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UNITED
NATIONS
A S

      General Assembly
      Security Council
Distr.
GENERAL
A/47/675
S/24816

18 November 1992

ENGLISH
ORIGINAL: ARABIC/ENGLISH/
FRENCH/SPANISH

GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Forty-seventh session
SECURITY COUNCIL
Forty-seventh year
Agenda items 10, 18, 28, 30, 31, REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DECLARATION ON THE SITUATION IN AFGHANISTAN AND ITS QUESTION OF PALESTINE
REVITALIZATION OF THE WORK OF THE POLICIES OF APARTHEID OF THE THE SITUATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST
THE SITUATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA: COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL EMBARGO
IMPOSED BY THE UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA AGAINST CUBA
QUESTION OF EQUITABLE REPRESENTATION ON LAUNCHING OF GLOBAL NEGOTIATIONS ON QUESTION OF CYPRUS
CONSEQUENCES OF THE IRAQI OCCUPATION OF RESTRUCTURING AND REVITALIZATION OF THE REDUCTION OF MILITARY BUDGETS
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR DISARMAMENT
VERIFICATION IN ALL ITS ASPECTS, INCLUDING
THE ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN THE AMENDMENT OF THE TREATY BANNING NUCLEAR COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR-TEST-BAN TREATY
ESTABLISHMENT OF A NUCLEAR-WEAPON-FREE CONCLUSION OF EFFECTIVE INTERNATIONAL PREVENTION OF AN ARMS RACE IN OUTER SPACE
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DECLARATION ON THE
DENUCLEARIZATION OF AFRICA CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL
(BIOLOGICAL)WEAPONS
GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
REVIEW AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ISRAELI NUCLEAR ARMAMENT
CONVENTION ON PROHIBITIONS OR RESTRICTIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DECLARATION OF DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR THE EXTERNAL DEBT CRISIS AND DEVELOPMENT
OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR ECONOMIC INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE FINANCING SPECIAL ECONOMIC AND DISASTER RELIEF INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE FOR THE REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH DISPLACED PERSONS AND HUMANITARIAN
QUESTIONS
HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS ACTIVITIES OF THOSE FOREIGN ECONOMIC AND DISCRIMINATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
OFFERS BY MEMBER STATES OF STUDY AND
Letter dated 11 November 1992 from the Permanent
Representative of Indonesia to the United Nations
addressed to the Secretary-General


I have the honor to transmit herewith the final documents of the Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held at Jakarta from 1 to 6 September 1992 (see annex).

I would be grateful if you could arrange to have the present letter and its annex circulated as an official document of the General Assembly, under agenda items 10, 18, 28, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 69, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 and 101, and of the Security Council.


(Signed) Nugroho WISNUMURTI
Ambassador
Permanent Representative
of the Republic of Indonesia

ANNEX


NAC 10/Doc.12/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: ENGLISH



TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES
Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992



THE JAKARTA MESSAGE:
A CALL FOR COLLECTIVE ACTION AND THE
DEMOCRATIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. We, the Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Movement, representing the vast majority of humankind, meet in Jakarta, Indonesia, at a momentous juncture in history; a time of profound change and rapid transition, a time of great promise as well as grave challenge, a time of opportunity amidst pervasive uncertainty.

2. The collapse of the bipolar structure of the world presents unprecedented possibilities as well as challenges for cooperation among nations. Interdependence, integration and globalization of the world economy are among these new realities.

3. The world today is still far from being a peaceful, just and secure place. Simmering disputes, violent conflicts, aggression and foreign occupation, interference in the internal affairs of States, policies of hegemony and domination, ethnic strife, religious intolerance, new forms of racism and narrowly conceived nationalism are major and dangerous obstacles to harmonious co-existence among states and peoples and have even led to the disintegration of states and societies.

4. Consistent with its fundamental principles and objectives, the Movement has made many contributions to bringing about improvements in the present international political climate. These have also fully vindicated the validity and relevance of Non-Alignment and its basic approach in addressing international problems and developments.

5. This new era in international relations has renewed hopes for building a new and equitable international order, for stable peace and common security and for economic and social justice. Such a new order must be firmly rooted in the rule of law, the principles of the United Nations Charter as well as equitably shared responsibility and joint commitment to global cooperation and solidarity. Its structure should be comprehensively conceived and dedicated to peace and justice, to security and development, to democracy both within and among states and to the promotion of the fundamental rights and freedoms of individual human beings as well as of nations. We must ensure respect for the sovereignty of nations and the strict adherence to the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, which should not be diluted or abridged under any pretext. We shall continue to strive for the democratization of international relations.

6. We are committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes in all regions of the world through a sustained process of dialogue and negotiation and encourage the establishment of regional mechanisms towards this end where appropriate.

7. We remain unflinching in our support for the legitimate struggle of the Palestinian people to secure their inalienable rights to self-determination and independence and reiterate our demand for the withdrawal of Israel from all occupied Arab lands, including Jerusalem. We hope that a just and lasting settlement of the question of Palestine on the basis of the principles and resolutions adopted by the United Nations shall soon be reached through the current peace process.

8. Apartheid and racial discrimination remain particularly repugnant features of the current scene and their abolition can brook no further delay. We reaffirm our solidarity with the people of South Africa in their struggle to establish a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa.

9. We are heartened by the progress being made in limiting nuclear and conventional armaments. But the disarmament agenda is still unfinished and much more remains to be done. A nuclear-weapons-free world has always been the vision of our Movement. This alone can ensure human survival and is the collective responsibility of all nations. We also urge accelerated efforts on other priority issues, particularly the prohibition of all weapons of mass destruction.

10. Today, peace and stability are dependent on socio-economic as much as on political and military factors. Diminishing prospects for economic growth and social advancement, large-scale unemployment, mass poverty and severe environmental degradation endanger peace and stability.

11. We are deeply concerned over the negative impact of global military expenditures on the world economy. Resources released through disarmament and arms reduction should be re-channeled towards the economic and social development of all countries, and especially of the developing countries. This will, at the same time, facilitate the attainment of security at lower levels of armaments.

12. In the economic sphere, inequitable international structures and unequal relations have resulted in deepening disparities and unacceptable injustices which continue to widen the prosperity and technology gap between the developed and developing countries.

13. Our Movement is committed to wage war on poverty, illiteracy and underdevelopment. We shall seek to advance broad-based and people-centered development, including the promotion of human resources development. And we call for the accelerated development of the developing countries based on equitable distribution, growth and stability.

14. The progress of Non-Aligned and other developing countries remains hampered by an unfavorable external economic environment characterized by inadequate access to technology, unabated protectionism, historically low prices for commodities and raw materials, severely contracted financial flows and the crushing burden of debt and debt servicing resulting in reverse financial flows to the developed countries and multilateral institutions. in this context, the critical socio-economic situation in Africa, where millions suffer economic and social deprivation, cries out for concerted action. Africa deserves our special attention.

15. We are dismayed over the failure to conclude the Uruguay Round for Multilateral Trade Negotiations. We urgently call upon the developed countries to ensure without further delay a balanced, equitable and satisfactory conclusion of the Round which takes into account the interests of all parties, especially the development needs and concerns of the developing countries.

16. A shift of focus in international relations towards strengthening multilateral cooperation for development has become indispensable. In this regard, we call for the reform and restructuring of the world economic system and for the strengthening of the United Nations' capacity for enhancing international development and cooperation. Never before have the fate and fortunes of the North and South been so inextricably linked. Towards this end, we call for the re-activation of a constructive dialogue between the developed and developing countries, based on genuine interdependence, mutuality of interests and of benefits, and shared responsibility.

17. At the same time, determined efforts to intensify South-South cooperation on the basis of collective self-reliance is imperative. We see South-South cooperation as vital for promoting our own development and for reducing undue dependence on the North. It is also an integral element in the attainment of a new and equitable international economic order. We must develop more effective means of pooling the resources, expertise and experiences internal to the South. We are determined to initiate concrete and practicable forms of cooperation in areas such as food production and population, trade and investments, and to devise realistic modalities for their implementation. In this way the concept of collective self-reliance can be translated into reality. Towards this end, we consider the coordination of our efforts and strategies with the Group of 77 of crucial importance through the establishment of a Joint Coordinating Committee.

18. We reaffirm that basic human rights and fundamental freedoms are of universal validity. We welcome the growing trend towards democracy and commit ourselves to cooperate in the protection of human rights. We believe that economic and social progress facilitate the achievement of these objectives. No country, however, should use its power to dictate its concept of democracy and human rights or to impose conditionalities on others. In the promotion and the protection of these rights and freedoms, we emphasize the inter-relatedness of the various categories, call for a balanced relationship between individual and community rights, uphold the competence and responsibility of national governments in their implementation. The Non-Aligned countries therefore shall coordinate their positions and actively participate in the preparatory work of the Second World Conference on Human Rights in June 1993, in order to ensure that the Conference addresses all aspects of human rights on the basis of universality, indivisibility, impartiality and non-selectivity.

19. Rapid degradation of the environment threatens the very survival of humankind. We welcome the outcome of the Rio Conference which addressed the inseparable issues of environment and development. Sustainable development calls for a new global partnership, including the provision of new and additional financial resources to developing countries and adequate access for them to environmentally sound technology.

20. We welcome the proposal to convene the World Summit for Social Development which should place people and their social needs at the heart of United Nations endeavors and provide an opportunity for addressing the multidimensional aspects of social issues.

21. We believe that the full and equal integration of women into the development process at all levels is a central goal of the Non-Aligned Movement. We are committed to the success of the forthcoming 1995 World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace.

22. The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is a fundamental human right, especially for all children, and the promotion of this right is a moral imperative for the international community. We therefore reaffirm our commitment to the full and effective implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action of the World Summit for Children.

23. The United Nations, *as the universal embodiment of multi-lateralism, has a unique opportunity to become the primary, collective instrument to construct a new, just and equitable world order. To ensure the achievement of these objectives, our Movement is determined to play a leading role in contributing to the revitalization, restructuring and democratization of the United Nations System. To this end, we have decided to establish a high-level Working Group charged with the elaboration of concrete proposals for the restructuring of the United Nations.

24. We are of the conviction that coordination among Non-Aligned countries at United Nations Headquarters must be strengthened. The Coordinating Bureau should define priority issues, on which such coordination should be enhanced, including those related to the functioning of the Security Council and the strengthening of the role of the General Assembly.

25. The central role of the United Nations in the maintenance of international peace and security, within the framework of the collective security provisions of the Charter, is more crucial than ever. The report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, "An Agenda for Peace", is a timely contribution.

26. We underline that respect for international law is the foundation for peace and security, and is particularly important in this era of transformation in the relations among nations. In this day and age, there is no place for the unilateral use of force and for claims to exercise extra-territorial rights by States.

27. Since Bandung 37 years ago, we have consistently struggled for the realization of our fundamental principles and objectives. As we chart our course for this decade and beyond, the Movement is committed to the shaping of a new international order, free from war, poverty, intolerance and injustice, a world based on the principles of peaceful co-existence and genuine interdependence, a world which takes into account the diversity of social systems and cultures. It should reflect global, not separate, interests. And it should be sought through the central and irreplaceable role of the United Nations. We, the members of the Non-Aligned Movement, holding fast to the principles and ideals as originally articulated by our founding fathers, do hereby affirm the fundamental human rights to development, social progress, and the full participation of all in shaping the common destiny of humankind. Through dialogue and cooperation, we will project our Movement as a vibrant, constructive and genuinely interdependent component of the mainstream of international relations. Only then, can a new international order take shape on a truly universal basis, ensuring harmony, peace, justice and prosperity for all.



NAC 1O/Doc.11/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: English



TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992


FINAL DOCUMENT

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION




1. The Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1 to 6 September 1992.

2. The Conference was preceded by a Preparatory Meeting at Ambassadorial/Senior Official Level, and a Preparatory Meeting at Ministerial Level held from 29 to 31 August 1992.

3. The representatives of the following countries which are Members of the Movement participated in the Tenth Conference:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

4. The representatives of the following countries as well as national liberation movements and international organizations attended the Conference as observers:

Armenia, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Honduras, Mexico, Thailand, African National Congress (ANC), Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organization (AAPSO), Front de Liberation Nationale Kanak Socialiste (FLNKS), League of Arab States, Organization of African Unity (OAU), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), Socialist Party of Puerto Rico, United Nations.

5. Guest delegations were present at the Conference from the following countries and organizations:

Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCRCS), United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on Indian Ocean, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Special Committee Against Apartheid, Indian Institute for Non-Aligned Studies, Commonwealth Secretariat, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Latin American Economic System (SELA), United Nations Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of Palestinian People, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), United Nations Institute of Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Group of 77.

6. At its inaugural session, the Conference was privileged to hear an inspiring keynote address delivered by His Excellency Mr. Soeharto, President of the Republic of Indonesia. His insightful and lucid address was welcomed as a significant contribution to the deliberations and successful outcome of the Conference. The President, in noting the collapse of the bipolar structure of the world, stressed the unprecedented opportunities and challenges presented to the Non-Aligned Countries. The President made a strong plea for a new international order based on stable peace, social justice, common prosperity and sustainable development. The President emphasized the importance for accelerated development and the urgency for intensified South-South' cooperation. Upon the proposal by the President of Cyprus, H.E. Mr. George Vassiliou, the Conference decided by acclamation to include the text of the address as an official document of the Conference.

7. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the admission of Brunei Darussalam, Guatemala, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Uzbekistan to membership of the Movement; the participation of Armenia, China, Croatia and Thailand as observers; and the attendance of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia as guests. They also welcomed the return of Cambodia to the Movement.

8. The following organizations were also present:

AFRICA Fund, Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP), Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA), The Advisory Committee of the South Center.


NAC 10/Doc.l/Rev.2
6 September 1992
Original: English


TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992



FINAL DOCUMENT

CHAPTER II

GLOBAL ISSUES

POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC COMMITTEES

II. GLOBAL ISSUES

A. Review of the International Situation

1. The Heads of State or Government noted that the rapid and fundamental changes in international relations which had begun before the Ninth Summit Meeting of Non-Aligned Countries held at Belgrade in 1989 gained further momentum and brought now opportunities as well as new challenges to the international community as a whole.

2. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the East-West conflict and its global corollaries - ideological rivalry, bloc politics, military confrontation and competition for spheres of influence - no longer dominate the international landscape as in the past. The trend towards dialogue has found expression in a more determined search for peaceful solutions to focal points of conflict in certain regions of the world. The international community is aspiring to move towards pluralism and realism and the real possibility of a new era of inter-State relations, increasingly directed towards cooperation rather than confrontation, is emerging. Consistent with its principles and objectives, the Movement has made many contributions to bringing about this improved international political climate. These current positive developments have also fully vindicated the validity and relevance of non-alignment. Notwithstanding all these changes and efforts, the world situation is still in a state of transition. It is therefore imperative and urgent for the Movement to play its due role in defining and shaping the emerging international realities, to adapt to change and to articulate and implement appropriate strategies and approaches. It is therefore incumbent on the Movement to ensure its full participation in the building of the new world order, rather than to leave this task to the larger political and economic powers, the more so because a new international order has proven to be elusive and What has really transpired to date is little more than a new international realignment.

3. The Heads of State or Government believed that recent profound and far-reaching international changes are bound to have both a positive and negative impact on international relations. They further believed that, in order to cope with these profound changes, the countries of the Movement should search earnestly and innovatively for a new approach in keeping with the principles of the Movement with a view to restoring its effectiveness and reaffirming its vital role in laying the foundations of a new, just and equitable international order in the light of the new issues and challenges facing the contemporary world.

4. The Heads of State or Government believed that renewed confidence in the United Nations could initiate a significant transition towards a world in which multilateralism would be paramount in international relations. This would also strengthen the credibility: and capacity for action of the United Nations, opening new fields in which the Organization can facilitate the resolution of a vast array of problems affecting humanity. In the common search for solutions to these problems, the Non-Aligned Movement has extended its full cooperation to the United Nations.

5. The Heads of State or Government noted that in Europe the dangerous bloc division has come to an end and the subsequent political, economic and institutional restructuring of the continent could make a profound impact throughout the world. In Asia, Africa and Central America, a number of encouraging developments has taken place. The Agreement on the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict augurs well for a new era of stability and cooperation in South-East Asia. The recent positive developments in the situation on the Korean Peninsula, resulting from the efforts of both the North and the South, are to be welcomed. The end of the Iran-Iraq War is a welcome development in the region. The unification of the two parts of Yemen through peaceful and democratic means has had a positive impact on peace and stability in Yemen and in the region. The historic Taif Agreement has restored normalcy in Lebanon and consolidated the authority of its central Government. The independence of Namibia has had a salutary effect on the situation in South Africa. Despite the multitude of problems still facing Central America, the initiative to solve regional problems through a regional approach, free from interjection of external interests and designs, deserves universal support.

6. The Heads of State or Government further noted that despite these encouraging developments on the international scene, the situation in the Middle East continues to be explosive and to cause concern. This is due to Israel's continued illegal occupation of Palestinian, Syrian Golan, parts of southern Lebanon and other Arab lands and its obstinate refusal to implement the relevant United Nations resolutions, which constitutes a threat to international peace and security.

7. The Heads of State or Government believed that with the dramatic transformation of the political landscape of the world, all efforts should be undertaken for moving forward on a wide range of other pressing issues and for building a better world anchored firmly in the collective commitment of the international community to peace and more equitably shared prosperity for all. New ideas, concepts and approaches born out of a deeper understanding and awareness of global interdependence are emerging and offering fresh perspectives on the solutions of old as well as new problems. The collapse of the bipolar system, while not in itself ensuring just and durable peace for the peoples of the world, should nonetheless open up opportunities for building a new international order based on peace, justice, full respect for the principles and norms of international law, cooperation and common prosperity. Prominent among these opportunities is the cessation of East-West confrontation which has greatly improved prospects for disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament, and holds out high expectations for a significant "peace dividend", whereby the released resources should be devoted to the acceleration of economic growth and development of the developing countries, as disarmament and development are symbiotically linked. On the other hand the dangers inherent in the emerging tendencies towards a unpopular world characterized by new elements in the, increasingly complex international political landscape could limit the prospects of resolving global problems of today, could pose a real threat to the basic principles of non-aggression, sovereign equality of all States upon which the United Nations system is based as well as to the genuine independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of States and non-interference in their internal affairs.

8. While noting that the Security Council Summit Meeting held in January 1992 acknowledged that "change, however welcome, has brought new risks for stability and security", the Heads of State or Government urged the member countries not to lose sight of the deeper causes of unrest, simmering discontent and violent conflicts that still ravage some regions of the world, including conflicts between member countries of our Movement. Compounding the difficult, situation is the outbreak of new conflicts born of ethnic, nationalistic and religious rivalries which have rekindled age-old fears and enmities. Terrorism has emerged as a disturbing threat to the stability and security of States. These developments in some regions are emerging at an alarming pace and may lead to a distressing prospect of border wars, disintegration of economies, an increased flow of migrants and refugees, with frightening consequences for the States concerned and their neighbors.

9. They noted urgent political issues, such as the pressing need to restore to the brave Palestinian people, who are waging a heroic struggle against Israel, their right to justice and self-determination, and their right to establish an independent and sovereign State in Palestine in accordance with United Nations resolutions. They hailed the steadfastness and resistance of the Syrian citizens in the occupied Syrian Golan to the Israeli occupation, and stressed that peace in the Middle East cannot be achieved unless Israel withdraws from Palestinian territory including Al Quds (Jerusalem), the Syrian Golan and all other occupied territories. They pointed out the need for the urgent peaceful settlement of regional conflicts and to achieve permanent peace in Central and South-West Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean and other areas of the world and called for intensified efforts by the non-aligned countries to resolve them in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations aiming at peace and justice, independence and equality. The Movement stands ready to cooperate with other nations in finding just and viable solutions to these problems.

10. The Heads of State or Government expressed concern over the recent tendency to intervene in the internal affairs of other States under the pretext of protecting human rights or preventing conflict, which would in effect erode the concept of national sovereignty. They emphasized the dangers inherent in such intervention and called for full respect for national sovereignty in all circumstances.

11. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that many aspect of the current world situation are both perturbing and complex. The rapid pace of scientific and technological innovations continues to transform the patterns of production, consumption and trade, thereby propelling the further interdependence of countries and the globalization of the world economy. Despite the bleak background of recession and worldwide economic decline, fundamental changes in international relations have spawned unprecedented challenges and opportunities offering the world renewed hope and promise of equitable development. Nevertheless, they recognized that these ongoing changes are fraught with uncertainties and risks. The dominance of a few countries, which has become more prominent, could result in further inequities, uncertainties and instabilities.

12. The Heads of State or Government considered that in the post Cold War era, the issue of development and eradication of poverty had become the top priority item on the international agenda. They were of the view that unevenness of economic and technological development among the peoples of the world had marred the impressive achievements of recent decades. The main challenge facing the international community was redressal of the stark contrast between the affluence of the North and the impoverishment of the South. The quest for peace, security and stability will be futile if hunger and disease continue to stalk many lands and afflict large sections of the population. The widening gap between the North and the South had become the central threat to international security and stability. The lack of progress in resolving the urgent problem of development and equitable economic cooperation was also responsible for the growing sense of drift and frustration. Thus the restructuring of the prevailing international economic relations by means of effective partnership and equitable cooperation allowing for the revitalization of growth in developing countries had become imperative.

13. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the adverse external economic environment that continues to impact negatively upon the economies of the developing countries. The exports of these countries continue to be hampered by unabated protectionism and their development efforts remain impaired by inordinate burdens of external indebtedness and restricted financial flows, which have resulted in a net transfer of resources to the developed countries, and a lack of adequate access to technology. These are compounded by a secular decline in the prices of commodities and the overall deteriorating terms of trade of the developing countries. From this point of view, Africa, which covers one-fourth of the earth's surface, which has considerable natural resources and which will account for one-fifth of the world's population by the turn of the century, deserves further attention, given the critical economic situation in this continent, which has been particularly hard hit in many fields of economic and social development.

14. The Heads of State or Government noted that most of the member countries of NAM and other developing countries had adopted policies that provided greater scope for enterprise, innovation and the operation of market forces. In adopting outward-looking policies, they sought to benefit from greater integration into the global economy through enhanced levels of investment and technology flows and increased trade in goods and services. Improvement of the external economic environment for development encompassing the crucial issues of debt service burdens, capital flows, access to technology, market access in goods and services and commodity prices had thus become even more critical for the developing countries. The dynamism of national economies and success of domestic policies of developing countries were dependent on the external economic environment to an even greater extent than before. They were of the view that many developed countries had the main responsibility to create a favorable external condition for the development of the developing countries.

15. The Heads of State or Government noted that the broad tide of political and economic reforms in Central and Eastern Europe are propelling the integration of those countries into the mainstream of the world economy. In the longer term, such reforms will expand world trade and economic activity for the greater benefit of a countries. By the same token, however, the enormous needs of these countries for external resources, including financial flows, have affected the availability of resources for the developing countries, in spite of official commitments by the developed countries and multilateral financial institutions in this connection.

