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UNITED
NATIONS
A

        General Assembly
Distr.
GENERAL
A/42/183
E/1987/53

13 April 1987

ORIGINAL: ENGLISH

GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Forty-first session
Item 12 of the preliminary list*
REPORT OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Second regular session of 1987
Item 11 of the provisional agenda**
INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS


Living conditions of the Palestinian people
in the occupied Palestinian territories

Report of the Secretary-General


1. The General Assembly at its fortieth session, after considering the report of the Secretary-General on the living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories (A/40/373-E/1985/99), adopted resolution 40/201, in paragraph 6 of which it requested the Secretary-General: (a) to organize by April 1987, a seminar on priority development projects needed for improving the living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories, including a comprehensive general housing program, as recommended in resolution 8/3 of the Commission on Human Settlements; (b) to make necessary preparations for the seminar, providing for the participation of the Palestine Liberation Organization; (c) to invite experts to present papers to the seminar; (d) to invite also relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations; (e) to report to the Assembly at its forty-first session, through the Economic and Social Council, on the preparations for the seminar; (f) to report: to the Assembly at its forty-second session, through the Economic and Social Council, on the seminar.

2. The Secretary-General accordingly submitted a progress report on preparations for the seminar (A/41/415-E/1986/104) to the General Assembly at its forty-first session, through the Economic and Social Council. The General Assembly took note of the report in decision 41/453.

3. The Seminar was held at the Vienna International Center from 2 to 6 March 1987. The report on the Seminar is contained in the annex to the present report.


ANNEX
Report of the Seminar on the Living Conditions of the Palestinian
People in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

(Vienna, 2-6 March 1987)

CONTENTS
Paragraphs
pages
I.INTRODUCTION
1-3
5
II.GENERAL FRAMEWORK
4-5
5
III.SUMMARIES OF PROJECT PROPOSALS
6
6
A.Establishment of an Arab cement company in the West Bank
7
B.Development of a seaport in Gaza
8
C.Establishment of a co-operative factory to process selected local fruits and vegetables
9
D.Establishment of a marketing agency for Palestinian agricultural products
11
E.Establishment of a training and production centre for arts and crafts
12
F.Production and training centre for textiles and ready-made garments
14
G.Ceramics factory in Hebron
15
H.Sardine canning factory in Gaza
16
I.Development of sheep stock and training of farmers
17
J.Establishment of a poultry hatchery
19
K.Propagation and use of jojoba
20
L.Satisfaction of housing needs
22
M.Satisfaction of the energy needs of rural communities
23
N.Organization and provision of an inexpensive transport network as a co-operative venture
25
O.Improvement of the road network
26
P.Water utilization
28
Appendix .List of participants
29



I. INTRODUCTION


1. The Seminar on the Living Conditions of the Palestinian People in the Occupied Palestinian Territories was held at the Vienna International Center from 2 to 6 March 1987, pursuant to General Assembly resolution 40/201.

2. The Seminar was attended by 10 experts who prepared project proposals for the Seminar; the representatives of two United Nations Secretariat units, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs; and the representatives of one specialized agency, the World Health Organization. Representatives of the Palestine Liberation Organization also participated, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 40/201. The League of Arab States was also represented. A list of participants is given in the appendix.

3. The Seminar established three working groups, which examined project proposals related to:

(a) Agriculture and industry;

(b) Training, manpower development and employment;

(c) Housing and infrastructure.

Summaries of the project proposals, as agreed upon by the working groups, were considered at the final plenary meeting and are presented in section III below.

II. GENERAL FRAMEWORK

4. To facilitate the work of the Seminar, the participants agreed to consider the project proposals in a general framework for project identification and assessment. The following general framework was agreed upon:

(a) As there is at present no integrated plan for development in the occupied Palestinian territories, it is necessary to select individual projects that can eventually be implemented;

(b) Project identification and selection should focus on:

(i) Agriculture, industry and utilization of land and other resources;

(ii) Housing, to establish the people on the land and protect: that which is not yet confiscated;

(iii) Development of manpower and improvement of technological skills as central prerequisites for development, providing job opportunities and expanding the number of beneficiaries of the development process;

(iv) Institution-building to inculcate the values of co-operation, group action and solidarity;

(c) Scarce financial resources should be used optimally; hence, duplication of Projects should be avoided, bearing in mind the programs and activities of the organizations of the United Nations system, governmental, non-governmental and other bilateral and multilateral sources of assistance to the Palestinian People in the occupied Palestinian territories;

(d) The constraints imposed by the Israeli occupation and the need to be inventive and selective in the choice of projects should be borne in mind.

