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan, giving testimony before the United States House Committee on International Relations affirmed that "a majority of civilian settlements are former Nahal camps".24/

The Israeli Government maintained strict control over the location of settlements in the West Bank and Gaza. In 1974, the Minister of Justice, Chaim Tzadok, indicated that Government permission was required to live in that area since the West Bank was a "closed area" under military law.

According to Israeli officials, Israeli policy on settlements in the occupied territories "was based on a series of priorities, on security and political considerations, on settlement requirements and on the existing possibilities and restrictions".

In 1977, the Minister of Social Affairs reaffirmed the concern of the Government in connexion with the settlements policy.

In an interview, Yigal Allon commented: "...if you sum up the empirical behaviour of the Government of Israel in determining the points of settlement, you will find that they add up to a concept: that is, settlements are placed in strategically important areas along existing borderlines or in the vicinity of areas likely to become borderlines in the future".25/

Other interpretations of the purposes of the settlement policy have, however, been put forward. According to Paul Quiring, Director of the Mennonite Relief Agency:

"Settlements have been established along three prongs which appear to be aimed at containing and isolating the Palestinian communities.

"The first prong runs along the Jordan River, which separates the West Bank from Jordan. This string of settlements isolates West Bank Palestinians from Jordan.

"The second prong runs along the 1948 armistice line between Jordan and Israel, commonly referred to as the 'Green Line'. This string separates West Bank Palestinians from Israel.

"The third prong (not yet completed) calls for settlements to ring the most populous Palestinian towns, like Nablus and East Jerusalem."26/

Since 1967, successive Israeli Governments have clearly encouraged and contributed to the policy of settlements. The Government sees the West Bank and Gaza as part of the natural boundaries of the Jewish homeland, or biblical Israel.

According to the 1977 report of the national Lawyers' Guild:

"Under this 'homeland' doctrine, the Israeli Government regards the Palestinian inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza as being there by sufferance only. Prime Minister Menachem Begin and others refer to the West Bank as 'Judea and Samaria' - the ancient names of the region. Israeli Ministry of Tourism maps obtained by the delegation 27/ show the West Bank and Gaza as part of Israel, with no indication of their status as occupied areas. The maps refer to the West Bank as 'Judea' and 'Samaria'."28/

As regards Jerusalem, the policy of settlements promoted by the Israeli Government aims at a complete annexation of the city.

Soon after the 1967 war, Israel officially annexed East Jerusalem into Israel. The Government promoted Jewish immigration into the area. A 10-year Israeli Government plan proposed the reconstruction and substitution of Jewish families for Palestinians.

The National Lawyers' Guild report of 1977 contains the following information:

In May 1980, the Israeli Knesset enacted the "Basic Law" which provides that unified Jerusalem in its borders after the June 1967 war is the capital of Israel. The Security Council, on 20 August 1980 in its resolution 478 (1980), affirmed that those legislative and administrative measures "constitute a violation of international law", that they are "null and void" and "constitute a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive and lasting peace in the Middle East".

The Israeli Government has closely co-operated in the establishment of settlements in the occupied territories. "Co-operation has taken many forms, all directed toward the successful transfer of Israeli citizens into the occupied territories".30/

The aid provided by the Israeli Government includes income tax exemptions, inexpensive loans, and material assistance such as water, electricity, telephone service, bulldozer and transportation facilities. According to one source:

"The primary method by which the Israeli Government encourages settlers to transfer to the occupied territories is with direct subsidies to the settlements. The Government acknowledged that, through June 1977, it had allocated 400 million dollars to settlements in the occupied territories.

"The 1978 Israeli budget provides a considerable increase in expenditures for the absorption of new settlers into the settlements already established in the occupied areas...

"The 1978 allocation to the Ministry of Agriculture includes the highest amount ever set aside for new settlements - 426 million Israeli pounds (it was 267 million Israeli pounds in 1977). In the Ministry of Housing's budget, 840 million Israeli pounds have been allocated for the construction of 1,550 building units in the new settlements."31/

It was reported in The New York Post on 28 February 1981 that "Parliament's Finance Committee has approved about 4 million dollars for the construction of 400 homes in already existing settlements..." and it has been estimated that by 1976 Israel had spent at least 500 million dollars on settlements.


Article 11 of the Jordanian Constitution, which applied to the West Bank at the time it was occupied by Israel in 1967, forbids expropriation of private property for public benefit unless fair compensation is paid according to law. The law provides publication of the intended expropriation, in order to allow the person the right to appeal the decision to the Court of First Instance. According to Jordanian law, an authority or corporate body wanting to expropriate land must first publish in the Official Gazette its intention to submit to the Council of Ministers the application for expropriation. The approval of the Council of Ministers is provided if within 15 days no objections are submitted. The approval must be endorsed by the King. Then it is published in the Official Gazette. The authority interested in the expropriation must compensate the owners of the land with an amount equal to the market value of the property on the date of the expropriation.