16. The Heads of State or Government also noted that the process of globalization has been accompanied by a growing tendency towards increased regional integration, much of it in the form of common markets, customs unions and free trade areas. Although these trends may pave the way for more effective multilateralism, in the absence of appropriate policies such regional groupings tend to spur the formation of powerful and closed economic blocs. Regional economic integration, particularly among developed countries, could be a major stimulus to global economic activities, provided it remains open and outward-looking and does not result in additional external barriers. They stressed that such regional groupings should promote, rather than hinder, global cooperation.

17. Recognizing the indivisibility between peace and prosperity, the Heads of State or Government were of the view that the revitalization of development and the eradication of poverty constitute the major challenge at the present time. They called on the international community to build a new system of relations based on equality, equity and mutuality of interests, to be achieved through open and constructive dialogue. In this context they welcomed the outcome of the eighteenth special session of the General Assembly 0 the United Nations, the International Development Strategy for the Fourth Development Decade, the eighth session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD VIII) and the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which reflected a convergence of perspectives on development. These represent important milestones in the debate on international development cooperation. They believed that this new spirit provided a positive stimulus to a constructive and mutually beneficial dialogue on international cooperation for development between the North and the South.

18. The Heads of State or Government further noted that the world economic and social situations are mutually supportive and interdependent. Economic decline in the 1980s and the consequent reduction in per capita incomes, combined with the debt crisis and structural adjustments, had an adverse impact on social development. The recent profound changes in the international political sphere should provide a real opportunity for human and social development to be addressed in a more comprehensive way. Eradication of poverty and improvement of social conditions am emerging as priority items on the international agenda. The elimination of hunger and malnutrition, achieving better standards of health and housing and eradication of illiteracy, particularly among children and women, should be among the issues of paramount concern to the international community in the present and coming decades, especially if the term "new world order" is to have substance and meaning.

19. The Heads of State or Government believed that human beings are at the center of concern for development, which should be aimed at fulfilling the essential needs of humankind and also at realizing its utmost potential. They underlined that reducing malnutrition and illiteracy, achieving better standards of health and housing and improving the social situation, especially among women and children, in turn facilitate economic development. They therefore reaffirmed their commitment to implement in an effective manner the Declaration and Plan of Action of the World Summit for Children held at New York in 1990, and welcomed the proposal to hold a world summit on social development, which should provide an opportunity for addressing the multi-dimensional aspects of social issues.

20. In an emerging new world economic order, the Heads of State or Government should ensure that the legitimate interests of the Members of the Movement should be promoted and protected and that the Movement should constitute an important political and economic partner in shaping this new world order.
B. The role of the Non-Aligned Movement in the emerging new international order

21. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the continuing validity and relevance of the Movement are corroborated by the recent changes around the world. The end of the cold war and East-West bi-polarity reinforced the Movement's continuing advocacy of global goodwill and cooperation for a world free of fear, want and all forms of intolerance. The changes that have occurred in the world do not alter nor do they diminish the validity of the basic principles and objectives of the Movement; on the contrary, they reinforce the determination to remain free from domination by any quarter and to seek a world free from fear, want and intolerance. During its three decades of existence, the Movement has always sought to bring about peace, mutually beneficial cooperation and amity among nations, to eradicate the last vestiges of colonialism, foreign occupation and racial discrimination, to redress injustice, to maintain peace and to stimulate disarmament efforts leading to an equitable and just world order. Non-Alignment has always been a positive stand for peace, human rights and an economically just world which, by inference, means the rejection of a relationship involving servitude and sacrifice of national self--interest by perpetuating injustice and inequity. Today, the Movement remains vindicated as ideological and military blocks have crumbled and an era of cooperation has dawned. The time has come for the Movement to articulate timely and effective responses to the new opportunities and challenges that have unfolded as a result of the rapid and profound changes in the world situation. At the same time, the Movement is called upon to enhance the efficacy of its external actions, as well as to improve the efficiency of its internal functioning. The Movement's role in promoting a just international order would depend largely on its inner strength, unity and cohesion. It is therefore incumbent on all Member States to work earnestly towards promoting the solidarity and unity of the Movement. This would require sincere efforts to remove areas of disagreement between Member States and resolve disputes among themselves peacefully. The Heads of State or Government mandated the Coordinating Bureau to study further the question of a mechanism for the peaceful settlement of disputes between Member States and to report in due course to the Committee on Methodology. A united and cohesive Movement would be able to project its influence on the global scene with greater force and effectiveness.

22. The Heads of State or Government were convinced that the Movement should play an active and effective role in laying the foundations and defining the characteristics of the new world order, which should be based on justice, equality and democracy in international relations.

23. They reiterated that a positive contribution by the Members of the Movement to the establishment of this new world order requires the development of a dynamic joint position based on a clear view of the issues of international peace and security, disarmament, human rights, the environment, sustainable development, and other pressing problems facing not only the Members of the Non-Aligned Movement, but the entire world.

24. The Heads of State or Government underlined the historic role and constructive contribution of the Movement to the promotion of a peaceful world and cooperative relations among States. Furthermore, the core of its philosophy has endured and its underlying principles remain unchanged. There is no disputing the continued validity of its principles and objectives, which include, inter alia, the safeguarding of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, exercise of self-determination and sovereignty
of the non-aligned and other developing countries, achievement of disarmament, especially nuclear disarmament, an end to colonialism and all forms of subjugation, eradication of racism and all forms of racial discrimination, especially apartheid, peaceful co-existence among States, democratization of inter-State relations, peaceful settlement of regional conflicts, attainment of developmental goals by all developing countries and protection of human rights, especially their social and economic dimensions. Yet such an ideal world order, as conceived by our founding fathers, has remained elusive. The aspirations of the Non-Aligned countries for true equality, genuine independence and unfettered development continue to be hampered by those forces which are accustomed to realizing their intentions without due regard for the majority views and wishes of the international community and United Nations resolutions. In facing these constraints and other challenges, the Movement remains the appropriate political framework for its members to articulate their aspirations and to define areas of solidarity and joint actions. The Heads of State or Government further underlined the importance of multilateralism and, in this context, reaffirmed their firm commitment to the principles and purposes of the United Nations. The United Nations has assumed an increasingly influential role in world affairs as the only universal framework for the conduct of international relations for the purpose of achieving peace, disarmament, development and the establishment of just and equitable world order. They supported the efforts aimed at strengthening the United Nations so as to render it more democratic, effective and efficient. The Movement should enhance its unity and cohesion with a view to strengthening the capacity of the United Nations to respond effectively and expeditiously to the current challenges.

25. The Heads of State or Government believed that, in the pursuit of the Movement's objectives in a drastically changing global setting, a realistic reordering of priorities is essential. As long as the world remains insecure and turbulent, efforts to bring about peace, common security, disarmament and peaceful resolution of conflicts must continue to be a priority task. Eradication of the last vestiges of colonialism, foreign occupation, institutionalized racism and must remain at the focus of the Movement's collective struggle. The resolution of conflicts and the easing of tensions in various regions should also remain at the center of Non-Aligned countries' concerns, foremost among them being the Arab-Israeli conflict and the restoration of all Arab lands, with the struggle of the Palestinian people for self-determination and independence at its core. However, it is especially in the economic and social sphere that severe disparities and unacceptable inequities persist in relations between developed and developing countries. Hence, there is an urgent need to accord high priority to the issues of development and equitable international economic relations. In this context, it is imperative at the same time for the Movement to enhance South-South cooperation as an integral part of the strategy for giving fresh impetus to international cooperation for development. Furthermore, the Movement must assert itself on such new global concerns as the strengthening of democracy, both within and among nations, promotion of human rights and sustainable development; security and stability create a propitious atmosphere for effectively addressing these new concerns.

26. The Heads of State or Government further believed that the responsiveness of the Non-Aligned countries to the opportunities and challenges inherent in the evolving international situation will not only require a dynamic adaptation to the new realities, but will also necessitate the articulation of appropriate strategies, initiatives and approaches, the basis of the continued efforts to strengthen the Movement, so that it can exert a more active influence on the direction of world developments and the management of world affairs. The Movement should pursue its historic task of contributing actively to the building of peace, peaceful coexistence and fun independence and to the achievement of disarmament and development, which are the central issues of our time. In attaining these objectives, the Non-Aligned countries, representing the majority of humankind, will play an active role and thereby shape the contours of a new era in international relations.
C. Restructuring, revitalization and democratization
of the United Nations

27. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their abiding commitment to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and reiterated their belief that the United Nations represents the most appropriate international forum for the maintenance of international peace and security and the peaceful settlement of disputes and crises; for the achievement of freedoms and for securing the right to self-determination of peoples under alien and colonial domination; for the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms; for the attainment of just and equitable economic relations and social emancipation, as well as for the strengthening of friendly relations and peaceful co-existence among nations. The irreplaceable role and value of the Organization as the unique multilateral framework to deal with global issues is beyond contention. So are the many contributions made by the world body and its specialized agencies to the economic, social and cultural advancement of all countries and peoples. The Movement, which constitutes two-thirds of the United Nations membership, is determined to build upon its achievements and calls upon its Members to utilize the potential of the Organization in a much more purposeful and rational way and thereby advance their shared aspirations such as peace, common security and equitable prosperity. It is at the United Nations, as the universal umbrella for the international community, that the Movement must assert itself as the collective and effective spokesman for the developing worlds.

28. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the new resurgence of multilateralism has opened new opportunities for the United Nations to resolve longstanding regional conflicts. In this respect, the successes achieved so far amply testify to its capacity for responding to the demands made upon it. Peace-making and peace-keeping activities, launched in many regions, have gained new dimensions of unprecedented variety and scope. Demands for a greatly enhanced role of the United Nations in the maintenance of international peace and security are now greater than at any time in the past. The Heads of State or Government were, therefore, in agreement with the observation in the report of the Secretary-General "An Agenda for Peace", that "democracy within the family of nations would require the fullest consultation, participation and engagement of all States, large and small, in the work of the Organization". They further underlined the Secretary-General's view that resort to preventive diplomacy could be pursued through early identification of potential conflicts, engagement in peace-making where conflict occurs, preservation of post-conflict peace through peace-keeping and assistance in the implementation of agreements achieved, post-conflict peace-building, and the adoption of measures aimed at redressing the deeper socio-economic and political causes of conflict.

29. The Heads of State or Government took note of the efforts to restructure the United Nations Secretariat, but hoped that the dawning of a new era would focus the attention of the international community, in particular that of the United Nations, on development issues in response to the critical and urgent needs of the developing countries. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that in light of changing international relations the United Nations provides an appropriate framework for effective cooperation and democratic dialogue among States. In this context, the Heads of State or Government believed that in order to attain international peace and security a restructuring of the United Nations mechanisms, as well as the appropriate balance among its various bodies, in conformity with their respective mandates as enshrined in the Charter, were necessary to reflect the new realities of the international situation.

30. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the ongoing endeavors aimed at reforming and improving certain structures and procedures of the United Nations as an essential component of strengthening multilateralism, with a view to ensuring equal participation, more balanced representation and better equilibrium in keeping with the principles and objectives of the Charter of the United Nations. In these endeavors, the main purpose should be to make the Organization more responsive to the changing realities and emerging challenges of peace and development in a dynamic context. They expressed their determination to participate constructively in the process of adaptation and reform, in the firm conviction that the United Nations is an indispensable forum to be supported and strengthened. Yet, democratization of the international political and economic institutions inherent in such a process continues to be hampered by those who seek to preserve their privileged positions of power. The democratization of the United Nations and its bodies should avoid perpetuating the current inequities by creating new centers of privilege and pursued in the spirit of the sovereign equality of all States. They appealed to the major States to accept this inevitable process in the broader interests of all humankind.

31. The Heads of State or Government called for a balanced relationship between the General Assembly, the Security Council and the Secretary-General of the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Charter. In this regard, a coordinated political response should be made by the Non-Aligned countries in order to enhance the role of the General Assembly as a forum for deliberation, negotiation and decision-making on all issues of global concern. This is fully consistent with the obligation of all States to abide by the principle of sovereign equality and the right to participate actively in the promotion of the collective interests of the global community. They called for a further improvement of the organization and methods of work of the General Assembly, so as to make them more responsive to the requirements of the times. They emphasized the importance of ensuring that the role of the Security Council conforms to its mandate defined in the United Nations Charter, so that there is no encroachment on the jurisdiction and prerogatives of the General Assembly and its subsidiary bodies. They emphasized the need to remain vigilant in this regard.

32. The Heads of State or Government noted the new cooperative spirit prevailing in the Security Council which has allowed it to take a number of unanimous positions on some of the most critical and complex issues. However, they expressed concern over the tendency of some states to dominate the Council which could become an institution for the imposition of the will of the strong upon the weak, and reaffirmed that all nations and States, large or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, have the right to full independence and sovereign equality in international relations. It is therefore essential to ensure that the exercise of special powers does not create imbalances and discriminatory treatment in the international community or in the United Nations, or lead to world affairs being run by small group of powerful nations. Moreover, the credibility and moral authority of the Security Council can only be enhanced by acting in a prompt, even-handed and impartial manner and in the interest of all States through the full implementation of its resolutions without discrimination or selectivity. They were of the view that the veto powers which guarantee an exclusive and dominant role for the permanent members of the Council are contrary to the aim of democratizing the United Nations and must, therefore, be reviewed in line with the reform of the United Nations aimed at bringing about greater democratization and transparency in the work of all United Nations bodies. They also called for a review of the membership of the Council with a view to reflecting the increased membership of the United Nations and promoting a more equitable and balanced representation of the members of the United Nations. They expressed the need for a workable and effective system of collective security in accordance with the United Nations Charter and for the development of modalities for preventive diplomacy, fact-finding and good offices missions, and United Nations observers or presence in areas of conflict in full respect of the principles of sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of states.

33. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the United Nations has a central and paramount role in enhancing international cooperation for development. The complexity of developmental issues entails their consideration in a holistic integrated manner which takes into consideration the pluralistic vision of the international community. The United Nations, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of its members, is the appropriate universal forum to discuss and implement issues relating to international cooperation for development. In this connection they stressed the need to restructure and revitalize the United Nations in the economic, social and related fields, so as to strengthen and make them more responsive to both the changing realities and the development needs of the developing countries. In this context, they emphasized that the basic problem to be addressed centered on the dilemma faced by the developing countries that in spite of their utmost efforts, the plight of hundreds of millions of people in the developing countries has not improved. For many it has worsened. They therefore welcomed the consensus adoption of General Assembly resolution 45/264 as a positive step in the right direction. While the process has taken a further step forward during the 46th General Assembly with regard to the subsidiary machinery of the Economic and Social Council and the Assembly, much still remains to be done. The recent conclusions of the Economic and Social Council at its highest level, concerning the reform of the operational activities of the United Nations in this field, constitute an important step forward which should be given due consideration at the next General Assembly. It is therefore imperative for the Movement to be fully committed to accelerating this process so that the United Nations machinery will be truly responsive to the growing needs of the developing countries.

34. They welcomed the statement by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the Conference and reiterated the importance of support by the non-aligned countries for the Secretary-General so that he can fulfil his duties and responsibilities in an impartial and objective manner. To that end, he should be enabled to exercise his mandate as set forth in article 99 of the Charter. Such a task can be facilitated by providing the Secretary-General with adequate means to undertake activities expeditiously and effectively, particularly in the maintenance of peace and security. They were resolved to support his endeavors to enhance the efficacy of preventive diplomacy, peace-making and peace-keeping operations in which many non-aligned countries have served and will continue to serve.

35. The Heads of State or Government noted the changes initiated by Secretary-General with a view to improving the administrative efficiency of the Secretariat and enhancing interaction among the upper echelons. An urgent need also exists for an overall review, of the current distribution of posts within the United Nations System, as well as its various bodies, to achieve a more equitable geographic distribution and to realize the objective of allotting 30 per cent of posts in the General Secretariat to women and to provide adequate personnel resources for the United Nations development-related functions. From a consultative and deliberative body, the Organization has increasingly become an operative institution. The task now is to ensure how its organizational response is structured, staffed and coordinated as well as supported and financed in meeting the demands and requirements of the complex set of United Nations activities.

36. With a view to establishing equitable, democratic and balanced regional distribution of the top executive posts within the United Nations system, its specialized agencies and other subsidiary bodies, the Heads of State or Government also expressed the need for the candidacy of Member States for such top positions of responsibility to be firmly supported. To this end, the Heads of State or Government appealed to the member countries of the Movement that present candidates in future to fill these high-level international posts, reach concerted positions in the spirit of mutual interest taking into account the comparative advantage at the individual and regional level or at the level of the Movement, which guarantee the equitable participation of each region.

37. The Heads of State or Government expressed the firm view that assessed contributions to the United Nations are obligatory under the Charter, and warned that non-compliance with this obligation has grave implications for the international Organization. While recognizing the need for economizing and making improvements in its functioning and effectiveness, they urged the Member States to pay their contributions promptly and adopt the necessary measures to bring about a durable solution, which has become essential in the context of the growing responsibilities. In this regard, they expressed the readiness of the Non-Aligned countries to consult and, cooperate with other members of the Organization for appropriate arrangements to encourage countries that are in a position to increase their contributions to do so, and to secure a better balance between regular budgets and extra-budgetary resources. They called on the Secretary-General to adopt measures within his powers to reduce costs and streamline the Organization, taking fully into account the interests of the Non-Aligned and other developing nations and the capacity of the United Nations to discharge its duties. To this end, they pledged their full support for the efforts of the, Secretary-General.
D. International security and disarmament in the
post-cold war era

38. The Heads of State or Government noted that significant changes have occurred, in international relations and that a process of gradual transformation of military structures is now underway. They hoped that these positive developments, which are creating a new global environment, will lead to the renunciation of strategic doctrines based on the use of nuclear weapons and to the elimination of weapons of mass destruction and thereby making a real contribution to global security.

39. The Heads of State or Government observed that the objective of seeking unilateral security through armaments has proved to be a dangerous illusion. The build-up of military power undermines rather than strengthens security. Neither quantitative additions nor qualitative improvements to weapons have reduced a state's vulnerability or led to absolute security. It is also self-evident that political objectives can no longer be achieved by military means. In this context, they called for enhancement of security to be pursued not at the cost of other countries but in concert with them. Hence, the rational option is to seek security for all through total nuclear disarmament, elimination of all other weapons of mass destruction, and through the balanced and progressive reductions of conventional armaments at the global and regional levels.

40. The new international order to sustain a world free from all nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction should be based inter alia on the principles of peaceful coexistence, the prohibition of the use or the threat of use of force, non-intervention and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries and the right of every State to pursue its own path of development. These principles which have guided NAM since inception, have become even more relevant today when we are searching for the establishment of a just, democratic, equitable and non-violent world order.

41. They were furthermore of the view that in a world of increasing interdependence of States and inter-relatedness of issues, security can no longer be defined solely in military terms. The vast array of non-military threats in such forms as underdevelopment and sharply curtailed prospects for economic growth, impending resource depletion, food scarcity, population pressures and severe environmental degradation that make up the global agenda are the determining components of a stable and peaceful world. Interdependence also calls for a recognition of the mutuality of interests among nations in each other's stability and security. Genuine and lasting security must therefore be universal and comprehensive, operating on an equal basis for all States and encompassing all spheres of international relations.

42. The Heads of State or Government recognized that security problems which are region-specific are best addressed within an appropriate regional context. They noted efforts such as those in Latin and Central America as well as in South-East Asia and the Pacific, which have highlighted, among others, the validity of confidence-building measures, particularly in regions of high tension; balanced security at the lowest possible level of armaments and armed forces; and the elimination of destabilizing military capabilities and imbalances. In this context, they called for the holding of regional dialogues where appropriate on security and cooperation to provide an appropriate framework for endeavors to promote security, and enhance economic, environmental, social and cultural cooperation, taking into account the particular characteristics of each region. Such an approach, based on geopolitical, historical, cultural and other factors, can lead to channels of communication between adversaries and promote confidence-building measures which could facilitate the initiation of arms reduction talks in some regions. Global and regional approaches to disarmament complement each other and should be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security.

43. The Heads of State or Government welcomed a number of positive developments since the Ninth Summit in the field of nuclear, chemical and conventional disarmament, including the agreements reached in bilateral arms reductions between the United States and the Russian Federation. They attached particular importance to the June 1992 Agreement between the United States and the Russian Federation in Washington, D.C. and expressed the hope that the implementation of the far-reaching reductions will be successfully carried out, so that the ultimate goal of the complete elimination of nuclear arsenals will be attained within a specific time-frame. They called upon the other nuclear-weapon States to actively participate in this endeavor and thereby rid the world of the dangers posed by the nuclear menace.

44. The Heads of State or Government also welcomed the broadening and deepening of the dimensions of disarmament's. Far from the mere regulation of armaments and the arms race, agreements now include the destruction of existing arsenals, as well as limiting future production. They also noted with satisfaction the decisive progress achieved in the complex field of verification and in the on-site inspection provisions which are now included to ensure compliance with agreements. In this context, they called for the establishment of a multilateral satellite verification system under the auspices of the United Nations to facilitate such processes on a secure and permanent basis which would ensure equal access to information for all States.

45. Despite the end of the cold war and East-West confrontation, the Heads of State or Government deplored the lack of progress on measures to provide assurances to all non-nuclear-weapon States against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. Strategic doctrines continue to cast their shadow across the globe, while the world is still threatened by existing nuclear arsenals, which are being further refined and increased. They warned that while many other contentious issues still remain unresolved, continuing insistence to promote anti-missile defenses and other weapon systems is fraught with potentially disastrous consequences including the extension of the arms race to outer space and will increase the North-South divide further.

46. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the United Nations has a unique role and primary responsibility on all issues of disarmament. They re-emphasized the right and duty of all States to participate in multilateral efforts on disarmament on the basis of equality and mutual benefit in order to promote universal adherence. The Conference on Disarmament as the sole multilateral negotiating forum in the field of disarmament has been engaged in intense activity with respect to negotiations on some of the items on its agenda. They noted with regret, however, that it has failed to discharge its mandate on issues related to nuclear disarmament. Bilateral and multilateral approaches to disarmament must complement each other. Bilateral negotiations, however, cannot replace multilateral efforts in the disarmament field. In this context, they welcomed the Global Convention on the Prohibition of Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and called for its speedy entry into force as a meaningful step forward towards the elimination of all weapons of mass destruction in all regions and towards the shared objective of general and complete disarmament. They called upon all developed countries to adopt measures promoting universal adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention, through transfer of technology, materials and equipment for peaceful purposes in the chemical field and removing all existing unilateral discriminatory and
ad hoc restrictions which ran counter to this undertaking.

47. They called upon all States to give priority to negotiations on the other items on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament, such as a Nuclear Test Ban, cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament, prevention of nuclear war, security assurances for all non-nuclear weapon States against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons, and measures for the prevention of an arms race in outer space. They emphasized the need to reinvigorate multilateral disarmament endeavors and in this context called for enlargement and broader participation of NAM countries in the Conference on Disarmament.

