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UNITED
NATIONS
A

        General Assembly
Distr.
GENERAL
A/47/509
21 October 1992

ORIGINAL: ENGLISH

Forty-seventh session
Agenda item 74


REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE ISRAELI
PRACTICES AFFECTING THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE PALESTINIAN
PEOPLE AND OTHER ARABS OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES

Note by the Secretary-General


The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the twenty-fourth report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories, which was submitted to him in accordance with paragraphs 20 and 21 of Assembly resolution 46/47 A of 9 December 1991. The present report should be considered together with the Special Committee's periodic reports (A/47/76 and A/47/262), which were transmitted to the members of the General Assembly on 10 January and 10 May 1992, respectively.






CONTENTS
Paragraphs Page
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ................................................... 4
I.

II.

III.

IV.
INTRODUCTION ..............................................

ORGANIZATION OF WORK ......................................

MANDATE ...................................................

INFORMATION AND EVIDENCE RECEIVED BY THE SPECIAL
COMMITTEE .................................................
1-5

6-17

18-23


24-785
8

9

11


13
A.General situation .................................... 34-263 16
1.

2.
General developments and policy statements .....

Incidents linked with the uprising of the
Palestinian population against the occupation...
34-80


81-97
16


28
(a)


(b)


(c)
List of Palestinians killed by troops
or Israeli civilians ......................

List of other Palestinians killed as a
result of the occupation ..................

Other incidents linked with the uprising...
98-263 33


45

55
B.Administration of justice, including the right
to a fair trial .....................................
264-358 101
1.

2.
Palestinian population .........................

Israelis .......................................
291-334

335-358
110

115
C.Treatment of civilians ..............................359-635 119
1.General developments ...........................359-517 119
(a)

(b)
Harassment and physical ill-treatment .....

Collective punishment .....................
359-376

377-463
119

123
(i)


(ii)


(iii)
List of houses or rooms that were
demolished or sealed ..............

Imposition of curfews, sealing off
or closing areas ..................

Other forms of collective
punishment ........................
377-380


381-456


457-463
123


129


137
(c)

(d)

(e)
Expulsions ................................

Economic and social situation .............

Other developments ........................
464-482

483-509

510-517
139

144

152
2.Measures affecting certain fundamental
freedoms .......................................
518-604 154
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
Freedom of movement .......................

Freedom of education ......................

Freedom of religion .......................

Freedom of expression .....................
518-571

572-593

594-599

600-604
154

165

171

172
3.Settlers' activities affecting the civilian
population .....................................
605-635 173
D.

E.

F.
Treatment of detainees ..............................

Annexation and settlement ...........................

Information concerning the occupied Syrian Arab
Golan ...............................................
636-692

693-770


771-785
178

196


213
V.

VI.
CONCLUSIONS ..............................................

ADOPTION OF THE REPORT ...................................
786-833

834
217

232
Annex.MAP SHOWING ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS ESTABLISHED, PLANNED OR UNDER
CONSTRUCTION IN THE TERRITORIES OCCUPIED SINCE 1967 ..............
235


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

26 August 1992

Sir,

The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories has the honour to transmit herewith its twenty-fourth report, prepared in accordance with General Assembly resolution 2443 (XXIII) of 19 December 1968, by which the Special Committee was established, and resolution 46/47 A of 9 December 1991, the latest resolution by which the General Assembly renewed its mandate.

This report covers the period from 23 August 1991, the date of the adoption of the twenty-third report of-the Special Committee, to 26 August 1992. The report is based on oral information received by the Special Committee through testimonies of persons having first-hand experience of the human rights situation in the occupied territories, as well as written information gathered from various sources. Written information concerning the period from 23 August to 30 November 1991 is reflected in the periodic report that the Special Committee presented to you on 10 January 1992 (A/47/76); written information concerning the period from 1 December 1991 to 29 February 1992 is reflected in the periodic report that the Special Committee presented to you on 10 May 1992 (A/47/262) in accordance with paragraphs 20 and 21 of General Assembly resolution 46/47 A.

The Special Committee has included in its reports relevant excerpts and summaries from among these oral and written sources of information. For the purpose of collecting oral testimonies the Special Committee again organized hearings that were held at Damascus, Amman, Cairo and Geneva. The Special Committee continued to monitor statements by members of the Government of Israel reflecting the policy of that Government in the occupied territories and reports on measures taken to implement that policy. The Special Committee further noted the letters addressed to you and to the President of the Security Council during the period of this report relating to the mandate of the Special Committee, circulated as documents of the General Assembly and the Security Council, and received information from organizations and individuals on various aspects of the situation in the occupied territories.

In carrying out its mandate, the Special Committee benefited from the cooperation of the Governments of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic and from the cooperation of Palestinian representatives. This was, however, not the case so far with the Government of Israel.

In preparing its report the Special Committee has attempted to put before you a composite picture of the reality in the occupied territories as it affects the human rights of the civilian population. By this letter the Special Committee wishes to draw your attention to a number of aspects that deserve particular mention.

The information contained in the twenty-fourth report of the Special Committee reflects a continuation of the extremely tense situation that has prevailed in the occupied territories since the beginning of the uprising four and a half years ago. The repression of the struggle of Palestinian and other Arab civilians against the occupation has maintained the dramatic level of violence reached in the occupied territories. Occupation itself, it should be borne in mind, engenders a situation where human rights violations will occur.

The period under review has once again witnessed a heavy toll of casualties among all categories of the civilian population, including women, children and the elderly, caused by the indiscriminate use of violence by the Israeli authorities in order to repress the popular uprising. Disproportionate and at times unnecessary force has continued to be used to quell demonstrations or strikes, especially in detention centres, and has included the throwing of tear-gas canisters, beating and the use of live ammunition resulting in numerous losses of life and severe injuries often leading to permanent incapacitation. The climate of fear and tension prevailing in the occupied territories has been exacerbated by the introduction of undercover units and the relaxation of open-fire regulations against activists involved in the uprising.

Although the population of the occupied territories already lives on the threshold of mere survival, the hardships it suffers owing to the steady deterioration of the economic, social and health conditions have been compounded by resort to measures of collective punishment such as the closure of educational institutions, the demolition of houses, the deliberate policy of economic pressure and the setting of administrative obstacles. The freedom of education has also been adversely affected by the increasingly restrictive identity card regulations concerning students in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The systematic use of curfews and severe limitations in the exercise of fundamental freedoms such as that of movement inside and outside the ,occupied territories has continued to have an adverse effect on the employment of tens of thousands of Arab workers. In addition, the non-recognition of diplomas obtained in the course of off-campus teaching owing to the closure of educational institutions has resulted in a whole generation of young Palestinians and other Arabs not being able to obtain employment in Israel and the occupied territories because their diplomas are not recognized by the Israeli authorities. The recent closure of the Gaza Strip and imposition of age limits and new ID cards is estimated to have affected 30 to 40 thousand workers in the occupied territories. The employment situation has been further aggravated by the continual influx of newly arrived Jewish immigrants.

The climate of uncertainty and frustration in the occupied territories has increased commensurately with the multiplication of acts of aggression committed by Israeli settlers as well as the continuation of the annexation policy pursued by the Israeli authorities, which has resulted in the creation of new settlements. The Special Committee welcomes the declarations concerning settlement policy made by representatives of the newly elected Government, but remains preoccupied with regard to the overwhelming preponderance of "security" over "political" settlements, especially in the occupied Syrian Arab Golan and Jordan Valley areas. The increased physical and psychological harassment of the Palestinian and other Arab population by settlers seems to indicate a deliberate intention to incite it to leave its homeland.

The policy of expelling Palestinians from the occupied territories for alleged security reasons has continued, in violation of the relevant provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention and despite renewed international protests. A recent example is the expelling to Jordan of six Palestinian students from the Al-Najah National University on 17 July 1992. In addition, persons without valid residence permits have also been expelled. The Special Committee's attention was also drawn to a form of "disguised" deportation implemented against certain students who want to study abroad, which consists of obliging them to leave for three years.

The administration of justice in the occupied territories has continued to be preoccupying and has increasingly been transferred to the competence of the military authorities, as has recently been the case with traffic offences. Several thousand Palestinians, including minors, have continued to be detained in various prisons and detention centres, sometimes inside Israel itself, in violation of article 76 of the Fourth Geneva Convention. It has been alleged that minors over 12 years of age are detained with adult, often common law, prisoners. Administrative detention continues to be imposed in an arbitrary manner and is very often said to be preventive. The basic legal guarantees such as the right to a fair trial continue to be denied to Palestinians and the pronounced discrepancy between the harshness of sentences meted out to the population of the occupied territories and those pronounced against Israelis, disproportionate with the gravity of the offence, has been maintained. Prison conditions continue to be critical and are characterized by overcrowding, inadequate food and medical care, severe repression of strikes, including the throwing of tear-gas canisters into closed spaces, and the systematic use of torture and ill-treatment, including with regard to minors. A particularly preoccupying development brought to the attention of the Special Committee in the course of oral testimonies concerns the increasingly frequent use of electric shock torture, especially during the interrogation of detainees.

The Special Committee has endeavored, within the constraints imposed on it, to provide in its periodic reports (A/47/76) and (A/47/262) and the present twenty-fourth report an objective picture of the situation of human rights in the occupied territories. The situation faced by the Palestinian and other Arab population during the reporting period and the continued deterioration of their living conditions continue to represent a serious threat to peace and stability and a challenge for the international community. In order to prevent an exacerbation of the already dramatic situation in the occupied territories, renewed efforts are required of the. international community to convince Israel to put an end to its practices affecting the human rights situation in the occupied territories.

The Special Committee reiterates its sincere hope that the present report may contribute to further mobilizing the international community in its quest for a solution to the plight of the Palestinian people and other Arabs of the occupied territories that would guarantee the full enjoyment of their fundamental human rights.

The Special Committee also hopes that the peace negotiations presently under way among Arabs, Israelis and Palestinians will usher in a climate of confidence and mutual trust that will be conducive to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Accept, Sir, on behalf of my colleagues and on my own behalf, the assurances of our highest consideration.

(Signed) Stanley KALPAGE
Chairman of the Special Committee to
Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the
Human Rights of the Palestinian People and
Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories

His Excellency
Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Secretary-General of the United Nations
New York





I. INTRODUCTION

1. The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories was established by the General Assembly in resolution 2443 (XXIII) of 19 December 1968. By that resolution, the Assembly decided to establish the Special Committee, composed of three Member States; requested the President of the Assembly to appoint the members of the Special Committee; requested the Government of Israel to receive the Special Committee, to cooperate with it and to facilitate its work; requested the Special Committee to report to the Secretary-General as soon as possible and whenever the need arose thereafter; and requested the Secretary-General to provide the Special Committee with all the necessary facilities for the performance of its task.

2. The Special Committee is composed as follows: Mr. Stanley Kalpagé, Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations, Chairman; Mr. Alioune Sene, Ambassador of Senegal at Bern and Permanent Representative of Senegal to the United Nations Office at Geneva; Mr. Dragan Jovanic, advocate, Yugoslavia.

3. At the meetings of the Special Committee held from 29 April to 10 May 1992, Mr. Chams Eddine N'Doye, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Senegal to Egypt, attended as the representative of Senegal.

4. Since October 1970, the Special Committee has submitted 23 reports. 1/ These reports were discussed in the Special Political Committee, which then reported to the General Assembly. 2/ On the recommendation of the Special Political Committee, the Assembly adopted resolutions 2727 (XXV) of 15 December 1970, 2851 (XXVI) of 20 December 1971, 3005 (XXVII) of 15 December 1972, 3092 A and B (XXVIII) of 7 December 1973, 3240 A to C (XXIX) of 29 November 1974, 3525 A to D (XXX) of 15 December 1975, 31/106 A to D of 16 December 1976, 32/91 A to C of 13 December 1977, 33/113 A to C of 18 December 1978, 34/90 A to C of 12 December 1979, 35/122 A to F of 11 December 1980, 36/147 A to G of 16 December 1981, 37/88 A to G of 10 December 1982, 38/79 A to H of 15 December 1983, 39/95 A to H of 14 December 1984, 40/161 A to G of 16 December 1985, 41/63 A to G of 3 December 1986, 42/160 A to G of 8 December 1987, 43/58 A to G of 6 December 1988, 44/48 A to G of 8 December 1989, 45/74 A to G and 46/47 A to G of 9 December 1991.

5. The present report has been prepared in accordance with General Assembly resolutions 2443 (XXIII), 2546 (XXIV), 2727 (XXV), 2851 (XXVI), 3005 (XXVII), 3092 B (XXVIII), 3240 A and C (XXIX), 3525 A and C (XXX), 31/1,06 C and D, 32/91 B and C, 33/113 C, 34/90 A to C, 35/122 C, 36/147 C, 37/88 C, 38/79 D, 39/95 D, 40/161 D, 41/63 D, 42/160 D, 43/58 A, 44/48 A, 45/74 A and 46/47 A.

II. ORGANIZATION OF WORK

6. The Special Committee continued its work under the rules of procedure contained in its first report to the Secretary-General. 3/

7. In its resolution 46/47 A of 9 December 1991, the General Assembly:

8. The Special Committee held the first of its series of meetings from 7 to 10 January 1992 at Geneva. The activities of the Special Committee during those meetings are reflected in document A/47/76 (paras. 3-10).

9. The Governments of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic as well as the Observer for Palestine subsequently responded to the Special Committee's request for cooperation (see A/47/76 (para. 5)), reconfirming their readiness, to continue cooperating with the Special Committee.

10. On 7 January 1992, the Chairman of the Special Committee addressed a cable to the Secretary-General in which he conveyed the deep concern of the Special Committee about the decision of the Israeli authorities to deport 12 Palestinians from the territories occupied by Israel. The Special Committee addressed a second cable to the Secretary-General on 22 July 1992 conveying its concern about the deportation on 17 July 1992 of six Palestinians from the territories occupied by Israel. On both occasions, the Special Committee emphasized that this decision was in violation of all relevant international legal norms and standards, and in particular the provisions of the 1949 Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. The Special Committee requested the Secretary-General to bring its expression of concern to the attention of the Israeli authorities.

11. The Special Committee held a series of meetings at Geneva (28 April 1992), Damascus (30 April-1 May 1992), Amman (2-5 May 1992) and Cairo (7-10 May 1992). At these meetings, the Special Committee examined information on developments occurring in the occupied territories between December 1991 and February 1992. It had before it a number of communications addressed to it by Governments, organizations and individuals in connection with its mandate. The Special Committee took note of the letters addressed to it by the Permanent Representative of Jordan to the United Nations Office at Geneva on matters related to its mandate. At Damascus, Amman and Cairo the Special Committee heard testimonies of persons who had just returned from or were living in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the occupied Syrian Arab Golan concerning the situation in those territories.

12. At Damascus the Special Committee was received by the Minister of State for foreign Affairs, Dr. Nasser Kaddour, and by Dr. Najdi El-Jazzar, Director International Organizations Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and was presented with a report concerning the human rights situation in the occupied Syrian Arab Golan. During its stay in the Syrian Arab Republic, the Special Committee visited the town of Quneitra and was presented with information on Israeli practices against the Syrian Arab citizens in the occupied Golan.

13. At Amman the Special Committee was received by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Dr. Kamel Abu-Jaber. It also conducted consultations with Mr. Adel Irsheid, Director, Department of Occupied Territories Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and was presented with a report on the most recent developments in the occupied territories prepared by that Department. During its stay at Amman the Special Committee met with the Chairman and the heads of several departments of the Palestine National Council. The Special Committee received from the Department of Occupied Territories Affairs of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), from the Department of Economic Affairs and Planning, the Department of General and Higher Education, from the Social Affairs Association and from the Prison Committee a series of reports and statistics on the situation in the occupied territories. The Special Committee visited the King Hussein Bridge where it interviewed residents of the West Bank and Gaza who had just crossed the bridge into Jordan.

14. At Cairo the Special Committee was received by the Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ibrahim Ouf. It also met with Mr. Ramzy, Director, International Organizations Affairs Department, Mr. Halafi, Director, Israeli Affairs Department and Mr. Mahabi, Deputy Director, Palestinian Affairs Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Special Committee also met General Mohamed Reda, Governor-General of Gaza, and Mr. Yussef, the Palestinian Representative in Cairo. It also visited the Palestinian Red Crescent Hospital.

15. The Special Committee examined and completed its periodic report (A/47/262) updating information contained in its previous periodic report (A/47/76). It decided that any further information and evidence relevant to its mandate would be reflected, together with its conclusions, in the present report of the Special Committee.

16. On 10 May 1992, the Chairman of the Special Committee transmitted to the Secretary-General its periodic report covering the period from 1 December 1991 to 29 February 1992 (A/47/262). That report was based on written information gathered from various sources among which the Special Committee had selected relevant excerpts and summaries, which were reflected in the report.

17. The Special Committee met again at Geneva from 24 to 26 August 1992. At these meetings, the Special Committee examined information on developments occurring in the occupied territories from March to August 1992. It had before it a number of communications addressed to it by Governments, organizations and individuals in connection with its mandate, as well as records of testimonies collected during its previous series of meetings. The Special Committee took note of several communications addressed to it by the Permanent Representatives of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations Office at Geneva on matters related to its mandate. The Special Committee also heard and examined the testimony of one witness. It examined and completed the present report on 26 August 1992.

III. MANDATE

18. The General Assembly, in its resolution 2443 (XXIII), entitled "Respect for and implementation of human rights in occupied territories", decided to establish a Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories, composed of three Member States.

19. In its resolution 44/48 A, the General Assembly decided to change the name of the Special Committee to "Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories".

20. The mandate of the Special Committee, as set out in resolution 2443 (XXIII) and subsequent resolutions, was "to investigate Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the population of the occupied territories".

21. In interpreting its mandate, the Special Committee determined that:

(a) The territories to be considered as occupied territories referred to the areas under Israeli occupation, namely, the occupied Syrian Arab Golan, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Following the implementation of the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement on Disengagement of Forces of 18 January 1974 and the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces of 31 May 1974, the demarcation of the areas under occupation was altered as indicated in the maps attached to those agreements. The areas of Egyptian territory under Israeli military occupation were further modified in accordance with the Treaty of Peace between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel, which was signed on 26 March 1979 and which came into force on 25 April 1979. On 25 April 1982, the Egyptian territory remaining under Israeli military occupation was restituted to the Government of Egypt in accordance with the provisions of the aforementioned agreement. Thus, for the purposes of the present report, the territories to be considered as occupied territories are those remaining under Israeli occupation, namely, the occupied Syrian Arab Golan, the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip.

(b) The persons covered by resolution 2443 (XXIII) and therefore the subject of the investigation of the Special Committee were the civilian population residing in the areas occupied as a result of the hostilities of June 1967 and those persons normally resident in the areas that were under occupation but who had left those areas because of the hostilities. However, the Committee noted that resolution 2443 (XXIII) referred to the "population" without any qualification as to any segment of the inhabitants of the occupied territories.

(c) The "human rights" of the population of the occupied territories consisted of two elements, namely, those rights which the Security Council referred to as "essential and inalienable, human rights" in its resolution 237 (1967) of 14 June 1967 and, secondly, those rights which found their basis in the protection afforded by international law in particular circumstances such as military occupation and, in the case of prisoners of war, capture. In accordance with General Assembly resolution 3005 (XXVII), the Special Committee was also required to investigate allegations concerning the exploitation and the looting of the resources of the occupied territories, the pillaging of the archaeological and cultural heritage of the occupied territories, and interference in the freedom of worship in the Holy Places of the occupied territories.

(d) The "policies" and "practices" affecting human rights that came within the scope of investigation by the, Special Committee referred, in the case of "policies", to any course of action consciously adopted and pursued by the Government of Israel as part of its declared or undeclared intent; while "practices" referred to those actions which, irrespective of whether or not they were in implementation of a policy, reflected a pattern of behaviour on the part of the Israeli authorities towards the civilian population in the occupied areas.

The geographical names as well as the terminology employed in the present report reflect the usage in the original source and do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Special Committee or the Secretariat of the United Nations.

22. Since its inception the Special Committee has relied on the following international instruments in interpreting and carrying out its mandate:

(a) The Charter of the United Nations;

(b) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

(c) The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949; 4/

(d) The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, of 12 August 1949; 5/

(e) The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, of 14 May 1954; 6/

(f) The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land; 7/

(g) The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 8/

23. The Special Committee has also relied on those resolutions relevant to the situation of civilians in the occupied territories adopted by United Nations organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO).

IV. INFORMATION AND EVIDENCE RECEIVED BY THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE

24. In the course of carrying out its mandate, the Special Committee has relied on the following sources:

(a) The testimony of persons with first-hand knowledge of the situation of the population in the occupied territories;

(b) Reports in the Israeli press, including of pronouncements by responsible persons in the Government of Israel;

(c) Reports appearing in other news media, including the Arab language press published in the occupied territories in Israel and the international press.

25. The Special Committee also received written statements from the Governments of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic and from the Observer for Palestine.

26. The Government of Jordan has provided the Special Committee with various monthly reports on Israeli settlement operations, land confiscation and attacks on Arab citizens and their property. It has also submitted a report on Israeli violations of human rights in the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip prepared by the Department of Palestinian Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and covering the period from 1 June 1991 to 1 May 1992. The present report contains information and data on the establishment of new settlements, land confiscation, Jewish immigration, mass arrests, the use of firearms against Arab civilians, the administration of justice, the sentences passed on Arab civilians, the conditions of detention, restrictions to freedom of movement and travel as well as on measures of collective punishment such as deportations, the demolition and sealing of houses, and the imposition of curfews.

27. The Government of the Syrian Arab Republic has provided the Special Committee with a report prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs about Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the Palestinian people and other Arabs of the occupied territories. That report deals in particular with Israeli practices in the Syrian Arab Golan. It refers to the “settlement expansion plan which aims to change the features of the present population distribution in the occupied Arab territories”. It provides information on the further promotion of new settlements in the Golan and the improvement of older ones with a view to increasing the number of settlers there who enjoy residential facilities that are denied to the indigenous inhabitants of the Golan; in addition, it refers tot he further expropriation of land from the remaining villages populated by Syrian Arab citizens in the Golan and to the continued Israeli practice of setting fire to agricultural land and the forests in the Golan, the excessive use of pesticides on agricultural land entailing serious environmental consequences and the uprooting of trees and saplings; it also contains information and data on the diversion of water resources; the reduction in the volume of irrigation water and the restrictions concerning the boring of new wells. The report provides additional information on the economic situation affecting the living conditions of the Syrian Arab citizens in the area such as the tightening of restrictions on the marketing of agricultural crops and produce and the high taxes levied on income, agricultural products and on property. The report also refers to the precarious health situation and the refusal of the occupation authorities to issue permits to Syrian Arab citizens in the Golan to leave the area for medical treatment; in addition, Syrian Arab educational curricula continue to be replaced by curricula that have been described as "hostile to the national and spiritual heritage of the population” in the Golan. It further deals with various human rights violations in the occupied Syrian Golan, including arrests and the use of force to quell demonstrations and resistance to the occupation as well as deficiencies in the administration of justice. The report has been circulated as an official document of the General Assembly (A/47/255 and Corr.1).