5. The participants agreed to give high priority to projects directed towards the following objectives:

(a) Increased productivity and the expansion, diversification and improvement of production in agriculture and industry;

(b) The use of surplus perishable agricultural produce, particularly through the establishment of agro-industries in which there is complementarity between the two sectors;

(c) The promotion of housing and related activities through a program to make greater use of physical and financial resources;

(d) Increased import substitution and export potential;

(e) An improvement in the geographical distribution of projects, taking into account resource endowment.

The central theme underlying all these objectives was labor absorption and the entrenchment of the Palestinian people in their homes and on their land.

III. SUMMARIES OF PROJECT PROPOSALS*


6. The participants presented a number of project proposals to tile Seminar, which are summarized below.

A. Establishment of an Arab cement company in the West Bank

1. Development objective: To promote the growth of industry, particularly in the construction sector, including housing and related infrastructure, in the occupied Palestinian territories.

2. Immediate objective: To establish an Arab cement company in the West Bank.

3. Background and justification: At present, almost all cement requirements of the occupied Palestinian territories are supplied by Israel under a quota system which meets less than 50 per cent of the demand for cement. The remaining demand is usually met from private Israeli wholesalers at very high prices. Owing to the Israeli monopoly of the cement market, there are- periodical shortages of cement in the occupied Palestinian territories. As cement is an essential commodity for development programs, especially housing and infrastructure construction, the production of cement locally will help: (a) to make the occupied territories self-sufficient in cement; (b) to mobilize the idle human and natural resources in the occupied territories; (c) to create direct employment opportunities for about 1,000 workers, as well as significant indirect employment opportunities in the construction sector and ancillary industries. Studies indicated that the raw materials needed for cement production are available and that it is possible to establish a cement factory in the vicinity of Hebron.

4. Outputs:

(a) Feasibility study report;

(b) Construction of a cement factory;

(c) Production of 1,500 tons of cement per day.

5. Activities:

(a) Raw materials investigations;

(b) Feasibility study based on the above investigations;

(c) Constitution of the company;

(d) Construction of the cement factory;

(e) Recruitment of manpower for operation and management.
---
It was agreed that the participants would revise their project proposals taking into account the comments made during the discussion at the Seminar, and forward their revised proposals to the United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat).

6. Inputs:

(a) Consultants and experts to conduct a feasibility study;

(b) Utilization of the raw materials available in the occupied Palestinian territories;

(c) Mobilization of manpower available in the occupied territories;

(d) Provision of electricity and water to the site;

(e) Expertise from abroad to erect and commission the factory;

(f) Purchase and installation of equipment and machinery.

7. Prerequisites: It will be necessary to obtain permits from the occupying authorities for different activities such as drilling, building, using land, drilling of water wells, constructing a power station and importing equipment and machines as well as eventual mining.

8. Estimated costs:

Pre-investment activities
$US 1 000 000
Investments
Working capital
48 100 000
2 000 000
TOTAL
$US 51 100 000


9. Possible sources of funding:

(a) Founder shareholders;

(b) Other shareholders;

(c) Long-/medium-term loans from suppliers of equipment and machines;

(d) Development banks and other financial sources.

10. Available documentation: Said J. Haifa, "Establishment of an Arab cement company in the West Bank", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

B. Development of a seaport in Gaza

1. Development objective: To develop the infrastructure in Gaza to improve the economic and social conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories.

2. Immediate objective: To develop a seaport in Gaza which will provide the Palestinian people with an outlet to the sea.

3. Background and justification: in view of the isolation of Gaza under occupation, there is an urgent need to find an outlet for its products and access to outside markets. A seaport can provide such an outlet, thus improving the quality of life and relieving some of the pressures that exist in the Gaza Strip.

4. Outputs:

(a) Feasibility study report;

(b) Technical report on design and construction of a commercial seaport;

c) Commercial seaport.