48. The Heads of State or Government, while noting that China and France had acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) expressed concern over the failure of some Depository States to demonstrate a genuine commitment with regard to complete nuclear disarmament within a time bound framework under Article VI of the NPT, and credible security assurances and adequate technical assistance to all non-nuclear-weapon states. Recognizing that States Parties will hold a Conference in 1995 to review the Treaty and to determine the period of its extension, they called for a fresh appraisal of the implementation of the commitments undertaken by nuclear-weapon states. They resolved that a member of the Non-Aligned Movement should be presented as a candidate, after consultation, for the Chairmanship of the Conference in 1995. In this context they urged the nuclear-weapon states to support the ongoing efforts of the Amendment Conference on the Partial Test Ban Treaty, with a view to the conclusion of an agreement prohibiting the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons against all non-nuclear weapon states, and the establishment of nuclear weapons-free zones taking into account the characteristics of the region and on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the states of the region concerned; and to ensure the availability of nuclear materials, equipment and technology for peaceful purposes on a non-discriminatory, predictable and long-term basis.

49. The Heads of State or Government called for a cessation of nuclear testing by all States for all time in all environments as a vital global objective to be pursued at various levels, but especially at the multilateral level. In this respect, they welcomed the moratorium declared by certain nuclear-weapon States and urged other nuclear-weapon States to follow suit as a first step. The Amendment Conference of the State Parties to the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water held in January 1991 had contributed in an important way to that objective by bringing States Parties together for the first time to discuss the obstacles to an agreement on the discontinuation of test explosions.

50. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the seriousness and importance of eliminating weapons of mass destruction, and considered the establishment of the nuclear-weapon-free zones in particular a necessary first step towards attaining this objective. In this context they welcomed the various initiatives for the establishment of such zones. The Heads of State or Government expressed their appreciation at the positive initiatives proposed in relation to general and complete disarmament. They reiterated the importance of a global and comprehensive approach to disarmament issues and a non-discriminatory basis to avoid imbalances and inequalities, as well as consideration of the special characteristics of each individual region.

51. The Heads of State or Government noted with concern the growing restraint being placed on access to technology by the developed countries through imposition of ad hoc export control régimes under the pretext of non-proliferation regimes as these may impede the economic and social development of developing countries. They called for effective means of tackling the problems of proliferation through multilaterally negotiated, universal comprehensive and non-discriminatory disarmament agreements.

52. The Heads of State or Government expressed grave concern over the acquisition of nuclear capability by Israel, which poses a serious and continuing threat to the security of neighboring and other States. They condemned Israel for continuing to develop and stockpile nuclear arsenals and called for urgent action to ensure Israeli accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and to place all its nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards in accordance with United Nations Security Council resolution 487 (1981).

53. The Heads of State or Government underscored the depressing impact of military expenditure on the world economy and national economies, especially those of the developing countries. Excessive military outlays stifle economic growth and adversely affect the scope and content of international economic cooperation. In this context they stressed that resolution of regional disputes is essential for the creation of conditions which would enable States to divert their resources from armaments to economic growth a development.

54. Aware of the global prevalence of conventional armaments and all other kinds of armaments and their extensive use, the ever-growing expenditures involved in their acquisition and maintenance, as well as new technologies and the increased sophistication brought to conventional weapons systems, the Heads of State or Government stressed the urgency of the need to curb the development and excessive build-up of conventional armaments and all other kinds of armaments, taking into account the legitimate security needs of States. In this context, the Heads of State or Government firmly believed that efforts at reducing and curbing conventional arms and all other kinds of armaments should be placed within a comprehensive context, should focus on both supplier and recipient countries rather than on particular groups of countries, and should be directed towards the primary causes of the conventional arms and all other kinds of armaments race.

55. The Heads of State or Government commended the activities of the United Nations Regional Centers for Peace and Disarmament in Africa and Asia and the United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America. They expressed the hope that the work of these Centers would continue to be policy-oriented, generating new ideas and recommending new approaches for adoption so as to advance the disarmament process. They emphasized the urgent need to strengthen the financial resources of these centers, in order to enable them better plan and carry out their work. In this regard they invited the member countries and others to consider making substantial voluntary contributions to these centers.
E. International economic cooperation for development

56. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the international economic situation has not been conducive to development, particularly of the developing countries, as it remains shrouded in uncertainty and is marked by sluggish and uneven growth. They were further of the view that most of the developing countries are no better off today than they were during the 1980s, and that these countries axe still saddled with debilitating debt burdens, strapped for development finance, denied fair access to technology and markets of the developed countries and frustrated by a secular decline in commodity prices. They noted with concern that while a significant number of developing countries had carried out structural adjustment processes and opened their economies, with a view of putting them in line with the new conditions for investment and world commerce, a lack of reciprocity is observed in the developed countries. They noted that while there was a widespread movement for trade liberalization in the developing countries, the commitment of the developed countries to free trade had continued to weaken. Few, if any, steps have been taken by the developed countries to reduce the range of non-tariff barriers and the relatively high tariffs that face a large proportion of the exports of developing countries. They maintained, further, that the developing countries cannot be coerced into opening up their markets further or adopting changes in their economic policies in a manner which ignored their stage of development.

57. The Heads of State or Government noted that the early and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations is a matter of great importance to the developing countries. If, in fact, the Round does fail to achieve a balanced and timely conclusion, the consequent surge in protectionism and the increased resort to unilateralism and so-called "managed" trade will further distort trade flows and prevent the emergence of a truly open and fair multilateral trading system, and this will constitute a severe blow to multilateralism. They therefore strongly urged the developed countries to ensure without further delay a balanced, equitable, meaningful and satisfactory conclusion to the Uruguay Round, which should take into account the interests of all parties, especially the development needs and concerns of the developing countries. In this connection they stressed the importance of the roll back of protectionist measures by developed countries and the incorporation of the development dimension in the rules for the conduct of the international trade.

58. The Heads of State or Government noted that the external debt of the developing countries continues to weigh negatively on many of their economies, and the servicing of their external debt has led to the perverse phenomenon of the reverse flow of resources from the developing world to the developed countries. They further noted that the reversal of the drain on the external resources of the developing countries win require, in the first instance, a reduction in the debt stock of the developing countries. Past attempts at rescheduling debt, in response to the-repayment difficulties of debtor countries, has not resulted in a decline in the debt burden, but in an increase in the total indebtedness of the developing countries. They welcomed major global initiatives to find more effective ways of reducing the stock of debt. These initiatives must be broadened to include all types of debt and debtor developing countries. In this context, special consideration should be shown to the debt burden of low-income countries and of those countries that are making great sacrifices to meet their financial obligations.

59. The Heads of State or Government stressed the failure of the international financial system to furnish adequate development finance over the past decade, thus leaving the developing countries with serious financial problems. Sharp contraction in external commercial flows and virtual stagnation in Official Development Assistance (ODA) at less than half the agreed target level of 0.7 per cent of Gross National Product, a commitment which they first made nearly 20 years ago, have had a major adverse impact development prospects, particularly of the low income countries. The negative net transfer of resources from the developing countries can also be reduced and reversed by a significant increase in new capital flows to the developing countries. Therefore, they urged that all the developed countries meet their commitments on ODA. They further noted that the other major source of capital flows for the developing countries has been the multilateral financial institutions comprising the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and regional development banks. The net transfer from these institutions as a group has been falling off rapidly in recent years, and if past trends continue, developing countries as a whole may soon be facing the prospect of a net financial outflow in favor of these institutions.

60. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that commodities represent the economic lifeblood of most if not all the developing countries. Many of these countries remain heavily dependent on one or two commodities for generating their foreign exchange earnings. But one of the most important facets of the adverse economic environment of recent times has been the virtual collapse of commodity prices. Various calculations show that commodity prices in real terms have now fallen to their lowest levels in the last hundred years. They expressed concern that there had been retrogression in cooperation between producers and consumers in the area of commodities. Therefore, they strongly urged producer and consumer countries to make every effort to reactivate commodity agreements with economic clauses in the interest of both producers and consumers. They also urged all signatories to the Common Fund within the framework of the Integrated Program for Commodities to revive the schemes and to make them fully operational. They supported the proposal for the convening of an international conference on commodities with a view to initiating the principal activity of the Common Fund.

61. In the light of thew realities, the Heads of State or Government underlined the need to forge a new, global consensus and commitment to strengthen international economic cooperation for development. They observed that the accelerated development of the developing countries now assumes added urgency. They emphasized further that the goal of settling problems emanating from the growing interdependence among nations and inter-linkages of issues can only be pursued through consultation and negotiation. The reactivation of a constructive dialogue between the North and the South, therefore, has now become more pressing than ever. Such a reactivated dialogue should not be cast any more in terms of "demands" on the part of the developing countries or misperceived as "charity" on the part of the advanced countries. Rather, it should be conducted on the basis of genuine interdependence, mutuality of interest, shared responsibility and mutual benefit, clearly and coherently presented and rationally discussed and negotiated. They believe that the fate and fortunes of the North and the South are now inextricably intertwined, and sustained economic prosperity in the North is not possible in the absence of stability and sustained development in the South. They also recognized that the developing countries too cannot achieve their development goals without the conducive global environment that the policies of the North can and should provide.

62. As an indispensable corollary to efforts in the North-South context, the Heads State or Government stressed the need to intensify the efforts of the Non-Aligned and other developing countries to attain collective self-reliance which would not only enhance the negotiating strength of the developing countries but also increase opportunities for the development. They were further of the view that the development of concrete, practicable and mutually beneficial economic and technical cooperation among the members of the Movement not only opens up new avenues for growth and reduces undue dependence vis--a-vis the North, but also constitutes an integral element of any strategy towards the restructuring of international economic cooperation. They emphasized that success South-South cooperation will lend greater credibility and added strength to efforts attaining a just and equitable international economic order based on mutual interest.

63. The Heads of State or Government noted that the emergence of a new world order that brings peace, stability and development to all humanity will depend to a large extent on whether steps are taken to bridge the widening North-South economic inequities, and translate the concept of world partnership into meaningful and genuine action. The South needs the resources, markets and technology of the North to realize its development aspirations, in particular for the eradication of poverty. The developed countries cannot the sole engine of growth for the world economy, particularly in the context of the persistence of recessionary conditions. The South's development, in turn, is in the interest not only of the peoples of the South, but of the North as well.
F. Environment and development

64. The Heads of State or Government expressed concern that the world is witnessing new and increasing threats such as environmental deterioration jeopardizing the long-term survival of the vulnerable ecosystem. If this is left unchecked, it could upset the world's ecological balance and permanently destroy the earth's life-support systems.

65. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the main environmental and developmental problems, such as those identified in resolution 44/228 of the United Nations General Assembly and in Agenda 21 adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development require immediate action by the international community to save the planet earth from self-destruction. These problems include the critical and life--threatening issues of climatic change, rising sea levels, the depletion of the ozone layer, together with the degradation of global life support systems, water and air pollution, soil degradation, desertification, drought, deforestation and the extinction of numerous animals and plant species, acid rain, marine pollution, over-exploitation of marine resources (e.g. large-scale drift-net fishing), the proliferation and mismanagement of toxic products and illegal traffic of toxic wastes, and the severe threat posed to the environment by the testing of nuclear weapons as well as hazardous wastes and radioactive wastes.

66. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that there is a widely recognized difference between the relationship which the environment bears to the developed countries and that it bears to the developing countries. While environmental problems are national, regional and global in scope, those associated with the developed countries are a consequence of unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and wasteful lifestyles, whereas those of the developing countries are in general the results of extreme poverty and under-development. Aware of that fundamental difference, the Heads of State or Government declared that sustainable development is the common concern of all humanity and made it clear that environmental protection, sustained economic growth and development should be redressed through multilateral cooperation, based on common but differentiated responsibilities, common endeavors and a harmonious and balanced perspective as reflected in United Nations General Assembly resolution 44/228 and the Rio Declaration. They therefore urged all States to cooperate in promoting a conducive international economic environment and supportive policies that would result in sustained economic growth and development in all countries. Such cooperation should ensure that the protection of the environment, economic growth and development are mutually reinforcing. Therefore, it is imperative that environmental and developmental concerns be fully integrated.

67. The Heads of State or Government also stressed that the lasting solution to global environmental problems lies in the concept of sustainable development. While sustainable development has been broadly accepted by the international community, the challenge remains to translate this concept into workable strategies and policy measures that can gain the support of all. In pursuing the objective of sustainable development, new and additional resources, technical assistance, as well as environmentally sound technologies should be made available to developing countries on non-commercial, preferential and concessional terms through various channels, both bilateral and multilateral.

68. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 as it elaborated a new concept for international cooperation based on global participation as stated in the Rio Declaration, which reaffirmed the principle of the sovereign right of States to use their own natural resources and the right to development for States and peoples. They were of the view that, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of International Law, all States have the sovereign right to use their own natural resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies. Therefore, developed countries and international institutions should not use environmental considerations as an excuse for interference in the internal affairs of the developing countries or to impose conditionalities in aid, trade or development financing. Trade policy measures on the pretext of environmental concerns affecting the export and development effort of the developing countries, as well as unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the multilateral framework of the importing country should not be undertaken. Environmental measures addressing trans-boundary or global environmental problems should be based on international consensus. They therefore urged developing countries and international institutions not to use environmental considerations as an excuse for interference in the internal affairs of the developing countries, nor should this be used to introduce any forms of conditionality in aid or development financing, or to impose trade barriers affecting the export and development effort of the developing countries.

69. The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction that UNCED had established the imperative need for addressing the twin issues of Environment and Development in their totality, recognizing that economic development is the overriding priority of the developing countries. They welcomed the consensus at UNCED, which represents a good basis for guiding international cooperation for sustainable development. They noted with satisfaction the reiteration of the right to development and also the Rio Declaration, which recognizes the differentiated nature of responsibilities of developed and developing countries. In the light of their responsibility for environmental degradation and with their greater technological and financial capabilities, developed countries must take the lead. They noted the opening for signature of the framework Convention on Climate Change and the Biodiversity Convention and expressed the hope that procedures would be expeditiously completed, so that these conventions enter into force at an early date. They also reaffirmed the importance of the transfer of adequate, new and additional financial resources to developing countries to realize the objectives of Agenda 21. They observed that of particular importance in this regard is the achievement at an early date of the internationally agreed ODA target of 0.7 per cent of GNP. They called upon developed countries to make significant initial commitments during the 47th United Nations General Assembly.

70. The Heads of State or Government also stressed the importance of the transfer of technology to developing countries on non-commercial and preferential terms. Of greatest importance for such transfers is the availability of financial resources in an international fund for purchasing and/or developing environmentally sound technology and transferring it, in particular to developing countries. This process must be started at an early date.

71. The Heads of State or Government also welcomed the recommendations for the establishment of the High Level Commission on Sustainable Development. This Commission would help enhance international cooperation for sustainable development and also, on a priority basis, monitor financial and technology flows to developing countries. By monitoring the implementation of programs in developed countries it would be possible to ensure the adequacy of the environmental space required by the developing countries for their economic and social advancement. They expressed the view that the Heads of State or Government could meet at an appropriate and mutually agreed time, under the aegis of the United Nations General Assembly, in order to ensure the necessary political momentum for meeting the hopes and aspirations of the Rio Conference.

72. They also stressed the importance of the creation by the 47th session of the United Nations General Assembly of an intergovernmental negotiating committee, open to all States, for the elaboration and conclusion of an International Convention on the struggle against desertification, in particular in Africa, before June 1994, as recommended by UNCED.
G. Human rights

73. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the universal validity of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms that serve as a common standard of respect for the dignity and integrity of man. They emphasized the importance which their countries attach to the protection and promotion of human rights, welcomed those changes around the world which have strengthened human rights and fundamental freedoms, and reaffirmed their commitment to respect for civil, political, economic and social rights as well as their commitments deriving from universal legal instruments relating to human rights. The United Nations Charter has rightly placed the question of universal observance a promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms within the context of international cooperation. The promotion of human rights must be based on the principles of non-selectivity, objectivity, and impartiality. It should also take greater account of varying historical, political, economic, social, religious, and cultural realities. No country or group of countries should therefore arrogate to themselves the role of judge and jury over the other countries on this sensitive and critical issue of concern to the entire international community. Human rights should not be used as instruments of political pressure especially against the non-aligned and other developing countries. All nations have the right to freely establish their own political and economic systems and institutions on the basis of respect for the principles of national sovereignty, self-determination and non-interference in the internal affairs of others. The violation or abuse of human rights should not be condoned under any circumstances.

74. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that the basic provisions contained in the Universal, Declaration of Human Rights embody two mutually balancing aspects: those which respect the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, and those which stipulate obligations of the individual to society and the State. Such a balance is important, for its absence could lead to a denial of the rights of the community as a whole and to instability, especially in the developing countries.

75. The Heads of State or Government further emphasized the indivisible nature of human rights, comprising civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. They expressed concern over a tendency to address aspects of human rights selectively, often for extraneous political motives, and to neglect economic, social and cultural rights which relate more immediately to humankind's needs for food, shelter and health care and the eradication of poverty and illiteracy. In this connection, any attempt to use human rights as a condition for extending socio-economic assistance, thus sidelining the relevance of economic, social and cultural human rights, must be rejected. Instead, as development and human rights are mutually supportive, there is an imperative need for multilateral cooperation and assistance in implementing the socio-economic development programs of the non-aligned and other developing countries. In this context, they emphasized that any approach seeking to compartmentalize human rights would not serve the cause of promoting their full enjoyment. They considered the 1986 UNGA resolution 41/128 and the Declaration on the Right to Development to constitute an extremely important United Nations initiative on codification in the field of Human Rights. They reaffirmed their conviction that the right to development was an integral part of fundamental human rights.

76. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their commitment to the protection of the fundamental human rights of all peoples, particularly the right to self-determination. They were of the view that the right to self-determination of peoples under alien or colonial domination or foreign occupation is essential to securing universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. International humanitarian law, and in particular the Geneva Conventions of 1949, offer a further provision for the securing of human rights through the obligation of the high contracting parties to respect and ensure respect for the Conventions. It is encouraging that events have taken place since the Ninth Non-Aligned Summit Meeting which have led to greater political pluralism, respect for democratic principles and the exercise of the right to self-determination.

77. The Heads of State or Government noted that of late, terrorism has emerged as one of the most dangerous threats to the enjoyment of human rights in many parts of the world. Through killings, kidnappings, extortions and other such means, terrorists and their organizations usurp the human rights of innocent civilians. Brutality and intimidation are also weapons utilized by terrorists to undermine the free functioning of democratic institutions. Such terrorism assumes a particularly pernicious form when it is aided, abetted and sponsored from abroad. Sponsors hip of terrorism or allowing the use of national territories for the commission of terrorist acts against other countries constitutes a violation of the principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter governing relations among States and must be unequivocally condemned by the international community.

78. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to promoting and protecting all aspects of human rights, including human dignity, and to securing a decent standard of living and well-being for all. The Non-Aligned countries should therefore actively coordinate their positions and participate in the preparatory work for the forthcoming Second World Conference on Human Rights in 1993, and in particular, the Regional Meetings for Africa, Latin America and Asia, in order to ensure that the Conference addresses all aspects of human rights on the basis of universality, indivisibility, objectivity, impartiality and non-selectivity, and to ensure a just and balanced approach. In this context, they urged the international community to accede to or ratify the Convention on the Rights of Children and to incorporate the provisions thereof in their respective legislation, with a view to ensuring its effective implementation, taking due account of the decisions and recommendations contained in the Global Plan of Action adopted at the World Summit for Children held at New York in September 1990. In this connection, they stressed that the holding of an international donors' conference on aid to the children of Africa under the auspices of the OAU and UNICEF, in Dakar, Senegal, in November 1992, constitutes an important step towards an effective exercise of children's rights.

79. The Heads of State or Government called for the rapid elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, in particular, by involving them in consultation and decision-making processes at all levels, so that they may effectively participate in the process of economic, social and cultural development. In this regard, they welcomed with satisfaction the conclusions of the World Summit on the Promotion of the Rights of Women in Rural Areas held at Geneva on 1 February 1992 and those of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in June last at Rio, in particular, the provisions of Agenda 21 relating to women and those concerned with urgent measures to be taken for rural women who are seriously affected by the consequences of natural disasters and the effects of deterioration of the environment and have invited the international community to implement these provisions. The Heads of State or Government expressed their support for the decision to convene the [International Conference on the Promotion of Women] which will be held in 1995.

80. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the success of the efforts of many developing countries in setting up democratic institutions and political and economic reforms involving a greater degree of participation by the populations in the decision-making processes and in the running of national affairs. They also called upon the Member States of the Movement to support those countries which are committed to the democratization process in an effort to ensure its every success.



NAC 10/Doc.2/Rev.2
6 September 1992
Original: English



TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992



FINAL DOCUMENT
CHAPTER III
POLITICAL ISSUES
POLITICAL COMMITTEE

POLITICAL ISSUES

SOUTH-EAST ASIA

1. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need to respect the right of the Cambodian people to freely determine their destiny without outside pressure or interference.

2. They noted with satisfaction the signing in Paris of the Agreements on the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict which was the culmination of a long and difficult process of negotiations involving many countries of the Asian region, all Cambodian factions and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Cognizant of the initial success of the implementation of the Agreements, they viewed with concern the current difficulties in implementing phase two of the Agreements. In this regard, they urged all parties in Cambodia to cooperate fully in the implementation of the Agreements in order to end the suffering of the Cambodian people. They expressed confidence in the capability of the Cambodian people, under the leadership of His Royal Highness Samdech Norodom Sihanouk and the members of the Supreme National Council (SNC), the sole legitimate body and source of authority in Cambodia, in cooperation with the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), to overcome those difficulties. They emphasized the need to have the Agreements upheld in their balanced totality, for it should be clear that a breach in one part endangers implementation of the other constituent parts.

3. They expressed appreciation to countries which contributed resources, including manpower, to UNTAC to ensure its successful operation. They welcomed the pledges of support by the international community made during the Ministerial Conference on Rehabilitation and Construction of Cambodia held in Tokyo on 22 June 1992.

4. The Heads of State or Government commended the accession by Vietnam and the Lao People's Democratic Republic to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South-East Asia of 24 February 1976, which provides the countries in the region with the framework for wider and fruitful regional cooperation, peace, stability and enabling their peoples to move forward to greater progress, prosperity, welfare and dignity.

5. They believed that regional peace and stability in South-East Asia can best be enhanced through the nurturing of their respective national resilience, leading towards regional resilience, and through positive collaboration within the framework of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in South-East Asia as the basis for establishing a code of international conduct in the area. They endorsed the determination of the countries in the region that the concepts of a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality and of a South-East Asian Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone could be realized at an early date.

6. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea containing principles for resolving sovereignty and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means without recourse to force and for exercising restraint, and all constructive proposals put forward by the countries in the region and China to create a positive climate for the eventual peaceful resolution of the overlapping claims and to open the prospects of realizing mutually beneficial cooperation, without prejudice to their respective national positions.
KOREA

7. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the fact that the Korean Peninsula is still divided and reaffirmed their support for the aspiration of the Korean people for reunification of their homeland based on the three principles set forth in the North-South Joint Statement of 4 July 1972. They welcomed the formalization of the Agreement on Reconciliation, Non-Aggression, Cooperation and Exchanges between the North and the South of 19 February 1992, as well as the Joint Declaration for the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. They further expressed the hope that the implementation of this comprehensive peace structure will contribute not only to the common prosperity of the Korean people but also to the strengthening of peace and security in the North-East Asia region.
AFGHANISTAN

8. The Heads of State or Government commended the heroic struggle of the Afghan people against foreign invasion and foreign imposed régimes. They congratulated the Government of the Islamic State of Afghanistan and considered it a positive development towards peace, stability, national reconciliation and reconstruction in Afghanistan for the benefit of its long-suffering people. While deploring the present internal hostilities against the legitimate government of Afghanistan and the atrocities inflicted upon the innocent people, they hoped that conditions for holding free and fair elections could be restored as soon as possible, so that a permanent government which reflects the wishes and aspirations of the people and ensures political, economic and social stability, can be formed. The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community to participate actively and generously in the reconstruction of Afghanistan and to increase humanitarian and financial aid for the speedy, voluntary and safe return of Afghan refugees to their homeland.
NEW CALEDONIA

9. The Heads of State or Government recognized that the South Pacific is one of the regions of the world that contains many of the remaining Non-Self-Governing Territories and reiterated the position they adopted at the Ninth Summit Conference concerning the inalienable right of the people of New Caledonia to self-determination in accordance with the United Nations Charter and General Assembly resolutions 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 and 1541 (XV) of 15 December 1960.