28. The Special Committee also received documents submitted by various departments of the PLO. Among these documents, mention can be made of the report submitted by the Department of Economic Affairs and Planning, which deals with repressive measures of the Israeli occupation authorities that affect the economic activities of the Palestinians in the occupied territories, a further broadening of repercussions of the Gulf War on the population of the territories, Israeli taxation policy, administrative measures affecting the Palestinian economy as well as the Israeli settlement policy, confiscating of land and Jewish immigration. In addition, the Special Committee received a report from the Department of General and Higher Education, which deals with some of the Israeli occupation authorities' practices affecting education in the occupied territories during the period from April 1991 to April 1992, such as the continued closure of educational institutions, layoffs and freeze on recruitment of teachers, arbitrary, transfers, the arrest of teachers and students, school raids, taxation, lack of appropriate teaching facilities and the inauguration of an Israeli university for settlers. Another report submitted by the Department of Occupied Territories Affairs concerns the Israeli occupation authorities' practices against the City of Jerusalem in 1991-1992. The report deals with land confiscation and the uprooting of fruit and olive trees; promotion of the settlement policy, including the situation in the Silwan neighbourhood; the sealing off of buildings and demolition of houses, including demolition with a view to carrying out archaeological excavations on the site. In addition, the report provides a list of repressive Israeli measures against individuals as well as measures of collective punishment. It also refers to police raids and measures limiting the freedom of movement of Palestinians as well as to conditions of detention. The report further mentions measures against educational institutions and practices with regard to the Palestinian press. It also deals with the activities affecting religious institutions as well as the police raid on the Islamic Courthouse on 18 November 1991 and the seizure of property documents. The Special Committee also received a document concerning conditions of detention and torture practices in Israeli prisons, which included reports of the Social Affairs Association for the Protection of the Families of Martyrs and Detainees and from the Prison Committee. It describes the conditions of detention, including the banning of collective prayers, insufficient medical care and an ensuing increase in prisoner mortality rates, reduction of hygienic products available to prisoners, suppression of strikes and resort to solitary confinement.

29. In addition, the Special Committee received written information from intergovernmental organizations such as relevant specialized agencies, United Nations organs and regional organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, individuals and Governments on the situation in the occupied territories. At its meetings, the Committee had before it several communications addressed to it directly or referred to it by the Secretary-General from sources outside and inside the occupied territories. Where necessary, the Committee has followed up information contained in these communications.

30. The Special Committee undertook a series of hearings at Damascus, Amman and Cairo during its meetings from 29 April to 10 May 1992. At these meetings, the Special Committee heard the testimony of 38 persons having first-hand knowledge of the human rights situation existing in the occupied territories. These testimonies are contained in documents and are reflected below. During its meetings at Geneva the Special Committee also heard on 24 August 1992 the testimony of one Palestinian witness from the Union of Health Care Committees in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip. These testimonies are contained in document A/AC.145/RT.597 and are reflected below.

31. The Special Committee has taken particular care to rely on information appearing in the Israeli press that has not been contradicted by the Government of Israel.

32. The following paragraphs contain a summary of the information examined by the Special Committee divided as follows:

(a) General situation;

(b) Administration of justice, including the right to a fair trial;

(c) Treatment of civilians;

(d) Treatment of detainees;

(e) Annexation and settlement;

(f) Information concerning the occupied Syrian Arab Golan.

33. This information has been divided into oral evidence and written information. In order to comply with restrictions on the volume of documentation now enjoined upon United Nations reports, the Special Committee has endeavored to present this information in the most compact and concise form possible. Oral evidence, for which a full record of testimonies is available in documents A/AC.145/RT.583, A/AC.145/RT.584, A/AC.145/RT.585, A/AC.145/RT.586, A/AC.145/RT.586/Add.1, A/AC.145/RT.587, A/AC.145/RT.587/Add.1, A/AC.145/RT.588, A/AC.145/RT.589, A/AC.145/RT.589/Add.1, A/AC.145/RT.590, A/AC.145/RT.590/Add.1, A/AC.145/RT.592, A/AC.145/RT.593, A/AC.145/RT.594, A/AC.145/RT.595 and A/AC.145/RT.597, has been condensed to a general indication of the contents of such records. The report also attempts to summarize written information. This information is reflected in more detail in documents of the Special Committee, which are available on file in the secretariat.

A. General situation

1. General developments and Policy statements

Written information 9/

34. On 5 March 1992, Jerusalem District Police Chief Haim Albaldes stated that the use of policemen disguised as Arabs was a major factor in the substantial decline in nationalistic violence in East Jerusalem in 1991. Albaldes was speaking at a press conference called to assess the Jerusalem Police District's first year of activity. The District was established after the Temple Mount riots (on 8 October 1990, 17 Palestinians were killed and tens injured in Jerusalem) and brought additional manpower and a tighter chain of command to the capital's police force. According to figures presented by the police, the number of rock-throwing incidents dropped by 40 per cent from 1990 to 1991. The number of uprising-related disturbances also declined by 11.4 per cent. However, there were more car torching and fire-bomb incidents. (Jerusalem Post, 5 March 1992)

35. On 13 March 1992, it was reported that the General Security Services (GSS) and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) had lately raided the Jenin area villages, in order to crack down on leading activist cells. During the joint operations, dozens of suspects were arrested, the majority of whom were members of Black Panther cells affiliated with the Fatah. During the raids, first on Aarabe, Illar and Sayda and then on the Kabatiya, Yamoun and Jenin refugee camps, troops and Border Police seized numerous weapons, including guns and knives. The IDF also announced that two "terror" cells were captured in the Hebron area several days earlier. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 March 1992)

36. On 15 March 1992, it was reported that, following the considerable increase in the use of firearms by Palestinians, the IDF had decided to strengthen the special units operating in the territories. The special units' actions were focused on the arrest of members of cells operating with firearms. (Ha’aretz, 15 March 1992)

37. On 19 March 1992, it was reported that a study by Betzelem, the Israeli human rights organization, revealed that since the beginning of the intifadah, 42 Palestinians had been killed in the occupied territories by Israeli civilians or settlers. In 23 cases, no one was indicted and few cases were still pending investigation. The report adds that those who were charged with the killing were released before serving their term or transferred to a mental hospital. (Al-Tali'ah, 19 March 1992)

38. On 23 March 1992, Border Police Commander Meshullam Amit stated at a press conference that the number of attacks on security forces involving firearms was still on the rise. Those remarks were later confirmed by the residents' information centre Uvda, which gave the Ha'aretz newspaper a detailed list of those attacks. According to Amit, the Border Police arrested 1,688 persons for "terrorist" activities, 5,621 for disturbances, and 4,607 for criminal activity. During those arrests, 150 people were wounded, almost all of them in the West Bank, and 7 were killed; 401 policemen were injured in the line of duty. (Ha'aretz, 27 March 1992; Jerusalem Post, 24 March 1992) On 23 March 1992, it was reported that the Knesset passed a law on 16 March 1992 concerning new open-fire regulations. These regulations provided that soldiers and settlers who shoot and kill Palestinian stone-throwers would not "bear any criminal or negligent responsibility" because they could be "preventing an illegal attack that would put their life or freedom in jeopardy, and would damage their property or other's property". According to the law, the killing of a fleeing Palestinian would be considered an act of self-defense. The new law annulled previous self-defense procedures, which stipulated that the damage caused by the defender should be equal, to the damage caused by the attacker. Israeli courts frequently considered stones to cause less damage than bullets; when settlers killed stone-throwers before, some were given short prison terms for excessive force or at least causing death by negligence. (Al-Tali’ah, 19 March 1992; Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

39. On 27 March 1992, it was reported that, according to information from the IDF and Palestinian sources, undercover units were currently responsible for the deaths of approximately half the Palestinians killed by soldiers in the territories, which constitutes an increase of 25 per cent in the first six months of 1991, and 10 per cent in 1990 and 1989. Palestinian activist Faisal Husseini charged at a press conference in Jerusalem that the undercover units were "not planning to arrest people, but to kill them" and that 18 Palestinians had been killed in this manner since November 1991. In response to the accusation and other allegations leveled at: the press conference that persons were shot dead after their arrest, the IDF spokesman indicated that during the last two months (January-February), 40 Palestinians had been killed by their fellow Palestinians and that activity by "terrorist" squads carrying firearms was less than the increase in the number of casualties concerning persons injured during clashes with IDF soldiers (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992). As concerns the recent changes in open fire regulations, which have been "widened" and "clarified" (in February 1992) although not published, one regional commander stated that they were introduced in order to sharpen the distinction between quelling demonstrations, against which the use of lethal fire was no longer permitted, and the pursuit of armed fugitives. The change in regulations permitted soldiers to shoot to kill armed fugitives, but not at crowds, if they believed they were in danger. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 March 1992) On 27 March 1992, the Government of Israel was reported to have announced a plan to build 2,000 apartments in the Muslim quarter of the Old City in East Jerusalem. The project would allow for 250 per cent more construction than is normally allowed on a similar tract of land. Ateret Cohanim, the Jewish settlement movement, and the Israeli Ministry of Housing are said to have colluded to create the plan, which, if implemented, would be the largest Judaization scheme carried out inside the Old City since 1967. It is noteworthy that Palestinians are not granted building permits in East Jerusalem and many consequently abandon the overcrowded metropolis for the suburbs. (Al-Fajr, 6 April 1992)

40. On 8 April 1992, it was reported that the Israeli authorities were considering Hebron as a possible first candidate for municipal elections in the territories, passing over Gaza and Nablus, which had also expressed interest in holding them. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 April. 1992)

41. On 15 April 1992, some 200 Hebron notables decided to accept a tentative Israeli offer to hold the first municipal elections since 1976 only if they would be held simultaneously in all Palestinian municipalities. Other conditions put forth included that the authorities should not, interfere in the selection of the candidates and that no interim committee should be appointed to run the municipalities until the elections. Civil Administration authorities indicated that before the first steps towards elections in Hebron could be taken, they had to receive a formal petition showing that a sufficient number of organizations wanted them. Since 1981, municipalities had been directly appointed by the authorities. They were run either on a department-by-department basis or administered directly by army officers. In June 1991, Hebron was the first town in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to hold Chamber of Commerce elections in which an Islamic list won a narrow majority over a PLO-aligned list. On 15 April 1992, the offices of the State Attorney and the Judge Advocate-General rejected part of the proposals of Officer Commanding Central Command Maj.-Gen. Danny Yatom to broaden the procedures for opening fire in the territories. As at that date, only soldiers belonging to special units were authorized to fire at wanted persons without prior warning. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

42. On 28 April 1992, Chief of General Staff, Lt.-Gen. Ehud Barak, stated, when challenged by Meretz (left-wing parties) Members of Knesset (MKs) Yossi Sarid and Yair Tsaban about the open fire regulations concerning Arab suspects in the territories, that IDF soldiers in the territories were not operating under a shoot-to-kill policy. The open fire orders had been updated and adjusted as required, in full coordination with the IDF legal branch and senior commanders. According to standing army orders and guidelines, using live ammunition would be allowed (a) in a life-threatening situation; and (b) during suspect arrest procedures, when several "preconditions for the use of firearms prevail". Firing live ammunition, under any circumstances, was to be used only as "a last resort with the intent to capture the suspect alive and not to kill him". Barak also stated that more Arab suspects were being caught and more were turning themselves in, knowing that they were being actively sought. (Jerusalem Post, 29 and 30 April 1992)

43. On 29 April 1992, it was reported that the security services had compiled nationwide figures on the extent of immigration by Palestinians into Israel in 1989, but only revealed the totals for Jerusalem and the Ramla-Lod area, which amounted to about 10,000. Interior Ministry officials had lately given much higher figures, including an estimate that 100,000 Palestinians were residing illegally in Jerusalem. (Jerusalem Post, 29 April 1992)

44. On 1 May 1992, it was reported that a combined IDF and GSS effort had resulted in the arrest of Fatah members from the villages of Azmut, Bitta, Talpit and Salaam. The cells operated in the Nablus area and it was confirmed that the persons who were apprehended received orders from Fatah operatives in Jordan. Over the past nine months, some 1,200 members of cells belonging to the Fatah, the Democratic Front, the Popular Front and Hamas have been arrested in the territories. Several days later, 11 members of a cell from Kabatiya, in the Jenin area, were also reportedly arrested. (Ha’aretz, 1 and 4 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 1 May 1992)

45. On 3 May 1992, OC Central Command Maj.-Gen. Danny Yatom stated that soldiers had killed less than 1 per cent of the total number of Palestinian suspects they had arrested since the beginning of the year. He indicated that 13 Palestinians had been killed and 13 wounded during arrest from among the 1,400 who were apprehended since 1 January 1992. They included about 200 suspected gunmen, numerous persons suspected of helping fugitives and many persons who were released after interrogation. In all 13 death cases, Yatom stated that soldiers had acted according to open fire regulations, firing when they believed that their lives were in imminent danger, or shooting at fleeing suspects, with the intention of wounding them, after ordering them to stop. According to Yatom, the figures published countered Palestinian allegations that the army was implementing the policy of shooting fugitives dead. Yatom noted that wanted gunmen had killed 25 Palestinians in the West Bank and wounded 44 soldiers (in attacks) since January 1992. He also stated that clashes between IDF troops and gunmen had increased because the army had been more successful in tracking them down. Dozens of real and improvised pistols and rifles, grenades, home-made bombs and mines were among the weapons captured. However, Yatom noted a decrease in attacks since early March, when an increasing number of Palestinians, which he estimated at 40 over the month of April, began turning themselves in to the authorities. Several days later, on 13 May, he said also that disturbances in the territories were attracting significantly fewer participants and that the uprising was losing momentum. (Ha'aretz, 4 and 14 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 4 and 14 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 7 May 1992; Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

46. On 4 May 1992, it was reported that the IDF had lately set up dozens of small military posts in the centres of the large cities and on the main roads of West Bank large cities. Those military posts were established and might be moved in accordance with security needs in order to enable the army to supervise such localities. (Ha'aretz, 4 May 1992)

47. On 7 May 1992, Defense Minister Moshe Arens was reported to have declared that the use of firearms by Palestinians in the occupied territories had increased in the past months. According to Arens, this was due to the fact that Palestinians were aware that the intifadah in its present form did not lead anywhere. He added that the IDF's task was to put an end to the use of firearms in the occupied territories. (Al-Tali'ah, 7 May 1992)

48. On 10 May 1992, the Palestine Human Rights Information Centre published a report showing that in 1991, 29 Palestinians were killed by Israeli undercover units out of the 94 Palestinians killed by the Israeli military during the same period. According to the report, 14 of the victims were ambushed and killed by Israelis, who were often dressed in local Palestinian clothing. The report added that since January 1992, these units had significantly increased the number of and violence used in their operations against Palestinian activists. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

49. On 12 May 1992, it was reported that a significant increase in the activities of the special units in the territories had been recorded. These units were operating mostly against masked men and sought activists. According to military sources, from November 1991 to March 1992, such units had carried out 1,030 operations in the West Bank, capturing 205 wanted activists and killing 15 (20 according to Palestinian sources). The activities of these units were on the rise in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, 12 May 1992) On 12 May 1992, Al-Haq, a human rights group based in Ramallah, issued a report claiming a 60 per cent increase (48 versus 29) in the shooting deaths of Palestinians during the first four months of 1992 and over the last quarter of 1991. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992; Al-Tali'ah, 21 May 1992)

50. On 21 May 1992, it was reported that Defense Minister Moshe Arens convened a meeting of the mayors of Bethlehem, Jericho, Tubas and Salfit in his office in Jerusalem in order to study the possibility of normalizing the status of the West Bank against the background of the current improvement of the situation there. Two weeks earlier, in a joint consultation of the Civil Administration and the office of the Coordinator of Activities in the Territories, a proposal had been made to grant facilities to residents dealing with exports from the West Bank. On the basis of this consultation, the security authorities had reduced significantly the taxes imposed on some exports, in fields such as agriculture, transiting by way of Jordanian bridges, in order to support expected export developments towards Jordan and the Gulf States. Arens also announced that a team of economists had been set up in order to implement proposals aimed at improving the economic situation. (Ha'aretz, 8 and 21 May 1992)

51. On 24 May 1992, it was reported that the PLO-affiliated list had won a greater victory than was expected in the Nablus Chamber of Commerce elections held on 21 May, taking nine seats against three won by the Islamic List (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 28 May 1992). During the past year, lists linked to the PLO have won elections in Gaza and Tulkarm but have lost in Ramallah and Hebron. (Jerusalem Post, 21, 22 and 24 May 1992; Ha'aretz, 22 and 24 May 1992)

52. On 29 May 1992, it was reported that PLO leader Yasser Arafat had appealed to leaders of the uprising, in a memorandum addressed several days earlier, to agree on rules of conduct and curb internal strife, in order to put an end to internecine killings of residents in the territories. He also urged the Hamas movement to join the Unified National Leadership, which had been established to direct the uprising, in order to stop the aggravated factional struggle between Hamas and PLO activists, which was especially frequent in the Gaza Strip. During the last weeks, three political meetings were held in the Jabalia and Shatil refugee camps as well as in the Shajaiyah neighbourhood of Gaza. The speakers called for masked activists to stop killing other Palestinians. Several Palestinian leaders and organizations had already called for an end to the killing and the appeal was also distributed through leaflets. Articles by Palestinian journalists denouncing "masked killers" also appeared in the East Jerusalem press. Since the beginning of the year, more than 65 people had reportedly been killed by other Palestinians in the Gaza Strip alone in connection with "political or moral offences". (Ha'aretz, 12, 13 and 27 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 17, 22, 24 and 29 May 1992)

53. On 2 June 1992, it was reported that Palestinian leaders had drafted four versions of a national "charter of honour" on human rights with the hope that one of them would be adopted by all factions. All four drafts contained appeals to end the internecine killing of Palestinians and factional fighting, which has been increasing steadily every year since the beginning of the uprising in December 1987. The different versions of the charter also dealt with the question of the punishment to be meted out to alleged collaborators, as well as with the authority that would carry out the sentence. Since the beginning of the year, 117 Palestinians had been killed in the territories for suspected collaboration. It was reported that the IDF had started to blow up caves in the West Bank, where fugitives used to hide out (and which were also used for hiding weapons). (Ha’aretz, 1 and 2 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 2 June 1992)

54. On 3 June 1992, Betzelem, the Israeli Information Centre on Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, published a 150-page report criticizing as "immoral and illegal" the methods used by IDF undercover units to pursue wanted fugitives in the territories. The report alleged that the IDF spokesman often withheld details about shootings, giving the impression that the death of a fugitive was justified by self-defense or a refusal to obey orders to halt in all cases. The report noted both a sharp increase in fatalities caused by undercover units in 1992 (19), and a higher percentage of armed persons being killed. However, it stated that 9 out of the 19 persons who were killed were unarmed. The organization maintained that 86 persons had been killed by undercover units since December 1987, 28 of whom were wanted fugitives. The IDF responded with a 20-page rebuttal, invoking the danger with troops faced on a daily basis. (Jerusalem Post, 4 June 1992)

55. On 10 June 1992, it was reported that the Hamas movement had issued a statement to the foreign press denying that it had signed an agreement with the rival Fatah movement to end their internecine feuds. The Hamas statement indicated that the document of honour "had been published unilaterally and did not necessarily express the will and opinion of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)". An agreement concerning the regulation of the killings of alleged collaborators by way of a higher joint council and of uniting efforts against Israel was announced in a leaflet distributed on 7 June 1992. It was stamped with the usual Hamas and Fatah seals, but carried no individual signatures since both organizations were outlawed. (Jerusalem Post, 10 June 1992)

56. On 12 June 1992, it was reported that the General Staff was considering reducing the IDF forces in the West Bank while increasing the number of the special units called "Duvdevan" in order to adapt to the new combat methods used by Palestinians in the uprising. New teams had already been attached to these units. (Ha’aretz, 12 June 1992)

57. On 14 June 1992, the security authorities reported that the construction of a new juice company in the Gaza Strip would begin in the near future. The total cost, 15 million, would be covered by a donation made by the Government of Italy, through the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The Civil Administration in the Gaza Strip had already issued the authorization for the construction. Construction work would take one year and the factory would employ 200 to 250 workers. (Ha'aretz, 14 June 1992)

58. On 17 June 1992, it was reported that 129 Palestinians had been killed by other Palestinians in 1992, 85 of them in Gaza and most of them fugitives. Nine Israeli civilians and soldiers were killed by Palestinians. Fewer than 30 Palestinians were killed by IDF soldiers. (Jerusalem Post, 17 June 1992)

59. On 22 June 1992, it was reported that, in response to Israeli Police Minister Milo's announcement on 19 June 1992 that the members of the Palestinian peace delegation who openly met with Yasser Arafat in Amman a day earlier would be arrested upon their return, the members of the delegation stated that they would not stay away and would return home regardless of the warning. Haidar Abdul Shafi, Faisal Husseini and Hanan Ashrawi were among those who met with the PLO leader. Milo had cited an Israeli law prohibiting unauthorized meetings with the PLO. (Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

60. On 2 July 1992, Israeli Radio reported that the police had established special units to deal with the increasing number of incidents involving the burning of cars in East Jerusalem. The radio added that the units would use various means to put an end to this practice. In a separate development, Israeli television reported that the Settlement Council of the Occupied Territories had decided to fight with "all possible means" the newly formed Government of Israel headed by Itzhak Rabin, and to thwart autonomy plans for the West Bank and Gaza Strip. According to the Israeli newspaper Ma'ariv, Kahana supporters had started to stock arms. Settlers in the West Bank reportedly were also threatening to use arms against Palestinian citizens. (Al-Tali'ah, 2 July 1992)

61. On 5 July 1992, it was reported that complaints against the GSS would no longer be examined by the GSS itself, but by an independent body operating under the aegis of the Justice Ministry. A ministerial committee headed by Justice Minister Dan Meridor and Defense Minister Moshe Arens had recommended this change of competence, which would transfer such investigations to a special unit accountable to the State Attorney. (Jerusalem Post, 5 July 1992)

62. On 6 July 1992, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI) called upon Prime Minister-designate Yitzhak Rabin to change practices, which it charged violated human rights and which were allegedly used in the territories during his six-year tenure as Defense Minister. ACRI spokespersons organized a press conference to mark the publication of the organization's annual report (1991-1992), calling for an end to deportations of Palestinians and all forms of collective punishment such as extended curfews and the demolition of homes. They also called for an end to the use of prohibited methods of investigation referred to in allegations made by the press and another human rights organization, Betzelem, for an end of alleged human rights violations by undercover military units operating in the territories (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 9 July 1992). It was also reported that the Knesset had passed two laws in 1991, one guaranteeing the right to human dignity and liberty and the other the right to freedom from occupation. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 July 1992)

63. On 7 July 1992, the Military Judge Advocate-General, Brig.-Gen, Ilan Schiff, reported that since the beginning of the, uprising 769 residents of the territories had been killed by IDF forces while 566 were murdered by fellow Arabs on suspicion of collaboration with the Israeli authorities. Some 15,469 Palestinians were reportedly injured, while 39 Israelis were killed and 5,457 injured during the same period. He also stated that among the 226 soldiers who were brought to justice before a military court, 36 had been accused of unlawful shooting and 96 of cruel treatment and beating (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 9 July 1992). Palestinian sources reported that the senior leaders of the Hamas and Fatah groups had produced a written agreement on 6 July 1992 condemning the fighting among their supporters, apologizing to each other for the threats that had been issued on both sides and calling for a continuous dialogue. The reason for the tension had been a series of Hamas leaflets in which specifically named Fatah activists were accused of planning to kill Hamas leaders, and the ensuing responses in which threats had been issued by Fatah. (Ha'aretz, 8 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 7 and 8 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 9 July 1992)

64. On 8 July 1992, the Palestinian community received a written pledge for approximately $37 million to help solve housing problems in the territories as part of a larger financial package pledged by the European Economic Community (EEC) after the Persian Gulf war. The funds were to be made available in October. The agreement was signed by the EEC representative in the territories, Thomas Dupla, and by Palestinian leader Faisal Husseini. Another agreement providing for some $20 million for industrial projects was to be signed on 9 July 1992. (Ha'aretz, 8 July 1992, Jerusalem Post, 7 and 8 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

65. On 9 July 1992, it was reported that OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Matan Vilnai ordered the IDF forces to intervene in the feuds opposing the Fatah and Hamas movements in the Gaza Strip, in order to keep their members from fighting. The IDF imposed early curfews on towns and camps with a view to reducing violence. On 8 July 1992, a peacemaking team had attempted to end the conflict, but did not succeed in doing so. It was also reported that the Civil Administration approved the establishment of two insurance companies in the territories, the Al-Misraq and the National Insurance Company. Two Israeli companies and one Palestinian insurance company, the Arab Company for Insurance, were previously represented in the territories. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