5. Activities:

(a) Geological, oceanographic, climatical and economic surveys;

(b) Modeling, that is, making a model of the seaport;

(c) Preparation of the full feasibility report.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:

Data collection and survey
Modeling
Port design by various specialized engineers
Transportation
Economic evaluation and financial analysis
Administration
Construction of the seaport

TOTAL
$US 150 000
120 000
450 000
20 000
215 000
32 000
(to be determined)

$us.987.000

7. Institutional framework: To be managed by an independent port authority.

8. Available documentation: Said A. Assaf, “Development of a seaport in Gaza”, paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

C. Establishment of a co-operative factory to process selected local fruits and vegetables

1. Development objectives:

(a) To broaden the industrial sector and increase the contribution ratio of the industrial sector to the GDP, which is now not more than 5 per cent;

(b) To help revive the agricultural sector by creating price stability for farm products as well as increasing the value of such products;

(c) To reduce foreign trade balance deficits for the occupied territories.

2. Immediate objective: To process a substantial part of the surplus of vegetables and fruits. The proposed processing capacity is 50,000 tons of farm products annually. In addition, the factory will manufacture by-products and residues.

3. Background and justification: At present there is on average a surplus of 242,000 tons of fruits, vegetables and olives per year in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. None of the existing agricultural co-operatives and local business firms have succeeded in establishing permanent markets for farm products in the Arab, European or other countries, although pre-feasibility studies have shown the potential for such markets. This co-operative factory will have the advantage of being operational in all seasons, and of hiring workers on a permanent basis, since it will process a variety of farm products in different seasons, including citrus, tomatoes, figs, cucumber, olives, eggplants, peaches, peas and beans. Several alternative processing methods will be available, which may be adopted according to the marketing needs or existing farm product surplus. These include extracting, canning, pickling, drying, freezing of fruits and vegetables, cooking of fruits, jams, jellies, butter and marmalades. The project will be completed in two years and will provide direct employment for 150 persons.

4. Outputs:

(a) Feasibility study report;

(b) An output of 17,500 tons of final food and juice products yearly, in various flavors, types, packages, weights and designs;

(c) Other by-products which may be processed further or sold in raw form.

5. Activities:

(a) Conducting detailed marketing research to identify brands, trademarks, ingredients, components and packaging;

(b) Conducting an economic feasibility study to test the profitability of the suggested process alternatives;

(c) Depending on the findings of the feasibility study, the following steps will be initiated: establishing the co-operative firm; designing and constructing the factory; recruiting manpower; testing of production process.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:



Land
Construction
Equipment
Establishment expenses (including the feasibility study)
Working capital
$US 150 000
500 000
2 100 000
50 000
200 000
TOTAL
$US 3 000 000
7. Institutional framework: An institution based on a co-operative firm, owned by at least 800 farmers, will be established.

8. Available documentation: Nidal R. Sabri, "Establishment of a
co-operative factory to process selected local fruits and vegetables in the West Bank", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

D. Establishment of a marketing agency for Palestinian agricultural products

1. Development objective: To promote the economic independence of the Palestinian people by facilitating the marketing of Palestinian agricultural products at the local and international levels.

2. Immediate objective: The establishment of a marketing agency for agricultural products, which would assist in solving marketing problems, identifying marketing opportunities and improving marketing organization and methods.

3. Background in formation and justification: The occupied Palestinian territories face numerous problems and constraints in marketing their surplus of agricultural products. Discriminatory regulations govern trade with Israel. Local markets in the occupied territories are unconditionally open to Israeli produce while export of farm products from these territories to Israeli markets are permitted only on a strictly selective basis. In addition, Palestinian exports to the Arab and other markets face various administrative and Procedural obstacles including lack of direct access. The constraints to marketing of Palestinian products are aggravated by, the absence of any group or institution to deal with the whole marketing process and the absence of an effective market research and information system. The proposed marketing agency is intended to fill these gaps.

4. Output: A report on the feasibility of establishing a marketing agency for Palestinian agricultural products, identifying its functions and its relationships with existing co-operatives and other producers' associations.

5. Activities:

(a) Survey on advisory services needed at the farm level and on the nature of grading, packing and storage required to serve local as well as foreign markets;

(b) General survey of specific markets to be served;

(c) Survey of credit available for marketing fruits and vegetables;

(d) Identification of investment opportunities in fruit and vegetable processing enterprises.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:

Local and international consultants
Experts' travel and other expenses
Administrative support
$US 204 000
25 000
5 000
TOTAL
$US 234 000
7. Institutional framework: The marketing agency may carry out its activities with the assistance of several institutions in the West Bank, such as the Bir Zeit University and the Rural Center for Research and Studies in Al-Najah University. In addition, the local existing agricultural co-operatives will collaborate in the project's activities.

