Encouraging the faithful to perform jihad in God's cause, to behead the infidels, take them prisoner, break their power, and make their souls humble - all that in a style which contains the highest examples of urging to fight. You see that in His words: "When you meet the unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and, when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly. Then grant them their freedom or take a ransom from them, until war shall lay down its burdens."
– Commentary on the Surahs of Muhammad, Al-Fath, Al-Hujurat and Qaf , Grade 11 (2002) p. 9 [al-Azhar]
When you meet them in order to fight [them], do not be seized by compassion [towards them] but strike the[ir] necks powerfully.... Striking the neck means fighting, because killing a person is often done by striking off his head. Thus, it has become an expression for killing even if the fighter strikes him elsewhere. This expression contains a harshness and emphasis that are not found in the word "kill", because it describes killing in the ugliest manner, i.e., cutting the neck and making the organ – the head of the body – fly off [the body].
– Commentary on the Surahs of Muhammad, Al-Fath, Al-Hujurat and Qaf , Grade 11 (2000) pp. 19-20 [al-Azhar]
The rules of jihad in this context
Jihad is a religious duty of every individual at a time of general call to arms, and a religious duty of a sufficient number [of Muslims] in other times. Jihad is a firm religious duty and anyone [i.e., any Muslim] who repudiates it should be considered an unbeliever. Its being a religious duty is proven by the Book [i.e., the Qur'an], the Prophetic Tradition [Sunnah] and the [Muslim] nation's consensus. As for the Book, there are His words: "Fight those who do not believe in God, neither in the Last Day" and the rest of the verses regarding the command to fight the infidels. [As for] the Sunnah, [there are] the Prophet's words: "I have been ordered to fight the people until they say that there is no god except God...."
– Selections for the Explanation of [the Book of] "Selection ", Grade 11, (2002, pp. 493) p. 329 [al-Azhar]
What are the rules of jihad? What is the proof [of that]? When does it become a personal religious duty? When is it a collective religious duty? Give the evidence for what you say.
– Selections for the Explanation of [the Book of] "Selection ", Grade 11, (2002) p. 483 [al-Azhar]
Anyone who fights so that God's word would be the highest one is [fighting] in God's cause.
– Selected Prophetic Sayings [Ahadith], Grade 10, (2002, pp.108) p. 82 [ al-Azhar]
Jihad's various attributes
Jihad is a duty.
– Our Beautiful Language: Grammar and Grammatical exercises , Grade 8, Part 1, (2002, pp.61) p. 7 [State]
Jihad is honor. Inability to perform it is a cause for grief.
– Islamic Education, Grade 10, (2002, pp. 111) p. 69 [State]
The best means of profit is Jihad, because it combines the attainment of profit, the strengthening of religion and the vanquishing of God's enemy.
– Selections for the Explanation of [the Book of] "Selection ", Grade 9, (2002, pp. 361) p. 297 [al-Azhar]
Jihad is one of Heaven's gates. Whoever desists from it willingly is humiliated by God...
– Arabic Literature: Literature, Texts, Eloquence , Grade 9, (2002, pp. 201) p. 144 [State]
Emphasizing the importance of jihad
A day in a fighting position in God's cause is better than this world and whatever is in it.
– Selected Prophetic Sayings [Ahadith], Grade 10, (2002, pp. 108) p. 85 [ al-Azhar]
The importance of jihad is explicitly taught to students of the eighth grade :
The essence of the focus in this curriculum is helping the students to deepen their Islamic perception and their understanding of the matters of religion, Islamic values and social systems, as well as emphasizing the belief in the divine mystery and the importance of jihad in God's cause.
– Introduction, Islamic Religious Education , Grade 8, Part 2, (2002, pp. 61; pages not numbered) [State]
Jihad in God's cause is a religious duty, and staying behind is disobedience [of God], which necessitates penitence.
– Islamic Education, Grade 11, (2002, pp. 120) p. 47 [State]
Staying behind in the jihad in God's cause is disobedience, which necessitates penitence.
– Islamic Education, Grade 11,(2002) p. 48 [State]
The jihad fighters get the fruit of their jihad.
– Grammatical Exercises , Grade 9, (2002, pp. 148) p. 110 [State]
Jihad in the Palestinian context
The ongoing violence in the Holy Land is termed jihad. Also, Jerusalem must be liberated by jihad .
The Palestinian people still fight a jihad in the cause of attaining the rest of its rights, establishing its state on its land and making noble Jerusalem its capital.
– Social Studies: Geography of the Arab Homeland and Milestones of Islamic History , Grade 7, Part 1, (2002, pp. 111) p. 24 [State]
Here I am! O Jerusalem of peace. Welcome the jihad fighters who will respond to the call for your rescue. Let eternal damnation be upon those who do not hurry to jihad!
– Our Beautiful Language: Reading and Texts , Grade 7, Part 1, (2002, pp. 62) p. 30 [State]
…The books define the martyr, talk of his high status in God's eyes and of his reward in Heaven, provide the students with examples of heroic martyrdom, both in Islamic and modern history, and feature expressions of readiness for martyrdom.
The martyr’s reward
The Messenger of God said: "A martyr is given six rewards: At the first drop of his blood all his sins are forgiven, he is shown his place in Paradise, he is made to marry the virgins of Paradise [Hur al-ayn], he is reassured regarding the great fear [of the Last Judgment] and regarding the grave torment [by interrogating angels, according to Muslim belief], and he is adorned with the decoration of belief."
– Commentary on the Surahs of Muhammad, Al-Fath, Al-Hujurat and Qaf , Grade 11, (2002) p. 28 [al-Azhar]
Expressions of readiness for becoming a martyr
The martyr died repeating ... [the phrase]: "Praise to God, for I have done my duty."
– Arabic Language: Read and Discuss , Grade 5, Part 1, (2002, pp. 67) p. 58 [State]
Making the students ready for martyrdom is an explicit goal of one of the lessons :
What do we learn in this lesson?