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2 “The operation in Gaza: factual and legal aspects—27 December 2008 – 18 January 2009”, July 2009 (hereinafter “The operation in Gaza”); “Gaza operation investigations: an update”, January 2010 (hereinafter “January update”) (A/64/651, annex I); “Gaza operation investigations: second update”, July 2010 (hereinafter “Second update”) (A/64/890, annex I).
3 “Report of the Palestinian Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to the Goldstone Report”, August 2010 (A/64/890, annex II).
4 “Case of applying recommendations of the United Nations Fact-Finding Mission report in relation to the Israeli aggression against Gaza (December 2008 to January 2009)” prepared by the Government Committee for Follow-up to the Implementation of the United Nations Fact-Finding Mission Report of the de facto Gaza authorities; “Report of the Independent Legal Committee to Monitor Implementation of the United Nations Fact-Finding Report Recommendation on Gaza Conflict”, presented to the Committee in Gaza on 15 August 2010.
5 A/HRC/12/48, paras. 596–629, 706–735, 764–769, 770–779, 780–787, 844–866, 913–941, 1064–1075, 1076–1085, 1112–1126.
6 See discussion in the FFM report (A/HRC/12/48, paras. 281–285).
7 First Geneva Convention, art. 49; Second Geneva Convention, art. 50; Third Geneva Convention, art. 129; Fourth Geneva Convention, art. 146.
8 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I, Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2005), rule 158.
9 The Committee follows the position of the FFM report that the substantive rules applicable to either international or non-international armed conflicts are broadly converging in this area (A/HRC/12/48, para. 281).
10 Jean Pictet (ed.), Commentary: Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Geneva, ICRC, 1958), pp. 592–593.
11 See, e.g., its general comment No. 31 (2004) on the nature of the legal obligation on States parties to the Covenant, para. 15.
12 See, e.g., A/HRC/12/48, footnote 1153; Umetaliev et al. v. Kyrgyztan, communication No. 1275/2004, views of 30 October 2008, paras. 9.4–9.6; Amirov v. Russian Federation, communication No. 1447/2006, views of 2 April 2009, paras. 11.2–11.4.
13 A/HRC/12/48, para. 1814.
14 Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions (Economic and Social Council resolution 1989/65, annex, principles 9–17); Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (General Assembly resolution 55/89, annex).
15 Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions, principles 10, 16 and 17; Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture, principles 2, 3, 4 and 5 (b). See also Committee against Torture, Danilo Dimitrijevic v. Serbia and Montenegro, communication No. 172/2000, views of 16 November 2005, para. 7.3, and Osmani v. Serbia, case 261/2005, 8 May 2009, para. 10.7; and Inter-American Court of Human Rights, case of the “Las Dos Erres” Massacre, No. 211, Judgement, 24 November 2009, para. 236.
16 European Court of Human Rights, Davydov and Others v. Ukraine, application Nos. 17674/02 and 39081/02, Judgement, 1 July 2010, para. 277; Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions, principle 15; Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture, principle 3 (b).
17 Manfred Nowak, U.N. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR Commentary, 2nd rev. ed. (N.P. Engel, 2005), pp. 320–321.
18 Karttunen v. Finland, communication No. 387/1989, views of 23 October 1992, para. 7.2.
19 European Court of Human Rights, Assenov and Others v. Bulgaria, Judgement, 28 October 1998, para. 103.
20 European Court of Human Rights, Musayev and Others v. Russia, application Nos. 57941/00, 58699/00 and 60403/00, Judgement, 26 July 2007, para. 162; Gül v. Turkey, Case 22676/93, Judgement, 14 December 2000, para. 89–90; Cennet Ayhan and Mehmet Salih Ayhan v. Turkey, application No. 41964/98, Judgement, 27 June 2006, para. 88; Nachova and Others v. Bulgaria, application Nos. 43577/98 and 43579/98, Judgement, 6 July 2005, para. 113.
21 Ristic v. Yugoslavia, communication No. 113/1998, views of 11 May 2001, para. 8.6. See also European Court of Human Rights, Kopylov v. Russia, application No. 3933/04, Judgement, 29 July 2010, para. 169; Akulinin and Babich v. Russia, application No. 5742/02, Judgement, 2 October 2008, para. 51.
22 European Court of Human Rights, Isayeva, Yusupova and Bazayeva v. Russia, application Nos. 57947/00, 57948/00, 57949/00), Judgement, 24 February 2005, paras. 209–213; Benuyeva and Othersv. Russia, application No.8347/05, Judgement, 22 July 2010, para. 112.