10. They noted the positive measures undertaken by the French authorities in cooperation with the local inhabitants to promote the political, economic and social development of the Territory in order to lay the groundwork for the peaceful transition to independence, and were encouraged by the constructive activities undertaken by all parties involved, including the tireless efforts and support of the South Pacific Forum for the realization of the independence of New Caledonia.

11. They further called on all parties involved to continue their efforts towards providing the necessary framework for the exercise of the right to self-determination and at the same time safeguarding the rights of all New Caledonians.
MAYOTTE, MALAGASY ISLANDS AND CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO

12. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their fun support for the sovereignty of the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros over the islands of Mayotte and reiterated their solidarity with its people for the protection and preservation of the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of their country. They noted the ongoing dialogue between the French Government and the Islamic Federal Republic of Comoros. In this context, they urged the Government of France to honor its commitments under the referendum held in the Archipelago on 22 December 1974. They further urged the colonial power to expedite the process of negotiations with a view to ensuring the reintegration of Mayotte into the Islamic Federal Republic of Comoros.

13. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their support for the sovereignty of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar over the Malagasy Islands of Glorieuses, Juan de Nova, Europa and Bassas Da India. They took note of the ongoing dialogue between France and the Malagasy authorities. They expressed their solidarity with the Government of the Republic of Madagascar in its efforts to preserve the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Malagasy Islands.

14. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their full support of the sovereignty of Mauritius over the Chagos Archipelago, including Diego Garcia, and called upon the former colonial power to return the Chagos Archipelago without delay.
INDIAN OCEAN

15. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the position taken at Summit Conferences and Ministerial meetings of the Non-Aligned Countries on the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace and the determination to continue their efforts to achieve the goals contained therein and as considered at the Meeting of Litoral and Hinterland States held in 1979. They noted that efforts by the Non-Aligned Countries and others to convene a conference on the Indian Ocean continue to be impeded, although important progress has been made in the Ad Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean. The recommendations of the Ad Hoc Committee relating to the complex ramifications of the issues involved and differing perceptions on these issues as well as the Ad Hoc Committee's future role should be addressed comprehensively by the 48th session of the UNGA (1993) with a view to convening, as early as possible thereafter, the conference in Colombo with the participation of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and the Major Maritime Users of the Indian Ocean.

16. In the context of the above the Heads of State or Government considered it timely for the Non-Aligned States of the ad hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean to work towards a common position on the issues involved.
PALESTINE

17. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the position on Palestine adopted by previous Summit Conferences concerning the need for a just and comprehensive settlement under the auspices of the United Nations and for the realization of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people to self-determination, independence and statehood, and welcomed the significant developments, especially the proclamation of the State of Palestine. They further reiterated their condemnation of Israel for occupying Palestinian, Syrian Golan and other Arab lands and for its flagrant violations of relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions and international humanitarian law. They commended the global opposition to the Israeli Government's policies of perpetuating occupation in order to create "a greater Israel", which has had a destabilizing impact on regional peace and security.

18. The Heads of State or Government strongly condemned Israel's policy of settlement and expansion through demographic, cultural and social changes and the continuing denial of the human rights of the Palestinian people of the occupied territories, including the increasing imposition of harsh collective punishments and other repressive measures.

19. They reiterated that the essential elements of a comprehensive, just and lasting settlement of the question of Palestine must include the withdrawal of Israel from the Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, and, from the Syrian Golan and other occupied Arab territories; respect for the right of all states in the region to live in peace within secure and internationally-recognized boundaries; and the recognition and exercise of the legitimate national rights of the Palestinian people, and primarily the right to self-determination.

20. They commended the activities of the United Nations Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People and appealed to it to continue its endeavors so as to enable the Palestinians to gain their rights, which have long been recognized and reiterated by the international community.
THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT

21. The Heads of State or Government expressed their deep concern at the volatile situation in the region resulting from continued Israeli occupation of the Palestinian land, the Syrian Golan and other Arab territories and considered that the persistence of Israel in its aggressive policies and expansionist practices in the region constitutes a dangerous threat to the peace and security of the region and beyond.

22. They condemned the occupying power for its provocative defiance of the will expressed by the international community, its willful flouting of the resolutions adopted by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council, as well as the new dimensions of violence and terror, which have evoked widespread anger, bitterness and despair among inhabitants under Israeli occupation. They further condemned Israel for its rigid position towards any effort to achieve a peaceful and just solution to the Middle East conflict, which has reinforced suspicion as to Israel's real designs and true intentions towards the region. They noted the need for the negotiation process to be based on the serious commitment of Israel to Security Council resolutions 242, 338 and 425, the return of land for peace and to interpret its statements into concrete terms. In this context, they reiterated that Israel should totally and promptly end all settlement activities in the occupied territory, including Jerusalem.

23. They commended the Governments of the Arab States participating in this endeavor for their statesmanship and for their rational and flexible approach to the negotiating process, and were particularly pleased that Palestinian representatives are participating in this forum with other States concerned, which constitutes a belated acknowledgment of their identify and years of valiant struggle to be recognized as a nation, thus registering yet another historic stride towards the of the already proclaimed Palestinian State. They expressed their positive appreciation of the Final Declaration issued in Damascus on 25 July 1992. They considered this Declaration as a strong affirmation of the seriousness of the Arab parties to negotiate in good faith for the realization of a just and comprehensive settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

24. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the convening of the Peace Conference which flowed from the historic decision of the parties to negotiate with the aim of reaching a just and comprehensive peace settlement through two parallel tracks of direct negotiations, one between Israel and the Arab States and the other between Israel and the Palestinians. They called for the intensification of efforts to give greater impetus to the next round of negotiations, abiding by international legality and retaining the principle of land for peace as a basic formula for all parties concerned. In this regard, they invited the United Nations to assume a fundamental role in the peace negotiations as its resolutions served as the terms of reference for the Madrid Conference and basically for international legality and the overall peace process.

25. The Heads of State or Government stressed that any approach to a solution of the Palestine question and the Arab-Israeli conflict should be comprehensive in nature, that any settlement cannot address some of the causes of the conflict to the exclusion of others, and that peace cannot prevail in the region if it does not include the Palestinians, whose cause is at the core of the conflict. They therefore expressed the firm view that the Peace Conference should seek a speedy implementation of United Nations Security Council resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973), long recognized as the cornerstones of a comprehensive settlement. They reiterated their full support for the basic position adopted by the Palestine National Council (PNC) with regard to the current peace process. They endorsed the resolutions adopted by the PNC which called for the implementation of all United Nations resolutions and for universal recognition of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. They concurred with the position take by the PLO in the ongoing peace process, especially with regard to any interim arrangements, which must include the right of Palestinians to exercise control over internal security, with the assistance of United Nations peace-keeping forces, as well as over all land occupied since 1967,and over water and other resources, and to resolve the question of refugees in accordance with United Nations General Assembly resolution 194 (1948) and Security Council resolution 237 (1967).

26. They recalled that the crux of the Arab-Israeli conflict has long been Israel's persistent refusal even to consider ending its illegal occupation of the Palestinian, Syrian Golan and other Arab territories and to recognize the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people. They strongly condemned Israel's defiant policy of building settlements and aggressive expansion, which threatens to transform the demographic, cultural and social make-up of the occupied territories in an irreversible way. Israel must unconditionally halt the establishment of new settlements and provide guarantees for the dismantling of the existing ones. They urged the Movement's members to intensify their contacts with all parties involved in the issue of Jewish emigration to the Arab territories occupied since 1967, particularly those countries which provide the main source of such emigration. They further urged the Movement's members to intensify their contact with the permanent members of the Security Council in order to indicate the risks and negative implications of such continued emigration and to dissuade those countries from providing any financial assistance likely to boost settlement in the occupied Arab territories. They considered that the pursuance of that process will undermine the ongoing peace process, and that it is a source of danger to peace and security in the Middle East. They reaffirmed their condemnation of Israel for its continued occupation of the Syrian Golan, its defiance of the relevant United Nations resolutions, particularly Security Council resolution 497 (1981) which was unanimously adopted, and its flagrant violation of the Hague Agreement of 1907, and the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 on the protection of civilians in times of war. They reiterated that Israel's decision of 14 December 1981 to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan is null and void and produces no legal effect.

27. They called upon Israel to accept the inevitable trend of history and make its contribution to the ongoing search for peace by according the right of self-determination to the Palestinian people, unconditionally withdrawing from all occupied territories, observing international treaties and conventions and implementing United Nations resolutions and decisions. They reiterated their long-standing support for these essential elements as the foundation upon which to build a durable structure for peace and justice in the Middle East. They were convinced of the need to resolve the various inter-related aspects of the conflict and its multilateral dimensions through a comprehensive negotiated settlement, to be achieved through the International Peace Conference on the Middle East, held under the auspices of the United Nations and with the participation on an equal footing of all parties involved, including the PLO and the permanent members of the Security Council.

28. They agreed that, amid the positive transformation of the global political landscape and peaceful settlement of various disputes, the Middle East can no longer be a cauldron of violent upheaval, insecurity and instability. They called for a new regional order of justice, dignity and stability through mutual accommodation, based on the principle of peaceful co-existence and international legality.
SITUATION BETWEEN IRAQ AND KUWAIT AND THE REGION

29. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the end of the war and the restoration of Kuwait's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. They called upon the States in the region to heal the wounds of wars, discard enmity and mutual mistrust and turn towards reconciliation. Other States concerned should help create an atmosphere conducive to the attainment of such reconciliation. They also reiterated their continued support for the full implementation of all relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions regarding the region.

30. They believed that the Movement has a constructive role to play in assisting the rebuilding of the region into one of stable peace, harmony and mutually beneficial cooperation.

They urged the parties concerned to make serious efforts towards the peaceful resolution of residual problems such as missing persons, prisoners of war and detainees, and to alleviate the human suffering and misery still prevailing as a consequence of the war.
LEBANON

31. The Heads of State or Government commended the positive developments that have taken place in Lebanon, namely the continued progress in the national reconciliation process, the successful efforts by the Lebanese Government, through its own national forces, to ensure the full exercise of its authority over all its territory, in particular the south of Lebanon.

32. The Heads of State or Government called for the respect of Lebanon's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity and condemned the continued Israeli aggressions and occupation of parts of south Lebanon. They called for the prompt and unconditional implementation of Security Council resolution 425 (1978).

33. The Heads of State or Government acknowledged the urgent need for the reconstruction of Lebanon and urged the international community to play a more active role in contributing to this massive reconstruction effort.
CYPRUS

34. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their previous positions and Declarations on the question of Cyprus, called for the withdrawal of foreign troops and reiterated their solidarity and support for the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, unity and non-aligned status of the Republic of Cyprus. Proceeding from the position that the present status quo in Cyprus is not acceptable, they welcomed the recent intensification of efforts towards finding a just and viable solution to the Cyprus, problem, based on the United Nations resolutions and Non-Aligned Movement decisions, in accordance with the principles and provisions of the United Nations Charter and the rules of international law, which will provide for the restitution of and full respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all Cypriots.

35. They commended the United Rations Secretary-General for his recent efforts and welcomed the contents of his latest Report of 21st August 1992 (Doc. S/24472) to the Security Council and the ensuing unanimous resolution SC774/92 of 26th August 1992. They welcomed in particular the acceptance by both sides of the right of displaced persons to return to their homes and of the right to property and the call for the resumption of the talks at high level on 26th October 1992 in New York. They requested the Contact Group of Non-Aligned countries on Cyprus to follow the situation in Cyprus and actively support the efforts of the Secretary-General.
THE NEEDITERRANEAN

36. The Heads of State or Government, recalling the importance of the Ministerial Meetings of Non-Aligned Mediterranean Countries held at Valetta, Malta, in 1984, at Brioni, Yugoslavia, in 1987 and at Algiers, Algeria, in 1989, which had put forward a number of initiatives for the development of comprehensive and equitable cooperation among them, reaffirmed their support for the efforts to transform the Mediterranean area into a region of peace, security and cooperation on the basis of the principles of sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, non-interference, non-intervention, non-use of force or threat of use of force and non-violation of international borders, and in this context welcomed the Treaty instituting the Arab Maghreb Union which has made an important contribution to peace, stability, cooperation and development in the region.

37. They expressed concern over the continuing crisis involving Libya, which tends to exacerbate tension in the region that is incompatible with the Declarations of the Now Aligned Movement and the resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly to make the Mediterranean a zone of peace, security and cooperation.

38. They welcomed Libya's acceptance of United Nations Security Council resolution 731 and called upon the parties concerned to refrain from escalating the crisis and seek to find a peaceful and just settlement that would ensure the interest and rights of all parties in accordance with the norms of international law and the principles of the United Nations Charter which govern relations among independent States.

39. They took note of the negative consequences of the crisis on the peoples of the region and called upon the parties concerned to undertake joint efforts in accordance with Chapter 6 of the United Nations Charter under the auspices of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to eliminate in peaceful, just and speedy manner this crisis and its consequences. In this context, they invited the other interested countries to consider the idea of convening a conference to discuss various initiatives concerning peace, security and cooperation in the Mediterranean.
BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

40. The Heads of State or Government expressed their grave concern over the tragic situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina and particularly condemned the massive atrocities being committed against the peoples of that Republic. They called for the immediate cessation of hostilities and reaffirmed the inadmissibility of aggression and of acquisition of territory by force. They further condemned the grave violations of human rights of the peoples of Bosnia-Herzegovina and demanded the immediate freeing of all prisoners and the dismantling of camps, prisons and other places of detention. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government strongly condemned the obnoxious policy of ethnic cleansing by Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina and called for the respect of human dignity. They welcomed the adoption by the United Nations Security Council of resolution 771 (1992), and all other relevant United Nations resolutions as well as the resolution of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Yugoslavia. Furthermore, they called for the full respect of the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Bosnia-Herzegovina. They demanded an end to breaches of international law and full respect for the principles of the United Nations Charter. In this context, they called for the speedy withdrawal of all external forces from the territory, the deployment of United Nations peace-keeping forces along the border and other places where necessary and urged all parties to fully cooperate with these forces. The Heads of State or Government also expressed their full support for the recent London Conference on the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and urged all parties to adhere to its conclusions and to the urgent steps required to achieve a durable settlement. In this regard, they urged the resumption of negotiations without preconditions and the participation by all to secure peace and a respect for the interest of others. The Heads of State or Government also strongly appealed to all States to take necessary measures to facilitate, in coordination with the United Nations, the speedy delivery by relevant United Nations Humanitarian organizations and others of humanitarian assistance to Sarajevo and elsewhere in Bosnia--Herzegovina and the safe evacuation from the fighting areas of children, women, the elderly and the disabled. They reaffirmed the fight of return of displaced persons to their homes in Bosnia-Herzegovina. They requested the chairman to closely monitor the situation and to take appropriate action to give support to peace initiatives of the United Nations.
SOMALIA

41. The Heads of State or Government, deeply concerned that the conflict in Somalia threatens national unity and cohesion as well as stability, peace and security in the Horn of Africa, urged the warring factions to cease hostilities, to honor their commitments and to accept United Nations observers to monitor the cease-fire agreement and a United Nations police force to supervise the distribution of food and other essentials.

42. They commended the United Nations, inter-governmental as well as non-governmental organizations and the international community for the humanitarian assistance they have extended to Somalia and the neighboring host countries of Somali refugees in order to alleviate their plight and accelerate their return and urged them to continue to do so. At the same time they urged members of the NAM and others in the position to do so to join in the effort.

43. They expressed their support and encouragement for the efforts of the United Nations Secretary-General in mobilizing personnel for peacekeeping operations and humanitarian assistance for Somalia and commended those countries which have contributed to this effort.

44. They endorsed the proposal for the convening of a conference on national reconciliation, reconstruction and unity of Somalia, leading to a peaceful and lasting political settlement of the conflict. In this connection they commended all efforts towards this objective, in particular the contribution of the countries members of the Horn of Africa Standing Committee on Somalia.
ETHIOPIA

45. The Heads of State or Government were encouraged by the positive developments in Ethiopia since the July 1991 National Conference on Peace, Democracy and Reconciliation held in Addis Ababa. In particular they appreciated the efforts of the Transitional Government aimed at bringing about lasting peace, stability and political pluralism, rebuilding the war-torn country, repatriating refugees, resettling displaced persons and rehabilitating drought victims. The Heads of State or Government also commended both the efforts of the Transitional Government in establishing democratic institutions in the country to insure the protection of individual and human rights and the processes undertaken to decentralize power. The Heads of State or Government appealed to the international community and international organizations to increase development and humanitarian assistance to Ethiopia.
WESTERN SAHARA

46. The Heads of State or Government noted that encouraging progress had been made in resolving the question of Western Sahara. They expressed their fun support for the efforts of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to organize and supervise a referendum in accordance with United Nations Security Council resolutions.
LIBERIA

47. The Heads of State or Government expressed support for the efforts made by the Standing Committee and by the Committee of Five within the framework of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Peace Plan, and welcomed the conclusion of the Yamoussoukro Accord of 30 October 1991, relating to the encampment and disarmament of all combatants and the holding of free and democratic elections for the peaceful settlement of the Liberian conflict. They called on all parties to the conflict to respect and implement the various accords of the peace process and to refrain from action which would endanger the security of neighboring States. They further observed that, if after the efforts being made by the current Chairman of ECOWAS, there are parties still frustrating the efforts to create the required climate for the holding of free and fair elections in Liberia, stringent economic sanctions as proposed by the ECOWAS Summit held in Dakar in July 1992 be imposed on such parties and the areas they control. They also appealed to the international community to support the said sanctions, if and when invoked, as well as provide necessary assistance to Liberia and the Economic Community of the West African Monitoring Observer Group (ECOMOG).
SOUTHERN AFRICA

48. The Heads of State or Government commended the efforts of the Front-line States for their contribution to the struggle against apartheid. They welcomed the positive developments that took place in the region, in particular the progress made towards the settlement of conflicts both in Angola and Mozambique.

49. The Heads of State or Government paid tribute to the Government and people of Angola for their noble contribution to the evolving climate of peace in southern Africa.

50. They expressed their satisfaction and support to that positive development as well as the process of political pluralism and national reconciliation in Angola, and appealed to the international community to continue to assist the Government of the People's Republic of Angola for the implementation of the Bicesse Peace Accords.

51. Taking into consideration the disastrous consequences caused by the policy of destabilization suffered by the economic infrastructures of that country, they also appealed to the international community to intensify its support and material assistance towards the economic and social rehabilitation of Angola in conformity with the relevant resolutions adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations.

52. The Heads of State or Government expressed their deepest regret at the continued killing of innocent civilians and the destruction of property being perpetuated by RENAMO forces. They reaffirmed their support for the spirit of flexibility, tolerance and accommodation of the Government of Mozambique in its efforts towards the attainment of peace, democracy and national unity in that country. They particularly welcomed the progress made in the Peace Talks which culminated in the signing of a Joint Declaration at the high-level meeting in Rome, Italy on 7 August 1992. They urged both parties to strictly abide by the commitment therein, and encouraged them to work expeditiously for the implementation of the Joint Declaration by signing the General Peace Agreement by 1 October 1992. In this regard, they appealed to members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the international community to render all possible assistance for the attainment of peace, democracy and national unity and for the reconstruction of that nation.
NAMIBIA

53. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the independence of Namibia on 21 March 1990, which has a salutary effect on the situation in southern Africa. They called upon the Government of South Africa to make a clear and categorical commitment to the early and total reintegration of Walvis Bay and the offshore islands into the rest of Namibia in accordance with United Nations Security Council resolution 432 (1978). The Heads of State or Government called on the International Community to render generous assistance to Namibia in order to enhance its efforts in promoting democracy and economic development.
SOUTH AFRICA

54. The Heads of State or Government assessed the development that have taken place in South Africa since the Ninth Summit held in Belgrade in 1989. They expressed their satisfaction over the repeal and amendments of some of the basic discriminatory laws, the convening of the Patriotic United Front Conference in October 1991 and the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA). However, they were concerned at the discontinuation of the negotiation process under the CODESA framework, due to the escalating violence in the context of the rigid positions adopted by the South African régime.

55. The Heads of State or Government noted with deep concern the persistence of violence which continues to take a heavy toll despite the signing of the National Peace Accord on 14 September 1991. They welcomed the initiative of the OAU Summit held in Dakar, Senegal, to convene a meeting of the Security Council, and they expressed support for the international community in addressing the question of violence in South Africa. They further welcomed the adoption of Security Council resolutions 765 and 772, confident that the Secretary General of the United Nations will urgently deploy as many observers in South Africa as will be necessary to effectively address the question of violence. They strongly urged the South African regime to create a climate conducive to peaceful negotiation and free political activity, by repealing all remaining discriminatory laws, realizing all political prisoners as well as facilitating the return of aft political exiles.

56. They strongly urged the South African regime to address the concerns that led to the breakdown of negotiations and in this regard they appealed to the liberation movements (ANC and PAC) and all democratic forces in South Africa to make use of the negotiating process so as to expedite progress towards the establishment of a non-racial, democratic and united South Africa.

57. The Heads of State or Government supported the legitimate demands of the overwhelming majority of the people of South Africa for the establishment of an elected constituent assembly to draw up the non-racial democratic constitution. In order to accelerate the negotiating process, they appealed to all participants to redouble their efforts to reach agreement on the fundamental question of an interim government/transitional authority and a democratically elected constituent assembly.

58. The Heads of State or Government noted with regret that some countries have taken unilateral measures to lift sanctions, including the oil embargo against South Africa, which went beyond the common position agreed upon by the international community on phased lifting of sanctions. They cautioned against any premature restoration of full-fledged economic and political relations with the Pretoria regime and underscored the need for cohesion and concerted action by the international community so that the necessary pressures will continue to be exerted on South Africa until a profoundly irreversible stage is reached in the process of negotiations aimed at establishing a democratic and non-racial South Africa. In this regard, they resolved that the emplacement of an interim government/transitional authority charged with supervising the transition to democratic rule, including the holding of free and fair elections under universal adult suffrage on a common voters roll, will mark the pivotal beginning of an irreversible march towards the ending of apartheid. It is only at that stage that the international community can enter into a relationship with the authorities of a South Africa which is resolutely engaged on the path towards the establishment of a democratic society.