In his article "The West Bank and the rule of law". Raja Shehadeh claims that, in order to facilitate the expropriation of land, soon after 1967 Israel modified the regulations concerning the matter.

The principal steps taken were:

All these changes aimed at eliminating the requirements needed by law to make possible the expropriation of land in the occupied territories. The only remedy left to the aggrieved party is the appeal to the Objection Committee, which is entirely composed of military personnel and whose impartiality has been questioned.34/

Besides the legislation mentioned above, other Israeli laws apply to the West Bank and Gaza.

These include article 125 of the Defense Emergency Regulations of 1945. This provision, passed during the British mandate, permits the Israeli Government to declare an area "closed" for security reasons. A permit is required to leave or enter the area. Implementation of this article is left to the Israeli Military Governor. Article 90 of the Security Provisions Order, put into effect when the Israeli Army entered the West Bank in 1967, also has a "closed area" provision.

In the report of the 1977 Middle East delegation of the National Lawyers' Guild, it is alleged:

Paul Quiring, Director of the Hennonite Belief Agency, stated: The Government of Israel, in order to justify its measures to acquire property, has drawn a distinction between state and private property in the occupied territories. The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories has analysed this argument. In its opinion, "the fourth Geneva Convention and the Hague Conventions make it abundantly clear that, irrespective of whether the land belongs to the state or to private individuals, the occupying power has no right under international law to acquire ownership of such property. Any such acquisition, therefore, is ipso jure invalid".37/

It further states

In consequence the payment of compensation does not render such transactions valid.

The Absentee Property Law is similar to the Absentee's Property Law passed after the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and was enacted on 23 July 1967. It deals with property in general, not only with immovables. It defines "absentee" as a person who left the area of the West Bank before, on or after 7 June 1967. Few of these people have been allowed to return to the occupied territories. Article 2 of the law created a Custodian. He acts as a trustee to hold the property in trust for the absentee until his return. A jurist explains:

The purpose of this law has been to acquire land for settlements. The International Commission of Jurists found: In 1947, before the Israeli State came into existence, land possessed by Jews in Palestine represented between 9 and 12 per cent of the cultivable land. According to John Ruedy, Professor of History at Georgetown University: The Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979) found that in the "Gaza Strip, according to witnesses, confiscation of land is final". 40/

In the West Bank, "the extent of the confiscated land increased from 27 per cent of the total areas in May 1979 to 33 per cent last September (1980)". 41/

The Commission also noted:

There exists a close correlation between the establishment of Israeli settlements and the displacement of the Arab population. Since 1967, the Arab population has been reduced by 32 per cent in Jerusalem and the West Bank.44/

The policy of demographic changes has taken another step. In September 1980, Israeli officials announced the Government's decision to speed up the process of "thickening" (in the official terminology) the settler population before June elections. 45/ The number of Jews in the West Bank increased in the last four years (from 1977 to 1981) from 3,200 to 20,000. That means an increase of 620 per cent.

The Council of Jewish Settlements in the West Bank and Gaza appointed a special team to seek ways to increase the Jewish population from 17,000 to 40,000 within a year (an increase of 150 per cent in 1981).46/

Salim Tamari, a Professor of Sociology at the University of Birzeit (occupied territories) stated the following:

According to the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979): "In the implementation of its policy of settlements, Israel has resorted to methods often coercive and sometimes more subtle, which include the control of the water resources, the seizure of private properties, the destruction of houses and the banishment of persons".48/

The economic and social patterns of the Arab population in the occupied territories have been substantially modified. The Security Council Commission states that "a number of Arab landowners are now compelled to earn their living and that of their family by working on their own land as the hired employees of the Israeli settlers".49/

Another aspect of the social consequences of the policy of settlements is the relationship between the settlers and the Arabs. It can be said that:

According to Paul Quiring:


1. The establishment of settlements in the occupied territories has been widely condemned by the international community and the United Nations through its various bodies, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Commission on Human Rights etc. United Nations resolutions have called upon Israel to desist from taking any action which would result in changing the legal status and geographical nature and demographic composition of the Arab territories occupied since 1967.

2. Taking into account that the fourth Geneva Convention and the Hague Convention are applicable to the territories occupied by Israel, the General Assembly has declared that the establishment of settlements and the transfer of population that it entails are illegal.

3. The General Assembly has condemned the evacuation, deportation, expulsion, displacement and transfer of Arab inhabitants of the occupied territories and denial of their right of return.

4. The Security Council, in its resolution 465 (1980), called upon the Government and people of Israel to dismantle the existing settlements and to cease, on an urgent basis, the establishment, construction and planning of settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem.

