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Source: Disarmament Conference
3 August 2005




CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT
LETTER DATED 11 JULY 2005 FROM THE ALTERNATE
PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF MEXICO TO THE
CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT ADDRESSED TO THE
SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE CONFERENCE ON
DISARMAMENT TRANSMITTING THE DECLARATION
ISSUED BY THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES
AND SIGNATORIES TO TREATIES THAT ESTABLISH
NUCLEAR-WEAPON-FREE ZONES, HELD IN MEXICO CITY
FROM 26 TO 28 APRIL 2005


I have pleasure in forwarding to you the English, French and Spanish versions of the Declaration issued by the Conference of States Parties and Signatories to Treaties that Establish Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, held in Mexico City from 26 to 28 April 2005.

I would be grateful if you would arrange for this Declaration to be issued and circulated as an official document of the Conference on Disarmament.

(Signed): Pablo Macedo
Ambassador
Alternate Permanent Representative
to the Conference on Disarmament
Chargé d’affaires a.i.


Declaration of the Conference of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones 1
[Original: Arabic, English, French and Spanish]

On the occasion of the Conference on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the States parties and signatories to the Treaties of Tlatelolco (1967), Rarotonga (1985), Bangkok (1995), and Pelindaba (1996), which have established nuclear-weapon-free zones, and Mongolia, have met for the purpose of strengthening the nuclear-weapon-free zone regime and contributing to the disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation processes, and in particular to analyze ways of cooperating that can contribute to achieving the universal goal of a nuclear-weapon-free world.

Convinced that the existence of nuclear weapons constitutes a threat to the survival of humanity and that the only real guarantee against their use or threat of use is their total elimination as a way to achieve a nuclear-weapon-free world;

Convinced also of the important contribution made by the disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation regime to maintaining and strengthening international peace and security;

Confirming that Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) establishes the obligation to proceed with and to achieve nuclear disarmament;

Recognizing that the establishment of new nuclear-weapon-free-zones in regions where they do not exist should be concluded in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of SSOD-I and the principles and guidelines adopted by the UNDC at its 1999 substantive session;

Recognizing also the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories by virtue of Article VII of the NPT, the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime;

Bearing in mind that the international community must continue promoting the creation of nuclear-weapon-free zones throughout the world, as an effective means for achieving the objective of the total elimination of nuclear weapons, with the absolute priority of strengthening peace and security both at regional and international levels;

Recognizing multilateralism as the core principle of disarmament negotiations and nuclear non-proliferation efforts aimed at maintaining, strengthening and enlarging the scope of universal nuclear disarmament norms, as well as the complementary nature of irreversible and verifiable unilateral and bilateral measures in this area;

Welcoming the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free-zones created by the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba as a positive step towards achieving the objective of global nuclear disarmament, and the interest expressed by States Parties and signatories to such Treaties in promoting cooperation and consultation mechanisms among themselves, their treaty agencies and other interested States;

1. We reaffirm that the continued existence of nuclear weapons constitutes a threat to all humanity and that their use would have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth. Therefore, we believe in the need to move toward the priority objective of nuclear disarmament and to achieve the total elimination and prohibition of nuclear weapons.

2. We are convinced that reaching the objective of permanently eliminating and prohibiting nuclear weapons requires firm political will from all States, particularly those States that possess nuclear weapons.

3. We are also convinced that the establishment of internationally recognized nuclear-weapon-free zones on the basis of agreements entered into freely among the States of the zone concerned strengthens world and regional peace and security, reinforces the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and contributes to the achievement of nuclear disarmament. The establishment of such zones and the full compliance with those agreements or arrangements ensures that the zones are genuinely free from nuclear weapons, and respect for such zones by Nuclear-Weapon-States, constitute an important nuclear disarmament measure.

4. We reaffirm that the NPT constitutes an essential instrument of the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime and therefore reiterate the validity of its set of principles, obligations, and rights, in particular Articles III, IV, VI and VII.

5. We reaffirm the importance of achieving the universality of the NPT and urge those States that are not parties thereto to accede to the Treaty without delay or conditions as non-nuclear-weapon States.