59. The Heads of State or Government launched an urgent appeal for unity among the liberation movements and democratic forces in South Africa at this crucial stage of struggle against apartheid. As a matter of urgency, they urged the reconvening of the Patriotic United Front Conference with the clear objective of forging unity among the liberation movements and other democratic forces and adopting a common position on the process of negotiations. They requested the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to facilitate the holding of such a Conference.

60. The Heads of State or Government requested Governments, inter-governmental and other organizations to continue to grant financial and humanitarian assistance, including the provision of education and training to the victims of apartheid to help redress the socio-economic inequities and prepare them for a new democratic South Africa.

61. The Heads of State or Government commended the United Nations Special Committee Against Apartheid for its work. They urged the Committee to continue to closely monitor and inform the international community of developments that may adversely affect the prospects for transition to democracy in South Africa.

62. The Heads of State or Government called for strict observance of the arms embargo against South Africa. They condemned any collaboration with South Africa in the military and nuclear fields which is contrary to the provisions of the United Nations arms and oil embargoes. They noted in particular that the joint venture between Israel and South Africa constitutes evidence of Israel's violation of the mandatory arms embargo, and demanded that Israel cease such activities immediately.

63. The Heads of State or Government adopted the decision taken at the Tenth Ministerial Meeting held in Accra in 1991 to establish a Committee composed of the members of the Organization of African Unity Ad Hoc Committee, the United Nations Special Committee Against Apartheid, and the South African liberation movements and African members of the Security Council for the purpose of monitoring developments in South Africa and mobilizing resources for the victims of apartheid.
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

64. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their positions they adopted at the previous Summit Meetings on various Latin America and Caribbean issues. They emphasized the region's unwavering commitment to democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and commended the efforts of the countries of the region to consolidate political consultation and regional integration, with a view to strengthening security and political, economic and social development in the region. They also expressed the hope that all efforts in this direction would be made freely and without external interference.

65. They noted the significant progress made in achieving peace, reconciliation and national concertation in Nicaragua which has made it possible to lay the foundations for reconciliation of the Nicaraguan society, economic recovery and social development. The progress made in Nicaragua has been of particular importance for the political stability of the region. The Meeting expressed its support for Nicaragua's ongoing efforts to achieve its national objectives and expressed the hope that national dialogue, the deepening of the democratic process and continued international cooperation would make it possible to overcome the main obstacles facing that country in the present circumstances. The Heads of State and Government received with shock and sorrow news of the tragic loss of fives and property in Nicaragua as a result of the earthquake of 2nd September 1992. They expressed their sympathy and solidarity with the government and people of Nicaragua.

66. They further noted that El Salvador has emerged from a decade of fratricidal war and warmly welcomed the Chapultepec peace agreement signed by the Government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), which includes, among other issues, the armed forces, police, economic and social questions, political participation by the FMLN, the judiciary, the electoral system, and complete respect for human rights. They also noted with satisfaction the efforts both parties are making to comply with the agreed timetable so as to achieve the reunification of their society and, with international cooperation, consolidate the process of reconstruction of the country.

67. They were encouraged by the progress made in the talks between the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Nacional Revolucionaria, Guatemalteca to end the internal armed confrontation. They expressed support for the Government of Guatemala's plan for a comprehensive peace, as well as satisfaction at the progress achieved, which augur well for early reconciliation through the peaceful integration of irregular forces into civilian and political life within the constitutional framework. They were also encouraged by the establishment of diplomatic relations between Guatemala and Belize, which represents a significant step towards the final resolution of the dispute.

68. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Declaration made by the Presidents of Central American countries for a region of peace, freedom, democracy and development and the determination of these leaders to work for the inclusion of their region in a world order marked by interdependence, new forms of integration and cooperation, and the progress made in creating a new security model based on coordination, communication and confidence-building. They were encouraged by the determination to marshal the political will of the Governments in Central America to transform the historical, and cultural affinities into an instrument of unity and development based on dialogue, cooperation and solidarity. They expressed satisfaction at the recent inauguration of the Central American Parliament to fulfill the role of a regional forum for deliberation so as to contribute to the consolidation of peace, democracy and integration.

69. They also welcomed the convening of the first and second Ibero-American Summits held in Guadalajara and Madrid in 1991 and July 1992 respectively, aimed at establishing a forum for consultation having its own distinct character and designed to foster cooperation in implementing programs in. priority areas of economic and social development of interest to both regions.

70. They expressed their satisfaction at the agreement submitted in July 1991 in Guadalajara, Mexico, by Argentina and Brazil on the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, which provided for extension of non-proliferation and security through technological and nuclear cooperation. They warmly welcomed the initiative of toe Governments of Argentina, Brazil and Chile to ensure the full entry into force of the Treaty on the banning of nuclear weapons in Latin America.

71. They also expressed satisfaction at the Mendoza Agreement of August 1991 entered into by Argentina, Brazil and Chile, collectively renouncing chemical and bacteriological weapons, and thereby constituting an example for the elimination of weapons of mass destruction at the regional level, which should be worthy of emulation in a larger context. They also expressed their satisfaction at the Cartagena Declaration of 5 December 1991 renouncing weapons of mass destruction entered into by the Andean Pact Presidents.

72. They strongly urged the removal of nuclear weapons, military bases and troops of external powers in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean in order to promote zones of peace, security and cooperation.

73. They welcomed the termination of the boundary dispute between Argentina and Chile in the spirit of Latin American brotherhood.

74. They highly commended the Treaty for the Constitution of the Common Market of the South, to be established by the year 1994 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

75. The Heads of State or Government commended the States, member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) for the steps taken to broaden and deepen their integration process, as well as recent and on-going efforts to establish and strengthen institutional links between CARICOM and integration processes in Central America, as well as intensifying relations with other organizations and States in the Latin American and Caribbean region.

76. They acknowledged that the Andean Pact has reaffirmed the political will of its members to continue implementing mechanisms to strengthen the sub-regional integration process.

77. The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the efforts being made to ensure the timely and effective observance of the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty, and urged the parties concerned to take the necessary or appropriate steps to ensure that control over this waterway is effectively transferred to the Republic of Panama.

78. They urged the Government of the United States to cease its unneighborly acts against Cuba and to terminate the series of economic, commercial and financial measures and actions imposed upon that country for over three decades, which have inflicted enormous material losses and economic damage. They called for an end to the violation of Cuba's territorial waters and air space, and to the hostile radio and television broadcasts which are inconsistent with international law, and to restore the Guantanamo base to Cuban sovereignty. In this regard, they further called upon the United States to resolve its differences with Cuba through negotiations on the basis of equality and mutual respect.

79. The Heads of State or Government recalled the relevant resolution on Puerto Rico adopted by the United Nations Committee on Decolonization, with the support of the Latin American and Caribbean countries that are members of the Committee, and reaffirmed toe inalienable right of the Puerto Rican people to self-determination and independence in conformity with resolution 1514 (XV) (1960) of the United Nations General Assembly. They expressed their confidence that a legal framework will be adopted at the earliest possible date to enable the Puerto Rican people to exercise this right in accordance with the United Nations Charter.

80. They noted with satisfaction the deepening of relations between Guyana and Venezuela, as reflected in growing levels of effective cooperation. They welcomed the demonstrated intention of both countries to strengthen the process of dialogue in resolving the existing differences between them and in cooperating with the Secretary-General of the. United Nations in fulfillment of the mandate given to him by the Geneva Agreement of 1966.

81. The Heads of State or Government condemned the removal of the legally constituted Government of Haiti, which is incompatible with the growing trend towards political pluralism and the establishment of a framework for democratic participation. They therefore expressed full support for the struggle of the people of Haiti to restore democracy and for the ongoing efforts of the Organization of American States, backed by the United Nations through General Assembly resolution 46/7, to return its legitimate government to power and fully restore the democratic process. The Summit expressed the view that while the efforts of the organization of American States aimed at restoring the legitimate government of President Jean-Betrand Aristide were to be commended, the United Nations had a responsibility to address the gross violation of human rights in that country and to mobilize the support of the international community for the restoration of the constitutional government.

82. The Heads of State or Government took note with satisfaction of the progress toe Government of Suriname has made in restoring the process of democracy for which they expressed their support. They hailed the termination of the internal armed struggle with the signing of the Agreement of National Reconciliation and peace by all parties involved. In this respect they welcomed the contribution of the Organization of American States.
ANTARCTICA

83. The Heads of State or Government recalled their position adopted in the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Summit Conferences on the need for a further evolution of the Antarctic Treaty System and took note with appreciation of the adoption of the Madrid Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty, which designated Antarctica as a natural reserve devoted to peace and science. They continued to emphasize the requirement for greater access to, and wider dissemination of information concerning the consultative parties' activities, negotiations and agreements; the establishment of viable links with specialized agencies, and modalities to encourage and facilitate the participation of developing countries in scientific activities conducted in Antarctica.

84. Recognizing the geopolitical, scientific, environmental and climatic significance of Antarctica to all mankind, they welcomed the commitment undertaken by the Antarctic Treaty parties under Agenda 21 and NAC they further reaffirmed the overriding need that Antarctica should continue for ever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and should not become the scene or object of contention.
DECOLONIZATION

85. The Heads of State or Government reiterated their support for the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and its importance in securing the progressive eradication of colonialism. They noted that while colonialism is on the retreat, removing its remaining manifestations continues to be a major preoccupation of the Movement until all its peoples have exercised their inalienable right to self--determination and attained freedom and the independence of their homelands. They also expressed their firm support for the work of the United Nations Decolonization Committee and its effective contribution to the application of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

86. They reaffirmed the inalienable right of the people of Non-Self-Governing Territories to self-determination and independence in accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960, regardless of the territory's size, geographical location, size of population and limited natural resources. They recognized that among the major issues was the continuing problem of facilitating the development of the fragile economy of the Territories, many of which lack the basic infrastructures for self-sustaining economies. In this context, they agreed to continue to exert unremitting efforts to ensure that in the process of the exercise of the right to self-determination, the national unity, territorial integrity and economic viability of those Territories are fully respected and are not in any way subverted or impaired.

87. They urged the Administering Powers to give priority consideration to the economic and social development of the Territories and to cease all military activities and arrangements which constitute obstacles to the exercise of the right to self-determination.

88. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the final consummation of the decolonization process remains the Movement's major objective and pledged their unswerving support for the implementation of United Nations General Assembly resolution 43/47 of 22 November 1988 declaring the period 1990-2000 as the "Decade for the Elimination of Colonialism"

89. The Heads of State or Government noted that the world's refugee population had swelled to approximately 17 million persons by mid 1992 and that 70 per cent of these refugees had found asylum in the developing countries, straining the fragile infrastructure of, and increasing the financial burden incurred by, the host countries. They recognized also that giving shelter and taking care of these refugees on a temporary basis by countries, where such refugee/asylum has been sought, is a sacred humanitarian obligation; the international community has a concomitant obligation to actively pursue all efforts at ensuring return of such refugees in safety, security and dignity to their homeland from where they were temporarily displaced as well as their full reintegration in the societies from where they were involuntarily uprooted.

90. The Heads of State or Government pointed out that the migration questions can have profound implications of a social, economic and political nature. They reaffirmed their commitment to abide by the relevant international agreements to which they are parties and accepted norms for the care, wen-being and safety of refugees and displaced persons.

91. The Heads of State or Government stressed that care for refugees and displaced persons and the search for lasting solutions are a shared responsibility of the international community. While welcoming the assistance provided by the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other international non-governmental organizations, they underlined the need for continued provision of adequate assistance to the refugees located in the developing countries. They also appreciated the facilities and assistance provided by the host countries for the refugees.

DRUG ABUSE AND ILLICIT TRAFFICKING

92. The Heads of State or Government were deeply alarmed that the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking in illicit narcotic and psychotropic substances continue to pose a serious threat to society, morally and physically, and to the lives and future of children, especially as a result of the increased demand in developed countries. They drew attention to the growing nexus between drug traffickers and terrorists which had serious adverse implications on peace and stability in various parts of the world. They were aware that no state or nations can remain unaffected by the traffic in and cultivation, production, distribution and abuse of, illicit narcotics and psychotropic substances.

93. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their support for and commitment to the goals set forth at the international Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, held at Vienna from 17 to 26 June 1987, and the Declaration and Global Program of Action of the Seventeenth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to the question of international cooperation in drug control against illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. They reiterated that a lasting solution to the illicit narcotics and psychotropic substances problem cannot be realized unless concerted and comprehensive international action is taken, addressing all aspects of this dilemma, including the need for poverty alleviation, including the problems faced by licit producers and transit countries, drastic and rapid reduction in demand and the rehabilitation of drug abusers, and especially the need for enhanced development assistance to the developing countries for their socio-economic development programs.

94. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the establishment of the United Nations Drug Control Program and the measures taken by the United Nations to streamline the drug control units of its Secretariat and to enhance the role of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs as the principal policy-making body for drug control issues within the United Nations System, and particularly in implementing more action-oriented programs.

95. They reiterated support for the principles of national sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other States. The issue of narcotics trafficking should not become a vehicle for pursuing extraneous political or other goals. They rejected all decisions to kidnap citizens of other countries whether allegedly linked with criminal activities or not, as it constitutes an extra-territorial implementation of national legislations contrary to the most basic principles of international law. The Heads stressed that the war against this common evil should be conducted in accordance with established principles of international law and such bilateral treaties as may be in existence.

96. The Heads of State or Government called for additional resources and technical assistance to be made available to the developing countries to enhance their criminal justice activities and their capacity to interdict illicit narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking.

97. The Heads of State or Government urged all States to ratify and implement the International Convention against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and General Assembly resolution 46/103 concerning International Action to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking.
INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

98. The Heads of State or Government unequivocally condemned international terrorism as criminal acts and noted that terrorism endangers the very territorial integrity and security of States, due to acts of terrorism which take place within States, especially those which violate human rights - in particular, the right to life of all citizens - and that destroy the physical and economic infrastructure, and attempt to destabilize legitimately constituted governments. They expressed their resolve to take speedy and effective measures to eliminate international terrorism and urged all States to fulfil their obligations under international law, including prosecuting or, where appropriate, extraditing the perpetrators of such acts and preventing the organization and instigation of terrorism against other third states from within or outside their territories. They reaffirmed their
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support for General Assembly resolution 46/51 of 27 January 1992 which unequivocally condemned as criminal and unjustifiable all acts, methods and practices of terrorism wherever and by whomever committed and called upon all States to fulfil their obligations under international law to refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in other States, or acquiescing in or encouraging activities within their territory directed towards the commission of such acts.

99. They expressed their resolve to take speedy and effective action to eliminate terrorism and called upon all States to consider becoming parties to the international conventions relating to various aspects of international terrorism and to fulfil their obligation under international law, to refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in or against other countries.

100. The Heads of State or Government further called on all States to endorse in principle the convening of an international conference under the auspices of the United Nations to define terrorism, to differentiate it from the struggle for national liberation and to reach comprehensive and effective measures for concerted action. They also denounced the brutalization of peoples kept under foreign occupation as the gravest form of terrorism. They condemned the use of state power for the suppression and violence against innocent civilians struggling against foreign occupation to exercise their inalienable right to self-determination. They stressed the sanctity of this right and urged that in this era of enlarged freedom and democracy, people under foreign occupation should be allowed to freely determine their destiny. In this context they reaffirmed the Movement's principled position that the struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for self-determination did not constitute terrorism.
INTOLERANCE AND EXTREMISM

101. The Heads of State or Government took note of the rising trend of extremism and terrorism which has taken on various forms, perpetrated by organized individuals and groups who are exploiting beliefs and feelings as well as social and cultural differences between peoples for destructive goals. All religions call for tolerance, peace and brotherhood. Extremism and terrorism under any pretext such as sectarianism, ethnicity or religion deny the peoples human and moral values and in particular fundamental freedom and tolerance. These developments are a source of concern due to the real danger that extremism and terrorism constitute for our nations' security and institutions' stability and to the tensions they create between them. Religious extremism and terrorism are also a direct threat to the foundation of societies and to the respect of the democratic process. While recalling the principles embodied in the United Nations Charter which govern the relations between States as well as the Ninth Non-Aligned Summit Declaration which underlines the necessity to condemn extremism and terrorism under all forms and to tackle them by all means, Heads of State or Government urged all States to scrupulously respect the non-interference principle in the internal affairs between them and strictly observe the good neighborliness principle. They reiterated the necessity for all States to refrain from organizing, instigating, associating or participating in terrorist acts and using other countries' territories and facilities to threaten the security and integrity of other countries. Heads of State or Government so emphasized the necessity for member countries to enforce cooperation and consultation among them in order to curb extremist and terrorist policies as well as violence.
PEACEFUL USES OF NUCLEAR ENERGY

102. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the inalienable right of all States to apply and develop their programs for peaceful uses of nuclear energy for economic and social development in conformity with their priorities, interests and needs. The objective of non-proliferation should not jeopardize the full exercise of this right. AU States should have access to and be free to acquire technology, equipment and materials on a non-discriminatory basis for peaceful uses of nuclear energy, taking into account the particular needs of developing countries.

103. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that nuclear cooperation, including technology transfer, is a solemn commitment undertaken in article IV of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. They deeply regretted the unsatisfactory realization of that commitment due to unjustified restrictions and constraints imposed on developing non-nuclear-weapon states. It is their firm belief that concerned States Parties should, in conformity with that Article, provide to the fullest possible extent scientific information and contribute to the further development of the peaceful applications of atomic energy and to the enhancement of the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in providing increased assistance in nuclear technology applications on food and agriculture, health, industry, physical and chemical science and nuclear safety.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS

104. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the decisions adopted at the Ninth Summit Conference of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade in 1989 and the First Conference of the Ministers of Information of Non-Aligned Countries (COMINAC I) in Jakarta in 1984, COMINAC II in Harare in 1987 and COMINAC III in, Cuba in 1990, regarding the need to establish the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) and to identify strategies for the development of cooperation in all information-related activities, and believed that the Movement should seize the momentum offered by the improved international political climate and seek common approaches to remove the inequalities inherent in the information and communication system. In this regard, they welcomed the offer of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to host the fourth Conference of the Ministers of Information of the Non-Aligned Countries (COMINAC IV) in Pyongyang in 1993 and called upon all the NAM countries to take an active part in this Conference.

105. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the consensus resolution adopted at the Twelfth Session of the United Nations Committee on Information, which provides a unique opportunity for Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement to play a decisive role in promoting understanding and cooperation by emphasizing the critical importance of equitable participation of all Member States in the emerging NWICO, and agreed that the network of United Nations Information Centers which play an important role not only in promoting the establishment of the NWICO but also in providing the only link between the United Nations, the local media, non-governmental organizations and education centers, should be expanded.

106. The Heads of State or Government noted the important contribution of the UNESCO-sponsored International Program for the Development of Communications to assist developing countries in creating the necessary infrastructures and to facilitate access to technology, so that the vast majority of peoples can make their voices heard. They acknowledged the efforts of the Non-Aligned news agencies, the ECO Pool, BONAC and the Photo-Pool of Non-Aligned countries in fostering the development of communication infrastructures and enhancing media capabilities among the developing nations. They further acknowledged the important work being carried out by the United Nations and UNESCO in this field, particularly their collaboration with BONAC, and reiterated their support for efforts to disseminate objective information on the issues given priority by their respective agencies.

107. The Heads of State or Government acclaimed the attempts of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) to realize a free and balanced flow of news and information among the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement. They stressed the fact that NANAP is a collective asset in the field of information exchange with enormous potentiality to facilitate expansion of relations among the Non-Aligned countries through introducing the fertile grounds of cooperation. Moreover, they urged all the concerned parties to do their utmost for further, improvement of NANAP's professional operations as well as technical capacity to enable it to render higher services to the Non-Aligned countries.

108. The Heads of State or Government took note with satisfaction of the results of the Sixth General Conference of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, held in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran on (15 - 20) June. They expressed their full support to the demand of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool for the introduction of the UNESCO -recommended tariffs for the communication circuits used by the press in the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement.

109. The Heads of State or Government expressed their appreciation to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for the activities carried out by the United Nations Department of Public Information in the implementation of its mandate and urged the Department to intensify efforts to disseminate impartial information on priority issues such as practices of racial discrimination, nuclear disarmament, the question of Palestine, and economic and social development issues.

110. They deemed it essential that, in order to promote the concept of the NWICO, it was important for the Movement to project a better image of itself to the outside world through inter alia, continuous and balanced exchange of information with transnational news agencies, by urging the International Telecommunications Union to reserve adequate and equitable orbital and spectrum resources for use by developing countries; by pooling of resources among Non-Aligned countries for effective participation in space communication infrastructures; and by establishing exchange programs among the electronic media organizations of member nations.

111. Noting the importance of the media, especially the electronic media, in the formation of world public opinion, they called for professional and factual reporting as well as the full coverage of important developments of common concern, with a view to providing objective information on these matters.
PEACE AND INTERNATIONAL LAW

112. The Heads of State or Government took the view that the opportunities and challenges inherent in the evolving international situation will not only require a dynamic adaptation to the new realities, but will also call for articulating appropriate strategies, initiatives and approaches on the basis of the continued efforts to strengthen the Movement so that it can exert a more active influence on the direction of world development and the management of world affairs.

113. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their conviction that the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982 is an important instrument for maintaining law and order in ocean affairs, for promoting cooperation among States and for providing potentials for orderly management and development of ocean resources as well as for protecting the marine environment. They therefore urged all States to ratify UNCLOS 1982, so that it will enter into force as soon as possible. To that end, the Heads of State or Government also urged all Non-Aligned States to participate actively in the work of the Preparatory Commission for the International Sea Bed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.

114. They underscored the fact that one of the essential requirements for the establishment of a new world balance lies in the progressive development and codification and rigorous observance of international law. In this context, they recalled the conclusions on the consolidation of international peace and security by legal means adopted by the Special Session of the Non-Aligned Countries held at The Hague, Netherlands, in June 1989, on the basis of the decision of the United Nations General Assembly to proclaim the 1990-1999 period the United Nations Decade of International Law and to invite the Non-Aligned Countries to take a more active part in the elaboration of a program of complementary activities for this decade, since the initial program for 1991-1992 is about to expire.

115. They underlined that respect for international law in inter-state relations is the foundation for world peace and stability. This is particularly important in this era of historic transformation in the international system, post-Cold War period. A new world order must be based on the rule of law, without exceptions. They noted with deep concern the actions by certain major powers recently that challenge and threaten the concepts of sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of States. They affirmed that in this day and age there is no place for the exercise of extra-territorial rights by the rich and powerful nations. In this regard, they declared their rejection of such actions, and reiterated their commitment to uphold the principles of the Charter and international law in the conduct of international relations.


INTERCOMMUNAL CONFLICT AND ETHNIC STRIFE

116. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the many unfortunate and tragic instances of inter-communal conflict and ethnic strife plaguing peoples and countries in many parts of the world. They expressed the view that inter--communal conflict and ethnic strife are major obstacles to social and economic development and constitute grave and serious threats to domestic peace and tranquillity. They committed themselves to work together, in various international fora, to promote mutual respect, peace, harmony and tranquillity amongst the world's various peoples, and various ethnic, racial, religious and language groups. They also appealed to those members of the international community who have not yet done so, to adopt appropriate measures to assure the equality, dignity, cultural integrity and fundamental freedoms of all members of the human race.