23 Blanco Abad v. Spain, communication No. 59/1996, views of 14 May 1998, para. 8.5.
24 See Halimi-Nedzibi v. Austria, application No. 8/1991, 18 November 1993, para. 13.5; M’Barek v. Tunisia, case 60/1996, 10 November 1999, paras. 11.5–11.7.
25 Musayev and Others v. Russia, para. 160.
26 A/HRC/12/48 paras. 270–285, 304.
27 On 13 September 1989, the Swiss Federal Council informed the States parties that it was not in a position to decide whether the letter constituted an instrument of accession “due to the uncertainty within the international community as to the existence or non-existence of a State of Palestine”.
28 See Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1974, p. 253 (p. 267, para. 43).
29 Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 2004, p. 136 (pp. 179–180, paras. 109–111).
30 See, for instance, the Barcelona Declaration of the Euro-Mediterranean Ministerial Conference, 27-28 November 1995.
31 A/HRC/12/48, para. 307.
32 Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226 (p. 240, para. 25); Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 2004, p. 136 (p. 178, para. 106); Case concerning Armed Activity on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2005, p. 168 (p. 243, para. 216); Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation), Provisional Measures, Order of 15 October 2008, I.C.J. Reports 2008, p. 353 (p. 387, para. 112).
33 Resolution 60/147, annex, para. 3.
34 E/CN.4/2006/53, para. 36.
35 See, e.g., E/CN.4/1995/61, para. 93.
36 Military Justice Law, sect. 178.
37 Ibid., sect. 539A (a).
38 “January update”, para. 96.
39 Ibid., paras. 124–126.
40 Ibid., para. 50.
41 Ibid., para. 132.
42 Ibid., para. 67.
43 “Second update”, para. 10.
44 “January update”, paras. 117–120.
45 “Second update”, paras. 158–163.
46 Ibid., para. 160.
47 A/HRC/12/48, paras. 745–754.
48 Ibid., paras. 1127–1142.
49 Ibid., paras. 788–801.
50 Human Rights Watch, Turning a Blind Eye: Impunity for Laws-of-War Violations during the Gaza War (April 2010), p. 40, footnote 132.
51 A/HRC/12/48, paras. 913–941.
52 Ibid., paras. 764–769.
53 “Second update”, paras. 99–102.
54 See IDF Military Advocate General takes disciplinary action, indicts soldiers following investigations into incidents during Operation Cast Lead, 6 July 2010. Available from http://dover.idf.il/IDF/English/Press+Releases/10/07/0601.htm.
55 A/HRC/12/48, paras. 867–885.
56 “Second update”, paras. 113–117.
57 A/HRC/12/48, paras. 596–629 (al-Quds hospital) and paras. 630–652 (al-Wafa hospital).
58 “The operation in Gaza”, para. 376.
59 “January update”, paras. 111–112.
60 “Second update”, para. 60.
61 A/HRC/12/48, para. 1816.
62 Ibid., para. 1817.
63 Ibid., paras. 1818 and 1825.
64 Ibid., para. 1819.
65 Ibid., para. 1820.
66 Ibid., para. 1829.
67 Ibid., para. 1831.
68 See, e.g., HCJ 4723/96, Avivit Atiyah v. Attorney-General 51(3) P.D. 714; HCJ 425/89, Jamal Abdel Kader Mahmoud v. the Chief Military Prosecutor, 43(4) P.D. 718; HCJ 372/88, Fuchs v. the Military Advocate General, 42(3) P.D. 154; HCJ 425/89, Zofan v. the Military Advocate General 43(4) P.D. 718; Cr.A. 6009/94, Shafran & Ors v. the Chief Military Prosecutor, 48(5) P.D. 573; HCJ 442/87, Shaul v. the Military Advocate General, 42(2) P.D. 749; HCJ 4550/94, Isha v. the Attorney-General, 49(5) P.D. 849.
69 “The operation in Gaza”, para. 216.
70 A/HRC/48/12, para. 1895.
71 Consultation with Adalah, Amman, 29 July 2010; consultation with the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights, Gaza City, 15 August 2010.
72 Discussions with PCHR, Gaza, 15 August 2010.
73 PCHR, “Memorandum for the United Nations Committee of Experts”, annex I, August 2010.
74 Interviews, Gaza, 15 August 2010.
75 Interviews, Gaza, 16 August 2010.
76 Interviews, Gaza, 15 August 2010.
77 A/HRC/12/48, paras. 1394–1404 (use of force during demonstrations in the West Bank); paras. 1411-1418 (violence by settlers against Palestinians in the West Bank).