66. On 17 July 1992, it was reported that Palestinian businessmen celebrated the opening in Jerusalem of offices for the newly founded Higher Council of Tourism, whose aim was to improve the tourism infrastructure in Jerusalem and the territories, independently from the Israeli authorities. The Council had been founded a week earlier after the EEC had promised to provide a $4 million grant for the Palestinian tourism industry. The Council would control the distribution of EEC funds to Arab tourism activities in East Jerusalem and the territories. (Jerusalem Post, 17 July 1992)

67. On 23 July 1992, two prominent leaders of the Black Panther group gave themselves up to an IDF unit near Jenin. Later in the day, Palestinian sources reported that two other fugitives also turned themselves in to the authorities. One was from Hamas and the other was from the Islamic Jihad movement. Over the past year, some 82 fugitives are reported to have turned themselves in to the authorities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 July 1992)

68. On 28 July 1992, the Ministry of Industry and Trade announced it would no longer approve investments in the territories because it had already exhausted its entire 1992 budget earmarked for that purpose. (Jerusalem Post, 29 July 1992)

69. On 29 July 1992, it was reported that an additional company of Border Policemen had been stationed in the southern Gaza Strip. (Ha’aretz, 29 July 1992)

70. On 30 July 1992, it was reported that, according to an account of the functioning of undercover units written by Col. Moshe Givati at the demand of senior IDF authorities from the General Staff, serious shortcomings were discovered in the operation of special units in the West Bank, among which was the Duvdevan unit. Those shortcomings were described as inadequacy in the assignment of forces, insufficient training, low level of security and a low level of discipline. (Ha'aretz, 30 July 1992)

71. On 4 August 1992, the Chief of General Staff, Lt.-Gen. Ehud Barak, denied charges that the undercover units operating in the territories had been given license to open fire at Palestinian suspects without the constraints imposed on other army units. "I am telling you in no uncertain terms that the open fire regulations of the undercover units are similar to those of all other units", Barak was quoted as saying in reply to charges made by Yossi Sarid (Heretz). Speaking about a different issue, Barak stated that the soldiers who had opened fire on a suspicious-looking car that had avoided a roadblock in the Gaza Strip, killing a four-year-old boy on 25 July had violated the open fire regulations and would be punished. Also on 4 August 1992, the Chief of General Staff, Lt.-Gen. Ehud Barak, told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee that the army had captured 68 Palestinian fugitives in the past few weeks while 27 more had given themselves up. He stated that there were still an additional 200 fugitives at large in the West tank and 100 in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 6 August 1992)

72. On 6 August 1992, the Palestinian News Agency Wafa reported that 12 Palestinians had been killed in the territories, while some 400 had been wounded during the month of July. According to the Agency, 10 were shot to death by Israeli soldiers while two had been tortured to death in detention centres. "The occupation authorities destroyed 13 homes in Hebron, Bir Zeit and Rafah and arrested 381 persons." (Ha’aretz, 6 August 1992)

73. On 8 August 1992, the IDF spokesman announced that, on 30 July, the GSS had captured three prominent members of the Al-Kassam gang near Ramallah who were responsible for almost two dozen murders of Palestinians and Israelis. Weapons were also captured during the raid. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

74. On 11 August 1992, it was reported that the EEC representative concerning aid to the Palestinians in the territories was granted diplomatic status by a special cabinet decision. (Jerusalem Post, 11 August 1992)

75. On 17 August 1992, political activists affiliated with PLO factions held a press conference in order to introduce a seven-page social charter designed to decrease violence in Gaza. The supporters of Hamas, the Islamic Resistance Movement, which had recently been involved in clashes with Fatah supporters over the peace process and the killing of alleged informers, did not participate in the press conference. The document dealt with the "negative aspects" of the uprising. It condemned the killing of alleged, "collaborators", warning that such killings could have negative consequences. It stated that "no individual or group had the right to kidnap, interrogate or execute others" and banned the "desecration of corpses" and the writing of graffiti on mosques, hospitals and schools. The document called for a "comprehensive agreement" on the framework of national relations in Gaza and the West Bank and for the setting up of a "national committee to follow up incidents in Gaza". (Jerusalem Post, 18 August 1992)

76. On 19 August 1992, the newspaper Ha'aretz reported that between October 1991 and 30 April 1992, 1,031 attacks with firearms had been carried out in the territories. From October 1991 to 30 May 1992, nine Israelis had been murdered and three soldiers killed. Within the Green Line, five persons belonging to the security forces and six Israeli civilians were killed by Palestinians during the same period. (Ha'aretz, 19 August 1992)

77. On 20 August 1992, a senior political source indicated that the program for elections in the territories that Israel would propose to the Palestinians would enable Arabs from East Jerusalem to elect the members of the Administrative Council for Autonomy. They could not be candidates themselves, however. (Ha'aretz, 21 August 1992)

78. On 20 August 1992, IDF troops were reported to have intensified raids on Arab villages in the occupied territories, in search of wanted Palestinians. Reports indicated that the Israeli authorities had warned families of wanted persons to try to convince them to surrender. The fugitives would otherwise by physically eliminated. Relatives of wanted persons are obliged to report to the Civil Administration on a daily basis. They are held in the offices the entire day before being released in the evening. (Al-Tali'ah, 20 August 1902)

79. On 23 August 1992, it was reported that Prime Minister Rabin had told the leaders of the Israeli delegation to the peace talks that he would like to draft an arrangement concerning the practical steps involved in preparing elections for autonomy by December 1992. He wanted the negotiations with the Palestinians on the powers to be delegated to the Palestinian Administrative Council to be settled by February or March 1993 and the actual elections to be held in April or May. (Jerusalem Post, 23 August 1992)

80. On 25 August 1992, Prime Minister Rabin stated, during a tour of Ramallah and the surrounding military bases, that the Government had established a target date of April or May for elections for the Palestinian Administrative Council, on condition that a number of other stages of the talks were completed in accordance with his timetable. As an example of these stages, he cited the system of elections that would take place by 1 December, January or 1 February. He believed that there should be an agreement about the powers they would be transferring to the Administrative Council. Rabin also indicated that he was not asking Palestinians to reciprocate gestures made towards them with gestures of their own, but he warned that Palestinian demands for legislative as opposed to administrative elections would be rejected. (Jerusalem Post, 26 August 1992)

2. Incidents linked with the uprising of the Palestinian population against the occupation

Oral evidence

81. Ms. Frances Hasso, member of the Palestinian human rights organization Al-Haq, who testified before the Special Committee, provided the following figures concerning the loss of life among the population of the occupied territories:

82. Ms. Hasso stated the following concerning the increased use of undercover units to carry out death squad killings:

83. Ms. Hasso of Al-Haq described the operation of these units in the following manner:

84. Several witnesses have described the general atmosphere of fear and tension engendered by the deployment of undercover units. One witness stated in particular:

85. The climate prevailing in the occupied territories was also described by another witness:

86. In addition, Ms. Hasso described the harsh measures used to repress the popular uprising that have resulted from the recent relaxation of open fire regulations:

87. Another witness who testified before the Special Committee provided the following explanation:

88. Ms. Frances Hasso of Al-Haq stated the following concerning the open-fire regulations:

89. Mr. Taher Mahmoud Al-Mouhtaseb, whose son was killed by Israeli soldiers, informed the Special Committee of what is usually cited as a reason for shooting:

90. Ms. Hasso of Al-Haq also indicated that some of the killings have proven to be arbitrary in nature:

91. Ms. Hasso added that mistaken identity may also account for incidents of this type:

92. Several witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee have described what happens to persons who are considered fugitives from the law. The uncle of such a person stated the following before the Committee:

93. A second witness confirmed what happens to fugitives:

94. An alarming development brought to the attention of the Special Committee is the increase in the number of children who have been killed as a result of the occupation. Ms. Hasso of Al-Haq stated the following in this regard:

95. Ms. Hasso described the following incident in which a child was killed:

96. Testimonies relating to the incidents linked with the popular uprising may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.586 (Mr. Taber Mahmoud Al-Mouhtaseb), A/AC.145/RT.586 (Ms. Frances Hasso), A/AC.145/RT.588 (anonymous witness) and A/AC.145/RT.595 (anonymous witness).

Written information 10/

97. The following abbreviations of the names of newspapers are used in the tables:

AF Al-Fajr

AT Al-Tali’ah

H Ha'aretz

JP Jerusalem Post



(a) List of Palestinians killed by troops or Israeli civilians



Date
Name and age
Place of
residence
Remarks and source
29 Feb. 1992




1 March 1992



5 March 1992






9 March 1992









9 March 1992




10 March 1992






12 March 1992











15 March 1992





15 March 1992




15 March 1992




17 March 1992





18 March 1992




18 March 1992





18 March 1992




20 March 1992




20 March 1992




22 March 1992





28 March 1992





1 April 1992


1 April 1992



1 April 1992






1 April 1992




1 April 1992




3-4 April
1992





9 April 1992








9 April 1992









15 April 1992







15 April 1992







21 April 1992






25 April 1992










29 April 1992





29 April 1992





1-2 May 1992




4 May 1992




4 May 1992





7 May 1992











8-9 May 1992









13 May 1992











17 May 1992




24 May 1992








24 May 1992






24 May 1992




27 May 1992











28 May 1992



28 May 1992








4 June 1992







4 June 1992




16 June 1992




18 June 1992





25 June 1992







25 June 1992




25 June 1992




3-4 July 1992









12 July 1992




15 July 1992






21 July 1992








22 July 1992







24-25 July 1992




















27 July 1992










30 July 1992





2 Aug. 1992










4 Aug. 1992






14-15 Aug. 1992





26 Aug. 1992






26 Aug. 1992









26 Aug. 1992








Mohammed Abu Hajaj



Ahmed Sarafan-di,18, or Ahmed Jabr Ibrahim

Naji Abu
Lihyeh, 20,
or Naji Abu Yahya, 25



Yussef Mohamed Abdel Mahdi Alttalayeka, 20






Abdallah
Suleiman
Muhammed Jahar Alshami, 24


Ala Ibrahim al-Moghrabi,
25




Khaled Muhammed Shakar al- Fahmawi, 19









Naim Nuiman Laham, 23
or 24



Hajaj Ibrahim Hajaj, 19



Ahmad Mahmud Basram, 21, or Imad Mahmud Bisharat

Raid Mohammed Al-Rifi, 22




Yushdin
al-Kidra,
22 (woman)


Raid Abdel
Rahman Dahmas,
21



Hassan Mahmud Hassan, 16, or Hassan Toami


Husni Abdel
Rauf Ayad, 19



Jamed Abu
Jildeh, 20, or Mohamed Hussein Abu Jildeh

Jamal Ghanem Rashid, 23




Name not
reported




Ashraf Abu Harb, 20 or 21

Majed Abu
Sohri, or Zahri, 17 or 24

Ibrahim Subeh, 22, or Mohammed Satri, 28




Iyad al-Jazar, 18



Mohammed
Ismail (al) Jaafara, 13


Abdul Karim Sbeihat, 25





Abdel Kader Shibrawi, (Massarweh),
22 or 24





Tariq Abdel Fattah Dukhan,
23 or 27







Ayed Abed al-Latif, Eshteya,
17 or 19




Zakaria Mahmud Kabalan,
19 or 22





Ayman Majadbeh, 22 or 24





Fatma al-Ihad, 70, Fatma al-
Abd al Khawaja, 60-85 (woman)







Khalil Nader Hassan Kamisa,
18



Jawad Khalil Rahal Rahel,
25



Antoine Louis Shoumali, 22



Basam Abdel
Hafez Awwad,
17


Majed Mohammad Zuhdi Nahal,
13



Mahmud Issa, Al-Shalaldeh,
23 or 24









Sadik Ramadan Da'ana, 16








Bilal Ahmed
Abd Ghanem,
20









Khalil Tayem,
21



Marwan Faraj
Al Zayegh or Fareb Salam,
19





Mohammed,
Hassan Kandil,
or Abd al-
Kader, 24 or 25



Yasser Hamad Hassanat,
22 or 28


Najia Abdalla Zahrana, 40 or
55 (woman)









Omar Abu
Hassan, 26, or Omar Fares

Hani Khaled Hamed, 24, or Hani Hemad






Said Khalil Mikdal, 18






Jawad Abdel-
Mahmud Jaba'ari, 28, or Jawabreh


Samer Naim
Yussef Faris,
16 or 17


Munir Abdel
Aziz Jaradat,
18 or 19



Yussuf
Muhammad
Abu Al Siba,
22 or 23




Mustafa Abu Juabra, 29, or Mustafa Abd al- Fatah Sawalmeh

Ali Hassan
Mahmud
Sawalmeh, 24


Ashraf (Abd al-Rahim
Yussuf)
Yaghmour,
18 or 25





Rami Zacharia Mazlum,
24 or 19


Yasser Ahmad Namruti





Mohammed Kabha, 30 or 28, or Mahmud Khaled Kabha





Mahmud Abu
Hassan named "Zarini", 23





Naim Kamel
Abu-Amuna 6,
or Naim Selim Amuna


















Nur a-din
Sharif al-
Akad, 16 or 17








Salah Mahmud Karin, 30




Osama Muhammed al-Najar,
27 or 28








Mustafa
Mahmud
Barakat, 21




Bassem Sadek Sabihat,
25, 32 or 33




Wela (Alar) Khaled Alwana, 25, 27 or 29




Ibrahim Salman Jalamana, nicknamed "Forko",
18 or 25





Ibrahim Sa’id Ibrahim Zariki, 18, 21 or 22





Rafah,
Gaza Strip



Rafah,
Gaza Strip


Bani Suheila,
Gaza Strip




Arroub,
West Bank








Asira al- Kabilia,
West Bank


Gaza City






Jenin,
West Bank










Askar,
West Bank




Askar,
West Bank



Tamun,
West Bank



Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip



Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip


Kfar Kadum area,
West Bank



Kifl Haris,
West Bank



Silwad,
West Bank



Jenin,
West Bank



Schwaikeh, West Bank




Far’a refugee camp,
Gaza Strip


Tel-al- Sultan refugee camp,
Gaza
Strip

Tel-al- Sultan refugee camp,
Gaza
Strip

Yibna refugee camp, Gaza Strip

Tarkoumiye,
West Bank



Romaneh, West Bank





Nur Shams refugee camp,
West Bank





Nuseirat refugee camp,
West Bank






Khirbet
Beni
Hassan,
near
Nablus,
West Bank


Near Khan Younis,
Gaza Strip





Allar,
near Tulkarm, West Bank



Sheikh Radwan, Gaza Strip








Al-Yamun, Jenin,
West Bank



Arrabej, West Bank




Beit Sahur, West Bank



Deir el- Balah,
Gaza Strip


Jabalia refugee camp,
Gaza Strip


Si’ir,
West Bank










Hebron,
West Bank








Imatin,
West Bank










Rafah refugee
camp


Gaza








Maghazi refugee
camp,
Gaza
Strip


Nuseirat refugee camp,
Gaza Strip

Kabatiya, West Bank










Yamun,
West Bank


Arka,
West Bank







Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip





Arroub refugee camp,
West Bank

Isuwiya, Tulkarm district, West Bank

Silat al- Hartiyeh,
West Bank



Jenin refugee camp,
West Bank




Asirah a-Shama-
liyah, West Bank

Asirah a-Shama-
liyah, West Bank

Beit Jala
or Aida refugee
camp






Gaza




Khan
Younis, Gaza
Strip



Kafr
Yabed, West Bank






Jenin,
West Bank






Khan
Younis, Gaza
Strip


















Khan
Younis, Gaza
Strip







Silwan, East Jerusalem



Khan
Younis, Gaza
Strip







Anabta,
West Bank





Rumana,
West Bank





Jenin,
West Bank





Jenin,
West Bank








Jenin,
West Bank






Died in unclear circumstances. Killed by an undercover unit as he wrote graffiti on a wall. (H. JP, 1 and 2 March 1992; JP, 11 March 1992)

Shot by IDF soldiers, (H, JP, 2 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 9 March 1992)

Killed by return fire after having shot dead a solider during an undercover troops raid. Had been wanted for a long time. (H. JP, 6 March 1992; also referred to in AF,
9 March 1992)

Shot by the IDF when youths threw cinder blocks, rocks and metal bars at soldiers on the Bethlehem-Hebron road. The soldiers ordered the youths to halt and opened fire when the refused to obey. The youth died on his way to the hospital. (H, JP, 10 March 1992; also referred to in AT, 13 March 1992; AF, 16 March 1992)

Shot after he threw rocks at soldiers, fled and refused to heed their orders to halt. (H, JP, 10 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 16 March 1992)

Shot after he tried to run soldiers down at a police roadblock and jumped out of the car trying to grab the rifle from a soldier. (H, JP, 11 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 16 March 1992)

Killed in unclear circumstances: either was shot and fatally wounded after pointing a pistol at soldiers when they raided his home, or, according to Palestinian sources, was shot immediately and did not show any signs of resisting arrest. Was a member of the Black Panthers suspected of killing alleged informers. (H, JP, 13 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 16 March 1992)

Identified as a "terrorist gang leader". Killed in an army action in the Askar refugee camp. Was armed. (H, JP, 16 March 1992; H, 17 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 23 March 1992)

Killed in an army action in the Askar refugee camp. Had a weapon (H, JP,
16 March 1992; H, 17 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 23 March 1992)

Killed in an army action in the Askar refugee camp. Was armed. (H, JP, 16 March 1992; H, 17 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 23 March 1992)

Shot to death by a Border Policeman on vacation in Jaffa, after killing two persons and injuring 18. (H, JP,
18 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 23 March 1992)

Shot by soldiers after trying to stab an Israeli woman in Gaza. Died in hospital. (H, JP, 19 March 1992; also referred to AF, 23 March 1992)

Shot when he tried to attack soldiers with a knife while in the company of two other masked men. (H, 19 March 1992; H, JP, 20 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 23 March 1992)

Shot by the IDF after stoning soldiers while they were trying to impose a curfew on the village. (H, 19 March 1992; H, JP, 20 March 1992)

Shot dead by soldiers after throwing a fire-bomb at an army jeep.
(JP, 22 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 30 March 1992)

Died of wounds sustained four days earlier, when he was shot by the Security forces. (JP, 22 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 30 March 1992)

Was ordered to halt and when he refused and attempted to flee, was shot. Had been wanted by the Security Services (H, JP, 23 March 1992; also referred to in AT, 26 March 1992)

Tried to flee with three other armed suspects when ordered to halt. Troops opened fire, hitting him. Succumbed to wounds at the hospital. (JP, 29 March 1992)

All four died in an incident during which fire-bombs and stones were thrown at an IDF jeep by persons trying to divert it from chasing fugitives. Soldiers returned fire.
(H, JP, 2 April 1992)

(See above)






(See above; also referred to in AF,
6 April 1992)



Shot by soldiers while throwing stones at a car. (JP, 2 April 1992;
H, 3 April 1992; also referred to in AF, 6 April 1992; AT, 9 April 1992)

PLO activist. Found in a field near his home after being shot five times in the chest. Arab reports blamed the GSS. The IDF stated that the police were investigating the case.
(JP, 5 April 1992)

Shot by IDF soldiers when they raided his home and he attempted to flee. Succumbed to his wounds at the hospital. Was wanted in connection with several attacks and the murders of suspected Arab collaborators. (H, JP, 10 April 1992; also referred to in AF, 13 April 1992)

Shot by a routine patrol while trying to cross the border to Egypt, near Rafah. Refused to stop and tried to run away. Was a fugitive member of an armed unit of the Hamas movement and was on the IDF’s wanted list for participating in at least nine killings. (H, JP, 12 April 1992; also referred to in AF, 20 April 1992)

Shot dead after an army patrol came under fire shortly after midnight in Khirbet Beni Hassan. Soldiers found a Winchester rifle with a bullet in the barrel next to his body. (H, JP,
16 April 1992; also referred to in AT, 16 April 1992; AF, 20 April 1992)

Shot dead in the village of Abassan when he opened fire on Border Police from a Karl Gustave rifle. Was sought for “terrorist” activities. (H, JP,
16 April 1992; also referred to in AT, 16 April 1992; JP, 17 April 1992; AF, 20 April 1992)

Shot dead by IDF undercover forces when, according to official sources, he refused orders to stop. They stated that a pistol with one bullet was found on him. (H, JP, 22 April 1992; also referred to in AF, 27 April 1992)

Suffered from a heart disease. Was brought to the hospital in very bad condition after inhaling the gas from a tear-gas canister thrown by the IDF in order to disperse demonstrators. Palestinian sources reported that canisters were thrown inside her house. (H, 26 and 27 April 1992; also referred to in AT, 30 April 1992; AF, 4 May 1992)

Shot dead when he aimed a gun at soldiers. It was discovered later that the gun was a toy. (H, JP, 30 April 1992; also referred to in AF, 4 May 1992)

Was shot dead in Arrabej village when he pointed a gun at soldiers after being told to halt. (H, JP, 30 April 1992; also referred to in AF, 4 May 1992)

Was shot by Border Police after trying to attack a policeman on patrol. Died at the hospital. (H, JP, 3 May 1992; also referred to in AF, 11 May 1992)

Was shot in a clash between IDF soldiers and demonstrators. (H, 5 May 1992; also referred to in AF, 11 May 1992)

Died at the hospital of wounds sustained on 30 April 1992. Was shot by Border Police after throwing stones at their vehicle. (H, 5 May 1992; also referred to in AF, 11 May 1992)

Died of wounds sustained on 7 May 1992. According to the army, he had been identified as a participant in stone-throwing incidents and was shot when he refused an order to halt. However, several days later, Betzelem, the human rights information centre, released a report firmly disputing the IDF account of the incident. (H, JP, and 9 May 1992: also referred to in AF, 11 May 1992; AT, 14 May 1992)

According to Arab sources, was apparently killed by undercover soldiers, when throwing stones at passing Israeli cars with a group of youths. The IDF denied the allegations and stated that it had no information concerning such an incident in the Hebron area. (H, JP, 10 May 1992; also referred to in AF, 11 May 1992)

According to the army, was shot while trying to flee. Villagers stated that he had been shot by undercover soldiers who were hiding inside an abandoned house. It was unclear whether he was armed or not. Had been wanted since July 1991 on suspicion of kidnapping and violent interrogations of alleged informers. (H, JP, 14 May 1992; also referred to in AT, 14 May 1992; AF, 18 May 1992)

Died of wounds sustained on 1 April 1992, during a confrontation between Border Police and camp residents. (JP, 18 May 1992; H, 21 May 1992)

Head of the Al-Kassam cell. Was killed during an IDF and Border Police anti- terrorist unit attack in the Sabra neighbourhood, Gaza Strip. According to the military authorities, he was responsible for dozens of murders. (H, JP, 25 May 1992; also referred to in AF, 1 June 1992)

Member of the Al-Kassam group, Was shot dead by IDF and Border Police anti-terrorist units in an attack in the Sabra neighbourhood. (H, JP,
25 May 1992; also referred to in AF,
1 June 1992)

(See above)




Her body was brought to the
hospital. Following a request from the police, the military authorities were checking whether she had been killed by the IDF gunfire. It was concluded that she may have been killed when a group of reservists passing through the town opened fire in response to rocks being thrown at them. (H, JP,
29 May 1992; also referred to in AT, 28 May, 1992; AF, 1 June 1992)

According to Palestinian sources, both were shot dead by and undercover army unit in Sailat al-Harithiyeh, in the Jenin area, which mistook them for Black Panther gunmen. Both were licensed to carry arms by the Civil Administration. The army declined to comment on the Palestinian allegations but declared that they were killed when one of them pointed a gun at a soldier at close range. (H, JP, 31 May 1992)

According to military sources, was shot when he attacked soldiers with an axe. Palestinians stated he was writing graffiti. Died during medical treatment in a nearby base. (H, JP,
5 June 1992; also referred to in AF, 8 June 1992)

Was shot dead in Bethlehem after stabbing a Border Policeman. (H. JP,
5 June 1992; also referred to in AF,
8 June 1992)

Was shot dead by IDF soldiers when he tried to stab them. (H, JP, 17 June 1992; also referred to in AT, 18 June 1992)

Was shot dead by undercover troops when he pointed a gun at them. Had been wanted for more than a year by security forces. (H, JP, 19 June 1992; also referred to in AF, 22 June 1992)

Was shot during a shootout with the IDF in Jenin. Was armed with a pistol. Had been sought for two years on suspicion of being the leader of the Red Eagles group. (H, JP, 26 June 1992; also referred to in AF,
29 June 1992)

Both died during a shootout with the IDF in Jenin. Both had been wanted for 18 months. (H, JP, 26 June 1992; also referred to in AF, 29 June 1992)

(See above). Had a weapon in his possession. (H, JP, 26 June 1992; also referred to in AF, 29 June 1992)


Shot dead by troops, when he was with a group of masked Palestinians, who threw stones and cinder blocks at an IDF patrol in Bethlehem’s Manger Square. Palestinian sources stated that he was just passing by and did not take part in the stoning. (H and JP, 5 July 1992; also referred to in AF, 6 July 1992)

Killed in a clash with the IDF during a pro-Hamas demonstration. (JP,
13 July 1992; H, 14 July 1992; also referred to in AF, 20 July 1992)

Shot dead by Border Policemen when he opened fire at them with a pistol. Had been wanted for a long time as an activist of Al-Kassam, the military arm of Hamas. (H, JP, 16 July 1992; also referred to in AF, 20 July 1992)

Shot dead when he tried to attack a Border Policeman patrolling the village. According to the inquiry, he was shot because he failed to fully obey the orders of the policeman when he tried to arrest him. (H, 22 and 26 July 1992; JP, 22 July 1992; also referred to in AF, 27 July 1992)

Killed in a clash with Border Policemen when he opened fire at them. Was a leader of the Fatah-affiliated Black Panther gang. Had been wanted for three years. (H, 23 and 24 July 1992; JP, 23 July 1992; also referred to in AF, 27 July 1992)

Shot in the car driven by his father. According to the army, soldiers had been placed on alert following reports that a car carrying wanted suspects was moving around the town. Soldiers at one of the roadblocks spotted a car fitting the description of the vehicle. The driver speeded up before reaching the roadblocks and then turned off into a side street. Soldiers ordered the driver to stop and when he failed to do so, they opened fire, first in the air and then at the tires. The car managed to get away, but several hours later the boy was brought in critical condition to Nasser hospital, where he succumbed to his wounds. The incident is under investigation. (H, 26 and 27 July 1992; also referred to in AF, 27 July 1992)

According to the army, was killed by the IDF when he waved an axe at the soldiers who were chasing him (also referred to in AF, 3 July 1992). However, according to the Betzelem organization, he was shot by an undercover unit, although he was unarmed. It would have been possible to arrest him with shooting, even if he had failed to follow orders.