5. The international community considers that the policy of settlements constitutes a serious obstruction to the achievement of a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East.

6. The Security Council has determined that the policy and practices/of Israel in establishing settlements in the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967 have no legal validity.


1/ Ann M. Lesch, former associate Middle East representative for the American Friends Service Committee. Statement prepared for the Subcommittees on International Organizations and on Europe and the Middle East, United States House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, 12 September 1977, p. 10.

2/ Ibid., p. 11.

3/ Letter dated 18 October 1979 from the Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council (A/34/605-S/13582), contained in Bulletin No. 9-10 of September/October 1979 of the Special Unit on Palestinian Rights, p. 7.

4/ Letter dated 19 June 1981 from the Acting Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People to the Secretary-General, contained in document A/36/341-S/14566.

5/ Report of the Security Council commission established under resolution 446 (1979), document S/14268 of 25 November 1980, p. 31.

6/ The Jerusalem Post, 26 December 1980.

7/ Report of the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979), document S/14268 of 25 November 1980, p. 32.

8/ John Ruedy, Professor of History at Georgetown University, "Israeli land acquisition in occupied territory, 1967-1977", United States Senate Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization (Committee on the Judiciary), Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, 17 October 1977, pp. 124, 127.

9/ General Assembly resolution 35/122 B of 11 December 1980 and Security Council resolution 446 (1979) of 22 March 1979.

10/ Leonard C. Meeker. Statement prepared for the Subcommittees on International Organizations and on Europe and the Middle East, United States House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, 21 September 1977, p. 110.

11/ Ibid.

12/ Ibid.

13/ Ibid., p. 111.

14/ Statement made by Moshe Dayan before the General Assembly on 10 October 1977. See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-second session. Plenary Meetings, 27th meeting.

15/ Stephen M. Boyd, "The applicability of international law to the occupied territories" in Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, vol. 1 (published under the auspices of the Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University), 1971, p. 259.

16/ W. T. Mallison, Professor at George Washington University. Testimony given before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee of the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, 17 October 1977, p. 50.

17/ Stephen M. Boyd, op. cit., p. 367.

18/ Leonard C. Meeker, op. cit., p. 112.

19/ Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories, document A/8389 of 5 October 1971, p. 27.

20/ Report of the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979), document S/14268, p. 47. The first and second reports of the Commission were submitted to the Council on 12 July 1979 (S/13450 and Add.l) and 4 December 1979 (S/13679), respectively.

21/ "Treatment of Palestinians in Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza", report of the National Lawyers Guild, 1977, Middle East delegation (National Lawyers Guild, New York, 1978), p. 10.

22/ The Washington Post, 22 October 1979.

23/ "Treatment of Palestinians in Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza", op. cit., p. 10.

24/ Raymond Tanner, Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan. Statement made before the Subcommittee on International Organizations and on Europe and the Middle East of the Committee on International Relations, United States House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, 12 September 1977, p. 52.

25/ "Treatment of Palestinians in Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza", op. cit., p. 9.

26/ Ibid.

27/ In July 1977, the National Lawyers' Guild sponsored a visit to the Middle East by 10 of its members to study the situation of the Palestinian people and to investigate allegations of violations of human rights. The group visited Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, the West Bank and Gaza.

28/ "Treatment of Palestinians in Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza", op. cit., p. 12.

29/ Ibid., p. 14.

30/ Ibid., p. 9.

31/ Ibid., p. 11.

32/ Raja Shehadeh. The West Bank and the rule of law (The International Commission of Jurists, 1980) , p. 61.

33/ Ibid., p. 108.

34/ See, in this connexion. Raja Shehadeh, op. cit., p. 30.

35/ "Treatment of Palestinians in Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza", op. cit., p. 5.

36/ Paul Quiring, Director of the Mennonite Relief Agency. Statement made before the Subcommittees on International Organizations and on Europe and the Middle East of the Committee on International Relations, United States House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, 12 September 1977, p. 44.

37/ Document A/9148 of 25 October 1973, p. 11.

38/ Baja Shehadeh, op. cit., p. 60.

39/ "Treatment of Palestinians in Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza", op. cit., p. 6.

40/ Report of the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979), document S/14268 of 25 November 1980, p. 33.

41/ Ibid., p. 34.

42/ Ibid., p. 32.

43/ Ibid., p. 34.

44/ Ibid., document S/13450 of 12 July 1979, p. 40.

45/ The New York Times, 19 and 20 February 1981.

46/ The Jerusalem Post, 26 December 1980.

47/ Salim Tamari, Professor of Sociology at the University of Birzeit. Statement made before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session, 17 October 1977, p. 77.

48/ Report of the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979), document S/13450, p. 41.

49/ Ibid.

50/ Ann M. Lesch, op. cit., p. 8.

51/ Paul Quiring, op. cit., p. 49.