78 A/HRC/12/48, para. 392.
79 In this regard, the FFM report names particular individuals, including the Deputy Prime Minister, Eli Yishai, and the Foreign Minister, Tzipi Livni, as well as Major-General Dan Harel, whose statements during “Operation Cast Lead” support its contentions that the Operation was indeed intended to cause disproportionate destruction and violence against civilians as part of a deliberate policy. The Fact-Finding Mission also charges that Israel’s strategic goals demonstrated a qualitative shift from relatively focused operations to massive and deliberate destruction. See A/HRC/12/48, paras. 1177-1216.
80 Ibid., para. 1895.
81 Issa Abu Sharar, Chair and former Head of the Supreme Court and former President of the Supreme Judicial Council; Judge Zuhair al-Surani, former Head of the Supreme Court and former President of the Supreme Judicial Council; Ghassan Farmand, Professor of Law at Birzeit University; Yasser al-Amuri, Professor of International Law at Birzeit University.
82 See Decree concerning the formation of an independent commission to follow up on the Goldstone report, article 2 (A/64/651, annex II, attachment I).
83 A/64/890, annex II, chap. II, para. 60.
84 Ibid., para. 62.
85 Ibid., para. 63.
86 Ibid., paras. 68–70.
87 The Commission covered allegations in the FFM report as follows: arrest and detention by security forces (A/HRC/12/48, paras. 1555–1558); torture and ill-treatment (paras. 1559–1560); freedom of association (para. 1561); freedom of the press; freedom of expression and opinion (paras. 1564-1570); freedom of assembly (paras. 1571–1575). The Commission also attempted to cover allegations of violations by armed groups and security services in the Gaza Strip including: launching of attacks within civilian areas (paras. 446–460); detention of Gilad Shalit (paras. 1336–1344); killings, torture and other human rights violations (paras. 1345–1372); and rocket and mortar attacks
by Palestinian armed groups on Israel (paras. 1594–1691).
88 A/64/890, annex II, chap. II, para. 62.
89 Ibid., para. 66.
90 Mr. Abdollah Alasha’al (Chair, Egypt); Mr. Basem A’alem (Saudi Arabia); Mr. Mahmood Almobarak (Saudi Arabia); Mr. Muhammad No’man Elnahhal (Gaza); Mr. Salem Elsaqqa (Gaza); Mr. Nazem Owaida (Gaza).
Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt to the United Nations in Geneva
Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations in Geneva
Permanent Mission of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the United Nations in Geneva
Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations in Geneva
Muhammad Abed, Prosecutor General, Gaza
Dhiya al-Madhoun, Central Documentation Committee, Gaza
Judge Issa Abu Sharar, Chair, Independent Investigation Commission of the Palestinian Authority
Ghassan Farmand, Member, Independent Investigation Commission of the Palestinian Authority
Yasser al-Amuri, Member, Independent Investigation Commission of the Palestinian Authority
Muhammad Faraj al-Ghoul, Chair of the Government Committee for Follow-up to the Implementation of the United Nations Fact-Finding Mission Report
Muhammad No’man Elnahhal, Member, Independent Legal Committee to Monitor Implementation of the United Nations Fact-Finding Report
Salem Elsaqqa, Member, Independent Legal Committee to Monitor Implementation of the United Nations Fact-Finding Report
Nazem Owaida, Member, Independent Legal Committee to Monitor Implementation of the United Nations Fact-Finding Report
Addameer, al-Haq, Badil, Cairo Institute for Human Rights, Christian Aid, Defence National (Israel), Geneva for Human Rights, Human Rights Watch, International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Save the Children, UN Watch, the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, the World Council of Churches. In addition, the Committee received submissions from: Adalah, al-Mezan, B’Tselem, Hamoked, the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights, the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network (EMHRN).
National human rights institutions
The Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights
Philip Alston, Professor, Former Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, arbitrary and summary executions
Abraham Bell, Professor, Bar Ilan University, Israel
Richard Falk, Special Rapporteur on the Occupied Palestinian Territories
William Fenrick, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University, Canada; former Senior Legal Adviser, Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Eugene Fidell, President of the National Institute of Military Justice, United States of America, and Florence Rogatz Lecturer in Law, Yale Law School
Jim Goldston, Open Society Institute – Justice Initiative
Col. Daniel Reisner (ret.), Former head of the IDF international law department
Marco Sassoli, Professor, University of Geneva
Michael Schmitt, Professor, Durham University and ex-Advocate-General, United States of America
Rupert Skilbeck Open Society Institute – Justice Initiative
Canadian military law expert
United Nations Special Coordinator Office for the Middle East
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
International Committee of the Red Cross