NAC 10/Doc.3/Rev.2
6 September 1992
Original: English




CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992



FINAL DOCUMENT
CHAPTER IV
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES
ECONOMIC COMMITTEE


IV. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES

NORTH - SOUTH DIALOGUE

International trade and commodities

1. The Heads of State or Government reconfirmed their long-standing conviction that only a free, open, rule-based and non-discriminatory international trading system can provide an effective and viable basis for the promotion of the equitable development and economic prosperity of all countries. They welcomed the successful outcome of UNCTAD VIII and the spirit of multilateralism that permeated the Conference, as reflected in its final document "A New Partnership for Development: Cartagena Commitments".

2. The Heads of State or Government identified freer access to the developed countries' markets as an indispensable means of taking full advantage of international trade, which they consider as the most important vehicle for advancing the economic growth and sustaining the momentum of development of the Non-Aligned and other developing countries. In pursuit of these central objectives, the developing countries have initiated various supportive trade policy measures, including the adoption of unilateral trade liberalization measures.

3. The Heads of State or Government expressed deep concern at the fact that the international trading system is currently encountering manifold constraints. Among the most serious experiences is the rising tide of imbalances that threatened to submerge the best efforts of, the developing countries to advance their development objectives. Thus, rampant protectionism and multilateral and bilateral trends of a discriminatory nature, such as managed trade, tiered preferences and inward-looking trade blocs, could conflict with the basic principles of the system and the commitments already undertaken at Punta del Este. They emphasized the imperative need for taking decisive steps towards preserving and strengthening multilateralism through a very early conclusion of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations with a balanced outcome.

4. The Heads of State or Government urged that the results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (URMTN) should be fully responsive to the special needs of the Non-Aligned and other developing countries and be conducive to the integration of their economies into the mainstream of the world economy. In expressing dismay over the failure to conclude the URMTN, they further strongly urged the developed countries to ensure without further delay a balanced, equitable, meaningful and satisfactory conclusion of the Uruguay Round that should take into account the interests of all parties, and especially the development needs and concerns of the developing countries. They expressed deep concern at some of the implications surrounding the new areas in the Uruguay Round negotiations and the negotiations in these areas should take the interests of the developing countries fully into consideration. Therefore, it is important that such instruments and concessions designed to promote the development dimension, such as special and differential treatment, should be strengthened and consolidated. In this context, they urged the developed countries to avoid aggravating the severe economic difficulties facing the developing countries by pursuing reprehensive trade practices. They called for the adoption of a binding international instrument aimed at ending such trade practices.

5. The Heads of State or Government stressed the central importance of the development dimension in the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (URMTN). In order to facilitate the development of developing countries it was necessary not only to eliminate discriminatory restrictions on products of export interest to them, but also to grant them preferential treatment. It was equally necessary for the rules for the conduct of world trade to take into account the multitude of market imperfections and distortions faced by the developing countries by granting to them additional flexibility in the use of trade policy instruments. The existing rules embodying the concept of special and more favorable treatment needed to be strengthened and extended to the new areas of economic policies in which international disciplines are being developed.

6. The Heads of State or Government attach highest priority to the need for liberalization of trade in agriculture. They called upon the industrialized countries in particular to take effective steps for a substantial reduction in the high levels of protection and subsidization of agriculture. The agricultural policies of these countries had depressed the international prices and export earnings of a large number of Non-Aligned and other developing countries and prevented the full exploitation of their potential for efficient agricultural production. At the same time, they recognized the fundamental distinction between the subsidies used in the industrialized countries to perpetuate over-production and those used in the developing countries to raise self-sufficiency and protect rural employment. At the same time, they registered that the developing net food importers will face great losses due to the liberalization of trade in agriculture, thus aggravating their financial problems and affecting their economic programs. They requested that financial resources be provided to these countries to compensate for their losses. To this end, they invited the international community and the international financial institutions to establish the appropriate compensatory mechanisms.

7. They also stressed that the discriminatory and highly restrictive world trade regime in textiles and clothing created a major adverse imbalance in the international trading system from the point of view of the developing countries. There was an urgent need to inject in the immediate future a major dose of liberalization in world, trade in textiles and clothing and to fully restore the application of the normal rules 'of free and non-discriminatory trade to the area of textiles and clothing within the shortest time frame.

8. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the importance of the principle of non-discrimination in the development of rules of international trade, including anti-dumping practices. They felt that grey area measures which had become increasingly pervasive needed to be brought within the framework of GATT disciplines. They recognized that some progress had been made during the Uruguay Round in the elaboration of various rules relating to international trade in goods. They, however, felt that anti-dumping measures had the potential to develop into the protectionist tool of the future and further work needed to be done in this area. Unless the rules on anti-dumping are considerably improved with a view to eliminating the protectionist elements in the procedures of some developed importing countries, it would leave a major gap in the results of the Uruguay Round: of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. It was also necessary to reach an agreement on easing export restrictions on high technology goods destined for Non-Aligned and developing countries.

9. The Heads of State or Government recognized the interest of the industrialized trading partners in the area of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. They believed that setting over-ambitious standards for protection of intellectual property rights could stifle innovation instead of encouraging it. They, further, stressed the need for taking into account the concerns of developing countries relating to development and public policy objectives by providing adequate flexibility for the Governments of developing countries in designing their laws on protection of intellectual property rights. In the area of trade in Services, they urged the industrialized countries to take into account the comparative advantage of the developing countries in making their offers of market access. Such offers should include the sectors and modes of supply of exports of interest to developing countries, including through the temporary movement of personnel for the supply of services. Negotiations for market access in trade in services must ensure a balanced exchange of concessions in this sector.

10. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that the dominant feature of the present world commodity economy is that of structurally distorted markets and persistently low and declining real commodity prices. They believed that the solution to the commodity problem calls for sound, compatible and consistent policies at the national and international levels in conformity with the spirit of the Integrated Program for Commodities. They therefore urged that producers and consumers of individual commodities continue to explore ways and means of reinforcing their cooperation. Full and active participation in international commodity agreements and arrangements should be pursued with a view to achieving more efficient international commodity cooperation and assisting the diversification of the economy of commodity-dependent developing countries. There is a sense of urgency to improve market conditions for commodities, as well as the use of technology to achieve higher levels of processing, marketing and distribution. Concrete programs are needed to be drawn up for maximum utilization of the Common Fund for Commodities.

11. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the international commodity agreements should not be allowed to collapse when problems arise in their implementation and that modifications should be made to them with a view to addressing the concerns of the involved parties. In this regard they urged all members of the International Coffee Organization to speed up the conclusion of the new Coffee Agreement with economic provisions, with a view to its early implementation. The liberalization programs supported by the donor community, especially the RAF and the World Bank, should balance between promoting markets for the industrialized countries and making the exports of developing countries more competitive in the markets of the developed countries. These liberalization programs should also support processing, marketing, distribution and transportation of primary products of the developing countries to give them higher value- added in order to fetch more in the international markets.

12. The Heads of State or Government noted that the Non-Aligned and other developing countries had benefited from the preferential tariffs introduced under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). They urged the preference-giving countries to renew and improve their schemes with a view to substantially enhancing the preferential access for the products of developing countries, imparting upon them a measure of stability and predictability, and discontinuing the practice of product specific graduation.

13. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that there was a real danger of environment concerns being used as a pretext to create new impediments to trade. Trade restrictive measures were in general not an efficient means of promoting environmental protection. In particular trade measures in pursuance of unilaterally established standards for the protection of the environment beyond the territory of the imported country undermined the multilateral trading system.

Development Finance, Debt and Monetary Issues

(a) Development Finance

14. The Heads of State or Government expressed their grave concern over the failure of the international financial system to furnish adequate development finance over the past decade, thus leaving the developing countries with serious financial problems. The sharp contraction in external commercial flows, the drying up of world savings, and the virtual stagnation in official developments assistance at less than half the agreed target levels of 0.7% of Gross National Product (GNP) have had a major adverse impact on development prospects. They recognized that the flow of global investment has gone to the developed countries and that the situation has been worsened by the emergence of large negative reverse flows from the developing to the developed countries, high interest rates and the acute erosion in export earnings.

15. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the process of disarmament should be linked to the process of development and to the fostering of global security in its most comprehensive form. The continuing trends towards disarmament resulting from the end of East-West confrontation and the reduction of international tensions should make it possible to extract a "peace dividend" in the form of financial and technical resources for the enhancement of international development cooperation. Therefore, real resources being released at present as a result of lower global military spending, progress in the area of disarmament and arms control, should be reallocated to development projects for the welfare and prosperity of the people of developing countries.

16. The Heads of State or Government called for a wide range of actions on a broad front, to revitalize the growth and development of developing countries and, in particular, the stimulation of new and additional financial flows for development through increased commitment on the part of the donor countries who have not yet met internationally agreed commitments to increase their ODA towards 0.7% of their respective GNPs by the year 2000. In this sense they reaffirmed the need to maintain and enlarge the bilateral and multilateral ODA underlining the importance of the programs and specialized agencies of the UN system, that should remain as an important channel for development cooperation, without any conditionality. They stressed that the provision of additional, concessional resources to low-income countries is a matter of particular importance. In this context they called for the increase in real terms of resources available under the tenth replenishment of IDA, taking into account the growing needs of low-income countries for concessional finance. Similarly, additional financial flows under the Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF) and the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) should provide medium-term concessional flows to low-income countries. They also stressed the importance of achieving the highest possible level for the Fourth Replenishment of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).

17. The Heads of State or Government recalled that the existing restrictions affecting the world market, together with the other inequities prevalent in the world economic environment, are resulting in a loss of earnings equivalent to one-fifth of the developing countries' GNP and to more than six times the budget spending for human development priorities, such as elementary education, basic health care, eradication of hunger and malnutrition, supply of potable water and sanitation as well as other indispensable social services. They consequently reiterate their imperative need for a global partnership in the context of an equitable economic system, as the existing restrictions, particularly in trade relations, cause annually losses for the developing world equivalent to ten times the amount of official development assistance accorded parsimoniously to them.

18. The Heads of State or Government also called for an increase in financial flows to the developing countries through, inter-alia, foreign direct investment and a strengthening of international financial institutions. Developed countries must adopt innovative incentives and promotional measures to encourage such flows to developing countries. They, therefore noted the agreement in principle by member countries of the IMF to increase the IMF quotas. They urged that the capital base of the World Bank and regional development banks be strengthened, and appealed to the donor countries to speed up the negotiations towards the realization of the Tenth DDA Replenishment. There is a need for new substantial allocation of SDR's and to establish a link between the creation of SDR's and development finance needs. In this context, they expressed concern that the enormous needs of Central and Eastern Europe for external resources, including financial flows, have affected the availability of resources to the developing countries, particularly in the low income countries which, due to the increasing debt burden and the reduced prices of their commodities, are increasingly vulnerable to -external. shocks. Those needs should be met from additional resources, and not at the expense of resources earmarked for the developing countries. The Heads of State or Government also called for speedy steps to be taken for the financing of the United Nations operational activities on an assured and stable basis.

19. The Heads of State or Government urged the major industrial countries to make the necessary efforts to reduce interest rates substantially and to increase concessional flows of resources, which would contribute to the economic growth of the developing countries. They were of the view that the conditionalities imposed by multilateral financial institutions and regional development institutions, as well as by donor countries, should not go beyond the financial discipline being observed by the aid-receiving countries, with a view to achieving the economic and social development objectives of the beneficiary countries.

20. Realizing the importance and urgency of development financing, the Heads of State or Government endorsed the call to convene an International Conference on this issue and looked forward to a decision at the forty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly.
(b) Debt

21. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the ever-increasing level of the external indebtedness of the developing countries, which doubled over a decade from approximately 700 billion dollars in 1981 to about 1,400 billion in 1992, constitute a stultifying constraint on the path to development. Not only has the heavy debt-servicing burden caused a major drain on the resources of the developing countries as a proportion of their GNP on their current payments, but it has also resulted in crippling net negative transfers whose devastating effect was aggravated by fluctuating exchange rates, a rise in interest rates on the world market and high inflation rates.

22. The Heads of State or Government noted measures that have been taken in pursuance of debt relief approaches. They reiterated the need for a coordinated tripartite approach involving developing debtors, developed creditor countries and financial institutions, with a view to alleviating the debt burden of developing countries far beyond the scope of the current terms, that would allow recovery, growth and development in these countries. They welcomed the write-off of part of the bilateral official debt by certain donors to the Least Developed Countries and called for further significant action. In particular, they stressed the need for sustained and comprehensive actions to deal with the external indebtedness of the Least Developed Countries. The debt relief approaches should be strengthened and broadened to cover all types of debt and debtor countries. Special consideration should be shown to those countries which, despite an adverse external financial situation, have met their debt obligations in a timely fashion. Moreover, they urged the developed countries and international financial institutions to ensure a substantial increase in the net transfer of concession, resources and non-debt resources to all developing countries, in order to revitalize the development process and to relieve them of the overhang of the rising debt burden. The latter should be able to benefit from recycling part of their debts for financing economic and social projects such as those concerned with protection of the environment and sustainable development.

23. The Heads of State or Government also stressed the fact that the persistence of an unfavorable external economic environment jeopardizes the adjustment efforts of the developing countries, undermines their ability to foster growth and development, and prevents them from reducing their level of indebtedness. This situation also entails the risk of greater social and political turmoil, thereby endangering the democratic institutions of particular countries. Thus, any durable solution to the problem of external debt should include expansion and liberalization of the trading system, which is greatly dependent upon increased financial flows, remunerative commodity prices, a balanced and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round and the sustained growth and development of developing debtor countries.
(c) Monetary Issues

24. The Heads of State or Government reemphasized their conviction that the current international monetary system, which has remained the private preserve of a few developed countries, has been inadequate in meeting the demands of the present world situation and is in need of systemic and institutional reforms. Its failure to stimulate stable world economic growth and to create a financial climate conducive to sustained development should be redressed.

25. The Heads of State or Government also noted that as international savings dwindle and deficits climb in some major developed countries, the demand for scarce capital has greatly intensified, and that there is crucial need for the adequate creation and allocation, particularly to the developing countries, of international liquidity and development finance. Consequently, they called for a substantial new allocation of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), in particular to restore the financial reserves and creditworthiness of the developing countries, so as to enable them to reduce the debt burden and finance their development.

26. The Heads of State or Government also called upon the developed countries to democratize consultations as well as the decision-making process in the multilateral financial institutions, so that broadened participation would ensure that the interests and needs of development of the developing countries would be adequately represented.

27. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that the commitment of "a new partnership for development" emerging from UNCTAD VIII in Cartagena, should be translated into reviving dialogue and cooperation between the South and the North. In this context, they renewed their support for the initiatives to reform the international monetary system, including the proposal of the Group of 24 on the setting up of a Representative Committee of Ministers of developing and developed countries to jointly consider further steps towards a reform of the international monetary system.
Food and Agriculture

28. The Heads of State or Government expressed deep concern at the deterioration of the world food and agriculture situation, particularly in the developing countries, despite the possibility of the world to produce twice as much as at present. That notwithstanding, for many developing countries, agriculture, with its large contribution to the national economy, will remain the principal means for development. Therefore, it is imperative to keep food and agriculture issues as a priority item on the international agenda.

29. The Heads of State or Government recognized that poverty, hunger and malnutrition are three complex global problems, the solution of which is still elusive. The fight against these problems should be perceived not only in terms of providing assistance with a view to improving the living standards of the poor but also as a means of reinforcing their economic self-sufficiency and long-term prospects. They reiterated that the right to food is a fundamental universal human right and categorically rejected the use of food as an instrument of political and economic pressure.

30. The Heads of State or Government called on the international community and international organizations within the United Nations System dealing with food and agricultural issues to continue closely monitoring further developments in the global food situation, especially in the developing countries. They also emphasized the importance of financial cooperation and investment, which should form part of national policies and programs for international cooperation, both bilateral and multilateral.

31. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that within the food and agriculture sector, national food strategies remain a very useful means for advancing food production, food self-reliance and better access to food. In this respect, they welcomed the efforts being made and assistance provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Bank, the World Food Program, the regional development banks, the international Fund for Agricultural Development and the United Nations Development Program in this field and encouraged them to improve food strategy cooperation and coordination among multilateral agencies.

32. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Geneva Declaration on the Economic Advancement of Rural Women. Therefore, they called on Non-Aligned and other developing countries to seek the possibility to implement it in their national policy.
Industrialization

33. The Heads of State or Government believed that industrialization remains a dynamic instrument of growth essential to accelerating economic and social development, particularly in the developing countries. They noted that, during the previous decade, world industrial production had been developing unevenly, with some developing countries undergoing a decline in real growth.

34. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the imperative need to keep industrialization issues at the center of global attention, and its role in the reactivation of the development of the developing countries. In this context they welcomed the beginning of the implementation of the Second Industrial Decade in Africa, and called upon the international community to attack special importance to the development and the implementation of the Decade.

35. The Heads of State or Government were concerned that the main obstacles to industrial development in the developing countries are the continued dependence on the industrialized countries for equipment, technology and know-how, as well as restrictions imposed on imports from the developing countries. Therefore, they called on developed countries as well as international organizations to support efforts being made by ~ the developing countries to improve the level of their industrialization through industrial development and rehabilitation, promotion of industrial institutions, transfer of science and technology, and mobilization of financial resources.

36. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the mobilization of financial resources is playing an important role in industrial development activities. Therefore, they emphasized that efforts should be made to increase the international flow of finance to lithe developing countries and to enhance cooperation with international development banks and financial institutions.

37. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the need for the application of the concept of comparative advantage for the phasing out of industrial units in the developed countries in areas in which the developing countries industries are more efficient. This is also the case among the developing countries notably neighboring countries and countries that are in the same region or area.

Science and Technology

38. The Heads of State or Government stressed that science and technology have emerged as prime determinants of economic development and social change and have provided new opportunities for development. In the increasingly interdependent world, access to and the successful transfer and assimilation of modem technologies are critical if the developing countries are to participate in the present technological revolution or become increasingly marginalized.

39. The Heads of State or Government noted that the successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations is a matter of great importance to the developing countries. They also noted with concern that the vigorous efforts by the developing countries to adopt reforms, especially in liberalizing their economies and reducing and removing legal regulatory restrictions on the activities of transnational. corporations, have not achieved the desired results. They agreed that the development of adequate infrastructure and human resources are necessary for providing a more conducive domestic policy framework to induce the participation of transnational corporations and the appropriate transfer of technology. Therefore, they called for international support to facilitate the process of providing a conducive domestic environment, including that of adequate institutional structures and human resources development.

40. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that while the Vienna Program of Action on Science and Technology for Development has not produced satisfactory results, its provisions, especially for strengthening endogenous capacity-building in the developing countries, are still valid. Therefore they urged the international community to do their utmost to implement the Vienna Program of Action.

41. The Heads of State or Government stressed that there is a need for the international community to explore ways and means of promoting cooperation in science and technology between developed and developing countries aimed at intensifying the transfer of technology to developing countries to help them enhance scientific and technological capabilities. Such cooperation will contribute to the accelerated development of developing countries and therefore could prevent massive "brain-drain" from developing to developed countries.

42. The Heads of State or Government considered that the acquisition of technology is a legitimate right of all countries. They urged the developed countries to improve the access of developing countries to new technologies on fair and reasonable terms and to foster their dissemination and use. Any framework on Intellectual Property Rights Protection should provide for measures to facilitate access to technology by developing countries on fair and reasonable terms. Further, they called for support for the creation of endogenous scientific and technological capacities in the developing countries. They reiterated their condemnation of practices and efforts aimed at or designed to prevent the acquisition of technology by Member Countries of the Movement.


SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION

43. The Heads of State or Government reiterated that South-South Cooperation is a vital instrument for accelerating the development of developing countries and a key element in efforts to restructure international economic relations on a more just and equitable basis. It underpins the strategy of collective self-reliance and stimulates the more effective utilization of their potentialities and exploitation of the growing complementarities in their economies. It would also provide new opportunities for direct trade, investment, greater access to financial resources, enhanced technological capabilities and human resources, and other forms of economic, technical and scientific cooperation among developing countries.

44. Recognizing the various obstacles to and the difficulties encountered in promoting South-South cooperation, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the urgent need for a pragmatic and action-oriented Plan of Action. In this regard they welcomed the Report of the South Commission entitled "The Challenge to the South" which contained specific recommendations towards the promotion of greater South-South interaction and requested the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation to study the possibilities of implementing the relevant recommendation contained in the report.

45. The Heads of State or Government believed that in order to accelerate the implementation of projects of common interest, an evolutionary and flexible approach is appropriate, whereby groups of interested countries, as core groups, initiate cooperation through viable projects open to all developing countries. They were of the view that if these groups of core countries are ready to implement projects of mutual benefit, such initiatives should be encouraged, particularly where they contribute to strengthening the collective self-sufficiency of the developing world. In this context, they took note of the efforts of some developing countries to conclude Bilateral Payments Arrangements, as well as the establishment of a data exchange center, as specific initiatives to strengthen South--South trade and economic and technological cooperation. They also emphasized the need for the establishment of new mechanisms to increase the effectiveness of South-South cooperation. Such mechanisms could include ad hoc expert groups to be entrusted with the preparation of in-depth studies in specific areas recommended therein.

46. The Heads of State or Government underscored the importance of assured financial underpinning for the implementation of the various South-South projects. Towards this end they directed the Standing Ministerial Committee to study new and innovative ways of financing these projects. They also stressed that to ensure effective South-South cooperation, it is essential to facilitate the active involvement of the business community in the preparation and implementation of projects. They recommended the possibility of convening the Ministerial Meeting of Non-Aligned Countries on South-South Cooperation when it deems necessary.

47. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the creation among developing countries of organizations for regional cooperation and sub-regional economic groups which should constitute a mainstay for South-South cooperation. These groups are in fact an asset to the development of a dynamic and mutually beneficial cooperation between the countries concerned and will build a negotiating platform that will offer the developing countries the status of genuine partners in their relations with the North. In this context they welcomed the acceleration of regional economic cooperation by the seven South Asian countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the signing of the African Economic Community (AEC) treaty as well as the progress being made for the strengthening of cooperation and integration in Central America through the establishment of the Central American Integration System (CAIS). They were also encouraged by the positive developments which in the areas of cooperation and integration are taking place at the regional and sub-regional levels in all regions of the developing world.

48. The Heads of State or Government acknowledged that the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries (GSTP) constitutes a primary vehicle for promoting trade expansion among developing countries and is an essential mechanism for strengthening collective self-reliance. They, however, noted that the membership of GSTP was limited and the scope of liberalization already effected by them remained narrow. The GSTP should be strengthened through the definitive ratification of the agreement by those signatory countries that have not done so; through the accession of other members of the Group of 77 and through the adoption of modalities and approaches envisaged under the agreement during the second round of negotiations. As a result they urged the countries which had not yet signed the GSTP or ratified the agreement setting up this system, to do so as soon as possible.

49. They also welcomed the offer of the Republic of Cuba to host the Ministerial Meeting of the Negotiating Committee after the 2nd round of GSTP negotiations to be concluded, in principle, in July 1994. For the second round to conclude by then, the negotiating phase would have to begin in the middle of 1993. They also recognized that efforts should continuously be made to find various ways and means and other vehicles to enhance trade among developing countries.