8. Prerequisites and obligations: Removal of Israeli restrictions on Palestinian exports to Arab and other markets.

9. Available documentation: Antoine Mansour, "Project proposal on the establishment of a marketing agency for Palestinian products"; and Hisham Awartani, "Establishment of an agricultural export corporation", papers prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

E. Establishment of a training and production center for arts and crafts

1. Development objectives:

(a) To expand production and increase job opportunities and income earnings in the handicraft sector;

(b) To improve productivity and product quality through appropriate technologies and development of skills.

2. Immediate objective: To establish a production and training center for traditional arts and crafts to:

(a) Develop demonstrative, promotional and commercial production, starting with specific arts and crafts which would have been identified as areas of priority;

(b) Develop training facilities and other services in product design, production and management;

(c) Train, on a regular basis, a significant number of entrants to the various handicraft areas.

3. Background and justification: At present, there are more than 700 small enterprises employing about 3,700 people engaged in producing handicrafts and supporting 14,000 dependants. This traditional industry is faced with a series of problems leading to poor economic returns, particularly low quality of products and competition from cheap imported articles. It is proposed that the center as defined above will be established within a period of two years and will commence its activities with international support for an additional period of one year.

4. Output: Production and training center for traditional arts and crafts.

5. Activities:

(a) Designing and constructing the center in Bethlehem (West Bank);

(b) Designing, formulating and conducting training programs at the center

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Personnel
Land
Buildings
Equipment
$US 100 000
200 000
800 000
300 000
TOTAL

Running costs for the first year (estimate)
$US 1 400 000

$US 500 000

7. Institutional framework: The center will be an independent unit operating in close collaboration with craft associations and co-operatives, universities and vocational institutes.

8. Available documentation:

(a) Palestine Liberation organization, "A preliminary techno-economic feasibility study for the establishment of a production and training center for the tourist trade industries in the West Bank";

(b) S. Kanaana, “A proposal for the establishment of a center for traditional Palestinian arts and crafts”, papers prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.


F. Production and training center for textiles and ready-made garments

1. Development objectives:

(a) To expand production and increase job opportunities and income earnings, especially for women in the textile and garment industries;

(b) To improve productivity and product quality through appropriate technologies and development of skills.

2. Immediate objective: To establish a production and training center for textiles and ready-made garments to:

(a) Develop demonstratives promotional and commercial production, starting in specific textile and garment manufacture areas, which would have been identified as areas of priority;

(b) Develop training facilities and other services in product design and quality control, production and management;

(c) Train on a regular basis a significant number of entrants to the various textiles and ready-made garment areas.

3. Background and justification: There are at present more than 819 firms in the textiles and ready-made garment industries employing 2,800 people. The majority of these firms are small workshops employing less than five people. The quality of their products vary and they have not been able to respond adequately to changes in domestic demand in terms of quality and variety as they lack the necessary knowledge and capacity to innovate and modernize their production methods. The proposed center will help these firms in these aspects of production. The project will produce various types of children's, men's and women's outer and undergarments, socks, stockings, towels and other items. The industry will rely on a variety of raw materials, such as cotton, wool and mixed fibers and dyes. Traditional designs and motifs will be especially encouraged and adapted to present requirements and artistic tastes.

4. Output: A training and production center which will produce various types of textiles and garments and provide opportunities for related training services to the local industry.

5. Activities:

(a) Designing and constructing the center in Gaza;

(b) Designing, formulating and conducting training programs at the center.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Personnel
Land
Building
Equipment
$US 100 000
200 000
800 000
500 000
TOTAL

Running costs for the first year:
$US 1 600 000

$US 400 000
7. Institutional framework: The center will be an independent unit operating in close collaboration with the textile producers and workers associations as well as the chemical department of the Islamic University and local vocational institutes.

8. Available documentation: Palestine Liberation Organization, “A Preliminary techno-economic feasibility study for the establishment of a training and production center for the textiles and ready-made garments industry in the occupied Palestinian territories", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

G. Ceramics factory in Hebron

1. Development objective: To increase employment opportunities and earnings by improving the quality of ceramic products in the occupied Palestinian territories

2. Immediate objectives:

(a) To obtain specific geological data on available clay;

(b) To determine methods of upgrading and diversifying local production of ceramics;

(c) To prepare a feasibility study for constructing a clay processing plant.