6. We express our deep concern over the lack of progress to date on the application of nuclear disarmament measures agreed to by all States Parties at the 2000 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and urge all States to comply immediately with the obligation set forth in Article VI of the NPT to undertake to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, recalling in particular the unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear-weapon States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals leading to nuclear disarmament, to which all States parties are committed.

7. We express our deep concern with new strategic security doctrines, which assign a broader role to nuclear weapons, imply intentions to develop new types of nuclear weapons or rationalization for their use, as well as to review agreed principles, in particular, the irreversibility of nuclear disarmament.

8. We reaffirm that the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons constitutes a breach of international law and the United Nations Charter, and a crime against humanity, as declared in UN General Assembly Resolutions 1653 (XVI), of 24 November 1961, 33/71 B, of 14 December 1978, 34/83 G, of 11 December 1979, 35/152 D, of 12 December 1980 and 36/92 I, of 9 December 1981.

9. We strongly support the unanimous conclusion of the International Court of Justice that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects, under strict and effective international control.

10. We are convinced that a continued reduction in non-strategic nuclear weapons constitutes an integral part of the nuclear disarmament process and consider that the fundamental principles of transparency, verification, and irreversibility must be applied to all measures in this area.

11. We urge the Nuclear Weapon States to provide effective guarantees to non-nuclear-weapon States that they will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against them. In this regard, in addition to the commitments taken on within the framework of UN Security Council Resolution 984 (1995) and the legally binding security assurances set forth in the relevant Protocols to the treaties establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones, we also urge Nuclear Weapon States to continue taking steps toward concluding a universal, unconditional and legally-binding universal treaty on security assurances for non-nuclear-weapon States and that until such treaty exists to respect the commitments assumed regarding security assurances. Priority attention should be given to this matter.

12. We urge the Nuclear Weapon States and any other States listed or mentioned in the relevant Protocols to the treaties establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones that have not yet signed or ratified the Protocols to do so as soon as possible.

13. We also urge the Nuclear Weapon States that, having signed or ratified some of the relevant Protocols to a treaty establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone, have done so with reservations or unilateral interpretations that affect the denuclearization status of that zone to modify or withdraw such reservations or unilateral interpretations.

14. We recognize that the status of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone should be respected by all State parties to the treaty establishing the zone as well as by States outside the region, including all States whose cooperation and support are essential for the maximum effectiveness of such a zone, namely, the Nuclear-Weapon-States and, if there are any, States with territory or that are internationally responsible for territories situated within the zone concerned.

15. We proudly note with satisfaction that with the entry into force of Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga and Bangkok, which had established nuclear-weapon-free zones in Latin America and the Caribbean, the South Pacific and Southeast Asia, along with the Antarctic Treaty and the Seabed Treaty, the areas of the world that are nuclear-weapon-free had been expanded.

16. We similarly welcome the efforts aimed at concluding the ratification process of the Treaty of Pelindaba, signed on 12 April 1996, which created Africa’s nuclear-weapon-free zone, and exhort the States of the region that have not yet done so to ratify the Treaty so it may enter into force. Likewise, we urge the Nuclear Weapon States and other States that are contemplated in its relevant Protocols to sign or ratify said Protocols if they have yet to do so.

17. We express our recognition and full support of Mongolia’s international nuclear-weapon-free status.

18. We reiterate our support for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free- zone in the Middle East and, in this regard, we reaffirm the importance of Israel’s accession to the NPT and the placement of all its nuclear facilities under comprehensive IAEA safeguards, in realizing the goal of universal adherence to the Treaty in the Middle East.

19. We also reiterate our support for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South Asia and urge India and Pakistan to accede to the Non-Proliferation Treaty as non-nuclear-weapon States and to place all their nuclear facilities under comprehensive Agency safeguards. We further urge both States to strengthen their non-proliferation export control measures over technologies, material and equipment that can be used for the production of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems.