Shot after he stabbed and killed a policeman and injured a second one, outside the walls of Jerusalem’s Old City. (H, JP, 31 July 1992; also referred to in AF, 31 July 1992)

Killed during a shootout with the Shimshon IDF undercover unit troops. Was wanted for the murder of Palestinian "collaborators" and for wounding an Israeli citizens in 1991. Escaped from a vehicle that was transferring him to a prison in Gaza on 7 July 1992. (H and JP, 3 Aug. 1992; also referred to in AF, 10 Aug. 1992)

Found dead in his cell. Died of an asthma attack (H, 5 and 10 Aug. 1992; JP, 10 Aug. 1992; also referred to in AT, 6 Aug. 1992)

Killed by an IDF patrol after he opened fire when the soldiers ordered him to halt. Had been wanted for 18 months. Was one of the commanders of the Black Panther gang in the West Bank. (H, JP, 16 and 17 Aug. 1992; also referred to in AT, 20 Aug. 1992; AF, 24 Aug. 1992)

Died of wounds sustained during a shootout between two fugitives and the army. She may have been held as a hostage. (H, JP, 27 Aug. 1992; also referred to in AT, 27 Aug. 1992; AF, 31 Aug. 1992)

Was wanted since 1989 by the security authorities. Member of the Black Panther gang. Killed in a shootout with the special anti-terror squad, apparently after holding several local residents hostage and killing one soldier. (H, 27 and 28 Aug. 1992; JP, 288 Aug. 1992; also referred to in AT, 27 Aug. 1992; AF, 31 Aug. 1992)

Was wanted by the security authorities. Member of the Black Panther gang. Was killed in a shootout with the special anti-terror squad, apparently after holding several local residents hostage and killing one soldier. (H, 27 and 28 Aug. 1992; JP, 28 Aug. 1992; also referred to in AT, 27 Aug. 1992; AF, 31 Aug. 1992)
(b) List of other Palestinians killed as a result of the occupation
Date
Name and age
Place of
residence
Remarks and source
29 Feb. 1992




1 March 1992



6-7 March 1992



6-7 March
1992


10 March 1992



11 March 1992



13-14 March 1992


13-14 March 1992



13-14 March 1992


13-14 March 1992



16 March 1992



16 March 1992



16 March 1992



16 March 1992



19 March 1992



19 March 1992





20 March 1992



20-21 March 1992


21 March 1992



26 March 1992


29 March 1992


30 March 1992



30 March 1992


30 March 1992



31 March 1992



3-4 April 1992



3-4 April 1992


3-4 April 1992



10-11 April 1992




12 April 1992



12 April 1992



19 April 1992



22 April 1992




22 April 1992


23 April 1992



23 April 1992



24 April 1992



25 April 1992





26 April 1992




27 April 1992


1 May 1992




1-2 May 1992




1-2 May 1992


3 May 1992




3 May 1992


8-9 May 1992


8-9 May 1992




10 May 1992



11 May 1992





12 May 1992



14 May 1992



15-16 May 1992




21 May 1992





22-23 May
1992

25 May 1992


26 May 1992



1 June 1992




3 June 1992



8 June 1992





10 June 1992



10 June 1992




11 June 1992







12 June 1992




12 June 1992




14 June 1992




15 June 1992




16 June 1992





16 June 1992





17 June 1992



21 June 1992







22 June 1992




22 June 1992


26 June 1992




27 June 1992



3-4 July
1992


3-4 July
1992



8 July 1992



8 July 1992




8 July 1992



9 July 1992


9 July 1992



13 July 1992



16 July 1992




17-18 July
1992


17-18 July 1992

27 July 1992



31 July 1992
1 Aug. 1992


31 July 1992
1 Aug. 1992


4 Aug. 1992


5 Aug. 1992



5 Aug. 1992



10 Aug. 1992




10 Aug. 1992



11 Aug. 1992




14-15 Aug.
1992



14-15 Aug.
1992





16 Aug. 1992




16 Aug. 1992




17 Aug. 1992




17 Aug. 1992

17 Aug. 1992


20 Aug. 1992



23 Aug. 1992


24 Aug. 1992



25 Aug. 1992
Musallem al-Hawli, 44
or Mustafa
Musakm el-Houli

Dawin Abu
Talin, 44


Adeel Thabet,
30



Hassanin
Abdullah
Daoud, 25

Khaled Kishta,
22


Nasser Abdul Shurbazi, 24


Ahmed Yousef Shanaa, 70


Sheikha
Mohammed
Khalifa,
70 (woman)

Saki Abu Amra, 22, or Zaki
Abu Hamra

Jihad Abu
Zani, 21



Simry Ibrahim el-Araj, 25


Unidentified



Unidentified



Jihad Nafa
Ismail Asour,
44

Mohiji a-din Muhamed, 37


Ruwaida Abdel- Nabi, 36, or Ruwaida Abd el- Rahman Abd-el- N'ibi (woman)

Ali Zaki Ali Abu Illal, 39


Ahmed Hussein Abdel al-Fatih


Ehmyed Abu Fatayer


Adnan Nasser el-Hur, 32

Marwan Hamus
Abu T'ah

Adnan Shalial
or Adnan Ismail
Mustafa, 26

Naim Ahmad Shaban, 46

Majid Barih, 26



Amana Ashur,
45 (woman)


Abdel-Hakim Ghandor, 24



Ali (Abed)
Musa, 25


Mahmoud Yassin
Na'b Yassin,
25


Mustafa Abu
Jama, 29, or Mohamed Suleiman Abd el-Rahman
Abu Jamlah, 28

Mahmud Hader Mahmud Wadi, 15


Salha Fadel,
50 (woman)


Mahmud al-
Sabaj, 40


Ahmed a-Statia, 45 or 48 or 50



Sabar Raha,
31

Nafez Ismail
Abu-Mustafa,
25

Abd al-Nazid,
19


Mahmud
Abdallah
Ganam, 30

Ahmed Taysir Abushi, 14




Abdel Rahman Mahmud, 70, or Abdul Rahwan Edwan, 80

Saleh Hafez
Louh, 60

Sih Khalil Muhammed, 23



Ahmed Hamad
Awed Ziad, 48,
or Ahmed
Awad Ziud

Tayser Ahmed Asana

Ataf Abdullah
or Atas Nasser Abdallah Abu
Aif

Name not
reported

Jamil Hassan Suleiman, 75

Fathi Sa’id,
52



Jamal Mahmud Daud, 24


Abdul Maati el-Buheisi,
42, or Muati al-Bahti, 40


Jamal Kamel el Banna, 35, or Jamal al-Banem

Kamal Hassan Kulab, 30


Mohammed Jouha, 20, or Iman Mohammed
Jouha Guvari


Mamduh Ywssuf al-Fadi, 32




Abed Radwan,
33

Name not
reported

Lutfi Odeh
Masri, 45


Abdallah Nimr Hussein, 22



Aziz al-
Sirisi, 60


Tawfik Ali Sulihat, 45




Yussuf (Mahmud Ahmed) Kaskin,
42

Name not
reported



Mazen Ahmed
Ali, 19, and


Husam Shabayek, 23


Hamad al-
Tawbesh, 38,
or Tabet Hamed al-Dabas

Ahmed al-Istal, 40, or Halil Kassem Monsur al-Istal

Fathi Abu
Ghali



Jamal
al-Astal



Amna el-Eid,
35, or Mahmud
Sheikh el-Eid
Amnar (woman)


Mohammed
Shutawi, 34,
or name not reported


(Bassam) Abu Yussuf, 28


Abd a-Satar al-'Idi, 35






Fatma al-Masri, 50 (woman)



Name not
reported

Abdel Rahim
Abu Faisa or
Abd al-Rahman
Abu Hafiza, 65

Name not
reported


Nimer Balah or Ali Muhammed, al-Atmana

Name not
reported



Sabri Ibrahim Muhammed Kadih, 35

Ziad Rashid
Diah, 17



Hassan Mahmud Eid, 23


Name not
reported

Name not
reported


Imad Yussef Shetawi, 27


Az-Addin al-
Bruh or Azadin Ibrahim Antus, 28

Allah Mohammed al-Tubagi, 25


Name not
reported

Hakhma Halil Ahmed, 70
(woman)

Abdallah Hadi
Abu Daud, 42


Abdel Rahman Muhammed Mus- tafa Drawan, 34

Name not
reported

Nasser Sami Mahmud Abu
Mu’amar, 19

Name not reported, 21


Hassan Ismail Arbiti



Hamda Jamal Hamdan Abd
Sakar, 29

Abdel Wahab Ghattas, 49, or Abdel Wahab Abd Taib, 47

Salah Ahmed
Abd al-Adi
Naja, 31 or 32


Abdel Khader Yussuf Hassin Kmail, 22




Hassan Ahmed Hassanin,
32 or 35


Name not
reported



Issam Abd el-
Aziz Suleiman Atrash, 27


Mahmoud Tafik Asali, 51
Ibrahim Ali Hassan, 34

Nabil Abd al- Basat Abu
Habil, 39

Jamal Salah
Abu Nasser, 33

Muhammad Musa Ahmed al-Busi,
19

Name not reported, 42
Rafah,
Gaza Strip



Deir el-Balah, Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip


Beita,
West Bank


Rafah,
Gaza Strip


Nuseirat,
Gaza Strip


Hajja,
West Bank


Hajja,
West Bank



Rafah,
Gaza
Strip

Far’a,
West Bank



Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Kabatiya,
West Bank


Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip



Shabura
or Rafah,
Gaza Strip

Deir el- Balah, Gaza Strip

Deir el- Balah, Gaza Strip

Sabra,
Gaza Strip

Gaza


Deir el- Gaza Strip


Gaza


Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Sheikh Radwan, Gaza Strip


Jabalia camp, Gaza Strip

Zeitoun neigh- bourhood, Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip



Rafah,
Gaza Strip


Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Jenin,
West Bank



Zuwida,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Gaza Strip



Beit
Lahiya, Gaza Strip

Jenin,
West Bank




Azzun,
West Bank



Gaza


Jabalia refugee camp,
Gaza Strip

Silat al- Harthiyeh,
West Bank


Rafah,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip


Jabalia, Gaza Strip

Al-Midyaj, West Bank

Jurish,
West Bank



Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Deir el- Balah refugee camp,
Gaza Strip

Gaza City



Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Gaza City





Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip



Gaza


Gaza Strip


Khan
Younis,
Gaza Strip

Deir Ghazaleh,
near Jenin


Askar refugee camp

Romana,
West Bank




Sheikh Radwan, Gaza Strip

Maghazi refugee camp,
Gaza Strip

Shati’ refugee camp, Gaza Strip Sabra,
Gaza Strip


Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip


Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip


Rafah refugee
camp,
Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip


Shabura, Gaza Strip




Kfar
Kadum,
West Bank or Khan Younis, Gaza Strip
Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Far'a refugee camp,
West Bank




Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip


Gaza


Illar,
West Bank



Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Deir el-Balah,
Gaza Strip

Rafah refugee
camp,
Gaza Strip

Bani Suheila, Gaza Strip

Shati’ refugee camp,
West Bank

El-Bireh, Gaza Strip


Gaza


Silat al- Hirithiya,
West Bank

Jenin district,
West Bank

Gaza




Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip




Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Gaza Strip


Rafah,
Gaza Strip


Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Shati’ refugee camp, Gaza Strip

Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip

Deir el-Balah,
Gaza Strip


Abasan,
Gaza Strip



Kabatiya, West Bank





Bani Suheila, Gaza Strip


Rafah refugee camp,
Gaza Strip

Deir el-Balah refugee camp

Kabatiya, West Bank
Kabatiya, West Bank

Rafah,
Gaza Strip


Gaza


Rafah,
Gaza Strip


Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip
Allegedly shot by troops although official military sources denied this. (JP, H, 1 March 1992)


Found shot dead in the local cemetery. (JP, 2 March 1992)


Shot dead by masked men in 1992 Nasser Hospital. Had already been beaten three days earlier. (H, JP, 8 March 1992)

Stabbed to death. (JP, 8 March 1992)



Axed to death by three Fatah activists; died in hospital. (JP,
11 March 1992)

Brought to the hospital with gunshot wounds and signs of having been beaten. (JP, 12 March 1992)

Struck by three bullets for allegedly selling land to Israelis.
(JP, 16 March 1992)

Killed by two bullets for allegedly selling land to Israelis.
(JP, 15 March 1992)


Hacked to death. (H, JP, 15 March 1992; JP, 16 March 1992)


Killed during a clash between the Fatah and Democratic Front activists. (H, 15 March 1992; JP, 16 March 1992; also referred to in AT, 19 March 1992)

Was shot. (JP, 17 March



(H, JP, 17 March 1992)



(H, JP, 17 March 1992)



Beaten to death, apparently by masked men. (H, JP, 17 March 1992)


Found dead by the side of a road several hours after he had been kidnapped. (JP, 20 March 1992)

Her body was brought to the hospital, after she had been abducted by masked men three days earlier. Shot in the head. (H, JP, 20 March 1992)


Had marks of violence on his body.
(H, JP, 22 March 1992)


Shot in the head. (H, 22 March 1992)



Shot dead. (JP, 23 March 1992)



Was stabbed. (H, 27 March 1992)


Body brought to the hospital.
(H, 30 March 1992)

Was shot. (H, JP, 31 March 1992)



Shot dead; body bore signs of violence. (H, 31 March 1992)

(H, 31 March 1992)



Shot in the head by masked men.
(JP, 1 April 1992)


Killed by masked men after abduction. First stabbed, then shot in the body and head. Found near a mosque in Gaza City. (H, JP, 5 April 1992)

(See above)



(See above)




Body brought to Nasser Hospital.
(H, JP, 12 April 1992)




Found hanged in a Rafah high school. Apparently not a suicide. Investiga- tion is under way. (H, 13 April 1992)

Marks of violence were found on her body. (H, 13 April 1992)


Stabbed and axed by masked men.
(H, 20 April 1992)


Head of the Civil Administration health services in Jenin. Stabbed to death by masked men. (H, JP, 23 April 1992; also referred to in AT, 23 April
Killed by masked men. (H, JP, 23 April 1992)

Brought to Shifa Hospital after being strangled with a rope. (H, 26 April 1992)

Brought to Shifa Hospital. Had marks of violence on his body. (H, 26 April 1992)

Shot by masked men. (H, 26 April 1992)



Stabbed, apparently in a clash between activists belonging to various orga- nizations. Was wanted by the security services on suspicion of taking part in murders. (H, 26 April 1992)

Axed to death. Allegedly killed for selling land to Jewish settlers.
(H, 27 April 1992; JP, 28 April 1992)


Stabbed to death. (JP, 28 April 1992)


Was killed by cellmate(s) at the Ketziot prison in unclear circumstances. (H, 4 May 1992)


School headmaster in the Jenin area. Was shot dead by Arab gunmen. His
body was found in a car. (H, JP,
3 May 1992)

Was fatally shot in the head by masked men. (H, JP, 3 May 1992)

Was shot in the head by masked men. (H, JP, 4 May 1992)



His body showed marks of torture.
(H, 5 May 1992)

Was killed by masked men. (H, JP, 10 May 1992)

Was seriously injured by masked men. The doctor who had been called to treat him failed to revive him.
(H, JP, 10 May 1992)

Was attacked by masked men and died
in hospital. (H, 11 May 1992)


Was shot or stabbed by masked men in front of his pupils in an UNRWA school. (H, JP, 12 May 1992)



Was killed with four shots by masked men in a car. (H, 13 May 1992;
JP, 14 May 1992)

Was shot several times by masked men, near his house. (H, 15 May 1992)


The army stated that three Arabs dressed as Israeli soldiers fired from a car and killed him. The shooting was witnessed by soldiers from a nearby observation post. (JP, 17 May 1992)

Was found with bullet wounds near the central mosque, several days after his kidnapping had been reported. Worked as a guard in UNRWA installation in the camp. (H, JP, 22 May 1992)

Was shot dead by an unknown assailant. (JP, 24 May 1992)

(JP, 26 May 1992)


Was shot dead by masked Palestinians. (JP, 27 May 1992)


Body bearing stab wounds found hanging from a tree. Residents affirmed that the murderers were not Palestinians. (AF, 8 June 1992)

Shot dead in Nablus (JP, 4 June 1992; also referred to in AT, 4 June 1992)


Shot in the head with two bullets in his home. IDF sources denied any connection with his death.
(JP, 10 June 1992; also referred to
in AT, 11 June 1992)

Shot dead by masked attackers. Worked for the Civil Administration.
(H, JP, 11 June 1992)

Was found dead early in the morning and brought to Shifa Hospital.
(H, 11 June 1992)


Both were brought by car to the Rimal neighbourhood of Gaza and shot dead by four Hamas members, in front of the home of a Fatah activist, Abu Khousa, who had been outspoken in calling for action against masked killers.
(H, JP, 12 June 1992)

Shot in the head, stabbed and brought dead to Nasser Hospital.
(H, JP, 12 June 1992)


Was brought dead to the hospital after being stabbed. (H. JP, 12 June 1992)



Was allegedly killed by masked members of the Red Eagles group affiliated with the Popular Front.
(JP, 15 June 1992)

Shot by a youth on his way to work. The Fatah-affiliated Black Panther gang claimed responsibility for the murder. (JP, 16 June 1992)

Shot dead. Her body was brought to
the hospital with marks of torture. The Fatah Hawks group claimed responsibility for her death.
(H, JP, 17 June 1992)

Shot dead by unknown assailants.
(H, JP, 17 June 1992)




Shot dead by two men who called him to come out of his home.
(H, JP, 18 June 1992)

Shot in the head near his brother's house in Nablus, apparently by Democratic Front activists, in retaliation for the murder of Jihad Abu Zina from the Far’a refugee camp who was killed in March 1992 by Fatah activists. (H, 24 June 1992)

Shot dead on her doorstep by two masked men. The Al-Kassam military wind of Hamas claimed responsibility for the murder. (H, JP, 23 June 1992)

No details given. (H, 23 June 1992)


Was shot dead by five masked men,
who broke into his house.
(H, JP, 28 June 1992)


Shot dead by three masked men.
(H, 28 June 1992)


Shot in the head or stabbed.
(H, JP, 5 July 1992)


(H, 5 July 1992)




Strangled and beaten to death after being abducted from his home two days earlier. (H, 9 July 1992)

Died of wounds sustained on 7 July 1992, during clashes between Fatah and Hamas supporters. (H, 9 July 1992)


Found hanged in his cell in Hebron prison. His death was described as a suicide. (H, and JP, 9 July 1992)

Shot in the head after being abducted by masked men. (JP, 10 July 1992)

Shot in the head after being abducted by masked men. (JP, 10 July 1992)


Shot dead. Body brought to hospital by youths who found it near Jaba'a village. (H, 15 July 1992)

Body brought to Shifa Hospital in Gaza. (H, JP, 17 July 1992)



Strangled to death by unknown assailants. (H, JP, 19 July 1992)


(H, 19 July 1992)


Body brought to hospital, bearing stab wounds. (H, 29 July 1992)


Killed by an unknown assailant.
Body found by the police. (H, JP,
2 Aug. 1992)

Body brought to Nasser Hospital.
(H, 2 Aug. 1992)


Killed by masked men. (H, 5 Aug. 1992)


Shot in the head by masked men.
(H, 6 Aug. 1992)


Body thrown from a vehicle.
(H, 10 Aug. 1992)


Stabbed by known assailants in the market of the camp. (H, 11 Aug. 1992)



Body brought to hospital with marks of torture. (H, 11 Aug. 1992)


Shot and killed by masked Palestinians while driving to work. (H, JP,
12 Aug. 1992)


Masked gunmen entered his room at Nasser Hospital and shot him dead. Brought in with injuries a day earlier. (H, JP, 16 Aug. 1992)

Died in unclear circumstances. Body was found near Kfar Yamoun by a group of Arab youths after an explosion. Police were investigating a possible connection between the two incidents. (H, JP, 16 Aug. 1992)

Stabbed and shot. According Palestinian sources, was killed on suspicion of being a drug dealer.
(H, JP, 17 Aug. 1992)

(H, 17 Aug. 1992)




Found shot dead after being kidnapped from his home by masked men several days earlier. (H, JP, 18 Aug. 1992)


Were both killed in a brawl. One died of gunshot wounds and the other from axe blows. (JP, 18 and 19 Aug. 1992)


Died of wounds inflicted on 19 August 1992 by masked men. (H, 21 Aug. 1992)


Shot in the head. (JP, 24 Aug. 1992)


Stabbed to death by masked Palestinians. Died at the hospital. (H, JP, 25 Aug. 1992)

Shot in the head. (H, 26 Aug. 1992)


(c) Other incidents linked with the uprising

Oral evidence

98. A mother testifying before the Special Committee described what happened to her son:

A second mother described an incident that happened at school:

99. A third mother described what happened to her daughter and another young man:

100. A witness testifying before the Special Committee described the following incident, which took place in a girls' school:

101. Another witness described what took place during a football match:

102. The following happened to a witness who had shouted "God is great" during demonstrations:

103. Testimonies relating to the incidents linked with the popular uprising may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.587/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.588 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.589 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.592 (anonymous witness) and A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness).