3. Background and justification: Pottery is a traditional handicraft in the Palestinian territories. However, there is a great need to upgrade the skills of the producers who still use traditional methods which make the produced articles below standards acceptable to buyers. The duration of the, project will be 24 months.

4. Outputs:

(a) A feasibility study including a geological survey for appropriate clay;

(b) A marketing study;

(c) A feasibility study for a ceramics plant.

5. Inputs and estimated costs:


Surveys and research reports
Engineering design for the factory
Miscellaneous expenses
Transport
Administration costs
$US 224 000
22 000
17 000
2 000
4 000
TOTAL
$US 269 000
6. Institutional framework: Appropriate institutional arrangements will be made to carry out the project in collaboration with existing local institutions.

7. Available documentation: Said A. Assaf, *Project proposal for a ceramics factory in Hebron”, paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

H. Sardine canning factory in Gaza

1. Development objective: To improve the economy of the Gaza Strip by increasing self-sufficiency in fishmeal production and marketing and by processing and marketing the abundant surplus of sardines.

2. Immediate objective: To determine the feasibility of establishing a sardine canning factory in the Gaza Strip.

3. Background and Justification: Fishing is an important industry in the Gaza Strip. Two thirds of the fish harvested are sardines. During the fishing period for sardines (May and October), there is a glut in the market, and as they cannot be frozen, prices fluctuate greatly. Canning of the surplus will help stabilize prices and also afford a wider market. This project, with a duration-of 12 months, will benefit 2,500 fishermen in the Gaza Strip.

4. Outputs:

(a) A report on available sardine resources;

(b) A technical report on the feasibility of establishing a canning factory;

(c) An economic and financial report.

5. Activities:

(a) Preparation of a feasibility study on resources available;

(b) Preparation of a technical, economic and financial study on the canning facility.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Data collection on resources
Data collection for establishing a canning factory
Preparation of reports
Technical designs for canning factory
Economic evaluation
Administrative costs
Construction costs (to be determined)
$US 18 000
12 000
16 000
24 000
9 000
8 000
TOTAL
$US 99 000
7. Institutional framework: A local scientific institute with professional food technologists and engineers will undertake the feasibility study and support other activities of a technical nature.

8. Available documentation: Said A. Assaf, "Project proposal for a sardine canning factory in Gaza”, paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

I. Development of sheep stock and training of farmers

1. Development objectives:

(a) To increase the sheep stock and the production of sheep milk, meat and other by-products, with a view to making the population more self-sufficient in food;

(b) To promote the breeding of the two prevalent sheep breeds (Syrian Awassi and Assaf hybrid of Freisian on Awassi);

(c) To improve sheep breeding techniques.

2. Immediate objectives:

(a) To assess the present situation of demand and supply of sheep stock and sheep products;

(b) To examine the potential of Awassi sheep and the Assaf hybrid sheep through the provision of a laboratory for research and the application of appropriate technology;

(c) To develop training programs to demonstrate and disseminate Information on management and the use of hormones, drugs, feed.

3. Background and Justifications: Palestinian farmers have been raising sheep for thousands of years. Following the occupation in 1967, the number of sheep decreased by roughly 50 per cent due to grazing restrictions. The proposed project aim at increasing the number of Assaf sheep, a hybrid breed now numbering over 7,000 In the Went Bank. Assaf sheep have the advantage of thriving well in confined spaces and being move productive in meat and milk. The project is also designed to increase the sheep stock through the proper selection and breeding of the local Awassi sheep. The proposed project will have a duration of two years.

4. Outputs:

(a) A study assessing the present demand and supply of sheep stock and sheep products;

(b) A feasibility study on the potential and appropriate selection of local Awassi sheep and the propagation of the hybrid Assaf sheep;

(c) Appropriate training materials and programs and dissemination of information to co-operatives and sheep owners;

(d) Demonstration sessions on sheep raising.

5. Activities:

(a) Preparation of a study on sheep resources and markets;

(b) Preparation of a feasibility study on propagation of the Assaf hybrid sheep and on the selection from the Awassi breed;

(c) Preparation of materials for training programs and demonstration sessions, and for dissemination of information;

(d) Organization of demonstration sessions for sheep owners.