Annex I



Date founded
Economic base
Land used (in dunums)
Original landowners
Atrot1970Jerusalem, edge, near airportIndustrial zone61 factories10,000Arab residents of Beit Hanina village
Neve Ya’akov1973Jerusalem, north of townResidential suburb2,500 housing units10,000Arab residents of Beit Hanina village
Ranot1973Jerusalem, north-west, near Rabi SamwilResidential suburb750 housing units (8,000 units planned)30,000Arab residents of Beit Iksa village; 100 Arab homes demolished
Ramat Eshkol1968Jerusalem, north sideResidential area1,700 housing units600Arab land (expropriated)
French Hill1969Jerusalem, north side, along Jerusalem-Ramallah roadResidential area2,100 housing units15,000Arab land, land from Catholic convent
Nahalat DefnaJerusalem, north of townResidential area250 housing units270Arab families Waqf properties
Gilo Sharafat (Gilo)1973Jerusalem, south near Beit JalaResidential suburb1,200 housing units out of 10,000 planned4,000Palestinian residents of Jerusalem, Beit Jala, Beit Safafa and Sharafat
East Talpiot1973Jerusalem, east of Jabal Al-Mukabber where UN headquarters was situatedResidential area1,000 housing units (3,000 planned)20,000Arab residents of Jerusalem, Sur Bahir, Sheikh Sa'ad and UN enclave expropriated
Jewish Quarter (Old City of Jerusalem)1967Jerusalem, "Old City" between western wall of Al Aqsa Mosque and Latin ConventResidential320 housing units and shops160 Arab houses demolished, 600 homes expropriated, 6,500 Arab residents evacuated
Hebrew University1969Jerusalem, north sideUniversity campusOffices, classrooms, dormitories and hospitalExpansion of pre-1948 old university for which land expropriated
Sanhedria Extension1973Jerusalem, north sideResidential area250 housing unitsFormer demilitarized zone, entirely expropriated
Shiloh1976East of Nablus-Ramallah roadGush Emunim15,000From villages of Tarmus Ayya, Qaryut, Abu-Elfalah and El-Maghireh
80 to 90Dunums closed off, almond trees cut down
Kochav Hashahar1975North-east of Taiyyibe villageNahal, then KibbutzAgriculture4,000Land from Dier Jarir and Kufur Malik; water from Ain Samia, Hamallah's sole water source
Ofra b/ (Ba'al Hatzor)1975East of Ramallah on Jericho roadGush EmunimWorkshops and agriculture350100 dunums from Ain Yabrud village, 250 dunums from Silwad village
Mevo Horon1969Latrun salientMoshavAgriculture16,000Hevo Boron
Beit Horon b/1977Mid-way on Latrun-Ramallah road, near TiraGush Bmunim150Initial takeover of Arab land
Mevo Horon Dalet (Matatyahu)1977Latrun area, 3 km from armisticelineAgricultureDMZ - (Midya Arab village prior to 1948)
Kfar Ruth1977Latrun area, 1 km south-east of Shayelet settlementAgricultureDMZ – (site of Midya village), thousands of dunums of irrigated lands
Givat Hamivtar1975On north side of Jerusalem350 housing unitsLand area entirely expropriated
Canada Park1976Latrun salient, on Latrun-Ramallah roadJewish National Fund Park4,200Land of destroyed villages of Yalu, Imwas and Beit Nuba (including 1,500 dunums of orchards)
Raminim b/1977North-east of Taybeh and Rammun villages, north of Rama1lah- Jericho roadNahal300Residents of Taybeh village (expropriated lands)
Beit El1977North of Ramallah-Nablus roadGush Emunim35Arab land. Settlement to expand on 250 dunums of expropriated land
Giv'on b/1977North-west of Jerusalem, near El-Jib villageGush EmunimEx-Jordanian military base. 5,000 dunums needed to be expropriated from El-Jib village
Shayelet(Mevo Hori'im)1977Latrun areaMoshavAgricultureDMZ land (site of Arab village of Midya)
Neve Zuf(Nabi Saleh)1977North-west of Ramallah, near Beir MidhamGush Emunim400Closed off, including 100 dunums of wheat fields and almond trees of Nabi Saleh villages
Mehola1968Jordan valley, north end of West BankNahal until Nov. 1969, then moshavField crops, metal factory 1 well and 1 reservoir3,000Residents of Bardala and Ain el-Beida villages. Water supply of villages depleted by wells of Mehola
Argaman1968Near end of Damya-Nablus roadNahal until May 1971, then moshavAgriculture 5 absentee wells and 1 reservoir5,000Arab agricultural land, including 1,000 dunums from Marj al-Maja
New Massuah1976Jordan valley, south of Nablus-Damiya road800Residents of Arab villages of Al-Ajajra and Jiftlik
Massuah1970Jordan valley, just south of No. 28Nahal until May 1974, then kibbutzVegetables, fishpond, water from Hamra, 1 well, 2 reservoirs3,000Residents of Al-Ajajra and Jiftlik villages, "expropriated land*
Phatza'El B'1977South of settlement No. 29Rural settlement1,500Arab land
Phatza'El1970End of south-west road from Aqraba [Aqaba?]MoshavVegetables 3 wells "60Q cubic metres per hour" 1 reservoir3,000Residents of Fazayil village