Written information 11/

104. On 29 February 1992, two people were shot dead in Gaza, one masked youth was killed by IDF troops while the body of a Rafah resident was brought to the Khan Younis hospital (see list). (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 March 1992)

105. On 1 March 1992, troops shot and killed one youth (see list) and wounded several persons (9-15) in the Rafah refugee camp after a clash had occurred the previous evening, escalating tension between the local Hamas fundamentalist movement and mainstream PLO activists. According to Palestinian sources, a second man was shot by troops (see list), but official military sources denied this. The body of a Palestinian was found in the local cemetery in Deir el-Balah (see list). Clashes were reported in the Shati' refugee camp and in the Sheikh Radwan neighbourhood of Gaza City. A home-made bomb was thrown at the building of the Chamber of Employment in Nablus. The bomb exploded on the road without causing injuries or damage. Suspects were arrested and searches launched. Two petrol bombs were thrown at Border Police patrols without causing harm. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

106. On 2 March 1992, a man from Petrah Tikwa was slightly wounded in Kalkiliya. A woman from Jerusalem was also slightly injured when she was struck in the face by a stone thrown at her car near Dheisheh refugee camp. According to Palestinian sources, three residents were injured by IDF shooting (two in Gaza City and one in the Jabalia refugee camp). Two IDF soldiers were slightly injured by stones in Gaza and in Nablus. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

107. On 3 March 1992, a girl, 17, from Hebron pulled a knife on Border Policemen in Jerusalem's Old City but was apprehended before anyone was injured. In the Balata refugee camp, two shots were reportedly fired with automatic weapons at IDF patrols. No one was injured. Two petrol bombs were thrown, in separate incidents, at a civilian vehicle near Hebron and at an IDF position at Josef's Tomb. No one was injured in either incident. A block was thrown at a civilian fuel truck at a junction, slightly injuring the driver. Two Israeli buses used for the transportation of Palestinian workers to Israel were set on fire in the Gaza Strip. According to Palestinian sources, three Gaza residents were injured during clashes with the army (in the Jabalia, Khan Younis and Shati’ refugee camps). Hospitals in Gaza reported that two residents were slightly injured by rubber bullets. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992) On 3 March 1992, reports from Arrabej, Jenin area, indicated that two residents were injured by IDF shots during an army raid on the village. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at a settler's car near Bani Naim in the Hebron area and another in Allar village, Tulkarm area. No injuries or damage were reported. (Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

108. On 4 March 1992, IDF troops shot and wounded Ayoub Mohamed and Ziad Ibrahim, two Arab youths from Deir Istya village, both aged around 15, as they were preparing to hurl fire-bombs at a passing civilian vehicle on the road between Yakir and Immanuel, in the northern West Bank. A Gaza resident was attacked with knives by masked men, sustaining moderate chest wounds. An unknown assailant fired shots from a light automatic weapon at a passing car belonging to the Civil Administration on the Jerusalem-Ramallah road. The shots, which missed the car, were fired from a vehicle with Israeli license plates. It was later found abandoned in the nearby Kalandia refugee camp. In Bethlehem, two home-made bombs were neutralized. Two fire-bombs were thrown at a passing Border Police patrol in Ramallah. They exploded without causing harm. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 5 March 1992; Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

109. On 5 March 1992, Corp. Baruch Ben-Shimon, 20, was shot dead and his murderer was killed by return fire (see list) when IDF forces led by undercover troops raided the yard of a house in Bani Suheila, in the Gaza Strip. Another gunman was wounded in the raid while seven more were arrested unhurt. Weapons were also captured. The members of the gang were suspected of murdering several Palestinians in the Khan Younis area and had been pursued for several months. A Beit Sahur resident was thrown out of his car and shot in both feet by unidentified assailants. Another Beit Sahur resident was slightly injured by shots fired by a Tekoa settler. According to the settler, stones were thrown at him from an Arab car on the road linking Jerusalem to Bethlehem, near Beit Sahur. The settler fired back at the car and hit the driver. The police opened an investigation. A home-made bomb was thrown at a military jeep near the Balata refugee camp, slightly wounding an officer and two reservists. In the Gaza Strip, fire-bombs were thrown at, troops in Rafah and Khan Younis and a bus was burned by two masked men in the Deir el-Balah refugee camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 March 1992; Ha’aretz, 8 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

110. On 6 and 7 March 1992, two Palestinians were killed over the weekend (see list). Tawfik Haj Ahmed, 22, and Abdel Majid Taher Hai Ahmad, 30, were reportedly shot and wounded in the legs by Palestinian activists in a village near Jenin, after being interrogated in public. In Khan Younis a third man was taken to the hospital after being stabbed and moderately wounded. In Hebron, soldiers shot and seriously wounded a youth, Abdul Karim Al Karam, 21, when he drew a knife to attack one of them. A large demonstration, which also included armed men, was staged in Bani Suheila to protest the death of a local man who was killed by soldiers on 5 March, after he had shot a soldier to death. Three persons were reported to have sustained slight injuries when troops dispersed the demonstration. Shots were fired at a Border Police patrol in nearby Ein Arik. They hit the jeep but caused no casualties. Shots were also reported to have been fired at Border Police forces in Aaraba village, in the Jenin district. The soldiers fired back and wounded two of the assailants. A third Palestinian, who was not hurt, was also arrested. Two home-made bombs exploded in Khedr village in the Bethlehem district without causing any harm. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an IDF post in the Arroub refugee camp near Hebron. A third petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF post in the Balata refugee camp in Nablus. In both incidents, no one was hurt and no damage was reported. In Rali village in the Jenin area, two Palestinians were arrested by Border Policemen. One was slightly injured when they both failed to obey orders to halt and were shot at by soldiers. A Jewish boy was slightly injured by a stone thrown at him in Hebron. Eight residents were injured during clashes with the army in the Gaza Strip (four in Khan Younis and Rafah; three in the Shati' refugee camp; one in the Sheikh Radwan neighbourhood). A general strike was observed in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992) On 6 and 7 March 1992, a Jewish settler opened fire at a Palestinian in Beit Sahur, injuring him slightly. The settler claimed he opened fire after stones had been thrown at him. The IDF is investigating the incident. Two Palestinians were injured and a third arrested when IDF soldiers fired back at them in the village of Arrabej, near Jenin. The Palestinians reportedly were armed. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at an army post in the Balata refugee camp and a second one was thrown at an army patrol. Neither of the bombs caused any damage or injuries. Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

111. On 8 March 1992, an unidentified assailant threw a grenade at an IDF guard post outside Beit Hadassah in the centre of Hebron in what appeared to be a response to an attack in which someone had thrown a stun grenade into the empty Arab wholesale vegetable market in the same area two hours earlier. A soldier was slightly injured in the first incident, and several windows on houses in Beit Hadassah, which are inhabited by about 60 Israelis, were cracked. An Israeli boy from Kiryat Arba was hit by a stone in the head and slightly injured. Stones were also thrown at an Israeli car in Hebron and at an Egged company bus on its way to the Shiloh settlement. The drivers were injured in both incidents. The windshields of four Arab cars were smashed by Israeli settlers in the Halhul area. A young resident who tried to stab a soldier standing at the gate of his military base was arrested in Gaza. Palestinian sources reported incidents in the Gaza Strip (in Rafah, Khan Younis and in the Nuseirat and Jabalia refugee camps where four residents were injured, while two were injured in the Shati' refugee camp). Three persons were injured in Gaza City during clashes with the IDF. Stone-throwing incidents were also reported in the West Bank, in Ramallah and in Jenin. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli bus in the Hebron area, causing no harm. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

112. On 9 March 1992, two Arab youths were shot and killed by the army in separate incidents while throwing rocks at soldiers and refusing to heed orders to halt (see list). One of the incidents occurred in Asira al-Kabilia. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli car near Abud, in the northern West Bank, early in the morning. The bombs did not hit the car. Two Border Policemen were reportedly slightly injured by stones in incidents in the Gaza Strip. Five Arab residents were slightly injured by rubber bullets in the Jabalia refugee camp and in the Nasser neighbourhood in Gaza. Palestinian sources indicated that eight residents were wounded. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

113. On 10 March 1992, three youths from the Fatah movement attacked and killed an activist belonging to Hamas (see list). Four IDF soldiers and a policeman were slightly wounded when a Palestinian driver tried to run them over. He was shot and killed by the soldiers after attempting to steal a rifle from a military vehicle (see list). Shortly, after the incident, another Gaza resident advanced towards an IDF checkpoint at a local base and tried to stab the guard. The guard overcame the assailant and arrested him. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

114. On 11 March 1992, the body of a resident from the Nuseirat refugee camp resident was brought to Shifa Hospital (see list). A Ramallah resident, who was preparing a fire-bomb was captured by the security forces together with two accomplices. Also in Ramallah, a fire-bomb was thrown at an IDF lookout post. The bomb exploded near the post but caused no injuries or damage. Three residents were reportedly injured in the territories during incidents reported in the Gaza Strip (Rafah, Jabalia and Khan Younis). At the Jenin Military Court, the driver of a truck that was ambushed by gunmen in September 1991 pulled out a pistol and pointed it at the defendants, who were accused of killing a soldier during the incident. The man was disarmed and arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

115. On 12 March 1992, security forces raided, the Jenin refugee camp, killing a person suspected of being a member of the Black Panthers (see list) and wounding three others. In the Gaza Strip, six residents were slightly wounded in the Jabalia and Shati' refugee camps during clashes with troops. A Border Policeman was slightly injured by a stone during the dispersion of a demonstration in the Jabalia refugee camp. In Jenin, a home-made bomb was discovered by Border Policemen on the side of the road and was neutralized without causing harm. A petrol bomb was thrown at a police station in Ramallah. Although the bomb hit the wall, it did not cause any injury or damage. In Khan Younis, two youths threw a hand-grenade at an Israeli police vehicle and disappeared into the nearby houses. The grenade did not explode. Later, one of the youths involved in the incident was arrested. A general strike was observed across the Gaza Strip as a sign of solidarity with the imprisoned Hamas leader, Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 March 1992) On 12 March 1992, an 18-year-old youth from Hussam village near Bethlehem was shot and injured when an IDF patrol opened fire at a group of stone-throwers. The youth was taken to a hospital and subsequently held in detention. Several incidents of Molotov cocktails being thrown were reported, mainly in Bethlehem: two at an Israeli bus, in northern Jerusalem, near the Neve Yacov settlement and at an army patrol in the Jabalia refugee camp. No injuries were reported and only the rear window of the bus was hit. (Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

116. On 13 and 14 March 1992, over the weekend, masked gunmen stormed the houses of two elderly Palestinians in Hassa village in the West Bank and shot them in the head, killing them both (see list). Another man was slain in the Khan Younis refugee camp and a fourth one was shot dead in the Far'a refugee camp near Nablus (see list). Growing tension was reported between followers of the fundamentalist Muslim Hamas group and its principal rival, the PLO's secular Fatah faction. In. the Tulkarm refugee camp, a Fatah follower shot and seriously wounded a Hamas activist over a political argument. Seven patrol bombs were thrown at civilian and military targets in Nablus, Bethlehem and the Balata refugee camp. No injuries or damage were reported. A resident of Ramallah was slightly injured by IDF shooting while he was preparing to throw a petrol bomb. A home-made bomb was also discovered and neutralized without causing any harm in Tulkarm. Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip during clashes with the army. The IDF spokesman from the Central Command indicated that residents of the Beit Likia. and Beit Sira villages in the Ramallah area had been arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 March 1992; Jerusalem Post, 16 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

117. On 15 March 1992, three wanted activists were shot and killed by IDF troops during an army action in the Askar refugee camp in Nablus (see list). A fourth one was slightly injured and apprehended. An improvised hand-grenade was thrown at IDF forces in the camp. The IDF troops returned the fire. No injuries were reported. Shots were fired at a Border Police patrol in the centre of Ramallah. No one was injured and the search conducted in the area yielded no results. An Israeli bus taking workers to their jobs in Israel was torched in Deir el-Balah. Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured during clashes. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 March 1992; Ha’aretz, 17 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali’ah, 19 March 1992, Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

118. On 16 March 1992, masked men shot and killed three Palestinians in the Gaza Strip while a fourth one was beaten to death (see list). In the Jenin refugee camp, Border Police fired on five masked men carrying axes when they ignored orders to stop. Two men were injured. A fire-bomb was thrown at a military post in the Arroub refugee camp, near Hebron. A fire-bomb was thrown at an Israeli car in Gush Katif, in the Gaza Strip. No damage was reported. In Rafah, a grenade was thrown at a military patrol without causing any harm. Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured during clashes in the Gaza Strip. Merchants conducted a sit-in strike at the municipality of Bethlehem to protest recent tax raids by Israeli officials. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

119. On 17 March 1992, a Gaza resident stabbed and killed 19-year-old Ilanit Ohana from Bat Yam as well as Abdel Ghani Karim, 48, a garage owner from Jaffa, who tried to come to her rescue. The resident also managed to injure 18 other persons, most of whom were high school students, before he was shot to death (see list). Shortly afterwards, police arrested two residents of Gaza suspected of being the assailant's accomplices at a roadblock. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992) On 17 March 1992, several incidents involving the throwing of Molotov cocktails and hand-grenades were reported in the occupied territories: in Ramallah, near Ein Arik village; in Deir Istiya village near Tulkarm; in Bethlehem; in Khan Younis and in Rafah. One border guard was injured but no damage was reported. (Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

120. On 18 March 1992, a woman resident of Gaza, who tried to stab an Israeli woman on the Gaza-Rafah road, was shot and later succumbed to her wounds (see list). In the Kfar Kadum area in the northern West Bank, the IDF came across three masked men. One of them waved a knife at the soldiers who shot and killed him (see list). The two others were arrested, one of them was badly wounded. An incident of stone-throwing at an IDF patrol during which a resident was shot and injured was reported in the Tulkarm district. The body of the man was brought to the hospital (see list). A man was injured and arrested in Suweika village, in the Tulkarm district, after being recognized by soldiers as a wanted person. The man failed to obey orders to halt and was shot. An IDF patrol escorting an Israeli bus heard two gunshots near the Askar refugee camp. Palestinian sources reported that three residents were injured in the Gaza Strip where a strike was partially observed. More than a hundred Palestinian day-laborers without work permits were arrested by the police in Tel Aviv. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 and 20 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992) On 18 March 1992, in the village of Kufl Haris, Tulkarm area, soldiers opened fire at Palestinians who were allegedly throwing stones, killing Hassan Mahmud Ta'imah, 17. Ta'imah was hit by a bullet in the head. An 11-year-old child, Fadi Mohamed Al I'mour, died in an Israeli hospital of injuries sustained when he was hit by an army vehicle. (Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

121. On 19 March 1992, IDF soldiers shot dead one Palestinian (see list); bodies of two others, believed to have been killed by fellow Palestinians, were found (see list). A resident of Anabta, near Tulkarm, who had been throwing rocks at Israeli cars was shot and seriously wounded by rubber bullets fired by soldiers. Five petrol bombs were thrown during the night at an Israeli vehicle in the area of Ramallah. No injuries or damage were reported. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

122. On 20 and 21 March 1992, three Molotov cocktails were hurled at an IDF patrol. No injuries or damage were reported. Widespread clashes between IDF soldiers and Palestinian stone-throwers were reported in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip (Maghazi, Jabalia, Nuseirat and Bureij refugee camps). In the West Bank, youths stoned troops and paramilitary police and set up roadblocks of burning tires in the towns of Ramallah and Hebron. An Israeli customs office was set on fire in Hebron. A home-made bomb exploded outside an employment office in Nablus, causing no injuries. Two Gaza residents were killed (see list). A resident of the West Bank was shot dead by soldiers (see list) after throwing a fire-bomb at an army jeep. A fourth man died at the hospital (see list) after being shot by security forces in Jenin four days earlier. Military sources reported that 20 residents were injured over the weekend, including an 11-year-old girl from the Jabalia refugee camp, who was shot in the head with a plastic bullet. Three soldiers and Border Policemen were also wounded during the clashes. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 and 30 March 1992)

123. On 22 March 1992, IDF troops shot dead a wanted Palestinian activist in the West Bank (see list). A Gaza resident was also shot dead (see list). Seven residents were injured during clashes with the army in Bani Suheila and in the Nuseirat refugee camp. A home-made bomb was discovered in Bethlehem and neutralized without causing harm. Two tourists were injured when their bus was stoned in the same city. A petrol bomb was thrown at a Border Police patrol in Hebron. A resident of Tulkarm was slightly injured when a stone smashed the windshield of the car with Israeli license plates he was travelling in. Masked men ordered Palestinians to get off an Israeli bus taking them to work from Khan Younis and set it on fire. According to the residents of Nablus, two gunshots were fired at an IDF patrol in the city. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

124. On 23 March 1992, a Molotov cocktail was thrown at an IDF patrol in the village of Anza, on the Jenin-Nablus road. No one was hurt and no damage was reported. (Jerusalem Post, 24 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992) Similar incidents were reported in Rafah and Ramallah.

125. On 24 March 1992, several stone-throwing incidents were reported in the Bethlehem area. One civilian was slightly injured in two incidents in the Dheisheh refugee camp. A soldier was slightly wounded in the Nablus area. A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in the Arroub refugee camp. A woman resident of Gaza, who had thrown a petrol bomb at the gate of an army base in Gaza City was arrested. According to Palestinian sources, four residents were injured by IDF shooting in the Gaza Strip (in the Jabalia, Khan Younis and Bureij refugee camps). Two residents of Rafah were shot and injured by masked men. (Ha'aretz, 25 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

126. On 25 March 190, shots were fired by gunmen at an IDF patrol in Rafah. The soldiers returned the fire but the attackers managed to flee. In Nablus, two home-made bombs were thrown at public buildings (the city's employment office and the building of the municipality), without causing injuries or damage. Three petrol bombs were thrown at a civilian vehicle in El-Bireh without causing harm. A resident of Ramallah was shot while throwing stones at a passing Israeli vehicle. The man was slightly injured in the leg. In Gaza, an IDF soldier was slightly wounded in the eye by a rock thrown at him during the dispersal of a disturbance. A female resident of Hebron was badly injured by stones thrown in Halhul at the vehicle bearing East Jerusalem license plates she was travelling in. A young man from Halhul who was with her in the car was also slightly wounded during the incident. According to Palestinian sources, four residents were injured during clashes with the IDF (Jabalia and Khan Younis). (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 March 1992; Ha'aretz, 27 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 26 March 1992; Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

127. On 26 March 1992, the body of a resident of Gaza was brought to the hospital in Shifa (see list). A policeman shot and moderately wounded an Arab, who was arrested for setting fire to an Israeli vehicle in East Jerusalem. Several petrol bombs were thrown in the Dheisheh refugee camp in the Bethlehem District and in Hebron. Many incidents during which five residents were injured, were reported in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. According to Palestinian sources, a 10-year-old girl from the Nablus area was badly injured during exchanges of fire between the Fatah and Democratic Front activists. An Israeli woman was slightly injured by pieces of glass when her car was stoned near the Oranit settlement in the Tulkarm district. In the same district, a truck driver was reportedly shot at and stoned while driving his truck. The windshield was smashed as a result but the driver was not injured. An Egged company bus was set on fire in Deir el-Balah. A general strike was observed to mark the anniversary of the Camp David Agreements. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

128. On 30 March 1992, three men were killed (see list) and two others were badly injured. One was the head of the Hirbet Asla village, in the Tulkarm district while the second man was a 20-year-old resident of Jabalia. Residents of the West Bank were relatively calm about Land Day and no special incidents linked to the event were reported. Pupils -- schools were closed -- threw rocks in Jenin, Tulkarm and Ramallah, but no confrontations between Arab residents and the IDF troops were reported. A fire-bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol near Tulkarm. In Hebron, an IDF vehicle came across a barrier of tires and stones and the driver was attacked by a masked man. The soldier fired at him, injuring him moderately. The soldier was also slightly injured himself. Two stones were thrown at a bus transporting soldiers in the Jenin area. One of the soldiers fired back and hit a nearby Arab car. The driver of the car was slightly injured by pieces of broken glass. A home-made bomb was found by Arab residents in Samoah, south of Hebron, but was neutralized without causing harm. In Khan Younis, eight residents were wounded with plastic bullets fired by IDF Border Policemen during a large disturbance, which started when a fire-bomb and rocks were thrown at an IDF patrol. Thirty-five people were arrested in the course of the incident. Elsewhere in the city, an improvised explosive device was thrown at an IDF lookout post; it exploded, causing no injuries or damage. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 March 1992)

129. On 31 March 1992, a 45-year-old woman was shot and killed by masked men in Khan Younis (see list). In Hebron, soldiers shot at three youths who threw stones and failed to heed their calls to halt. (Jerusalem Post, 1 April 1992)

130. On 1 April 1992, four Palestinians (see list) were killed in the Rafah refugee camp and 70 others were wounded when Border Police fired at stone-throwers who blocked their pursuit of fugitives. The IDF spokesman said the incident occurred after a grenade was thrown from a car at an IDF post in Rafah township. The car was identified shortly after the area had been closed off and its driver ran down three Arabs in an attempt to avoid being captured. During the chase, three fire-bombs and stones were thrown at a jeep carrying Border Police. Hundreds of people tried to prevent them from chasing the car. One of the bombs hit the vehicle and exploded. Soldiers jumped out of the jeep and returned fire. A curfew was imposed on the camp. Following the clash, incidents occurred in several localities in the Gaza Strip (in the Shati' and Jabalia refugee camps) and three IDF soldiers were injured. In another incident in Tarkoumiye, north-west of Hebron, soldiers shot at three men who were throwing stones at a car, killing one (see list) and slightly wounding two others (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 6 April 1992). Two other stone-throwers were arrested. A masked man was arrested in Gaza City after attempting to attack soldiers with a pair of scissors. Two gangs (from Hebron and from the Balata refugee camp) were reportedly arrested by security forces. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 April 1992; Ha'aretz, 3 April 1992)

131. On 2 April 1992, hundreds of Palestinians in the Rafah refugee camp broke the curfew that was imposed when four residents were killed in a clash with troops a day earlier. Soldiers stayed out of the camp and there were no clashes. Clashes were reported in the Jabalia camp where, according to Palestinian sources, 11 persons were wounded when rioters pelted the military post in the camp with stones and soldiers responded by firing tear-gas and rubber bullets. Smaller clashes took place throughout the Gaza Strip (in the Shati' and Nuseirat camps, in Sheikh Radwan, and in Khan Younis) and the IDF reported that 17 persons sustained mostly light injuries. A young resident of Ein Yabrud, near Ramallah, was injured when he tried to attack: IDF soldiers. The village was placed under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 April 1992)

132. On 3 and 4 April 1992, four Palestinians were reported to have been killed over the weekend (see list), at least three of them by fellow Arabs. More than 80,000 Muslim worshippers attended peaceful dawn prayers at the Al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount (East Jerusalem) on 3 April 1992 to mark Id al-Fitr, the festival that ends the month of Ramadan. The army kept a tight curfew over more than 120,000 Palestinians in Rafah following the incident of 1 April 1992. In the Tulkarm refugee camp, a car tried to run over soldiers patrolling the camp. The driver managed to escape. According to Palestinian sources, two Jabalia residents were injured during clashes with the IDF and incidents also took place in Ramallah. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 April 1992)

133. On 5 April 1992, a petrol bomb was thrown at a store in the Tulkarm market. The owner fired back and wounded the assailant, who, according to Palestinian sources, was a 12-year-old youth. A home-made bomb exploded in Kabatia (south of Jenin) while IDF soldiers were patrolling the locality. No injuries or damage were reported (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992). In the Gaza Strip, four residents were reportedly injured by IDF shooting. The army continued to enforce the curfew imposed on Rafah on 1 April 1992. Several Palestinians are said to have been arrested at the end of the week in the Jenin district. They were suspected of attacking troops and Israeli civilians as well as fellow Arabs and were thought to be helping the authorities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 April 1992) Israeli Radio reported that a Palestinian from Taibeh (in, Israel) attempted to run over a border guard near Tulkarm. Soldiers opened fire at the driver, injuring him. A second person was able to get away and soldiers were looking for him. (Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

134. On 6 April 1992, three Molotov cocktails were thrown at an Israeli vehicle near the Azzeb refugee camp in Bethlehem. The bombs exploded on the road without causing any damage. Another bomb was thrown at an army patrol in Tulkarm. No injuries or damage were reported. Three youths were arrested following the incident. In the Gaza Strip, two bombs were thrown at military targets in Khan Younis and Deir el-Balah, but none caused any damage. (Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