50. The Heads of State or Government stressed that Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) is an important catalyst for South-South cooperation and a significant dimension of the national development process. TCDC is an essential means for the further strengthening of national and collective self-reliance of developing countries. It enables them to use their own capacities creatively to solve pressing development problems. They agreed that the Movement should consider ways and means to promote the exchange of information and sharing their experience on development on a regular basis. They also agreed that the Movement should work out guidelines for development cooperation between developed and developing countries.

51. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that it is necessary to enhance community self-reliance and people-centered development, as well as local resources development which could relate micro-activities of the community and national macro development policies. They emphasized the need to pursue integrated community development and to ensure better coordination among the development actors. In this regard, the Movement should develop programs within TCDC which would enhance integrated community development through the promotion of cooperative endeavors and self-propelling growth schemes, with a view to strengthening the national capacities and collective self-reliance of developing countries.

52. The Heads of State or Government stressed the important role of the business sector in strengthening bilateral trade, investment and economic cooperation. They encouraged the private sector to initiate specific programs to enhance closer interaction and collaboration among themselves. At the same time, recognizing the importance of sharing Information relating to economic policies among developing countries, the Heads of State or Government encouraged initiatives towards this end. In that sense special efforts should .be made to implement different modalities of cooperation such as business seminars and workshops, joint ventures, counter-trade, compensation trade agreements and industrial co-participation.

53. The Heads of State or Government noted with concern that the activities of the Movement's Action Program for Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (APEC) had declined considerably La recent years, due to mainly to the scarcity of financial resources available to the Non-Aligned countries for furthering such activities.

54. They also pointed to the imperative need to revitalize APEC activities by taking concrete measures to promote cooperation among its members and called for full use to be made of the practical working experience gained by the Non-Aligned Movement in the more than twenty years since the establishment of the APEC sectors so as to identify the capacities of each of its members and areas where they might complement each other, as well as their interests in specific areas of cooperation, noting that this was fundamental for subsequent development of cooperation ties. To that end, with a view to updating the list of spheres of Cooperation of the Non-Aligned Movement and of the countries interested in participating in those sectors, the Heads of State or Government agreed to reactivate and review the Action Program for Economic Cooperation Among Non-Aligned Countries.

55. The Heads of State or Government further stressed the need to harmonize, consolidate and integrate whenever possible the sectors of the Action Program for Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries (APEC) and the Caracas Program of Action of the Group of 77 (CPA). They endorsed the establishment of a Joint Coordinating Committee of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 in order to enhance collaboration, avoid duplication of efforts and provide greater efficiency in the attainment of common goals of the developing countries.

56. The Heads of State or Government agreed to reactivate the mechanisms for South-South cooperation such as the meetings of APEC Coordinating Countries and the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation with a view to effecting the necessary adaptation and improvement in the light of the experience gained and the new requirements of the evolving situation. They also called for a review of the activities and programs of the functional bodies, expert groups and specialized centers of the Non-Aligned Movement, established to enhance cooperation in various sectors of economic activity in member States. They called for appropriate measures to be taken to guarantee the successful convening of the 7th Meeting of APEC Coordinating Committee and the Second Substantive Meeting of the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation as soon as possible.

57. The Heads of State, or Government emphasized the importance of maintaining and developing activities with a view to coordinating the positions of the Non-Aligned Countries in the relevant bodies of the United Nations and other international organizations. In particular they stressed the need of keeping this practice on a regular basis in respect of the sectors of APEC not covered by the CPA, such as meetings of the coordinating countries and ministers dealing with "health" and "the use and development of human resources" matters, as well as on, weights and measures and quality control.

58. The Heads of State or Government also endorsed the Declaration and Program of Action for Cooperation in the field of Employment adopted at the Fourth Conference of Labor Ministers of Non-Aligned Countries held at Tunis in November 1990.

59. The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction that the Center for Science and Technology of Non-Aligned and other Developing Countries has come into operation and invited all Non-Aligned and other developing countries to consider joining the activities of the Center and contribute to its effectiveness as an instrument in the scientific and technological cooperation of Non-Aligned and other developing countries.
HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Human Development

60. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that human beings are at the center of all development activities and that human resources are the essential means in achieving economic, social and development objectives. They noted that the challenges of the 1990s would be to formulate new policies and to build on current initiatives that would effectively meet the human needs of present and future generations.

61. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the consensus reached on reinforcement of human and social development, which should contribute to overall development by enlarging choices and ensuring the development of the full potential of individuals and peoples and socio-economic prosperity for all, and particularly by improving health-care systems, providing primary health care, eradicating illiteracy, eliminating poverty and improving life expectancy. They emphasized the vital role of science and technology in human and social development and the need to develop, through education and training, people's ability to adapt.

62. While welcoming the efforts of UNDP in the field of human development, particularly in producing the Annual Human Development Report, the Heads of State or Government believed that the inclusion of the Human Freedom Index undermined the usefulness of the Report and is counter-productive, divisive and beyond its mandate and competence. Therefore, they called upon UNDP not to deviate from its mandate and continue its productive activities in assisting developing countries to achieve their development goals, taking into account UNDP Resolutions related to patterns of consumption and qualitative indicators for development.

63. The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community to urgently promote international cooperation for human development. Furthermore, effective international cooperation through the sharing of their resources, experiences and know-how would make a considerable contribution to improving and increasing the vast potential in human resources in the developing countries. In this regard, they believed that it is important to implement the World Declaration on Education for All, the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development, the Khartoum Declaration, the African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation, as well as the decisions of the Tenth Meeting of the Conference of the Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community.
Social Development

64. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the continued worsening of the economic situation and social conditions in many of the Non-Aligned and other developing countries, which have led to a decline in the standard of living, the persistence and increase of widespread poverty, and the declivity in their main social and economic indicators.

65. The Heads of State or Government expressed grave concern over the serious deterioration of the economic and social situation in the most affected countries that has diminished their ability to implement their economic and social development policies.

66. The Heads of State or Government further reaffirmed the goals set forth in the United Nations Declaration on Social Progress and Development adopted in United Nations General Assembly resolution 2542 (XXIV) and the need to effectively implement them in order to achieve a more just and equitable social order.

67. The Heads of State or Government welcomed with satisfaction resolution E/1992/27 of the Economic and Social Council' which recommends to the General Assembly the convening of a World Summit for Social Development at the level of Heads of State and/or Government in early 1995, with a view to take effective measures to reduce poverty and increase employment worldwide and to generally improve social conditions in all societies, and urged the Non-Aligned countries to coordinate their positions regarding that important Conference. They declared the readiness of their countries to participate in international consultations conducive to a successful Summit with the aim of defining concerted and attainable social development objectives together with corresponding agreements on international cooperation.
Population and Development

68. The Heads of State or Government noted with deep concern the unprecedented pace of the world population growth-rate, which represents the Largest increase in the history of the world during this decade. This population growth rate, which is projected to increase by 90-100 million per year for the next decade, will be dramatically concentrated in the developing countries and increase the insuperable pressures on their already strained economic, social and environmental systems. At the same time, it is imperative to fully examine the interrelated issues of demographic pressures, protection of the environment, exhaustion of natural resources and growth requirements, taking into account the progress made in science and technology towards development. Moreover, development can only last insofar as unsustainable production and consumption patterns are adequately re-oriented, especially in the developed countries.

69. The Heads of State or Government noted that population questions should not be considered in isolation from overall development issues and programs but rather be treated as an integral part of development. Therefore, they stressed that improvements in education, health and employment, as well as the role of women in society, and increased access to family planning services are crucial for the achievement of population goals. Therefore, they called for a comprehensive population policy that is compatible with the achievement of sustainable development.

70. The Heads of State or Government welcomed efforts, in the context of South-South Cooperation, to transfer the related technology and to provide technical assistance in the area of population and family planning.

71. The Heads of State or Government urged those involved politically and culturally at national and international levels to help effectively to raise public awareness and mobilize political and popular commitment, as well as the necessary financial and technical means, to take a conclusive step towards the formulation and implementation of appropriate population policies. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the convening in Egypt of the International Conference on Population and Development due to be held in 1994 in Cairo. They called for increased efforts for its success so as to elaborate comprehensive study of the relation between population and development, propose solutions to various problems and aspects of this relation. They also called upon the Non-Aligned countries to coordinate their positions regarding the above-mentioned Conference.
Women and Development

72. The Heads of State or Government recalled several plans of action and conventions for the full, equal and beneficial integration of women in all development activities and recognized the important role of women in the development process as active agents and as beneficiaries, and the significant contribution of women to national development.

73. The Heads of State or Government, recognizing fully women's democratic right in society, emphasized the importance of equal access to all aspects of development activities, particularly education and training, health care, employment and the use of new technologies. They urged that all necessary steps be taken to develop "a political, economic, social and cultural environment conducive to full integration of women in sustainable development processes.

74. The Heads of State or Government also urged that all necessary steps be taken to increase cooperation within the Non-Aligned and other developing countries and the developed countries in strengthening the role of women in development, which enable women to participate fully in partnership with men in all development activities, including the decision-making process at all levels.

75. The Heads of State or Government called upon all States to intensify the implementation of the recommendations of previous Non-Aligned Conferences and the 1985 Nairobi Conference, so as to contribute to the creation of conditions for the advancement of women as part of the realization of human rights. They reaffirmed the importance of implementing the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women for the Period up the Year 2000.

76. The Heads of State or Government also called upon the international community and the international organizations to further assist developing countries in their efforts to develop national capabilities in each country, so as to boost the role of women in the eradication of illiteracy and tackle health and population problems.

77. The Heads of State or Government encouraged the international community to fully contribute to the success of the 1995, World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace, to be held in Beijing, as an important step towards the creation of a new international order. They stressed the need for the Non-Aligned Countries to promote activities related to this Conference and to evaluate compliance with the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies as well as to coordinate their positions. In view of this, they endorsed the convening of the Fourth Ministerial Conference of Non-Aligned Countries devoted to the Role of Women in Development for the purpose of working out the positions of the Non-Aligned Countries on this important matter, in particular in achieving the objectives and activities which were put forward to the Governments in Agenda 21 adopted at the Rio Summit in June 1992.

78. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the conclusions of the Summit on the Economic Advancement of Rural Women held at Geneva in February 1992. They called for the assertion of the rural woman's role in development and noted that the problems of the rural woman should occupy their well-deserved place in the 1995 World Conference on Women.

79. The Heads of State or Government urged all States to ratify and implement the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.

80. The Heads of State or Government endorsed the set of measures aimed at fostering greater participation of women in the development process, which were adopted at the Ministerial Conference of Non-Aligned countries devoted to the Role of Women in Development held at Havana, Cuba, in January 1990.
Youth and Development

81. The Heads of State or Government were aware that youth and the development efforts of nations are inexorably bound together, as youth constitute the majority of the world population. Hence, the development of nations would not be possible without the participation of young people. And conversely, the success of development will directly benefit youth the most. They also welcomed the fact that the role of youth in promoting environment and development objectives was recognized in The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development as a fundamental principle.

82. The Heads of State or Government urged that increased attention should be given to young people not only as regards education, training and employment, but also in finding solutions to other world social problems to which young people are particularly vulnerable in today's world. They further emphasized the need to encourage the creation of mechanisms for consulting young people (boys and girls) enabling them to participate as much as possible in the decision-making processes for lasting development. They urged that priority be given to the numerous proposals for action and recommendations advanced by the international community to ensure the safety and health of young people in future, according to each Government's strategies.

83. The Heads of State or Government urged the competent United Nations agencies to intensify their efforts at the formulation of action-oriented schemes for the development of youth. They stressed the need for the continuous elaboration of suitable programs aimed at raising the technical, technological and other capabilities of youth; they urged the international community to support the national efforts of member states in the field of youth development; in accordance with their national policies and priorities.

84. The Heads of State or Government also expressed the desire for measures to be taken by all countries to promote the Special Purpose Fund of the United Nations for International Youth Year in order to meet the needs of young people, in particular those in developing countries. In this context, they encourage each country to take initiatives to reduce the present level of unemployment among young people in general and especially young unemployed graduates.

85. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the joint initiatives launched by some Non-Aligned countries in the fight against illicit drug trafficking and drug abuse, especially among young people. They urged these countries to continue and to coordinate further their strategies so as to obliterate the scourge of narcotics and ensure better protection for their young people at national and regional level.

86. The Heads of State or Government noted with deep concern that illicit demand for, production of and traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances continued to grow at an alarming proportion, having adverse impact on the socio-economic and political systems of some Member States. In this regard, they urged continued commitment and effective international action to combat drug abuse and its illicit trafficking and to address the problems of licit producers and transit countries. They also called upon States that had not yet done so to ratify or accede to the relevant United Nations Conventions on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
Child Survival and Development

87. The Heads of State or Government stressed that the rights of children require special protection and promotion and called for more vigorous action to improve the situation of children all over the world, as well as for their development and education in conditions of peace and security. They were concerned that the situation of children in many parts of the world remains critical as a result of inadequate social and economic conditions, natural disasters, armed conflicts, exploitation, illiteracy, hunger and disability, and were convinced that urgent and effective national and international action is called for. They also condemned the utilization of children in armed conflicts.

88. The Heads of State or Government noted the fact that one-quarter of a million children continue to die each week from malnutrition, preventable disease and other causes related to poverty, and that millions more languish on the verge of survival. They noted with satisfaction the crucial role played by Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement in the successful outcome of the World Summit for Children held in September 1990 in New York.

89. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the importance of international cooperation particularly through UNICEF to study the main problems of children in developing countries. In this context, they invited UNICEF to follow up the study on the impact of the structural adjustments programs on children and also the programs needed to deal with problems arising from the inability of developing countries to allocate the necessary resources to address the problem of infant and child mortality and provide primary health care for children.

90. The Heads of State or Government urged an early ratification and implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which sets universally agreed standards for the protection of children and provides a framework for development of policies and programs to ensure a safer and healthier future for children.

91. The Heads of State or Government recognized that the Universal Child immunization (UCI) Program and others have established a network for delivering primary health care which could be further utilized for pursuing other goals in child and additional health services.

92. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the principle of "first call for children" as a moral imperative for the emergence of a new international order and reiterated that the right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is a fundamental human right for all children. They welcomed that the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development attached due importance to the inter-linkages of the issues of children, environment and development and that Agenda 21 incorporated specific programs relating to children in promoting environment and development objectives.

93. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that it is the common responsibility of all States to provide children with a decent standard of life and to sustain their healthy development, that the economic readjustments resulting from debt crises should not affect social budgets for protecting children, and that poverty is an unacceptable cause of infant and child mortality.

94. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to realizing the goals set in the Declaration and, the Plan of Action adopted at the World Summit for Children through the implementation of national programs of action aimed at promoting the survival, protection and development of children, and expressed their gratitude to UNICEF for its praiseworthy initiatives to improve the conditions of children throughout the world.
Health and Development

95. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that health is central to development and one of the fundamental human rights and that the attainment at the highest possible level of health is an important worldwide social goal. In this context, they reiterated their commitments to the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000, with primary health care as a key to attaining health for all as a part of overall development and in the spirit of social justice.

96. The Heads of State or Government endorsed the view that technical cooperation among developing countries is a key approach for enhancing health development and called upon all States to further intensify and accelerate their actions for implementation of Primary Health Care, with emphasis on the undeserved and underprivileged population groups.

97. The Heads of State or Government also agreed that a meeting of Ministers of Health be convened to formulate programs of cooperation to promote primary health care that is accessible to all; including the promotion of cooperation on health training, facilities and pharmaceuticals. In this regard, they called upon the World Health Organization and other United Nations agencies to support the building of national capacity for the sustained implementation of primary health care, as well as application and transfer of appropriate methods, techniques and procedures that are socially relevant-to the needs and priorities of developing countries.

98. The Heads of State or Government called upon developed countries to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and resources to developing countries for health development programs that correspond to the assessed needs and priorities of the developing countries. They recognized the importance of the cooperation and transfer of technology among Non-Aligned and other developing countries in the field of traditional medicine and requested that the Centers for the Exchange of Information and Technology on Traditional Medicine be further strengthened

99. The Heads of State or Government urged all States to give particular attention in their health development policies to reduce inequities in health, improving access to health care with emphasis on major health issues such as AIDS, including its socio-economic implications and consequences, promoting healthy lifestyles, better nutrition and healthy environment. The fight against ADDS and other pandemic and epidemic diseases which affect developing countries should assume particular importance in the work of international organizations.

100. The Heads of State or Government commended the World Health Organization (WHO) and other United Nations, international and bilateral agencies and organizations for actions taken for enhancing health development and urge the above-mentioned agencies to promote technical cooperation to support effectively the effort of developing countries in accelerating the implementation of Health for All Strategies and primary health care. They further called upon WHO and other agencies of the United Nations to strengthen international technical cooperation' by reinforcing and reorienting their program activities and to mobilize effectively political, technical and financial support for the achievement of the health goals. Technical cooperation among developing countries is a key approach for enhancing health development. In particular they called upon the developed donor countries to provide UNICEF and WHO with the necessary financial resources to implement their various programs in an area of vital importance to human development.

101. The Heads of State or Government called for the need to honor the commitments agreed upon in the Agenda 21 adopted at the Rio Summit to provide basic health needs to rural and urban communities. They reiterated the necessity to obtain new and additional resources commensurate with the needs for the establishment of the infrastructure for health care, planning systems and health research. They also called upon developed countries and international financial institutions to offer contributions in accordance with the Rio Agenda.
Natural Disasters and Refugees

102. While recognizing that natural disasters cause considerable loss of life and widespread damage to economies, and affect adversely the development processes in the developing countries, particularly in the least developed countries, the Heads of State or Government called for urgent international action for reducing the impact of natural disasters through the adoption of concrete measures at the national, regional and global levels. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government urged the international community, represented by the United Nations, donor countries, and governmental organizations as well as other organizations responsible for water, to implement the pertinent recommendation on establishment of a Disaster Relief Center in Africa and the Sudan, and to provide adequate financial resources, for this purposes.

103. The Heads of State or Government stressed the need for the international community to demonstrate the strong political determination required to mobilize and utilize the existing scientific and technical knowledge to mitigate natural disasters, and to reduce their impact, in particular in developing countries, which need additional financial resources to enable them to implement the measures, programs and plans of action drawn up in this area, designed to fund their efforts to achieve short, mid and long-term solutions to these natural disasters.

104. The Heads of State or Government recognized that the plight of refugees, returnees and displaced persons, totaling at present more than 40 million people, is a serious concern of the international community. They emphasized that their difficulties, when caused by natural disasters, are increased when hazards interact with vulnerable populations. Since vulnerability is a product of poverty, measures dealing with disaster relief should address, beyond the emergency phase, secondary and indirect effects. It is vital that the international community should stimulate, in accordance with United Nations General Assembly resolution 46/182, the relief to recovery to development continuum. Development-based disaster reduction approaches, such as reforestation, low-cost housing and food security, should be implemented as part of humanitarian assistance projects.

105. The Heads of State or Government urged the international community to give full and collective support for the objectives of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction for the Years 1991-2000 and the implementation of the Plan of Action adopted in this context by the United Nations General Assembly.
Critical Economic Situation in Africa

106. The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the critical economic and social situation in Africa. Despite structural adjustment programs and concerted efforts undertaken by African countries and the international community, economic and social conditions had actually worsened, especially in the Sub-Saharan region. Tie decade-long crisis plaguing the continent poses a major development challenge to the entire international community.

107. The Heads of State or Government expressed concern over the deepening food emergency in Sub-Saharan Africa, where almost 40 million people are at risk. They noted that the current acute food shortages and grim human crisis are not only the result of climatic aberrations but also of the human conflicts and internal strife which plague some of the countries of the sub-region. In this regard, they regretted the widespread loss of life from starvation in Somalia and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa. Noting that the Southern and East African countries faced severe drought of unprecedented magnitude, they urged the international community to provide additional emergency assistance to meet their most pressing needs in order to avert further suffering and loss of life in the near future.

108. The Heads of State or Government noted that the continuing critical economic situation in Africa was rooted in a number of sources, both internal and external. These include a crippling debt burden, high interest rates, depressed commodity prices and dependency, structural deficiency and inadequate external financial resources for economic growth, sustained development and self-sufficiency. Also lack of adequate human resources development and transfer of technological know-how from the North to the South are other factors constraining Africa's economic growth and development. The Heads of State or Government, therefore, urged the international community to make concerted efforts to assist African countries to overcome these problems.

109. The Heads of State or Government stressed the urgent need for a new departure that would not only halt, but also reverse the pervasive economic deceleration among most African countries. They thus fully supported the United Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s, which was adopted by the 46th session of the United Nations General Assembly following the final review and implementation of the United Nations Program of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development 1986-1990. They noted the determination of African countries to achieve self-reliance, and called on the international community to honor their commitments in conformity with the New Agenda.

110. The Heads of State or Government called upon African states and the international community to honor their commitments in conformity with the new programs of work of the New Agenda for the Development of Africa (UN-NADAF) in order to assist Africa in its efforts to realize different aspects of development, particularly human development and to resolve the debt problem which threatens reform and development in the long-term, and to create a climate conducive to attracting investments and protection of the environment. They further called upon developed countries to allocate 0.7 per cent of their Gross National Product to official development assistance for the acceleration of economic reform In Africa.

111. The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of diversification, both vertical and horizontal, as a viable means of redressing the acute commodity problems, especially in food production, agricultural processing and marketing, as well as manufactured goods, particularly where long-term comparative advantage can be predicted. They also stressed the crucial need for substantial in creases in the availability of resources for purposes of diversification of activities, including export-oriented projects. In this context, they fully supported the proposal to establish an African Diversification Fund which would provide an essential focal point for galvanizing the technical assistance that is required for providing adequate finance for-the development and implementation of diversification programs and projects.

112. The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community, and especially the developed countries, the United Nations and the multilateral finance and development institutions, to fully support the new agenda and to take appropriate measures to implement the commitments undertaken in it. In this context, the Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction the results of the AFRICA Fund and commended the AFRICA Fund for the fulfillment of its mandate.
Least Developed and Land-Locked Developing Countries

113. The Heads of State or Government expressed concern at the decline in achieving targets for aid to LDCs from their development partners. Since the adoption of the Program of Action, a total of six new countries have been added by the United Nation General-Assembly to the group of LDCs on application of a new set of criteria. They stressed the need for additional resource flows following this enlargement.

114. The Heads of State or Government were of the view that particular attention needs to be paid to the reactivation and acceleration of growth and to sustained development in the least developed countries. They were further of the view that the New Substantial Program of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s should be fully and effectively implemented by all parties.

115. The Heads of State or Government emphasized that in the development partnership underlying the Program of Action, the LDCs have the primary responsibility for the elaboration and implementation of effective strategies and policies for their growth and development and that their development partners have accepted the responsibility for supporting these efforts.

116. The Heads of State or Government reiterated the need for transit countries to take urgent and concrete measures commensurate with their capabilities to alleviate the transport and transit difficulties of the land-locked developing countries.