Tomer1976Jordan valley, south of settlement No. 31Hothouse vegetablesUnknown as con-struction still going on
Gilgal1970Jordan valley: south of settlement No. 32Nahal until May 1973, then moshavVegetables, citrus, field crops3,300Arab land field crops "plan to pump water from Jordan river"
Netiv Hagdud1976-1977South of Gilgal settlement No. 33Nahal to become moshavUnknown as construction still going on
Mivsom (Na'aran)1977 began constructionJordan valley, near Arab village of AwjaNahal to become moshavLand expropriated from residents of Al-Awja village
Yitav1970West of Al-Awja villageNahal until Oct. 1976, then kibbutzVegetables, field crops2,000Arab land from Al-Awja village "including that of absentee owners", water from Ain Al-Awja and two wells nearby
Almog1977Jordan valley: north-west of Dead SeaNahalWater supply drawn by 12-inch pipeline from well near Aqbat Jaber, Jericho refugee camp
Kalia1968Jordan valley: north-west of Dead SeaNahal until 1975, then kibbutzVegetables, dairy, vineyards, fishpondsPreviously Jordan army camp, water supply from Wadi Kelt west of Jericho
Mitzpe Shalem1970Dead Sea, west shoreNahal then kibbutzDate palms, vegetablesover 50
Malki Shua1976North edge of West Bank, south of Mt. Gibboa, access road from Beit SheanNahal
Po'I1974"Limit of settlements" road (LS),
north end
Nahal, then moshav by 1978Agriculture2,500Tubas village residents, land cultivated with wheat
Bega'ot1972LS road, north end: south of Ro'I (No. 41)MoshavPoultry, vegetables, citrus5,000Tamun village, land closed off
Hamra1971LS road, on east West Nablus-Damiya road, in lush valley. Farm landMoshavVegetables, flowers, citrus, poultry; 1 well, 2 reservoirs, 12-inch water pipeline to Massauh (No. 29) in Jordan valley450Land from Bab al-Nagab village; valley land near Damiya Bridge 450 dunums of "absentee owner grove"
Mekhora1973LS road, south of Hamra (No.43)Nahal until July 1976, then moshavVegetables, fruit4,000Beit Dajan and Beit Furik villages water supply includes 1 well, 3 reservoirs
Gitit1972 Aug.LS road, near east-west Aqraba valley roadNahal until Dec. 1975, now kibbutzVegetables, field crops5,000Land from Aqraba closed off, sprayed with defoliants early 1972
Ma'al Ephraim1972LS road, on east-west Aqraba valley roadRegional centre200Arab land
Nevo Shiloh (Givat Aduma)Nov. 1976South of Ma'al Ephraim settlement No. 461,300Residents of Turmus Ayya, Abu-Fallah and al-Hughayyir villages
Mishor Adomin (Ma'ale Adomin)Nov. 1974Dominates Jericho-Jerusalem roadIndustrial estate and army base; Gush Emunim settlersIndustry(81,000)70,000 dunums closed off Oct. 1972 by armyadditional 1700 dunums expropriated from villages of Abu Dis, Itaaryya and Issawyya 10,000 dunums from Silwa; 300 dunums from Silwa and Anota
Mitzpeh Jerichoearly 1978East of Mishor Adomin settlement (No. 48) overlooking JerichoLand expropriated from above-mentioned villages
Reihan (Nei'ami, Bet)1977North-west of Jenin, 3 km beyond armistice lineNahal, 1978 kibbutzAgricultureArab land
Dotan (Sanur)Oct. 1977Along Nablus-Jenin road in Sanur valleyGush EmunimLand of pre-1967 Jordanian police station near Sanur village
Natal Ma'aleJan. 1978East of Nablus-Jenin roadGush Emunim550Land confiscated from Silat Al-Dhaha village including 25 olive trees
ShomronOct. 1977On Nablus-Jenin road1,680Kufr Sur village
Sal'it (Tsur Nathan Bet)Aug. 1977South-east of TulkarmNahal1,000Kufr Sur village half of land privately owned (cultivated), half common land for grazing
Elon Moreh (Qaddum)Dec. 1975Near Nablus-Qalqilya roadGush Emunim300Arabs of kufr Qaddum village
Qaruay-ShomronOct. 1977South side of Nablus-Qalqilya road, near Jinsafut villageGush Bnunim150Taken from villages Jinsafut, Hajj and kufr Laqif
El Qana b/ (Mes'ha Pe'erim)April 1977South-east of QalqilyaGush Emunim Nahal10
Site of former Jordanian police station from Mes'ha village
Tafuah (Bareget)Jan. 1978Along Nablus-Ramallah road 13 km south of Nablus150Arab villagers of Yasuf
HarisFeb. 19782 km west of Nablus-Ramallah road, near Salfit junctionNahal 2 km access road built800300 dunums expropriated for military camp
500 dunums of pasturage closed off from villages of kufr Haris, Harda and Salfit
Har Gilo1976In Beit Jala village areaResidential suburb400Grapevines and fruit trees expropriated from Beit Jala residents, June 1976
Efrat1978On road south of Bethlehem7,000Expropriated land, most of which cultivated
TakoahJune 1975South-east of Bethlehem near HebronNahal3,000Land expropriated from Rafidya village
ElazatOct. 1975South of BethlehemReligious moshavChemical laboratory electronics350Vineyards expropriated from Hadar village, 1973