135. On 7 April 1992, a resident of Rafah was attacked by masked men carrying knives. The man was treated in Nasser Hospital and subsequently released. A Palestinian carrying a bomb that was ready to explode was detained outside the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. A police demolition expert defused the makeshift device. A rented car was stoned in Hebron: a woman tourist passenger was slightly injured in the incident. Another stone-throwing incident took place in the Ramallah area, when a military vehicle was passing. Its windscreen was smashed and the driver slightly injured. Some minutes later, the same vehicle was stoned again. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an IDF post in the Jabalia refugee camp without causing any harm. A policewoman arrested a 16-year-old Palestinian in East Jerusalem. According to the policewoman, the youth, who was armed with a knife, intended to hurt her (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992). In the Gaza Strip, several incidents were reported in the refugee camps of Jabalia, Khan Younis and Rafah during which three residents were injured, according to Palestinian sources. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 April 1992)

136. On 8 April 1992, a woman tourist was slightly injured in Bethlehem when the windshield of her car was smashed by stones. The IDF placed the area under curfew and launched searches. Two other motorists were slightly injured when a fire-bomb was tossed
at their car in East Jerusalem. In Jenin, a petrol bomb was thrown at a civilian truck without causing any damage. IDF soldiers chased the suspect and fired at him. He was subsequently arrested and an additional petrol bomb was found in his possession. Two fire-bombs were thrown at IDF vehicles in Tulkarm and Hebron. Three additional fire-bombs were found during a search in Hebron, and a curfew was imposed on the area (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992). Two young stone-throwers were wounded by troop gunfire in Tulkarm. According to Palestinian sources, the IDF shot rubber bullets and injured nine residents of the Gaza Strip: five from Bureij, three from Nuseirat, and one from Maghazi, following celebrations in honour of Yasser Arafat, when he survived a plane crash. The largest demonstration in support of Arafat was held in Ramallah where a curfew was imposed. The Balata camp was also placed under curfew after youths burned tires and threw stones at soldiers. In East Jerusalem, Arabs went out to the streets, throwing candies in the air and waving PLO flags. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 9 April 1992). IDF soldiers shot and injured two youths in the Jenin area, after they reportedly threw a Molotov cocktail at an army patrol. One was seriously wounded and the other suffered medium injuries. Three other Palestinians were reported injured in the Gaza Strip during confrontations with IDF troops in the Maghazi refugee camp. Two Molotov cocktails were thrown at an army post in the Jabalia refugee camp but exploded without causing any damage. (Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

137. On 9 April 1992, a resident of Nur Shams refugee camp near Tulkarm was shot dead by IDF soldiers (see list) (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992). The army also shot and killed a fugitive member of an armed unit belonging to the Hamas movement (see list), when he tried to escape to Egypt. Two other Hamas activists and the guide who was to take them across the Sinai were arrested. A curfew was imposed on the Nuseirat refugee camp, the home of the activist who had been killed. Four members of the Palestinian delegation at the peace talks clashed with the police at the border crossing in Rafah when they refused to submit to a body search before crossing over to Egypt. Senior officers finally intervened and the police allowed the four delegates to pass without a body search. Three petrol bombs were thrown in separate incidents: at an IDF patrol in Rafah, at an IDF post in the Jenin area and at an Israeli vehicle in the Nablus area. In all three cases, there were no injuries or damage. According to Palestinian sources, six residents were injured in clashes with the IDF, in the Gaza Strip, four according to military sources. A regular monthly general strike was observed in the Gaza Strip to mark the beginning of the uprising. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 and 12 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

138. On 10 and 11 April 1992, a Haifa vegetable merchant, Adnan Diab Khalil, 42, was stabbed to death while shopping in the Deir el-Balah refugee camp in the Gaza Strip. The perpetrator managed to escape. The body of a Khan Younis resident was brought to Nasser Hospital (see list). A resident of Rafah was shot by masked men and moderately wounded. An Arab woman from Hebron was slightly injured by pieces of broken glass, when shots were fired at her home from a car with Israeli license plates. The IDF launched searches in the area. Clashes with the IDF were reported in, the Khan Younis and Bureij refugee camps, where 13 to 16 people were wounded on 10 April 1992 (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992). Following the killing on the Egyptian border of a Hamas activist from Nuseirat on 9 April 1992, demonstrations were held in the Nuseirat refugee camp. Despite the curfew, a petrol bomb was , thrown at an IDF patrol. Two other petrol bombs were thrown at an IDF post in Arroub. The post was slightly damaged and the camp placed under curfew. A home-made bomb exploded at the Deir el-Balah junction when an IDF patrol was driving by. It did not cause any injury or damage. Two additional explosive charges were discovered in Gaza City and defused by a police demolition expert. Several suspects were arrested. In Khan Younis, a bus belonging to the Egged Israeli bus company was set on fire by masked men and partially burnt. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 April 1992) An Israeli opened fire at a Palestinian home in Hebron, slightly injuring a woman and damaging the house. The Israeli claimed he opened fire after stones were thrown at his car in the area. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at a military post in Shahriyeh, Hebron area, and another one was thrown at an Israeli car near Deir Kaddis village, in the Ramallah area. Both charges exploded without causing any damage. (Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

139. On 12 April 1992, two bodies were found in the Gaza Strip (see list). Three masked men carrying axes tried to ambush a bus with fire-bombs near the entrance to the Shu'fat refugee camp (north Jerusalem). Two other buses belonging to the Israeli Egged company were torched in the Deir el-Balah region. The buses were used to transport Gaza Strip residents to work in Israel. In Khan Younis, a fire-bomb was thrown at an IDF outpost (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992). The bomb ignited but did not cause any damage or injury. Two mines were discovered on a road in the Jenin district. The police arrested six people from the northern West Bank village of Jilaboun in connection with a series of nationalistic incidents in the Mount Gilboa region. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 April 1992) An 11-year-old child was hit by a plastic bullet in the Nuseirat refugee camp when residents broke the curfew imposed for the third consecutive day and threw stones at IDF patrols. Reports indicated that 16 Palestinians were injured during confrontations with IDF troops in the Gaza Strip. (Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

140. On 13 April 1992, Abdallah Fouad Mardawi, 38, was shot and critically injured by Israeli soldiers in the village of Habla in the Tulkarm area. IDF reports stated that Mardawi had been wanted for several months and refused orders to stop. He is said to have pulled a knife on the soldiers before he was shot. Six Palestinians were reported shot and injured by Israeli soldiers in the Gaza Strip and another one in Kabatiya following stone-throwing incidents. In Tulkarm, an Israeli soldier was injured in the head when a rock hit the bus he was riding in. (Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

141. On 14 April 1992, several clashes during which four residents were injured were reported. A gas grenade was thrown at IDF forces in the Jabalia refugee camp. The grenade exploded without causing any harm. Persons disturbing the peace were dispersed by Border Policemen. (Ha'aretz, 15 April 1992). An Israeli soldier was injured by a stone thrown during a demonstration in the Jabalia refugee camp, Gaza Strip. Two Molotov cocktails were thrown at a military post in Ramallah and another one at a military patrol in Hebron. No injuries or damage were reported in either incident. (Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

142. On 15 April 1992, two Palestinians were shot dead by troops (see list) in separate incidents, after security forces came under attack. Two soldiers and two Border Policemen were slightly injured by stones and up to 11 Palestinians were wounded by rubber bullets in clashes in the Jabalia, Khan Younis and Shati' refugee camps. Six fire-bombs were thrown in Gaza City and three in the West Bank (Tulkarm district, one; Ramallah, two). Two grenades were thrown at an army checkpoint in a Gaza suburb without causing any harm and several gunshots were fired at the soldiers manning the checkpoint. The area was placed under curfew and searches were launched. An Israeli woman who was taking an employee home to the Aida camp near Bethlehem managed to escape after masked youths smashed the window of her car and poured gasoline over it (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992). A train was derailed in Jerusalem during the evening as a result of sabotage apparently inspired by nationalistic reasons. None of the 48 passengers on board were injured. (Ha'aretz, 16 April 1992; Jerusalem Post, 16 and 17 April 1992) A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Hebron. It exploded without causing any damage. A settler from Kiryat Arba was lightly wounded when his car was stoned near the Arroub refugee camp. (Al-Tali'ah, 16 April 1992)

143. On 16 April 1992, up to 35 persons, including 6 soldiers, were wounded in clashes in the Jabalia and Shati' camps during a general strike in the territories, which included East Jerusalem. The strike marked the fourth anniversary of the assassination in Tunis of PLO military chief, Abu Jihad, by Israeli commandos. The strike was also observed as a token of solidarity with the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, to protest United Nations sanctions against the Government of Colonel Gaddafi. In Halhoul, Israelis reportedly fired in the air and at houses after a bus going to nearby Hebron and Kiryat Arba was stoned outside the village. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 April 1992; also. referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992). Two Molotov cocktails were thrown at an army post in the Jabalia refugee camp but caused no damage. Two other bombs were thrown at an Israeli bus in East Jerusalem. The bus was set ablaze. A youth was arrested following the incident. According to Davar, an Israeli newspaper, the IDF believed that the youth, named Kabalan (see list), was wanted and had killed him on 15 April 1992, but later realized that it was a case of mistaken identity, as Kabalan was not on the list of wanted people. The newspaper added that border guards shot and killed Kabalan at close range. (Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

144. On 17 and 18 April 1992, several incidents were reported over the weekend between IDF soldiers and the residents of the territories. According to Palestinian sources in the Gaza Strip, 11 residents were injured during clashes in the Nuseirat and Bureij camps on 17 April 1992. Clashes also took place in the Rafah, Jabalia and Shatil refugee camps and in Khan Younis. Two gas grenades were thrown at an IDF post in Jabalia and a petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Rafah. In both cases, no injury or damage was caused. In the West Bank (Ramallah, El-Bireh and several other refugee camps), incidents mostly involving stone-throwing were reported. No residents were injured. Stones were thrown by masked men at three cars with Israeli license plates near Masha village (West Bank). A resident of Issawiya was badly injured in the first car and so were an Arab-Israeli woman and her two daughters who were in the second vehicle. The third car, belonging to a settler from Ariel, had its windshield smashed. The IDF launched searches in the area. (Ha'aretz, 19 April 1992)

145. On 18 and 19 April 1992, shops were ordered closed on the main streets in Hebron as stones were allegedly thrown at an IDF patrol in the area. The following day, two Molotov cocktails were thrown at an army patrol in the same city but no one was hurt. An explosive device was also thrown at an Israeli bus near the Arroub refugee camp in the Hebron area, smashing a window and injuring one passenger. In a separate incident, the passengers of an Israeli bus were reported to have been injured when the vehicle was stoned near the village of Al Khedr in the Bethlehem area. (Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992)

146. On 19 April 1992, the body of a Khan Younis resident was brought to Shifa Hospital in the Gaza Strip (see list). Stones were thrown at two Israeli buses, in separate incidents, in the West Bank and in the Bethlehem area. An Israeli woman and a child were injured. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an IDF patrol near Hebron. The bombs fell apart and ignited on the road. Soldiers fired back without hurting anyone. In Gaza City, a patrol bomb was tossed at IDF soldiers without causing any harm. A masked man was arrested in Gaza City alter throwing a patrol bomb, which exploded into a store. Two other masked men managed to escape. Three masked men were arrested in Rafah. One was injured during the chase. A resident of Kabatiya, sought by the security forces, was arrested in Yassir village (northern West Bank). Three men were wounded in clashes in the Gaza Strip, in the Jabalia, Khan Younis, Shati' and Rafah refugee camps. A resident of Ramallah was slightly injured by IDF soldiers after he had thrown stones at them. An Israeli car was torched in East Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 April 1992; Ha'aretz, 21 April 1992)

147. On 20 April 1992, the police prevented worshippers going to the temple from entering the Temple Mount area in East Jerusalem in order to prevent possible disturbances. Eight Palestinians from the Gaza Strip were injured (Shati' refugee camp six; Jabalia refugee camp two); two were injured in the West Bank. Two masked Palestinians were shot and injured in Dura village as they were spray-painting slogans on a wall. Three petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli vehicle in the Tulkarm area without causing any harm. A curfew was imposed on the area. Stones were thrown at an IDF patrol in the Jenin area. Soldiers chased the stone-throwers and ordered them to halt. They failed to obey the orders and soldiers opened fire. Later on, a young Arab, Ahmad Mahmud Abu Jaber, 12, severely injured in the head, was brought to the hospital. The IDF was checking the circumstances of and the connection between the incidents (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992). Gunshots were fired at the car of the head of Biddya village. The village was placed under curfew. A general strike was observed in the Gaza Strip, although several thousand workers went to work in Israel. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 April 1992; Ha'aretz, 22 April 1992)

148. On 21 April 1992, IDF undercover forces shot dead a Palestinian man who had been wanted for attacks (see list). In the Jenin area, stones and empty bottles were thrown at an IDF patrol. Two village youths were earlier killed in a car accident that involved an army vehicle. Soldiers fired back and the Jenin hospital later reported two injuries. Another IDF patrol was stoned in the Ramallah area and a stone-thrower was injured by a rubber bullet when the patrol fired back. The Balata refugee camp was placed under curfew after a hand-grenade was thrown at a Border Police patrol. The grenade was neutralized without causing any harm (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992). Incidents were also reported in the Gaza Strip, where eight residents were injured in the Shati', Jabalia and Nuseirat refugee camps. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 April 1992)

149. On 22 April 1992, the head of the Civil Administration Health Services in Jenin was stabbed to death (see list). Soldiers immediately imposed a curfew and several dozen Palestinians were detained for questioning. A Gaza Strip resident was also murdered (see list) (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 23 April 1992). Five policemen and at least three Arabs were slightly injured during a clash in East Jerusalem, which was sparked off by the demolition of an illegally built home in the village of Silwan (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 April 1992). An Arab youth was arrested. A tourist was injured by a stone thrown at his rented car in Abu Tur, while a bus was also stoned in another part of East Jerusalem. Two soldiers were slightly wounded by stones at the entrance of the Kalandia refugee camp. (These incidents were also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992.) Several clashes were reported between the IDF and residents, and five persons were injured in the refugee camps of Jabalia, Shati' and Khan Younis while one was injured in Ramallah. In Jabalia, a petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF unit without causing any harm. Two gas grenades were thrown at an IDF post in the Bureij refugee camp and two petrol bombs were thrown at IDF posts in Rafah and Jabalia. No one was hurt and no damage was caused. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 April 1992) IDF soldiers shot and wounded two Palestinians in the Dura village, in the Hebron area, when they refused to obey orders to halt. The wounds were reported to be moderate and light. Another youth, Badr Jamil Ahmed, 25, was also shot and injured by Israeli soldiers. He was admitted to a hospital in Nablus with medium injuries. Ahmed would subsequently be detained for interrogation. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at an Israeli car near Beir Nabala, north of Jerusalem. The bomb hit the car and exploded, causing some damage, but no one was hurt. Another Molotov cocktail was thrown at an Israeli car near the Bakir village in the Nablus area. No injuries or damage were reported. (Al-Tali'ah, 23 April 1992; Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992)

150. On 23, 24 and 25 April 1992 (over the weekend at the end of the Passover holiday), several incidents were reported in the course of which three residents were killed and a teenager was stabbed to death, apparently during an altercation between activists belonging to different organizations (see list). A 70-year-old women from Gaza died in unclear circumstances (see list) in Sheikh Radwan, apparently after inhaling tear-gas from a grenade thrown by the IDF at Hamas and Black Panther activists, who were rioting. The IDF opened an inquiry. Some 40 residents of the Gaza Strip were injured in various clashes with the IDF in Gaza City and in the refugee camps of Shati' and Maghazi. Three persons were injured in the West Bank. Two residents of Rafah were shot and injured by masked men. Two armed Palestinians were arrested in the West Bank. An Israeli bus carrying workers to their jobs in Israel was completely burnt by four masked men. (Ha'aretz, 26 and 27 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992; Al-Tali'ah, 4 May 1992) On 25 April 1992, a 14-year-old boy, Ahmad Taysir Abboushi (see list), was shot and killed in Jenin during confrontations. Abboushi was reportedly wanted for murder. (Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

151. On 26 April 1992, the body of a 70-year-old man was found axed to death (see list. A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Kabatiya. The bomb ignited but did not cause any injury or damage. Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured in Rafah and Khan Younis. The curfew placed. on Sheikh Radwan during the weekend remained in force. (Ha'aretz, 27 April 1992, Jerusalem Post, 28 April 1992, also referred to in Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

152. On 27 April 1992, the body of a murdered Palestinian was found in Gaza City (see list). One of the two Palestinians injured by IDF shooting in Dura on 20 April 1992, was released from hospital and returned home. The other one remained hospitalized. Two Gaza residents were injured during clashes with the IDF. Four residents were injured during the dispersion of persons disturbing the peace in Bani Suheila. One had to be taken to the hospital. Disturbances were also reported in the refugee camps of Jabalia and Khan Younis. Palestinians observed a general strike in Khan Younis and Rafah, to protest against the fifth round of the Middle East peace talks in Washington. A resident of Dolev (north-west of Ramallah) was slightly injured when his car was hit by shots from a passing car near that city. Troops searched for the attackers without success. Two Israeli motorists were slightly injured by fragments of glass when the windshield of their car was shattered by rocks thrown outside El-Bireh, near Ramallah. Two Arab youths were shot by troops as they stoned an IDF vehicle near Hebron. The youths were slightly wounded and detained for questioning (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992). A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Ramallah. No one was hurt. Clashes were reported in the refugee camps of the West Bank where two residents were injured. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 and 29 April 1992)

153. On 29 April 1992, IDF soldiers shot dead two Palestinians who threatened them with guns in separate incidents (see list). Arraba, the locality where one of the incidents took place, was placed under curfew. Three high school students were slightly injured by rubber bullets when they stoned an army jeep in Gaza City. Shots were fired at an IDF post in Deir el-Balah. No one was injured. A resident of the Nablus district was shot and moderately injured by two Arab youths. In Alar, near Tulkarm, a soldier was slightly wounded by a rock, while a resident was slightly injured when soldiers fired back. Palestinian sources stated that soldiers shot and arrested a masked activist in the Rafah refugee camp, as he was writing slogans on a wall. The Border Police arrested several masked men who had tried to set an Israeli autobus on fire (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992). Two petrol bombs were thrown into the home of a local resident in Ramallah. No one was injured. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem East, 30 April 1992) Radio Israel reported clashes between IDF soldiers and masked youths following the stoning of Israeli vehicles on the Nablus- Jerusalem road. Two masked youths were arrested. In Gaza, three Palestinians were shot and wounded in the Shati' refugee camp. Three petrol bottles were also thrown at a military post in the Jabalia refugee camp. (Al-Tali'ah, 30 April 1992)

154. On 30 April 1992, 15 Palestinians were wounded by the IDF, one of them critically, during widespread riots in the Nuseirat, Shati' and Jabalia refugee camps, according to Israeli sources. Palestinian sources reported that 24 residents had been injured in these camps. Military sources could not provide a clear explanation of the cause of the riots but Palestinians contended that the riots were staged in protest against a permanent night curfew imposed on Gaza and its vicinity since the uprising broke out. A general strike was observed in the Gaza Strip. Several incidents were reported in the West Bank refugee camps; one resident was injured. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli vehicle in El-Bireh without causing any harm, the assailant was arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

155. On 30 April 1992, it was reported that Gideon Levy had declared in the Israeli daily Ha'aretz that new regulations concerning armed Arabs implied a shoot-to-kill policy. He stated that special units shot from close range and in general with the aim of not only injuring, but killing. Levy referred to the case of Ayman Majadbeh who was killed on 21 April 1992 and stated that he was first shot in the chest from a rooftop and was shot again in the back when he attempted to flee. After the shooting, three soldiers (only one of whom was in uniform) reportedly came out of an empty room and dragged the body for several meters before disappearing. Eyewitnesses stated that at no moment did Majadbeh receive a warning to halt and no one was seen trying to arrest him. (Al-Tali'ah, 30 April 1992)

156. On 1 and 2 May 1992, four Palestinians were killed over the weekend (see list), three of them by fellow Arabs, while one was shot by the IDF in Beit Sahur when he attacked a policeman. Several incidents were reported during which seven residents were injured. Most of the clashes occurred in the Gaza Strip, in the Khan Younis, Jabalia and Nuseirat refugee camps. Ten people, among them two wanted activists, were arrested in a large operation by security forces in Abasan (Gaza Strip). Three petrol bombs were thrown at a Border Police jeep in Nablus. The jeep was slightly damaged and soldiers fired back at the assailants. No injuries were reported. Two tourists were stoned and injured in separate incidents in East Jerusalem. (Ha'aretz, 3 and 4 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 3 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 4 and 11 May 1992)

157. On 3 May 1992, two bodies of Palestinians were found in the Gaza Strip (see list). An IDF reservist, soldier Ya’acov Sheiman, was killed in the Far'a refugee camp (West Bank) as a result of what the IDF called a "mishap". Sheiman was shot dead by the camp mukhtar (head of the camp) when he broke into his home, unaware the owner was cooperating with the authorities. The mukhtar, thinking he was being attacked as had already happened once before, fired without warning. Incidents were reported, mostly in Jabalia, Khan Younis and Gaza City, and four residents were wounded. A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Rafah, but caused no injury or damage. Seven cars were hit in the Pisgat Ze'ev neighbourhood (East Jerusalem): four were destroyed while the others were badly damaged. Stone-throwing incidents were reported in the West Bank. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 and 5 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

158. On 4 May 1992, a resident of the Jabalia refugee camp died of wounds sustained on 30 April in a clash with Border Policemen (see list). The camp was placed under curfew following his death. Three wanted activists were arrested and arms and ammunition were seized during fin IDF operation in Deir el-Balah. According to Palestinian sources, serious clashes broke out between IDF soldiers and young residents of the camp. The army tried to disperse demonstrations throughout the day but dozens of people went out to the streets and attacked an IDF post. Soldiers fired back, wounding five persons. One of them, who had been seriously injured, later succumbed to his wounds (see list). Four other residents had already been wounded during a first confrontation, earlier in the day. The same sources also reported disturbances in the Jabalia and Khan Younis refugee camps. A young Arab was shot by the army and slightly injured at Halhul junction (West Bank), while throwing stones at an IDF patrol. Some 24 bullets were fired at the car of the Assistant-Commander of the Gaza police while he was driving South of Gaza. None struck him or his car. Widespread searches were launched and several residents were arrested for interrogation. (Ha'aretz, 5 and 14 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 18 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

159. On 5 May 1992, two Palestinians were killed by the IDF (see list) and three soldiers slightly wounded in separate incidents, in the Gaza Strip and in Ketziot prison. According to Palestinian sources, four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip (two in the Jabalia and two in the Khan Younis refugee camp) where incidents of stone-throwing at IDF forces were reported. (Ha'aretz, 6 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

160. On 6 May 1992, a Molotov cocktail was thrown at an IDF patrol in the Jabalia refugee camp. The bomb exploded without causing any damage. IDF soldiers opened fire at stone-throwers in Khan Younis, injuring a youth who was taken to hospital for treatment. Several persons were arrested in the town following demonstrations. An Israeli soldier was reportedly injured in the f ace when his military vehicle was hit by a stone in Jenin. On 6 or 7 May 1992, two petrol bombs were thrown at a military vehicle in Beit Sahur (West Bank). The bombs ignited on the road but caused no injury or damage. A tourist was slightly wounded in the A-Tur neighbourhood (East Jerusalem) when his rented car was stoned and the windshield smashed. (Ha'aretz, 8 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

161. On 7 May 1992, several clashes between Palestinians and IDF forces were reported on Independence Day. In the Gaza Strip, four to five persons were reportedly injured by rubber bullets in the Jabalia and Khan Younis refugee camps and in Gaza City, although the IDF spokesman for the Southern Region stated that no incidents were reported in the Gaza Strip. Nevertheless, a curfew was imposed on the Deir el-Balah refugee camp because of disturbances. Palestinian sources also reported that two residents were injured in the Rafah refugee camp. A military vehicle was stoned and a soldier slightly injured in Jenin. IDF soldiers shot and critically wounded two Palestinians in Sa'ir, near Hebron, after their patrol was hit by stones. The army indicated that the two injured persons would be arrested after receiving medical treatment. (Al-Tali'ah, 14 May 1992; Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