6. Inputs and estimated costs:

Personnel including consultants and technicians

Output (a)
Output (b)
Output (d)
$US 20 000
20 000
15 000
SUBTOTAL
55 000
Assistance to sheep owners
Equipment
Educational materials

TOTAL
200 000
100 000
E45 000

$US 400 000

7. Institutional framework: The Arab Scientific Institute for Research and Transfer of Technology (ASIR), a local institution based in 91-Bireh, West Bank, has already been actively involved in the selection of the local Awassi breed and the-development and introduction of a new Assaf hybrid breed. This institute and its existing experimental station could serve as a focal point for the implementation of the project.

8. Available documentation: Said A. Assaf, “Project proposal for sheep development in the West Bank and Gaza Strip using transfer of technology of Assaf hybrid sheep”; and H. Awartani, "Development of sheep raising", papers prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

J. Establishment of a poultry hatchery

1. Development objectives:

(a) Improvement of the quality and productivity of the poultry sector;

(b) Integration of technologies and services in poultry farming.

2. Immediate objectives:

(a) The provision of chicks to poultry farmers in the occupied territories;

(b) Establishment of a hatchery to provide 15 to 20 per cent: of the local needs.

3. Background and justification: During the period 1960-1967, the poultry industry in the West Bank developed at a rapid pace but has undergone fundamental changes since then. However, poultry farming still continues to occupy a prominent place in the farming sectors of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. This two-year project will create direct employment for 30 people and indirectly for 200.

4. Outputs:

(a) An updated feasibility report on the establishment of a poultry hatchery and a breeder farm, in which the capacity of both will be determined;

(b) Establishment of a poultry hatchery and a breeder farm.

5. Activities:

(a) Preparation of an updated feasibility study on the economic and technical aspects of the project;

(b) Preparation of a feasibility study on the financial aspects of the project including resources and cost of the project.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Consultants
Land
Construction
Equipment
Breeder flock
Other fixtures
15 000
80 000
320 000
380 000
100 000
70 000
TOTAL
965.000

7. Institutional framework: The project will be implemented by the Ramallah poultry co-operative.

8. Available documentation: H. Awartani, "Establishment of a poultry hatchery’, paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

K. Propagation and use of jojoba

1. Development objective: To improve and diversify the agricultural sector which will lead to an increase in the income of Palestinian farmers.

2. Immediate objective: To propagate the jojoba tree and encourage its planting and harvesting by farmers.

3. Background and justification: The fruit of the jojoba tree yields an oil which is very similar to olive oil. This multistem tree has been found suitable for the climate in the West Bank and Gaza Strip through experiments carried out by the Arab Scientific Institute for Research and Transfer of Technology (ASIR). The jojoba produces rapidly, requires little care and minimal water. It can be grown on marginal lands. Its cultivation can provide an additional source of income to the farmers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. This two-year project will provide employment for expert trainers, agricultural technicians and benefit trainees, students and farmers.

4. Outputs:

(a) A feasibility study;

(b) Dissemination of information;

(c) Production of 500,000 jojoba plant seedlings;

(d) Planting 100 hectares of jojoba in the first two years;

(e) Investigation of the possibility of producing jojoba shampoo, cosmetics and other useful agro-industrial products by the local cosmetics, pharmaceutical and medicinal factories;

(f) Training of farmers, agriculture graduates and students;

(g) Setting up a co-operative of Arab or Palestinian jojoba growers.

5. Activities:

(a) Dissemination of information;

(b) Demonstrations and extension;

(c) Establishment of a solvent extraction system on a pilot scale;

(d) Setting up of a jojoba press within an existing olive oil mill;

(e) Assistance to farmers in introducing and planting the tree;

(f) Initiating development of various products using jojoba oil.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Feasibility study
Dissemination of information
Physical facilities
Equipment
Supplies
Irrigation system
Drip irrigation
Shared costs with farmers
Rental of space (per year)
$US 20 000
38 000
76 000
280 400
74 600
9 000
19 000
45 000
6 000
TOTAL
$US 568 000

7. Institutional framework: The project will be carried out in close collaboration with appropriate local institutions, especially the Arab Scientific Institute for Research and Transfer of Technology (ASIR).

8. Available documentation: Said A. Assaf, "Project proposal for the propagation and use of jojoba (hohoba) in the West Bank and Gaza Strip", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

L. Satisfaction of housing needs

1. Development objective: To improve housing and living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories.

2. Immediate, objective: To determine the type, size and cost of affordable housing as well as the organization and technologies required for a comprehensive housing program in the occupied territories.