Rosh TzurimJuly 1969North of Nebron (Etzion bloc)KibbutzPoultry3,000Including site of pre-1948 settlement plus expropriated land from Nahalin village
Alon ShvotJuly 1969, settlers, 1972North of Nebron (Etzion bloc)Regional centre for religious JewsYeshiva students plus families commute to Jerusalem1,200Land expropriated in 1969 from Arabs
KfarSept. 1967 first settlement on the West BankNorth of Hebron (Etzion bloc)KibbutzSome agriculture, a factorySite (1943-1948) of Etzion Jewish settlement and cultivated land (vineyards)
Migdal Oz1977West of Hebron (Etzion bloc)KibbutzAgriculture1,000 to 2,000Residents of Beit Umar village, closed first as military area 600 plum and almond trees uprooted in Dec. 1977
Qiryat Arba b/1970Adjoins town of HebronUrban settlementFactories, services, some commute to Jerusalem 401 housing units4,250Individuals from Hebron and Halbul, of which 1,500 dunums expropriated
YattirJuly 1977South of Hebron, near armistice lineGush Emunim Moshav17,000 planned to be fencedPasture land
Sailat Dhahr1978On Nablus-Jenin road550Expropriated from Arab residents of Sailat Dhahr
AnatotLate 1978North of Jerusalem3,000Expropriated from residents of Anata ' village
Ya’afu Horom1978Near Arab village of Yatta, west of Hebron
JerichoApproved 1978Jericho area
Zif1978South of HebronUnder construction
Neweimeh1979Near Jericho
New Kfar Etzion1979On road between Bethlehem and Hebron
Huwara1979Few miles east of Nablus600 settlers already live there
Tell Kebir1979; still under constructionNew location/village of Deit El Hatab in the district of Nablus
Karney Shomron (b)mid-June 1979On the main road between the towns of Nablus and Tulkarm, 3 kilometres west of the settlement of Karney Shomron (a)
Karney Shomron (d)Sept. 1979South of the settlement of Karney Shomron (a)Scheduled to accommodate 100 families initially and 300 families after 5 years
ReihanSept. 1979in the district of Jenin/third settlementto accommodate 50 families initially and 100 after 5 years
ElazarSept. 1979District of Etzion in the vicinity of another settlement, Eliazar
Yafitsecond half of 1979in the district of Jiftlik500confiscated land from Arab owners in the Jordan Valley
Gebeiot Oz (b)beginning of 1980Between the villages of Sha kh, Iskandar and Kafr Salim in the di trict of Jenin
Reihan (e)1980East of the settlement of Reihan (b) , in the district of
EidanJuly 1980middle part of Wadi Ar aba, south of the Dead Seapresently populated by 17 families and due to be joined by a further 20Government-owned land previously sealed off
El Qana (b)July 1980east of the settlement of El Qana, west of Nablus111Government-owned land previously sealed off
Karney Shomron (h)began construction Sept. 19798 km west of Karney Shomron (a)scheduled to accommodate 100 families initially and 300 more after 5 years
Ma 'ale Adomim1979north-east of Jerusalem el-Khan (El Ahmer)
Ma 'ale Adomim (c)1979East Jerusalem400Land belonging to Jerusalem
Mehola (b)1979North of the Jordan ValleyConsists only of military tents
Nahal Maoz1979north-east of Hebron in the district of Al Yaghamaestablished as a camp to protect settlements in the district
Airel (b)1979In the district of Salfit, next to the settlement of Ariel (Haris)1,330Villages of Mardeh and Sikaka
Leona1980on the Jerusalem-NablusVillage of Al-Laban
Beit El (b)1980in the district of RamallahVillage of Beitein
Efrat (town)mid-October 1979West Bethlehem, centrally located in relation to the Kfar Etzion1,300Village of Al Khudr
Giv'a Hadashadecision on its establishment - mid-October 1979in the vicinity of another settlement, Giv'on, district of Ramallah85confiscated land, belonging to the village of El-Jib
Matatyahu1976District of Ramallah600Private land of inhabitants of the village of Naalein
Giv’on (b)1977District of El-Jib, north-west of Jerusalem
Elon Moreh c/June 19795 kilometres south of Nablus1,300villages of Rujeeb and Aurta
Neve TzufSept. 1979between the villages of Deir Bailout and Aboud, north of Ramallah900
Dotan1977south of Jenin, near the village of Arabascheduled to accommodate 150 families nitially and rising to 500 within 5 years
Ariel (Haris) b/1977currently inhabited by 30 Jewish families500villages of Kafr Haris (Salfit)
El Qana1977in the district of Abu-l-Qarnain on the Nablus roadscheduled to accommodate 500 Jewish families 1502/3 of area previously privately owned by Arab citizens
Tafvah1978in the district of Jeninvillage of Taffouha
Source: List of settlements, maps, information supplied by the Government of Jordan as of September 1980.