20. We welcome the Tashkent statement of representatives of the five Central Asian States of February 2005, where they reaffirmed their strong commitments to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia and urged all States, particularly the nuclear-weapon States, to fully cooperate with the five Central Asian States in implementing the Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty.

21. We reaffirm our commitment to reach the common objectives set forth in the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba to promote the nuclear-weapon-free zones; to cooperate in the advancement of ratifications by all states that belong to a nuclear weapon-free-zone as well as in the implementation of relevant instruments as a contribution to strengthen the NPT regime and achieve nuclear disarmament, including through mechanisms such as joint meetings of the States parties, signatories, and observers of those treaties, and cooperation agreements signed among them in a systematic manner within the framework of the NPT Review Conferences.

22. We accept the application of the relevant rules of international law, expressly recognized by States , to the maritime areas covered by the nuclear weapon free zones.

23. We reiterate our position for the total elimination of all nuclear testing and stress the significance of achieving universal adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, including by all Nuclear Weapon States, which inter alia, should contribute to the process of nuclear disarmament. We highlight the importance of maintaining a moratorium on nuclear-weapon-test-explosions or any other nuclear explosions pending the entry into force of that Treaty. We reiterate that if the objectives of the Treaty were to be fully realized, the continued commitment of all signatories, especially the Nuclear Weapon States, to nuclear disarmament would be essential.

24. We reaffirm the inalienable right of all States to develop the research, production, and utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination, as well as the inviolability of nuclear facilities. We further reaffirm that the nuclear-weapon-free-zones should not prevent the use of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes, as well as the essential character of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical cooperation activities in promoting the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and preventing the diversion of atomic energy for military purposes. In this regard, we underscore the important role of the IAEA in verifying that nuclear energy is only used for peaceful purposes. 2

25. We reaffirm that the nuclear-weapon-free zone could also promote, if provided for in the treaties establishing such zones, bilateral, regional and international cooperation for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the zone, in support for socio-economic, scientific and technological development of the State parties. We call upon all States in a position to do so to contribute to the financing of the IAEA technical cooperation activities, as essential in promoting nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and represent valuable contributions in that regard, particularly in developing countries.

26. We recognize the fundamental role of the IAEA in the application and verification of compliance with the international safeguards regime provided for in the NPT and the relevant NWFZ treaties, as well as the efforts of the IAEA to strengthen the effectiveness of the IAEA safeguards system.

27. We are firmly convinced that the most effective way to prevent non-State actors from acquiring nuclear weapons is through the total elimination of those weapons, and to this end, we encourage cooperation among and between States and relevant regional and international organizations for strengthening national capacities in this regard.

28. We express our deep concern over the potential hazards underlying any use of radioactive wastes that would constitute radiological warfare and its implications for regional and international security, and express the hope that the effective implementation of the IAEA Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste will enhance the protection of all States from the dumping of radioactive wastes in their territories.

29. We reiterate our deep concern over the potential serious ecological and security risks of transporting radioactive material and other dangerous waste by sea or other navigable waters and urge all States, particularly those that transport such materials, to strengthen the international legal code as regards security and responsibility measures applicable to this mode of transportation, through the effective application of the commitments adopted within the IAEA, the IMO and other international fora. We also urge all States to exchange information at the government level on the transport of radioactive material and urge States shipping radioactive materials to work with potentially affected States to address their concerns in this regard. 3

30. We express our conviction that disarmament and non-proliferation education constitutes an important measure that can contribute to achieving a world free of nuclear weapons threats. We therefore encourage all States to promote programs instilling the values of peace, disarmament, and nuclear non-proliferation in their respective educational and academic spheres and call upon IAEA and donor countries to help in the promotion and implementation of such programs.

31. We recognize the importance of multilateralism and in particular the notable role played by the United Nations in the area of nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation and we reiterate our commitment to adopting measures to strengthen that role.


Notes


1 Originally issued as annex III to General Assembly document A/60/121 of 14 July 2005.
2 Please, see Rapporteur’s report (CZLAN/CONF/4).
3 Please, see Rapporteur’s report (CZLAN/CONF/4).

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