162. On 8 and 9 May 1992, four residents of the West Bank died over the weekend (see list). Two were killed by masked men, one by an unknown gunman in Hebron while the last one died of wounds sustained a day earlier when he was shot by the IDF in Si'ir. Another youth was also injured during the Si'ir incident. According to Palestinian sources, soldiers shot and wounded six to nine Palestinians in the Gaza Strip in Shati' and Gaza City, during a general strike marking the fifty-third month of the uprising (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992). Two youths from Hebron were injured in IDF shooting when a patrol came across three masked men armed with axes and chains and tried to stop them. Soldiers opened fire when they failed to obey orders to halt. A third man managed to escape. A petrol bomb was thrown at a Border Police patrol in East Jerusalem but did not ignite. An improvised bomb exploded as an IDF truck passed by on a road outside Beit Hanun (Gaza Strip). Several shots were fired at an IDF post in Bethlehem and in the Jenin area. Soldiers fired at two youths in the area, injuring one of them. No one was injured in either incident. Security forces arrested 12 residents of Kubar village (West Bank), including a wanted activist, while two Fatah activists, who were wanted by the security forces, turned themselves in at the Civil Administration office in Kalkiliya. (Ha'aretz, 10, 11 and 13 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 10 and 13 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

163. On 10 May 1992, a resident of Khan Younis was attacked by masked men and died of his wounds at the hospital (see list). Four residents of the Gaza Strip from the Shati, Jabalia and Khan Younis refugee camps were reportedly injured in clashes with the IDF, although the army denied that any injuries were sustained. In different incidents, five petrol bombs were thrown without causing harm at an IDF post in Rafah, at a military vehicle in the Jenin district and at an Israeli bus transporting soldiers from Tel Aviv and Nablus (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992). An additional petrol bomb was thrown at a printing house in Talpiot (East Jerusalem) and the building was extensively damaged. Shots were fired at an Israeli car in the Jenin area. The area was sealed off and searches were launched. No injury or damage was reported. According to Palestinian sources, IDF vehicles were stoned in the West Bank. (Ha'aretz, 11 May 1992) On 10 May 1992, two Molotov cocktails were thrown at an IDF patrol in Hebron but caused no damage. When searching the area, soldiers also found other explosives that were ready for use. Three Molotov cocktails were thrown at an army patrol in Shweikeh, in the Tulkarm area. No damage or injuries were reported. A curfew was imposed on the village. Several alleged intifadah activists were arrested in the village of Kubar during an army raid. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

164. On 11 May 1992, a Palestinian teacher was killed by masked men in front of his pupils at an UNRWA school in the Deir el-Balar refugee camp (see list). UNRWA closed down all eight of its schools in the camp to protest the murder (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 14 May 1992; Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992). Several shots were fired at an IDF lookout post in Jenin. Cartridges were found when the area was subsequently searched. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 May 1992) IDF soldiers opened fire at alleged stone-throwers in the Al Jadida village, near Jenin. Three of them were arrested. Reports indicated that one youth was later brought to hospital with light bullet wounds. A similar incident was reported in the village of Yamun. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

165. On 12 May 1992, a resident was shot dead by masked men in Gaza City (see list). In the Shati' refugee camp, troops opened fire on stone-throwers, wounding a 6-year-old boy and a 35-year-old woman in the legs. Clashes were also reported in Gaza City and in Jabalia refugee camp, where four residents were injured. The IDF denied that any injuries had occurred. Six petrol bombs were thrown in separate incidents in the West Bank causing no damage. An Israeli bus carrying workers to their jobs was set on fire by one of the workers in Zu'ida (Gaza Strip) and burned completely. Incidents of stone-throwing at Israeli vehicles were reported in the West Bank. The IDF spotted several fugitives among a crowd in Romaneh (West Bank) and proceeded to arrest 11 persons. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 and 14 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992) An armed clash between forces belonging to special units and a group of armed Palestinians was reported near Jenin. Mohammed Zakarna, 25, from Kabitiya, was seriously wounded while Ne'man Al Shalabi, from the Silat Al Haritha village, was arrested. Israeli authorities stated that both Palestinians were on the list of wanted persons. Clashes were reported in Rafah (Gaza Strip) during which five students were injured, including Mahmud Mohammed Yassin, 16, who was shot and seriously wounded in the chest. Two other students, Mohammed Suleiman Abu Taha 14, and Emad Ahmed Al Najar, 18, were shot and injured in the thigh and back. In the Shatil refugee camp, a 10-year-old boy and a 60-year-old woman were wounded by metal bullets when an Israeli military patrol opened fire after being pelted with stones. (Al-Tali’ah, 14 May 1992)

166. On 12 May 1992, Betzelem rejected the IDF account of the incident in which Mahmud Issa Al Shalelda (see list), 22, was shot and killed by Israeli soldiers on 7 May 1992. According to testimonies, soldiers disguised as settlers and driving a car with Israeli license plates with two Israeli flags waving from its window entered Sa'ir. The car was pelted with stones when it stopped at the soccer field. Soldiers quickly opened fire at the stone-throwers, wounding Mohammed Salama Jaradat, 16. A village resident took Jaradat into his car in order to take him to the hospital but the Israeli vehicle caught up with them and stopped the car. Al Shalelda, who was sitting next to Jaradat, got out of the car and started running. The soldiers opened fire and killed him with two shots in the head. The Israeli daily Davar quoted a woman eyewitness as saying that the soldiers opened fire when
Shalalda fell on the ground. (Al-Tali'ah, 14 May 1992; Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

167. On 13 May 1992, soldiers shot and killed a fugitive in Imatin (see list). A curfew was imposed on the village to prevent clashes. According to Arab sources, two other fugitives were arrested in the Ramallah area. A Palestinian from Dheisheh refugee camp (West Bank) stabbed and slightly injured two schoolchildren in the centre of Jerusalem. The man was beaten by an angry mob before being apprehended by the police. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an IDF lookout post in Rafah and the assailant was shot and injured by the IDF. While soldiers were trying to reach the wounded man, residents gathered on the spot and attacked the soldiers, who shot at them, injuring two more persons. A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Hebron without causing harm (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992). According to Palestinian sources, four residents were also injured in Jabalia and Khan Younis. A tourist was slightly wounded by pieces of broken glass when the bus he was travelling in was stoned in Hebron. (Ha'aretz, 14 and 15 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 14 May 1992) IDF soldiers clashed with three armed Palestinians near Arka village, in the Jenin area. One of the Palestinians was critically wounded, the second was arrested, while the third managed to escape. According to army reports, the three were wanted for some time. Soldiers also opened fire at a Palestinian who was allegedly armed in Rummaneh village, near Jenin. He managed to escape, however. Another wanted Palestinian, Ayman Musa Mahajreh, from Beit Likya, was arrested. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at an army patrol near Jenin, but caused no damage. Two other explosive devices were thrown at an Israeli car near Makhmas, in the area of Ramallah. No damage was reported. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

168. On 14 May 1992, a Khan Younis resident was shot dead by masked men (see list). A 14-year-old Jewish boy from Kiryat Arba was slightly, injured by stones thrown at the southern entrance of the settlement. In retaliation, Jewish settlers stoned Arab cars on a nearby road. A grenade was thrown at a police station in Ramallah. No one was injured but some cars were slightly damaged. The IDF sealed off the area and found another grenade, which was defused without causing harm. Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip during clashes with the army. (Ha'aretz, 15 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

169. On 15 May 1992, an Israeli soldier was injured when his patrol was hit by stones in Hebron. An Israeli truck was slightly damaged by a Molotov cocktail in the same town. The IDF arrested a wanted Palestinian, Abdel Jaber Ikmeil, 20, from Zawata in the Tulkarm area. Another wanted youth, Jamil Mohammed Abu Shanab, 18, was also arrested in Tulkarm. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at a settler's house in Jerusalem's Old City. It missed its target and hit a nearby shop instead, causing some damage when it exploded. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992) On 15 and 16 May 1992, a Palestinian was shot and killed in Gaza City by masked men dressed in army uniforms. However, the IDF indicated that the assailants were Arabs, not soldiers (see list). (Jerusalem Post, 17 May 1992)

170. On 17 May 1992, a farmer from the Negev, David Cohen, 64, was shot in the head while leaving the Gaza Strip after selling sheep in Beit Lahiya. Islamic fundamentalists belonging to the Hamas movement claimed responsibility for the shooting. A curfew was imposed on the village after the incident. A 21-year-old man died of wounds sustained on 1 April 1991, during a riot involving camp residents and Border Policemen in the Rafah refugee camp (see list). The camp was also placed under curfew. A man from Jenin asked the judge of the Haifa Magistrates Court to order him taken into protective custody for fear of an attack by masked assailants. (Jerusalem Post, 18 and 19 May 1992)

171. On 18 May 1992, following the murder of David Cohen on 17 May, Palestinian sources reported that some 50 persons were arrested and that the curfew remained in force in Beit Lahiya. In the Gaza Strip seven residents were injured during clashes with the IDF and a general strike was observed to protest the imprisonment of the Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. Five or six children and a 16-year-old boy were wounded by the explosion of a pipe bomb in Shajaiyah (Gaza Strip), which the youths themselves may have been preparing, according to military sources. Two Khan Younis residents were reportedly injured by masked men. Two or three petrol bombs were thrown at a police station and at a Border Police patrol in Ramallah. More than 20 students from Bir Zeit University were arrested and made to stand against a wall for several hours before being released. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 May 1992)

172. On 19 May 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Rafah refugee camp after a confrontation in which soldiers disguised as Hamas activists were identified as being soldiers and fired on. According to Palestinian sources, two wanted men succeeded in escaping while the gathering mob began throwing stones and six fire-bombs at the soldiers, who opened fire and wounded four residents. Four residents of Gaza were killed in a car accident involving a van from Umm el-Fahem and a vehicle from Gaza, which was carrying workers to Israel. Following the accident, disturbances were reported in Gaza City when false rumors were spread that the driver of the van was Jewish. Four residents and one soldier were injured. Palestinian sources reported incidents in the Gaza Strip, in the Jabalia, Khan Younis and Shati' refugee camps, during which five residents were injured. Two West Bank residents from Halhul and Shweika were shot and injured in separate incidents, after fleeing when troops ordered them to stop. A petrol bomb was thrown near an IDF post in Jabalia, without causing harm. Four Gaza residents in whose possession three pistols were found were arrested in Ofakim. An Arab youth from the Dheisheh refugee camp was arrested in East Jerusalem for carrying a kitchen knife. The curfew remained in force in Beit Lahiya. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 and 21 May 1992)

173. On 20 May 1992, according to Palestinian sources, some 46 persons were injured in the Gaza Strip during numerous clashes with the IDF (15 in Sheikh Radwan, 14 in Bureij and 17 in Shati'), on the day marking the second anniversary of Black Sunday when seven workers from Gaza were shot dead by an Israeli in Rishon Lezion. A general strike was also observed in the Gaza Strip on this occasion (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 21 May 1992). A Palestinian tried to run over a soldier at the Erez checkpoint. The man was subsequently arrested. Stones and a petrol bomb were thrown at an IDF patrol in the Jenin area but no one was injured. Two additional petrol bombs were thrown at a civilian vehicle in the Tulkarm area without causing harm. A home-made bomb was discovered and defused near an IDF post in the Hebron area. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 May 1992)

174. On 21 May 1992, a Khan Younis resident was found shot dead several days after he had been reported kidnapped (see list). Palestinian sources reported that IDF forces shot rubber bullets and injured three residents in Khan Younis and in Gaza. Four petrol bombs were thrown at IDF patrols in Rafah without causing harm. In the West Bank, one petrol bomb was thrown at an Israeli vehicle in the Hebron district and two additional petrol bombs were discovered during searches. No one was injured and no damage was reported. During clashes between the IDF and the residents of Ramallah, two Palestinians were reportedly injured and two petrol bombs were thrown at the Border Police station without causing damage. Later on, two additional petrol bombs were thrown at Border Police forces in the area without causing harm. In Jenin, a resident of the refugee camp who had been wanted by the security forces was seriously wounded in a fall while attempting to escape. Two other wanted men were also apprehended. (Ha’aretz, 22 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 22 and 24 May 1992)

175. On 22 and 23 May 1992, a man from Gaza was shot to death (see list). A 15-year-old boy was stabbed and moderately injured on a crowded East Jerusalem street (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992). The area was sealed off and searches were launched but no suspects were apprehended. Border Policemen captured four Gaza men whose car ran through a roadblock in southern Tel Aviv. One of the Gazans was shot in the leg and one Border Policeman was slightly injured during the incident. Security forces discovered a Fatah "terrorist" cell in Al-Yamoun (West Bank) and arrested an unspecified number of suspects. Several clashes in which two or three residents were injured were reported in Jabalia, Khan Younis, Shatil and Gaza. Petrol bombs were thrown at IDF patrols in Rafah and Jabalia. No injuries or damage were reported. Two residents were injured in the West Bank, in Ramallah and in the Nablus district, and a soldier was slightly wounded by a stone, also in the Nablus district. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 May 1992) On 23 May 1992, Israeli soldiers opened fire at a group of stone-throwers in Beit Rima, in the Ramallah area, killing Mahmud Munir Barghouthi, 18. In the same area, soldiers opened fire at stone-throwers in Sinjil, and injured a Palestinian youth who was later hospitalized. (Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

176. On 24 May 1992, a 15-year-old girl, Helena Rapp, was stabbed to death in Bat Yam by a resident of the Nuseirat refugee camp (Gaza Strip). The suspect was arrested and the Gaza Strip was sealed off for three days (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 28 May 1992; Al-Fajr, I June 1992). Following the murder, violence and fear prevailed in Bat Yam since police were almost helpless in the face of the angry mob. Hundreds of Bat Yam residents took to the streets and demonstrated, looking for Arab workers throughout the city. During the day, policemen rescued Arabs from shops, rooftops and basements where they hid to avoid being attacked, Some 30 Israelis were arrested for stabbing Arabs or for throwing stones and smashing the windows of Arab cars. Three members of the Hamas-affiliated Al-Kassam group were killed in a house-to-house attack carried out by IDF and Border Police anti-terrorist units in the Sabra neighbourhood while it remained under curfew. Some 14 arrests were reported and weapons were also said to have been discovered. Limited confrontations with soldiers erupted in camps and towns across the Gaza Strip within hours. Tires were set on fire and roadblocks were put up. According to Palestinian sources, troops wounded 34 persons during the confrontation (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992). Only eight persons were wounded according to the IDF. All shops were closed in a spontaneous strike. (Ha'aretz, 25 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 25 May 1992)

177. On 25 May 1992, a man was killed in the Gaza Strip I (see list). A procession was held in Gaza near the house of one of the three Hamas-affiliated Al-Kassam activists who was killed, in a shoot-out with IDF troops on 24 May 1992. A strike called by Hamas was observed in much of Gaza. Palestinians reported that 12 persons were wounded in clashes while IDF claimed that only 9 persons were wounded. Nine vehicles were torched in different parts of Jerusalem. A second man from Gaza was arrested on suspicion of involvement in the murder of Helena Rapp a day earlier. The curfew remained in force in the Nuseirat and Maghazi refugee camps and in the neighbourhoods of Sabra and Sheikh Radwan (Gaza Strip). (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 May 1992; alto referred to in Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

178. On 26 May 1992, a man was shot to death by masked Palestinians in Khan Younis (see list). (Jerusalem Post, 27 May 1992) Border guards are reported to have shot and injured a stone-thrower in Jenin. Army reports stated that the patrol opened fire at the youth when he refused to obey orders to halt. IDF soldiers also opened fire and injured one person in the Shati' refugee camp and another one in the Nuseirat refugee camp during confrontations. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at an Israeli military vehicle near Allar, in the Tulkarm area. No damage was reported. Another Molotov cocktail was thrown at a border patrol in Ramallah but caused no damage. (Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

179. On 27 May 1992, the dead body of a woman from Kabatiya was brought to hospital (see list). Shimon Biran, 32, the Rabbi of Kfar Darom (Gaza Strip) was stabbed to death by a 19-year-old resident of Deir el-Balah. The suspect was arrested after being shot and slightly injured in the leg. In reaction, dozens of settlers from the nearby settlements burned fields and greenhouses and smashed cars belonging to Arab residents. Clashes were reported when the army tried to restrain the settlers from setting fire to fields and from entering an Arab school for girls. (Ha’aretz, 28 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 28 May 1992; Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

180. On 28 May 1992, an undercover army unit shot dead, by mistake, two Arab men licensed to carry arms by the Civil Administration in the territories (see list). A third man was reportedly wounded, although the army claimed it had no reports of a Palestinian being injured. According to Arab sources, more than 20 residents of Kalkiliya were injured in internal strife between Hamas and Fatah activists. The confrontation started two days earlier when a member of the Fatah was stabbed by Hamas activists. Five residents were reportedly injured in clashes in the Gaza Strip. Incidents of stone-throwing and burning tires were also reported. A wanted activist was captured in a combined police-IDF raid on an East Jerusalem hospital, where he had sought treatment for a gunshot wound. A home-made bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Khan Younis without causing harm. Three soldiers were slightly wounded by broken glass following the throwing of a hand-grenade at an IDE post in the casbah in Nablus. The area was sealed off and searches were launched (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992). A petrol bomb was thrown at the car of a Beit Ragai resident (West Bank). The settler was injured and the centre of Hebron was sealed off. A Ramallah resident was stabbed by an unknown assailant of the bakery in southern Tel Aviv where he was working. He was admitted to a hospital in serious condition. An Israeli Arab was slightly injured when his car was stoned in Shavika, north of Tulkarm. The curfew remained in the refugee camps of Khan Younis, Deir el-Balah and Bureij in the Gaza Strip. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 and 31 May 199.2)

181. On 29 and 30 May 1992, Youssef Shirazi, 55, an unarmed security guard at the Marine Observatory in Eilat was killed by two Palestinian activists who swam to Eilat from Jordan. One of the men was killed while the second one, born in Hebron, was wounded and captured by IDF soldiers. A resident of Jabalia saved the lives of a Jewish vegetable merchant and his wife when the two were attacked by three heavily armed men, near Beit Lahiya. The resident was badly injured and a curfew was imposed on Beit Lahiya, as the IDF searched for the attackers (also referred to in Al-Fair, 1 June 1992). Nine residents were reportedly injured during incidents over the weekend in the refugee camps of Jabalia, Shati' and Khan Younis as well as in Ramallah and Jenin. A bomb was discovered in a truck in Nablus and defused without causing harm. Two residents of the Far'a refugee camp were arrested by the IDF. A home-made bomb was found on their possession. (Ha’aretz, 31 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 31 May and 1 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

182. On 31 May 1992, two Arabs allegedly stabbed and slightly injured a high school student in Jerusalem. Police searched the area and detained nine Arabs for questioning. Stones were thrown at participants in the Jerusalem Day (reunification of Jerusalem) parade who were passing through the Arab section of the Abu Tor neighbourhood. No one was injured. Jerusalem was closed off to Arabs from the territories, in one of the special measures the police had taken to ensure calm in the capital for Jerusalem Day. Several clashes were reported, between IDF soldiers and Palestinians. Seven residents were injured in the Shati' and Jabalia refugee camps while the sealing off of the Gaza Strip remained in force for the eighth day. (Ha'aretz, 31 May and I June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 29 May and 1 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

183. On 1 June 1992, petrol bombs were thrown at police vehicles in Bethlehem. An additional petrol bomb was discovered in Bethlehem during searches. The bombs caused damage (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992). A-Zuwiya village was placed under curfew. Stone-throwing incidents were reported in Ramallah, Nablus and Jenin. An explosive charge went off in Kabatiya, in the Jenin district, when an IDF patrol was passing by (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992). Palestinian sources reported that seven residents were injured during clashes in Jabalia, Shati', Nuseirat and Maghazi. (Ha'aretz, 2 June 1992)

184. On 2 June 1992, it was reported that in the village of Aqraba (West Bank) the IDF and the security forces had arrested 71 persons suspected of involvement in "terrorist" activities and the killing of Arab residents on 29 and 30 May 1992. Senior officers of the Central Command Region stated that about 60 wanted activists had turned themselves in to the authorities (Ha'aretz, 2 June 1992) Three Palestinians were injured by IDF soldiers during confrontations in the Deir el-Balah refugee camp. Incendiary bottles were thrown at a military post in the Jabalia refugee camp and at a military patrol in Rafah. No damage or injuries were reported. Five youths wanted for alleged security violations were arrested in Tulkarm. Among them was Amjed Awfa, who is suspected of affiliation with the Black Panther group and of killing several collaborators. (Al-Tali'ah, 4 June 1992; 8 June 1992)

185. On 3 June 1992, a resident of the Askar refugee camp was shot dead (see list). Palestinian sources reported that soldiers entered the Rafah refugee camp in search of fugitives and were stoned by local residents. Soldiers opened fire, wounding seven persons (four according to the military sources in Gaza). The security authorities were investigating the circumstances of the shooting. The IDF spokesman reported that 13 residents were injured in the Shati' refugee camp. A curfew was imposed on the area. The curfews imposed on the Nuseirat, Maghazi and Bureij refugee camps were lifted but the curfew remained in force in Deir el-Balah. (Jerusalem Post, 4 June 1992; Ha'aretz, 5 June 1992) On 3 June 1992, 15 persons were reported injured during clashes with IDF soldiers in the Gaza Strip, 2 in Abasan and 13 in the Rafah and Maghazi refugee camps. Three Molotov cocktails were thrown at an army post in Ya'abad, near Jenin, while another one was thrown at an Israeli car near the Shilo settlement. No injuries or damage were reported. (Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

186. On 4 June 1992, soldiers shot dead a Palestinian in Khan Younis (see list). A resident of the Arroub refugee camp was also shot dead in Bethlehem (see list) when he stabbed and injured a Border Policeman. An Arab passerby was slightly wounded by a ricochet bullet. A curfew was placed on the area of the attack in Bethlehem and lifted after two hours. Palestinian sources reported that nine residents were injured during disturbances in the Gaza Strip (in the Shati', Jabalia and Khan Younis refugee camps). The IDF denied the information. Stones were thrown at an Israeli bus in Hebron. Its windshield was smashed, slightly injuring a woman passenger. A car was stoned in East Jerusalem. No injury was reported (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992). Military sources indicated that a Fatah cell operating from Kabatiya and Khilam al-Hartiya in the Jenin region had been disbanded. The members of the gang were suspected of a series of attacks on Israelis and local Arabs. A petrol bomb that did not explode was thrown at a police vehicle in Nablus. The soldiers fired back. Six cars were set on fire in the eastern neighbourhoods of Jerusalem. The curfew placed on the Shati' refugee camp was lifted. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 June 1992) On 4 June 1992, four Israeli cars were set on fire in Baqa'a, a West Jerusalem neighbourhood. Police stated that pro-Hamas inscriptions were written on the cars. (Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

187. On 5 June 1992, IDF soldiers shot, wounded and arrested two wanted Palestinians who were allegedly trying to cross the border into Egypt at Rafah. Mazen Abu Hamad, 19, from Abasan, and Mohammed Abu Sa'adeh, 18, from Bani Suheila, were said to be members of the Black Panther group. (Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

188. On 7 June 1992, gunshots were fired during the night at an IDF patrol near Beit Umar village, in the Hebron area. The village was placed under curfew. (Ha’aretz, 9 June 1992) IDF soldiers reportedly shot and wounded three youths as they were driving their car in the city of Halhul. Mohammed Ahmed Shahin, 18, Raed Ahmed Shahin, 24, and Mohammed Ismail Al Zamara, 26, were taken to hospital with numerous injuries. Two other Palestinians were seriously injured when border guards opened fire at them in Khan Younis. Army reports stated that both were carrying sub-machine-guns. Clashes were reported in Hebron when Arab youths threw stones at Israeli settlers from Kiryat Arba who were dancing and singing in the centre of the city. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at a military patrol in Nablus but did not cause any damage. (Al-Tali'ah, 11 June 1992; Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