a/ Report of the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979), document S/14268 of 25 November 1980.

b/ Settlement planned for expansion (for details, see annex III below).

c/ Work on settlement suspended following Israeli Supreme Court order. Instead, a new settlement was started (Tell Kebir) as an alternative. Elon Moreh settlement was not abandoned.


Date founded
Economic base
Land used (in dunums)
Original landowners
Neve Ativ1971South slope of Mount HermonMoshavSki-station/400 dunums apples at Benia's springTotal land of villageSyrian village, dab’at azzayat
Snir1967Edge of ex-DMZ pasture on-GolanNahal up to 1968, then kibbutzAgricultureSyrian village lands
Har Odem1976Mount Oden/between from Mas'ada and Bugatha villagesMoshavIndustrial base established200Syrian nature reserve 200 dunums from Bugatha
El Rom1971North, near BugathaKibbutzAgriculture (apples)Total land of Ainkharja, some land from BugathaSyrian village Ainkharja and some land Bugatha
Merom GolanJuly 1967North, west of QuneitraKibbutzCattle, 6,000 dunums field crops6,000Agricultural land west of Quneitra
Ein Zivan1968North, west of QuneitraKibbutzAgriculture, 340 dunums orchards in Quneitra340 orchardsAgricultural land west of Quneitra; near former Syrian village, Ain Ziwane
Katzrin1973Centre-West, near Yaakov bridge across Jordan RiverIndustrial centre, field-schoolIndustries (200 housing units under construction)Near Syrian vilage, Qasrine
Keshet1974Originally in Quneitra, then in KhusniyaReligious moshav, Gush Emunim settlersPlans for field-school, botanical garden, wood-working, agricultureSyrian town, Khusniya
Ani'em1976South of Katzrin (No. 7)Industrial; moshavIndustriesSyrian village land, Oasrine
Yonatan (Yonati)1975Tel faraz, south of Keshet (No. 8)Bnei Akiva religious youth movementAgriculture
Sha'al1976CentreMoshavAgriculture, industriesSyrian village
Gamla1976Overlooks Lake TiberiasMoshavAgricultureSyrian vi1lage lands
Ramot1969Overlooks Lake TiberiasMoshavAgricultureSyrian village land
Merkaz Hisfin (Khisfin)1973South GolanRural centreSyrian town Khisfin
Ramat Magshimim1968South-east 1.8 km from buffer zoneMoshavAgriculture, cattleFormer Syrian Army base
Avni Eitan1976South GolanMoshavAgriculture
Nov (Kab)1972South GolanMoshavAgriculture, reservoir nearby
Geshur1969South, moved west due to 1974 disengagementNahalField crops
Eli-Al (E1-A1)1968South GolanNahal until May 1973, then moshavAgriculture
Givat (Yo'av)1968South Golan, adjoins No. 21Histadrut MoshavField crops, poultry, cattle
Herkaz Bnei Yahuda1972South Golan, joint entrance with No. 20Rural centre
Ne'ot Golan1968South, overlooks Lake TiberiasMoshavAgriculture100 dunums field crops
Afik1967South GolanNahal until 1972, then kibbutzAgricultureNear Syrian town Fiq
Kfar Haruv1973South, overlooks Lake TiberiasKibbutzAgricultureNear Syrian village Kafr Hared
Hevo Hamna1968South, overlooks Lake TiberiasKibbutzAgriculture; tourism at Hamma Springs, pasture25,000Syrian village at Hamma Springs
Urtal1978Centre-westKibbutzIndustries plannedSyrian village land
Ramath Shalom
Bar Shifon
Natur19805 km south-west of Ramat Maghshimim
Source: List provided by the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic. Information on settlements provided by Ann M. Lesch.

a/ Report of the Security Council Commission established under resolution 446 (1979), document S/14268 of 25 November 1980.