3. Background and justification: Estimates of the present housing shortage in the occupied territories vary between 19,000 and 30,000 units. In addition, annual demand resulting from population growth, and movement from rural-to-urban and urban-to-rural areas and replacement of old houses is estimated to be at least 7,200 units. Approximately 5,600 housing units are now being constructed annually through local initiatives. Any housing program that would effectively alleviate the problem should aim towards at least doubling that number. In addition to the question of financing and organization, the achievement of this objective requires the development of the construction sector and the use of alternative technologies for low-income housing. The duration of the project will be 12 months.

4. Outputs:

(a) A report on the income structure of households, target income groups in both rural and urban areas and the housing they can afford;

(b) A report on the cost of housing employing traditional construction methods, including the cost of land, infrastructure, taxation and permit fees;

(c) A report on the availability of land for housing construction;

(d) A report proposing an organizational structure for the financing and administration of the housing program;

(e) Model house designs for the different target income groups;

(f) A report on the applicability of alternative technologies;

(g) A final consolidated report.

5. Activities:

(a) Preparation Of a study on the income structure of households;

(b) Preparation of a study an construction costs and technologies;

(c) Preparation of a study on land use;

(d) Determination of housing costs and target income groups;

(e) Preparation of a study of required organizational structure;

(f) Preparation of model house designs;

(g) Preparation of a study on the applicability of Building System V and other alternative technologies;

(h) Preparation of a final consolidated report.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Staff services
Travel, etc.
Transport
$US 135 200
12 000
2 800
TOTAL
150.000
7. Institutional frameworks: Bir Zeit University and the Building Research Center of the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan will provide the project staff and guide its activities. Each institute should appoint a manager, one of whom will be designated project co-ordinator. The co-ordinator will follow up the joint activities to ensure that the various phases of the work are
properly accomplished and will compile and produce the reports.

8. Available documentation: Daud Jabaji, *Technologies and organization for the satisfaction of housing needs in the occupied territories", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.


M. Satisfaction of the energy needs of rural communities

1. Development objectives:

(a) Promotion of more comfortable living conditions in rural communities;

(b) Expansion of employment opportunities;

(c) Utilization of local renewable energy resources.

2. Immediate objectives:

(a) To develop an efficient integrated solar/wind energy source for rural communities;

(b) To establish a factory to supply the required equipment for the suggested hybrid solar/wind energy system.

3. Background and justification: One of the most serious impediments to rural development and an improved quality of life is the lack of adequate energy. In fact, 70 per cent of the rural

communities in the West Bank are without electricity. This 20-month project will create employment for 35 workers.

4. Outputs:

(a) A report on the feasibility of alternative energy sources for the rural communities;

(b) A plant for manufacturing solar and wind energy units.

5. Activities:

(a) A study on possible alternative energy sources for space heating, domestic water heating and house electrification;

(b) The investigation of the feasibility of solar/wind energy in comparison to the independent generation of electricity employing conventional methods;

(c) Studying the feasibility of setting up a manufacturing facility of solar and wind system components;

(d) Construction of the plant.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Research
Engineering design
Staffing
Land and buildings
Equipment
Other expenses
US$ 60 000
30 000
20 000
250 000
200 000
13 000
TOTAL
573.000

7. Institutional framework:

(a) Bir Zeit University will provide the research and the engineering design teams;

(b) An interested group will form a business firm to manufacture the components.

8. Available documentation: A. T. Hamad, "Energy needs for rural
communities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

N. Organization and provision of an inexpensive transport network as a co-operative venture

1. Development objective: Improvement of accessibility to employment and service centers for the rural population, particularly in remote areas.

2. Immediate objectives: The establishment of a model transportation co-operative using three mini-buses in the village of Tafouh-Hebron, and strengthening the existing transport co-operatives in Qatanneh and Beit Ikssa by providing one bus to each. This will be followed by the creation of an additional 10 transportation co-operatives forming an integrated network of transportation services for the occupied territories.

3. Background and justification: Public transportation in the rural areas of the occupied territories is often inadequate and sometimes non-existent. Without inexpensive, reliable public transportation, families are forced to leave their villages and settle in urban centers to be near work, schools and markets. Cheap and reliable transportation is also a major factor in marketing agricultural produce to towns and cities. The project will provide
employment for about 50 persons.

4. Outputs:

(a) One new transportation co-operative;

(b) Considerable strengthening of two existing transportation co-operatives;

(c) Ten new transportation co-operatives established on the basis of the experience of the above three;

(d) A maintenance unit to service 35 buses.