117. The Heads of State or Government also reiterated that the right of access to and from the sea and freedom of transit should be implemented in compliance with article 125 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, so that any program of action in respect to such transit facilities should be undertaken in consultation with and with the approval of the transit country concerned.
Culture and Development

118. The Heads of State or Government stressed the need to implement the objectives of the Plan of Action for the World Decade for Culture Development in order to ensure that the cultural dimension of development is given appropriate consideration in national development strategies. They emphasized the importance of the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

119. The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of preserving the diverse and rich cultural heritage of the Member countries. They urged that the cultural dimension should be integrated into the economic development processes.


NAC l0/FM/PC/Doc.l/Rev.2
6 September 1992
Original: English



TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992



DECLARATION OF THE HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT ON SOMALIA
AT THE TENTH SUMMIT MEETING
HELD IN JAKARTA, INDONESIA
1 - 6 SEPTENMER 1992


We the Heads of State or Government of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries gathered at the Tenth Summit Meeting of our Movement in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1 to 6 September 1992 have received with grave concern news of the famine, violence, death and destruction in the sister country of Somalia. Having received and thoroughly discussed all available information on the current situation in that country, we are even more astounded and saddened at the tragic
proportions of the political and social anarchy that has engulfed the country, entailing untold human misery and degradation for the millions of ordinary men, women and children. Of particular concern and empathy is the plight of women, children and the aged who constitute the most vulnerable group.

True to the principles of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations Charter as well as those of the various social and humanitarian instruments of the world body therefore, we consider the high daily casualty rate in Somalia as an unacceptable human condition and a blight on our common civilization. We are determined, therefore, to play a critical role in the search for a solution to the present crisis despite the difficulties that many of our member countries are currently facing. We thus consider our Movement and its respective countries as under moral obligation to play a leadership role in the prompt and effective response to the on-going tragedy. Our collective response, particularly in the area of emergency humanitarian assistance would, in the short-term, constitute a fitting complement to the individual efforts of member countries and the Organization of African Unity which are already in train.

In the face of the daunting challenge, we are hereby resolved to institute immediate initiatives along the following lines:

Firstly, to create an Ad-Hoc Committee/Task Force under the direct supervision of the Chairman of the Movement and in consultation with the Chairman of the Organization of African Unity for the purpose of following-up our decisions and coordinating emergency humanitarian assistance for Somalia. In this regard, we urge all member countries to immediately institute national processes for collecting and forwarding such humanitarian aid;

Secondly, to give full and urgent support to United Nations initiatives, particularly those under the direct auspices of the Security Council and the Secretary-General;

Thirdly, to actively participate in the peace-keeping activities of the United Nations in Somalia, especially to restore the law and order condition required for a return to political, economic and social normalcy. In this context, we request the Chairman of the Movement to convey our readiness to assist to the Secretary-General for consideration;

Fourthly, to energetically support and assist current efforts of the Organization of African Unity and its member states in bringing the various factions in the country to the negotiating table; and

Fifthly, to encourage and assist Somalia to return to constitutional rule and sustainable democracy without which the raising of living standards and general development of the country would be impossible.

Sixthly, to spare no effort in ensuring that all obstacles particularly those created by the feuding parties are removed.

In setting ourselves the above-listed goals, we are conscious of our individual limitations but are determined to be in the vanguard of the search for a durable solution. In this context, we wish to acknowledge with sincere gratitude the effort so far deployed by the international community, especially by the United States and the European Community. We urge them in the name of our common humanity to continue to offer and increase such critical assistance to the suffering people of Somalia so as to lessen the pain and helplessness of the dying and the living.

We also hereby mandate the Ministerial Meeting of the Movement to be convened soon in New York on the occasion of the Forty-Seventh Session of the United Nations General Assembly, to review and conclude necessary arrangements for extending emergency humanitarian assistance to Somalia by the Non-Aligned Movement and to re-convene at suitable date in January, 1993 to receive and assess a report of the Ad-Hoc Committee/Task Force on the implementation of the present decisions.

In conclusion, we the Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries consider in all sincerity that this is the time to demonstrate our common humanism and generosity towards the people of Somalia. We urge all States and peoples to set aside grudges, differences and reservations so that we can together provide the urgently needed assistance to the ordinary people of Somalia who, no doubt, count on the international community, especially the Non-Aligned Movement, for survival, succor and their general well being. We, at the same time, address a special plea to the leaders of the various factions in the country to immediately cease hostilities, to desist from placing obstacles in the way of the United Nations and other efforts to provide humanitarian assistance, and to help create the atmosphere in which critical assistance can reach all people of Somalia without distinction.

It is our fervent hope and prayer that our sincere request will find immediate and substantial response among the international community as well as in Somalia itself.

NAC 10/Doc.10/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: English



TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES
Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992

DECISION ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HIGH LEVEL WORKING GROUP FOR THE RESTRUCTURING OF THE UNITED NATIONS



The Conference considered the report and recommendations of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology presented by its Chairman, Foreign Minister George Iacovou of Cyprus. The Conference decided to establish immediately a High Level Working Group of Non-Aligned Movement for the Restructuring of the United Nations.

The High Level Working Group is mandated to elaborate concrete proposals and suggestions for the restructuring, democratization and enhancing of the effectiveness of the United Nations; as well as the effective participation of the Non-Aligned Movement in the shaping of the New International Order.

In pursuing this task, the High Level Working Group will have continuous liaison and coordination with the Secretary General of the united Nations, the Non-Aligned Caucus in the Security Council, and all other countries and groups of countries in this common endeavor.

The composition of the High Level Group should be determined as soon as possible by the Chairman of the Movement after consultations with member states of the Movement.


NAC 1O/Doc.13/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: English





TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992

DECISION ON THE AFRICA FUND

The Heads of State or Government

1. Having heard and reviewed the report presented by Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, Prime Minister of India, as Chairman of the AFRICA Fund Committee; Expressing satisfaction with the contributions made by the Fund towards the dismantlement of apartheid and with its role in assisting the liberation movements in South Africa and the Frontline States affected by the policies of the South African Government; Highly commending and paying tribute to the role played by India as Chairman of the Fund and the Fund Committee countries in the progress achieved by the Fund in fulfilling its mandate, they also express deep appreciation and gratitude to Members of the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as countries outside the Movement, for their generous contributions to the Fund.

2. Note that the AFRICA Fund has disbursed aid to the extent of nearly US $500 million efficiently and effectively.

3. Recommend that while the mandate of the AFRICA Fund ends at this Summit, member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement should continue to strengthen the liberation movements in South Africa with fresh expressions of political and material support, as well as human resource development assistance, both bilateral and through multilateral agencies, until the objective of bringing about a non-racial, democratic and united South Africa is achieved.

4. Accept the proposal of the Chairman of the AFRICA Fund Committee that, as a special gesture of solidarity, a sum of US $250,000 be provided from the Fund by way of humanitarian relief to the people of Somalia who are facing an acute crisis of unprecedented proportions.

5. Endorse the decision of the Committee to utilize the remaining balance with the AFRICA Fund for drought relief in southern Africa, human resource development in South Africa and voter-education there before the elections through the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC).

NAC 10/Doc.14/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: English



TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES
Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992


DECISION ON POPULATION

The Heads of State or Government,

1. Decide that, in view of the importance and urgency of the population question, a Ministerial-level meeting should be held as soon as possible to consider the following:

- the intensification of the exchange of information regarding member countries' experience with population policies and family planning programs;

- the organization of South-South technical cooperation and assistance schemes with respect to education and awareness-raising activities, safe motherhood, and family planning programs; and

- the establishment of joint and cooperative schemes for the production of medical supplies required for family planning programs.

2. Further decide that the Ministerial meeting should initiate the appropriate consultative process in order to formulate guidelines for preparations by member countries for the International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo in September 1994.



NAC 10/Doc.15/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: English

TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992

DECISION
ON THE STRENGTHENING OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION


The Heads of State or Government,

Considering that in the post-Cold War era, the issue of development has become the top priority item on the international agenda,

Taking fully into account the constructive proposals made during the deliberations,

Decide to give the Chairman of the Movement of the Non-Aligned Countries the necessary flexibility in order to:

- assess the possibility of convening a special meeting of Heads of State or Government of the NAM devoted to economic and social development and international cooperation, after undertaking the necessary consultations;

- convene at the earliest possible date the meeting of the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation, which was established to re-launch the North-South Dialogue and strengthen South-South Cooperation;

- establish on an ad hoc basis an advisory group of eminent experts on development issues, in order to recommend practical solutions and new orientations in the economic and social fields.

NAC 10/L.2/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: English

TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992


RESOLUTION ON FOOD SECURITY


The Heads of State or Government,

Having reviewed the food situation in the Non-Aligned and other developing countries,

Expressing deep concern that, despite the ability to increase vastly world food output, the number of people plagued by hunger and malnutrition has increased in the past decade, particularly in the least developed countries.

1. Decide, in order to tackle this pressing issue, to convene a Conference of Ministers of Food and Agriculture of Non-Aligned and other developing countries to formulate policy guidelines pertaining to, inter alia:

- ways and means of reducing poverty and enhancing food security and self-sufficiency in developing countries by raising the productivity of agricultural producers, particularly of small holders and women farmers;

- ways and means of establishing meaningful South-South technical cooperation schemes to exchange information and experiences between developing countries, with specific reference to joint food production ventures and cooperative schemes for the production of fertilizers, farm implements, and other agricultural inputs;

- ways and means of strengthening cooperation among developing countries in the area of agricultural research, and of considering the best ways to involve international research institutions in giving more emphasis to research on food staples of primary interest to developing countries;

- ways and means of increasing cooperation between exporting and importing countries through, inter alia, the management of buffer stocks to prevent shortages of essential food products; and

- ways and means of supporting special programs of action to increase food production in Africa by the international development agencies including the IFAD Special Program for Africa, Phase II.

2. Also decide that, as an additional measure, the Conference of Ministers of Food and Agriculture will take major steps to establish schemes to provide substantial food aid to relieve critical shortages such as those occurring in certain parts of Africa from time to time. The Movement will seek the support and cooperation of developed countries and international organization, such as FAO, IFAD, UNDP and WFP, in the establishment and operation of such schemes.

3. Further decide that, in order to assist the Ministerial Conference in its deliberations, an ad hoc advisory group of experts be established to study in depth all relevant aspects of the food security problems in developing countries and to make policy recommendations and detailed proposals for action.

NAC 10/L.1/Rev. 1
6 September 1992
Original: English

TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992

RESOLUTION ON EXTERNAL DEBT

The Heads of State or Government,

Having reviewed the debt situation of Non-Aligned and other developing countries,

Expressing grave concern over the doubling of the stock of external debt of developing countries over the last ten years and their continuing excessive debt service burden,

Noting that the debt problem has resulted in a major dram on the resources of developing countries, and has, in many cases, blocked their development, and hence their ability to improve social and economic conditions.

Recognizing the generally unsatisfactory experience of developing countries in implementing a variety of debt-relief strategies,

Considering that it is essential for members of the Non-Aligned Movement and other developing countries to strengthen their efforts to work out comprehensive and durable solutions to the debt problem.

1. Note that consultations on the problem of external indebtedness, such as those that took place in the Consultative Meeting of Experts on the External Debt of the Non--Aligned and other developing countries held in Peru in 1986 and Morocco in 1988, had been very useful.

2. Decide to continue this consultative process at a high intergovernmental level in order to draw up policy guidelines with a view to reinforcing the efforts of developing countries to resolve their debt problem, which win give priority, inter alia, to the following:

- measures that will facilitate the cancellation of the debt of the least developed countries;

- the resolution of the debt burden of other developing countries (including those which have made great efforts to meet their debt obligations) in :a manner which facilitates their recovery, growth and development;

- measures to recycle part of the debt for financing economic and social projects;

- other actions to reinforce South-South cooperation to reduce the burden of debt servicing; and

- devising a coordinated tripartite approach involving developing debtors, developed creditor countries and multilateral financial institutions in order to resolve the debt problem.

3. Further decide that in order to assist the high intergovernmental level process, an ad hoc advisory group of experts be established to study in depth all relevant aspects of the debt problem and to make policy guidelines.

NAC 1O/Doc.7/Rev.1
6 September 1992
Original: English


TENTH CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF STATE OR GOVERNMENT
OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

Jakarta, 1-6 September 1992


REPORT OF THE RAPPORTEUR-GENERAL




1. The Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1 to 6 September 1992.

2. The Conference was preceded by a Preparatory Meeting at Ambassadorial/Senior Official Level, and a Preparatory Meeting at Ministerial Level held from 29 to 31 August 1992.

3. The representatives of the following countries which are Members of the Movement participated in the Tenth Conference;

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape-Verde, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

4. The representatives of the following countries as well as national liberation movements and international organizations attended the Conference as observers:

Armenia, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Honduras, Mexico, Thailand, African National Congress (ANC), Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organization (AAPSO), Front de Liberation Nationale Kanak Socialiste (FLNKS), League of Arab States, Organization of African Unity (OAU), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), Socialist Party of Puerto Rico, United Nations.

5. Guest delegations were present at the Conference from the following countries and organizations:

Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (EFRCRCS), United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on Indian Ocean, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Special Committee Against Apartheid, Indian Institute for Non-Aligned Studies, Commonwealth Secretariat, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Latin American Economic System (SELA), United Nations Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of Palestinian People, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), United Nations Institute of Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Group of 77.

6. The following organizations were also present :

AFRICA Fund, Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP), Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA), The Advisory Committee of the South Center.

7. On the occasion of the Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries messages were received from the following world statesmen and leaders: His Majesty King Fahd ben Abdel Aziz at Saoud of Saudi Arabia; His Majesty Sultan Qa1boos of Oman; His Excellency Mr. Said Mohamed Djohar, President of the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros; His Excellency El Hag Hassan Aptidon, President of the Republic of Djibouti; [His Excellency Mr Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt; His Excellency Mr. Hugh Desmond Hoyte, President of the Republic of Guyana; His Excellency Mr. Rafael Leonardo Callejas, President of the Republic of Honduras; His Excellency Mr. Punsalmaagiin Orchibat, President of Mongolia; [Her Excellency Mrs. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, President of the Republic of Nicaraguaj His Excellency Mr. France Albert Rene, President of the Republic of Seychelles; His Excellency Mr. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Republic of Uganda; His Excellency Mr. P.J. Patterson Q.C., Prime Minister of Jamaica; His Excellency Kiichi Miyawaza, Prime Minister of Japan; His Excellency Mr. Kokou Joseph Kossigoh, Prime Minister of the Togolese Republic.
Opening of the Conference (Agenda item 1)

8. The Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries was declared open by His Excellency Mr. Soeharto, President of the Republic of Indonesia.

9. The Conference observed a minute of silence in memory of deceased leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement, in particular those who had passed away since the Ninth Summit, the late President Muhammad Boudiaf of Algeria and the late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi of India.

10. His Excellency Mr. Soeharto, President of the Republic of Indonesia, delivered an inaugural address. The Conference decided by acclamation that this address be adopted as an official document of the Conference (NAC 10/Doc. 16).

11. Responses to the inaugural address by President Soeharto were made by His Excellency Mr. Abdou Diouf, President of the Republic of Senegal, on behalf of the African member countries; His Excellency Mr. D.B. Wijetunge, Prime Minister of the Republic of Sri Lanka, on behalf of the Asian member countries; His Excellency Mr. Juan Aftneida Bosque, Vice-President of the Council of State of the Republic of Cuba, on behalf of the Latin American and Caribbean member countries; and His Excellency Mr. George Vassiliou, President of the Republic of Cyprus, on behalf of the European member countries.

12. His Excellency Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary-General of the United Nations addressed the Conference during the inaugural session.


Adoption of the agenda (NAC 10/Doc.4/Rev-1) (Agenda item 2)

13. The Conference adopted the following agenda:

1. Opening of the Conference

2. Adoption of the agenda

3. Report by the chairman of the Preparatory Meeting at Ministerial Level

4. Election of officers

5. Organization of work

6. Admission of new members and participation by observers and guests

7. Report by the Chairman of the Ninth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries

8. Report by the Chairman of the AFRICA Fund Committee

9. Report by the Chairman of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology

10. Review of the international political situation, the role of the Non-Aligned Movement and the strengthening of the United Nations

11. Review of the international economic situation, the role of the Non-Aligned Movement and the strengthening of South-South cooperation

12. Dates and venues of the Eleventh Ministerial Conference and the Eleventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries

13. Consideration and adoption of the Final Documents

14. Other matters

Report by the Chairman of the Preparatory Meeting at
Ministerial Level (NAC 10/FM/Doc.3/Rev.1) (Agenda item 3)

14. The Chairman of the Preparatory Meeting, His Excellency Mr. Ali Alatas, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia, introduced the report. The representative of Iran, His Excellency Mr. Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, pointed out that his delegation's reservation on paragraph 15 of the report had not been included in the document. The. Chairman undertook that the point raised by the representative of Iran would be-reflected in the record of discussion. The Conference took note of the report.
Election of officers (Agenda item 4)

15. On the recommendation of the Preparatory Meeting at Ministerial Level, the Conference decided to constitute its Bureau as follows:

Chairman: Indonesia

Vice-Chairmen:

for Africa: Algeria, Cameroon, Kenya, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Tunisia, United Republic of Tanzania, Zaire, Zimbabwe

for Asia: Afghanistan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic

for Latin America and the Caribbean: Cuba, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Suriname

for Europe: Cyprus, Malta

Rapporteur-General: Senegal

Chairman of the Political Committee: Ghana

Chairman of the Economic Committee: Nicaragua

16. It was understood that this allocation of posts would not constitute a precedent. The entire issue of the composition of the Bureau would be referred to the Ministerial Committee on Methodology for review.

17. The Conference noted that His Excellency Mr. Nana S. Sutresna, former Permanent Representative of Indonesia to the United Nations and currently Senior Adviser to the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Ambassador at Large, had been appointed Secretary-General of the Conference.
Organization of work (Agenda item 5)

18. The Conference adopted the recommendations submitted to it by the Preparatory Meeting at Ministerial Level as contained in paragraphs 11 and 16 of its report (NAC 10/FM/Doc.3/Rev.1).
Admission of new members and participation by observers and guests
(Agenda item 6)

19. The Conference adopted the following recommendations made by the Ministerial Meeting:

(a) that Brunei Darussalam, Myarunar, the Philippines and Uzbeldstan be admitted as member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement;

(b) that Armenia, Croatia and Thailand be granted observer status;

(c) that Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia be granted guest status;

(d) that the requests by Kyrgyzstan and Macedonia for guest status be referred to the Coordinating Bureau.

20. On behalf of the Conference the Chairman extended a warm welcome to these newly admitted member countries, as well as to Guatemala, Mongolia and Papua New Guinea which had been admitted since the Ninth Summit. He also welcomed the new observer countries and China, which had been granted observer status earlier in the year, as well as the new guest countries. He welcomed the return of Cambodia to the Movement.
Report by the Chairman of the Ninth Conference of Heads of State or
Government of Non-Aligned Countries
(NAC 1O/Doc.6) (Agenda item 7)

21. The Conference took note of the report.
Report by the Chairman of the AFRICA Fund Committee
(NAC 1O/Doc.9) (Agenda item 8)

22. His Excellency Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, Prime Minister of the Republic of India and Chairman of the AFRICA Fund Committee, introduced the report. The Chairman thanked him, on behalf of the Conference, for his outstanding role in leading the work of the Committee. A draft decision on the recommendations contained in the report was referred to, and subsequently approved by, the Economic Committee.
Report by the Chairman of the Ministerial Committee on
Methodology (NAC IO/FM/Doc.2/Rev.1) (Agenda item 9)

23. His Excellency Mr. Geor3e Iacovou, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cyprus and Chairman of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology, introduced the report. The Chairman thanked him, on behalf of the Conference, for his important role in leading the work of the Committee. The Conference adopted the report.
General debate (Agenda items 10 and 11)

24. The Conference devoted eight plenary sessions to the general debate under the chairmanship of His Excellency President Soeharto. During his absences from the Chair the following Heads of Delegation presided: Tanzania, Cyprus, Cuba, Tunisia, Suriname, Algeria.

25. In the course of the general debate, statements were delivered by the following member countries:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bahrain*, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia*, Seychelles, Singapore, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo*/, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Rights of reply were exercised by India and Kuwait and an explanatory statement was made by the Islamic Republic of Iran.

26. The Conference also heard statements from the following observers and guests:

Armenia, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia*, Thailand, African National Congress (ANC), Front de Libdration National Kanak Socialiste (FLNKS), Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), Socialist Party of Puerto Rico, Austria, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean, United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid, United Nations Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration of the Granting of independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, World Health Organization (WHO).

His Excellency Mwalimu Julius Nyerere spoke in his capacity as Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the South Center.

27. The Committee of Nine Non-Aligned Countries on Palestine held a meeting under the chairmanship of His Excellency President Soeharto and adopted a declaration (NAC IO/Doc.8) which forms an integral part of the official proceedings of the Conference.

28. The Bureau of the Conference held three meetings: two at Ministerial level, chaired by His Excellency Mr. Ali Alatas, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia; and one at the level of Heads of Delegation, chaired by His Excellency President Soeharto.

Dates and venues of the Eleventh Ministerial Conference and the
Eleventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned
Countries (Agenda item 12).

29. The Conference decided that with regard to the date and venue of the Eleventh Summit there was no consensus and referred the matter to the Eleventh Ministerial Conference for decision.

With regard to the Eleventh Ministerial Conference, it was decided that the matter would be discussed at the Non-Aligned Ministerial Meeting to be held during the forthcoming forty-seventh Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Consideration and adoption of the Final Documents (Agenda item 13).


30. The Conference considered the following Final Documents submitted by the
Political and Economic Committees:

(i) Draft Final Document:
comprising

- The Jakarta Message: A Call for
Collective Action and the Democratization of International Relations NAC 10/Doc.12

- Chapter I: Introduction NAC 10/Doc.11

- Chapter II: Global Issues NAC 1O/Doc.1/Rev.1

- Chapter III: Political Issues NAC 1O/Doc.2/Rev.1

- Chapter IV: Economic and Social Issues NAC 10/Doc.3/Rev.1


(ii) Draft Declaration on Somalia NAC 1O/FM/PC/
Doc.1/Rev.1

(iii) Draft Decision on the Establishment of a High Level Working
Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations NAC 10/Doc.10

(iv) Draft Decision on the AFRICA Fund NAC 1O/Doc.13

(v) Draft Decision on Population NAC 10/Doc.14

(vi) Draft Decision on Strengthening International Cooperation NAC 1O/Doc.15

(vii) Draft Decision on Food Security NAC 10/L.2

(viii) Draft Decision on External Debt NAC 1O/L.1


The Conference adopted the Final Documents. Reservations were made on certain aspects of the Final Documents by Iran, Iraq and Yugoslavia.

31. The Conference adopted the Jakarta Message A Call for Collective Action and the Democratization of International Relations. (NAC 10/Doc.12/Rev.1)

32. The Conference adopted the report of the Rapporteur-General- (NAC 1O/Doc.7/Rev.1)

Other matters (Agenda item 14)

33. A resolution of gratitude of the Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries to the Government and people of the Republic of Indonesia was proposed by His Excellency Sir Ketumile Masire, President of the Republic of Botswana, and adopted by acclamation.

34. The closing session of the Conference was held on 6 September 1992. His Excellency Mr. Soeharto, President of the Republic of Indonesia, delivered the closing address.


_________

* Countries which waived the right to speak and circulated statements in Plenary.


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