Date founded
Economic base
Land used (in dunums)
Original landowners
4 km south of Gaza City, between north-south highway and coastNahal became moshavAgriculture700Land expropriated from Abu Madyan Arab tribe, early 1971
Kfar Darom
South of Mughazi refugee camp, east side of north-southNahal until 1978, then kibbutzGlasshouse vegetables200 enlarged to 400
Netzer Hazani
North of Khan YunisNahal until 1977, then moshav Glasshouse vegetables300State land
Katif A
West of Netzer Hazani settlement (No. 3) between Deir El Balah and Khan YunisMoshavGlasshouse vegetables)
) 1,000
Katif B
Close to Katif A settlementGlasshouse vegetables)
Katif C
Close to Katif A and B
On coast between Khan Yunis and RafahNahal, then kibbutzAgriculture12,000Land expropriated from from Umm Kalb village, El Abadella, Khan Yunis early 1971
Eretz Azoor
North-east of Gaza CityIndustries800
Nahal Taadeel
Close to Gaza and Deir El Balah next to El OgoolNahalAgriculture4,000State land
Close to Rafah300 housing unit
Beit Lahat (under construction)North Gaza
Source: List of settlements provided by the following: the Government of Egypt; Najib Al-Almad, Special Representative, Political Department, Palestine Liberation Organization: Ann M. Lesch, former representative in the Middle East of the American Friends Service Committee, from part of her testimony before the Subcommittee of the Committee on International Relations, United States House of Representatives, 19 October 1979.

Annex II a/


Name of Settlement
Type of Settlement
Settlement movement
1967Kfor EtzionKibbutzReligious KibbutzEtzion
1968Qiryat ArbaUrban-Hebron
1969Har GilohUrban-Etzion
1970Mevoh HoronMoshavPoulei Ayudat YisraelModiim
1970Elon ShvutRegional Centre-Etzion
1975Rosh TzurimKibbutzReligious KibbutzEtzion
1975Mishor AdumimIndustrial centre-Adumim
1977El ‘AzarIndustrial VillageAssociation of the Moshavs of the Mizrahi workerEtzion
1977Belt HoronCommunalAmanahGivon
1977SanorCommunalAmanahShavei Shomron
1977Shave i ShomronCommunalAmanahShavei Shomron
1977Belt ElCommunalAmanahBeit El
1977Belt El bUrban-Beit El
1977Mitzpeh YerihoCommunalAmanahAdumim
1977Migdal OzKibbutzReligious KibbutzEtzion
1977Kokhav HashaharCommunalAmanahBeit El
1977Mevoh Shiloh--Shiloh
1977RimonimCommunalAgricultural UnionBeit El
1977Karnei ShamronUrban-Karnei Shomron
1977Mahaneh GivonUrban-Givon
1978SalitIndustrial VillageHerut-BitarSalit
1979Elon MorehCommunalAmanahElon Moreh
1979Maaleh ShomronCommunalHerut-BitarKarnei Shomron
1979Kfor AdumimCommunalAmanahAdumim
1979ReinanCommunalZionist WorkerReihan
1980HomeshCommunalNational WorkerShave i Tzion
1980Horshah (matzeh Givion)CommunalAmanahGivion
1980Nahal ZohanCommunal-Yatir
1981MattityahuIndustrial VillageWorker of Ayudat YisraelModiim
1981YakirCommuna1AmanahKarnei Shomron
1981Beit AriyehComnuna1Herut-BitarHalamish
1981HinanitCommunalMoshavira MovementReihan
1981Ma' ale h AdumimUrban-Adumim
1981Ma 'on-Yatir
Being establishedKarnei Shomron CUrban-Karnei Shomron
Being establishedBirqan (Yakir B)CommunalAmanahAriel
Being establishedGivat ZeevUrban-Givon
Being establishedMakhmeshCommuna 1AmanahAdumim
Being establishedNiliCommunal-Modiim
Being establishedMitzpeh GourinCommunalHerut BitarHar Hebron
Being establishedShave i Shomron (B)CommunalAmanahShavei Shomron
Being establishedMa'aleh Amos (Tekoah B)CommunalHerut BitarEtzion
Being establishedShaked (Hinanit B)Communal-Reihan

Annex III

(Map showing Israeli settlements)

MAP NO.3070 Rev.1

September 1980

Annex VI

(Map of West Bank and Gaza)

MAP NO.3071 Rev.1

September 1980

81-33457 0161h (E) 66


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