5. Activities:

(a) Organization of co-operatives;

(b) Registration and licensing;

(c) Purchase of buses and setting up of maintenance units;

(d) Provision of transport for an average of 50 per cent of passengers in the villages concerned.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:

35 mini-buses
Miscellaneous costs

TOTAL
$US 2 275 000
158 000

$US 2 433 000
7. Institutional framework: A board of directors will be elected by the members of each co-operative. Each board will appoint a manager for the co-operative who will manage the overall activities. The co-operatives will be supervised by the Co-operative Department and the Jordan Co-operative Organization (JCO).

8. Available documentation: A. Obeidat, “Organization and provision of an inexpensive transport network as a co-operative venture”, paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

0. Improvement of the road network

1. Development objectives:

(a) Promotion of economic growth and social progress in the occupied territories by reducing travel and transportation costs;

(b) Improved accessibility to sources of goods and services to increase the opportunity for people to obtain them.

2. Immediate objective: Improvement of the existing road network to strengthen linkages between Palestinian villages and towns, and creation of new linkages for unserved areas.

3. Background and justification: The road plans prepared and implemented by the occupying authorities neglect completely the existing road system and concentrate mainly on connections between Jewish settlements and the Israeli road system. Many rural Palestinian communities remain poorly connected with urban centers which are the markets for agricultural produce and in which new employment opportunities and essential personal services exist. The inadequacies and poor quality in the form, extent and configuration of the road network lead to a considerable waste of time, effort and energy in the movement of people and goods.

4. Outputs:

(a) Reports on present travel and transportation problems;

(b) Estimates of the future level of demand for road transport;

(c) Testing of alternative transport network improvements;


(d) Recommendations for the implementation of road network improvements.

5. Activities:

(a) Data gathering and surveying;

(b) Travel demand analysis and model building;

(c) Forecasting and plan generation;

(d) Evaluation and formulation of recommendations

6. Inputs and estimated costs:

Manpower
Survey costs
Computer
Reports

TOTAL
$US 150 000
25 000
10 000
5 000

$US 190 00
7. Institutional framework: The project may be located in the Engineering Center for Development and Planning of the Bir Zeit University.

8. Available documentation: S. H. Abid, "Improvement of the road network in the occupied territories", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.

P. Water utilization

1. Development objective: Conservation and utilization of water resources to improve the living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories.

2. Immediate objective: Identification of the problems in providing and utilizing available water resources with a view to formulating remedial measures.

3. Background and justification: Water resources in the occupied Palestinian territories are limited and constantly declining. The provision of sufficient water supply is a prerequisite for the improvement of the quality of life. The present system of obtaining and distributing water is inadequate for the majority of the Palestinian population.

4. Output: A report on the present system of obtaining and distributing water in the occupied territories.

5. Activities:

(a) A survey of the present system of obtaining and distributing water;

(b) Identification of the problem areas related to above;

(c) Recommendations for remedial measures.

6. Inputs and estimated costs:


Local expertise
Staff
Transport
Water analysis
Administrative support

TOTAL
$US 80 000
150 000
50 000
15 000
15 000

$US 310 000

7. Institutional framework: Suitable institutional arrangements will be made to carry out the survey.

8. Available documentation: Said A. Assaf, "Project proposal for the evaluation of the agricultural and drinking water situation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and the potential for its development under prevailing conditions", paper prepared for the Seminar, Vienna, 1987.
APPENDIX
List of participants

Experts

Samih Abid
Said A. Assaf
Said J. Haifa
A. T. Hamad
Daoud Fahed Jabaji
Sharif Kanaana
Antoine Mansour
Adnan Obeidat
Nidal R. Sabri
I. El-Zaim

United Nations

S. Kazemi, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Dorota Gierycz, Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, Department for International Economic and Social Affairs

Specialized agencies

H. Hiddlestone, World Health Organization
A. Robertson, World Health Organization

Palestine Liberation Organization

Yousef Sayegh
Khaireddin Abdul Rahman
Marwan Abdul Hamid
Deif Al-Akhrass
Moh. Abu Koash
Daoud Barakat
Muhieddin Massoud

League of Arab States

Khaled Abdullah
Wail Khaiyal
Khaled Abu Hajalah

Secretariat of the Seminar

Darshan Johal, United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat)
Joseph Mungai, United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat)


____________

* A/42/50.

** See Economic and Social Council decision 1987/108.



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