189. On 8 June 1992, a resident of the West Bank was shot dead in his home (see list). A West Bank settler was moderately injured in the, head when a stone smashed the windshield of his car. A petrol bomb was thrown at a military vehicle in Nablus without causing any damage. Six cars were torched in Jerusalem in three separate incidents (in Ramot and in the Arab neighbourhoods of East Jerusalem). Six others were doused with inflammable liquid but did not catch fire. The words "Hamas" and "Fatah" were found written with black paint in Hebrew or Arabic in a number of localities. (Ha'aretz, 9 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 9 and 10 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

190. On 9 June 1992, a 16-year-old boy, Said Musa Salim, was seriously wounded in Gaza when troops were attacked with stone blocks near a mosque and subsequently opened fire. He was flown to a hospital in Israel. In Jerusalem, a German tourist was slightly wounded when the tour bus he was riding in was stoned on the Mount of Olives. (Jerusalem Post, 10 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992) A general strike was observed throughout the occupied territories as the intifadah entered its 55th month. IDF soldiers shot and injured a stone-thrower in the village of Awarta. Three Molotov cocktails were thrown at an Israeli car outside the Kiryat Arba settlement without causing any damage. (Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

191. On 10 June 1992, masked men shot dead a resident (see list) and seriously injured his son in a Gaza City neighbourhood, while the body of another Gaza Strip resident was brought to Shifa Hospital (see list). Four Arab residents were reportedly injured in the Gaza Strip (Jabalia refugee camp, two; Gaza City, two). Incidents were also reported in the Khan Younis and Shati’ refugee camps. IDF vehicles were stoned in Gaza City and one soldier was slightly injured by a stone. Palestinian sources reported numerous stone-throwing incidents in Ramallah, Nablus and in the West Bank refugee camps. According to the IDF spokesman, no one was injured. Border Policemen and policemen belonging to special units were attacked with stones and bottles in East Jerusalem. An Arab passer-by was injured in the head by a bottle and taken to hospital. The spokesman from the West Bank and Gaza Council, Aharon Domb, was slightly injured in the hand by a brick thrown at his car on the road linking Kiryat Arba to Jerusalem. A wanted fugitive was shot and seriously wounded in the village of Yamun, in the Jenin area, when he pulled out a pistol on the troops. (Ha'aretz, 11 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 11 and 12 June 1992)

192. On 10 June 1992, it was reported that the IDF and the GSS had recently captured several fugitives from the village of Karawat Bani Zayd, north-west of Ramallah. They were suspected of firing on soldiers, settlers and the police, as well as the killing of other Palestinians. Pistols, home-made bombs and a hand-grenade were found amongst the weapons seized. (Jerusalem Post, 10 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 11 June 1992; Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

193. On 11, 12 and 13 June 1992, four Palestinians were either shot or stabbed to death by fellow Arabs over the Id al-Adha holiday weekend (the Muslim Feast of the Sacrifice) (see list). On 12 June 1992, Red Eagles youth gangs, which are associated with the Popular Front, held an open parade in Rafah carrying firearms and grenades, and turning Islam's most important festival into a political event. Numerous incidents during which eight Arab residents were injured were reported: Awarma village near Nablus, one; Khan Younis refugee camp, four; Gaza City, three. Two Israelis were injured by stones, in Bethlehem and in the El-Bireh area were injured. Stone-throwing incidents in the West Bank were also reported by Palestinian sources. An Israeli van was set on fire and completely burned in Jerusalem's Old City. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 14 June 1992)

194. On 14 June 1992, a resident of the Gaza Strip was killed by masked men (see list). A Deir el-Balah youth was apprehended as he tried to infiltrate the Kfar Darom settlement in the central Gaza Strip. Three residents of the Gaza Strip were reportedly injured (Rafah, two; Jabalia, one) and stones were thrown at Israeli military and civilian vehicles in the West Bank. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 June 1992)

195. On 15 June 1992, it was reported that the Security Forces had apprehended the members of a Fatah "terrorist" group operating in the central Gaza Strip who were suspected of killing at least 12 persons (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992). Many weapons were seized as well. During the past two years, more than 50 organizations have been discovered and 1,600 members of cells arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 June 1992) A resident of Khan Younis was shot and killed by an Arab youth (see list). Three Border Policemen were slightly injured while quelling a disturbance in Rafah. Local sources reported that three residents were injured as well. A Nablus resident threw a petrol bomb at an IDF position. No damage was reported. The man was subsequently arrested. An IDF soldier was slightly wounded by flying glass when an Egged bus company was stoned in the south of Ramallah.
(Jerusalem Post, 16 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June) A storeroom containing inflammable material, seven petrol bombs, IDF and camouflage uniforms, masks and various types of weapons with blades was discovered in the village of Beit Likia, north of Latrun. No suspects were arrested in this connection. (Jerusalem Post, 16 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

197. On 17 June 1992, a resident of Gaza was shot dead by masked men in the Khan Younis refugee camp (see list). In East Jerusalem, an ex-police officer fired shots at a car with blue license plates from the territories, hitting one of the rear tires. He thought that the driver had the intention of running over pedestrians. No one was injured during the incident. The former policeman was detained for questioning and his pistol was confiscated. The Arab driver of the vehicle, aged 25, was also questioned and released. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 June 1992) Four stone-throwers were injured by gunshots in Gaza City and the Shati' refugee camp. An 18-year-old youth was shot and wounded in a similar incident in Farkha village near Tulkarm. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at a military post in the Jabalia refugee camp. No injuries or damage were reported. The army searched the area and arrested one youth. (Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

198. On 18 June 1992, undercover troops shot and killed an armed Palestinian fugitive near Jenin. In a different incident, two men, one of whom was armed, were shot at by troops in the same village. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

199. On 19 June 1992, it was reported that the security forces had recently discovered a Fatah cell in Jiftlik, in the Jordan Valley. (Jerusalem Post, 19 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992) On 19 and 20 June 1992, Palestinian sources reported incidents during which four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip, in the refugee camps of Khan Younis and Rafah as well as in the main street of Gaza City. Two residents were reportedly injured during clashes in the West Bank. Three petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli vehicle in Jericho without causing any harm. Two Border Policemen brought a Tulkarm resident to the hospital in serious condition. The man had been stabbed by a fellow Arab. A 14-year-old boy was shot and very seriously injured in the Dhahiriya village, north of Hebron. (Ha'aretz, 21 and 22 June 1992) IDF soldiers shot and wounded an inhabitant of Hebron who threw stones at them. The 27-year-old was later taken to hospital. Residents of the Nuseirat refugee camp in the Gaza Strip clashed with soldiers when four Palestinians were arrested. The soldiers threw tear-gas canisters and fired rubber bullets to disperse the protesters, injuring six of them. (Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

200. On 21 June 1992, a resident of the Far'a refugee camp was shot in the head, apparently by activists belonging to the Democratic Front (see list). Following the murder, tension between factions belonging to the Fatah and the Democratic Front movements increased and Fatah activists broke into the Nablus hospital and stabbed a nurse. A number of activists of the Democratic Front were also beaten and kidnapped in Nablus, Jenin and the Far'a refugee camp. Four residents were reportedly injured during clashes in the territories; two in Gaza Strip and two in West Bank. (Ha'aretz, 22 and 24 June 1992) Two persons were injured when IDF soldiers opened fire at stone-throwers in Udla village, near Nablus. An Israeli bus transporting workers was set ablaze in Udla earlier on by two masked men after they had ordered all the passengers to leave the vehicle. The bus was completely destroyed. Reports indicated that three Molotov cocktails were thrown at an army vehicle in Jericho without causing any damage. The army later searched the area. (Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

201. On 22 June 1992, a Palestinian woman was shot dead by two masked men (see list) and another person was reportedly killed in Gaza (see list). A policeman and an Israeli civilian were slightly injured in Gaza City when gunmen opened fire on police barracks from a moving vehicle. The police returned fire but the car managed to get away (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992). Four residents were reportedly injured during clashes. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 June 1992)

202. On 23 June 1992, official military sources stated that no incidents had occurred in the territories, although Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured in clashes in the refugee camps of the southern Gaza Strip. Stone-throwing incidents were also reported in the neighbourhoods of Sheikh Radwan and Daraj, in Gaza, and in its main street. Pine trees were set on fire near the villages of Fakna and Jalabun apparently for nationalistic motives. The fires were brought under control by firemen and the workers of the Jewish National Fund. (Ha’aretz, 24 June 1992)

203. On 24 June 1992, Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip, refugee camps in the Khan Younis, Jabalia and Shati'. Three residents were injured in the West Bank in Nablus and Jenin although the IDF denied that any injuries had occurred in the West Bank. A home-made bomb exploded without causing harm on a road in the Tulkarm district,, as an Israeli truck was passing by. A curfew was placed on the nearby villages of Ramin, Al-Abd, Safrin and Susa, and searches were carried out. (Ha'aretz, 25 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

204. On 25 June 1992, a soldier, Amir Rosenberg, and three Palestinians died in a gun battle in Araba, south-east of Jenin, when the army clashed with activists belonging to the Red Eagle group (see list), which is affiliated to and identified with the Popular Front. A curfew was imposed on the village. Two Israeli civilians, Moshe Bino, 49, from Ashkelon, and Amikam Saltzman, 59, from Ness Ziona, were stabbed to death by four men posing as traders, in their vegetable packing house in El-Kuba, on the outskirts of Gaza,. A settler from Ma'aleh Levona, in the West Bank, was seriously injured when he was attacked by several men with axes near the settlement. Other settlers came to his rescue and managed to shoot and injure one of the assailants. The area was sealed off for searches. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

205. On 26 and 27 June 1992, a resident of Illar was shot dead by masked men who also wounded his 35-year-old son (see list). A man from Khan Younis was also shot by masked men (see list). Arabs stabbed two Israelis in separate incidents in Moshav Ro'i in the Jordan Valley and in the centre of Hebron. The IDF closed the area of both attacks, began searches for the assailants and imposed a curfew on the centre of Hebron (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992). Palestinian sources reported that, during numerous clashes with the IDF, five residents were injured in the Gaza Strip (Shati' refugee camp, three; Rafah, two) and three in the West Bank (Nablus, Ramallah and Tulkarm). They also reported that two Israeli soldiers were slightly injured in the Gaza Strip, but the IDF spokesman denied the information. A petrol bomb was thrown at the Gaza District police station without causing any harm. A bookstore run by the Ateret Cohanim settlement group in the Muslim quarter of Jerusalem was set on fire and slightly damaged. An Israeli car was burned in East Jerusalem. A series of fires was lit, between Barta'a village and Moshav Katzir in the Nahal Irron region, for nationalistic reasons. The fires were extinguished by firemen and police before any serious damage had occurred. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 June 1992) On 27 June 1992, a settler opened fire and critically wounded Raed Fathi Awad, 13, in the village of Awarta, near Nablus. The settler claimed that stones had been thrown at him. (Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992)

206. On 28 June 1992, Palestinian sources reported clashes between IDF forces and residents of the refugee camps of Jabalia and Khan Younis, and in Gaza City. They also reported that two residents were injured in Ramallah in the West Bank. (Ha'aretz, 29 June 1992) In Hebron, settlers set two vehicles on fire and damaged Palestinian cars, apparently in revenge for the stabbing of an Israeli settler in the city the day before. Curfew continued to be in force in the centre of Hebron. (Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992)

207. On 29 June 1992, three residents were reportedly injured (Shati' refugee camp, two; Ramallah, one). A gunshot was fired at an IDF post, in Idna village near Hebron. No one was injured. An IDF unit came upon a group of masked youths who threw bottles at them in Beit Sahur. The soldiers opened fire when the youths tried to flee, moderately wounding an 18-year-old boy. (Ha'aretz, 30 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 30 June and 1 July 1992)

208. On 30 June 1992, it was reported that the GSS, in coordination with IDF units, had recently arrested 15 members of a Hamas cell operating in the Bethlehem area. Members of this cell were thought to be responsible for numerous attacks against the IDF and the police. Large quantities of weapons and ammunition were also discovered on this occasion. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992 Three
residents of the Jabalia and Shati’ refugee camp were reportedly injured by IDF shooting. Stones were thrown at a Border Police patrol in the Tulkarm market and one Border Policeman was slightly injured. A curfew was imposed on the area where the incident occurred and searches were launched (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 2 July 1992). Eleven vehicles were torched in a single attack that took place before sunrise. In the Beit Hakerem neighbourhood of Jerusalem the word "Hamas" was scrawled in Hebrew on nearby vehicles. Inflammable material was found in several other vehicles. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 July 1992) A Nablus resident, Ahmed Al Darduk, 25, was severely beaten by IDF soldiers who suspected him of throwing stones. He was subsequently taken to a hospital. (Al-Tali'ah, 2 July 1992)

209. On 1 July 1992, a 49-year-old man from Jabalia was reportedly shot in the head while shopping in Gaza when soldiers opened fire at stone-throwers and accidentally hit him. He was taken to hospital with moderate wounds. The IDF claimed it had no knowledge of the incident. Two Israeli buses carrying workers were torched in Khan Younis (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 2 July 1992; Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992). In El-Bireh, a vehicle belonging to an Arab resident of Jerusalem was burned completely. One resident of the West Bank was reportedly injured during clashes with the army. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 July 1992) On 1 July 1992, a 19-year-old youth, Walid Abdel Khalek, was shot and wounded in the thigh when IDF soldiers opened fire at demonstrators in Gaza. He was subsequently taken to hospital. (Al-Tali'ah, 2 July 1992)

210. On 2 July 1992, Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured during clashes in the Gaza Strip: two in the Shati' refugee camp and two in Jabalia. An Israeli bus was torched by masked men in Khan Younis. Two masked men were arrested by the army in Gaza City. One was slightly wounded when he was shot as he tried to run away. Five persons were injured in clashes between Fatah and Hamas supporters in Band Suheila.

211. On 3 and 4 July 1992, a masked Palestinian stone-thrower was shot dead by troops in Bethlehem (see list). Three other residents were also injured according to Palestinian reports. The IDF claimed it had no reports of persons being wounded. Two other Palestinians were murdered on suspicion of collaboration (see list). In the Gaza Strip, dozens of activists from the Popular Front marched in procession while some 200 Hamas supporters demonstrated against the Fatah in Khan Younis. Two petrol bombs were thrown at Israeli vehicles: one at a civilian car near Bethlehem, and the other at an IDF patrol in Salfit, on which a curfew was imposed. An Israeli car was stoned in Nablus and a 3-year-old boy slightly injured by pieces of broken glass (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992). A home-made bomb was thrown at the entrance of the Nablus Chamber of Commerce (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992). It was neutralized without causing harm. In Jabalia, a hand-grenade was thrown at an IDF post without causing any damage. According to Palestinian sources, eight residents of the Gaza Strip were injured during clashes with the army. The IDF denied that any injuries had occurred over the weekend. On 4 July 1992, 16 suspects wanted in connection with a series of nationalistic incidents in the Nahal Irron region were arrested during a raid on Barta'a village near Jenin (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992). On 17 July 1992, it was reported that 12 of the 16 suspects had been remanded in connection with various alleged incidents. (Ha'aretz, 5 and 6 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 5 and 17 July 1992)

212. On 4 July 1992, four buses belonging to a Palestinian company were set on fire in Hebron. Two buses were completely destroyed while the other two were partly damaged. The company had received threats from the Hamas group in the past because the buses were used to transport students from Hebron and the open universities. Also on 4 July 1992, Abdel Mushen Abdel Mu'ti Sa'ad, 17, from the Jabalia refugee camp in Gaza, died of wounds sustained on 27 October 1989 when he was shot in the stomach by Israeli soldiers. Israeli soldiers raided the village of Kuffin, in the area of Tulkarm, and arrested 14 people in connection with activities related to the uprising. (Al-Tali'ah, 9 July 1992; Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

213. On 5 July 1992, an Israeli bus transporting workers from Gaza was torched by three masked men near the Deir el-Balah refugee camp and was completely destroyed. A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Beit Rima (West Bank). It did not cause any damage or injury. IDF soldiers discovered an explosive device south of Jenin, which was neutralized without causing any harm. In the West Bank, a settler from Kiryat Arba was beaten with an iron bar by a young Palestinian. The assailant managed to escape. Another person from the same camp was injured during demonstrations (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992). Several stone-throwing incidents and other clashes with the army were reported in the West Bank. Four residents and one soldier were injured in the Gaza Strip during clashes: two in the Shati’ refugee camp, two in Gaza and one in Bureij. (Ha'aretz and Jerusalem Post, 6 July 1992)

214. On 6 July 1992, 300 supporters of the Fatah and Hamas movements clashed near the central mosque in Khan Younis. According to Palestinian sources, up to 18 people were taken to the local hospital with light wounds and were subsequently released. Military sources reported that nine persons had been injured. In the Maghazi refugee camp, a man was stabbed in another confrontation between the two factions. The Gaza Strip and the majority of towns except Nablus observed the traditional Islamic Jihad strike called on the sixth day of each month. Three petrol bombs were thrown at the home of former Minister Ariel Sharon in East Jerusalem without causing any harm (also referred to in Al-Fajr 13 July 1992). Stone- throwing incidents, demonstrations and clashes with the army were reported in the refugee camps of the Gaza Strip, where four residents were injured. On 6 July 1992, the security forces arrested 11 activists of the Popular Front in the Gaza Strip among whom was a senior commandant, Marwan Kafarna (also referred to in Al-Fair, 13 July 1992). (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 July 1992)

215. On 7 July 1992, Avraham Kinsler, 84, from Ra'anana was murdered by unknown attackers. Police suspected the slaying was nationalistically motivated. Violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah supporters erupted in the Gaza Strip, leaving some 30 persons injured, by shooting (10) and by being beaten with clubs or axes (20) in the Gaza, Rafah, Khan Younis and Shati' refugee camps. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 9 July 1992)

216. On 8 July 1992, the body of a Khan Younis resident was found while a second resident died of wounds sustained during clashes between the Hamas and Fatah movements (see list). During clashes between the factions, some 33 persons were injured, among whom 20 by clubs or stones in the Shati' refugee camp and in the Rimal neighbourhood. Following the clashes, the IDF imposed early curfews on towns and camps in the Gaza Strip. Gunmen, apparently infiltrated from Jordan, fired several rocket-propelled grenades at an IDF outpost on the southern Golan Heights. No casualties were reported. Attackers fled when the troops returned the fire. A detainee was found hanged in his cell in Hebron prison. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 July 1992) Israeli soldiers are reported to have shot and injured a resident of Beit Rima during a stone-throwing incident. A Molotov cocktail was thrown at the employment office in Nablus. The bomb exploded on the road without causing any injury. An Israeli woman was injured when her car was hit by stones in Hawarra village near Nablus. Her car was slightly damaged and she was taken to hospital for treatment. (Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

217. On 8 July 1992, Sgt. Eli Isha, 19, was accidentally killed during an operation by fellow members of the undercover Duvdevan unit near the northern West Bank village of Barta'a. (Ha'aretz, 10 and 30 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 10 July 1992)

218. On 9 July 1992, the bodies of two Palestinians who were shot in the head were found (see list). Following the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah supporters, full curfews were imposed on several localities of the Gaza Strip. Several clashes were nevertheless reported in the Sheikh Radwan, Rimal, and Tufah neighbourhoods of Gaza City, as well as in the Jabalia refugee camp and in Rafah, where three Hamas supporters were reportedly injured. A general strike was observed in the territories to mark the 57th month of the uprising. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 July 1992) An Israeli truck was stoned near Ram, in northern Jerusalem. The driver was injured in the hand by broken glass. Shots were fired at two army vehicles, in Khan Younis and near Sanur, in the Jenin area. No injuries were reported. (Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

219. On 10 July 1992, two Molotov cocktails were thrown at the Civil Administration building in Tubas. No damage was reported. Another bomb hit an Israeli car near Masha village, in the Tulkarm area. The bomb exploded without causing any damage or injury. (Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

220. On 10 and 11 July 1992, IDF soldiers shot at stone-throwers in Nuba village in the Hebron area and injured a 23-year-old man. Turbulent demonstrations were held in Ramallah to protest the death of a Palestinian detainee in the Hebron detention centre on 8 July 1992 (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992). On 10 and 11 July 1992, a gunman opened fire and wounded a Hamas supporter in Gaza, while 10 other Palestinians were reported to have been slightly wounded in clashes between supporters of Al-Kassam, the armed wing of Hamas, and the Fatah Hawks in the Jabalia refugee camp, in Sheikh Radwan and in Gaza City. IDF spokesmen reported that following clashes between the supporters of both factions, 22 injured people were treated in a hospital in the Gaza Strip. On 11 July 1992, the IDF placed Hebron under curfew, following disturbances provoked by the suicide of a detainee in Hebron prison. (Ha'aretz, 12 and 13 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 12 July 1992)

221. On 12 July 1992, no violent incidents were reported between the Hamas and Fatah, except for the stabbing of a Hamas supporter by a member of Fatah in the Shati' refugee camp. According to an eyewitness, soldiers belonging to undercover units clashed with some 200 Hamas supporters who were shouting slogans against the Fatah and Israel, in the Sabra area of Gaza. Military sources in Gaza confirmed that one demonstrator died (see list), one was wounded and that two soldiers were also injured in the clash. A number of localities in the Gaza Strip, such as the Shabura and Khan Younis refugee camps, and four neighbourhoods of Rafah were placed under curfew, following clashes between Hamas and Fatah supporters. Disturbances were also reported in Hebron, for the fourth consecutive day, following the death of a Palestinian prisoner in the Hebron detention centre on 8 July 1992 and dozens of youths threw stones at the IDF forces. Two petrol bombs were thrown in Beit Romano, the centre of Hebron, but no injuries or damage were reported. Also in Hebron, a woman from Kiryat Arba was wounded when three empty bottles were thrown at her at a bus station. A masked man was shot and injured in the leg by the army, when he and the man who was accompanying him did not obey orders to halt. Both were finally apprehended. Shots were fired in the Balata village area. The IDF launched searches and placed the refugee camp under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

222. On 13 July 1992, the body of a Palestinian who had been shot dead was found in the Jenin area (see list). A resident of the Jabalia refugee camp, suspected of collaboration, was shot and moderately wounded by masked men. A soldier on patrol was slightly wounded in a stone-throwing incident in Bala'a (West Bank). Two residents of Nablus were slightly injured by the explosion of a grenade that had been thrown at an IDF patrol (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992). On 13 July 1992, Imad Yussef Ishteiwi, 27, from Jaba, in the Nablus area, was shot and killed during a confrontation with soldiers in the village. His body was taken to the Al-Ittihad Hospital in Nablus. Army reports stated that Ishteiwi was being sought by the army. (Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992) Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip and that clashes had occurred in refugee camps in Shati', Khan Younis and in Gaza City. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an IDF patrol in the Bethlehem area and a bottle of acid was thrown at an IDF post in the centre of Hebron. In both cases, no injury or damage was caused. Three cars were torched in Jerusalem's Neveh Ya'acov neighbourhood while inflammable liquid was poured on five other vehicles but they were not set on fire. Curfews were lifted in the southern Gaza Strip. (Ha’aretz, 14 and 15 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 14 July 1992)

223. On 14 July 1992, following the arrest of an armed fugitive at the Al-Najah University (West Bank), the army sealed off the campus and began checking the identity cards of students as they were leaving the premises. Two hundred reportedly refused to leave the campus. In the Balata refugee camp (West Bank), troops shot and slightly wounded a man who allegedly tried to run away (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992). According to Palestinian sources, four residents were injured by IDF shooting in the Gaza Strip. Most of the clashes occurred in the refugee camps of Khan Younis and in Gaza City, where a soldier was slightly injured by a stone. In Ramallah, a petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol without causing any harm. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 July 1992)

224. On 15 July 1992, Border Policemen in Gaza shot and killed a fugitive who had opened fire at them (see list). Several clashes were reported, in which five residents were injured in Rafah, Khan Younis and Gaza. Stone-throwing incidents occurred in Ramallah. A general curfew was imposed on Nablus following the sealing off of the campus of the Al-Najah University. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

225. On 16 July 1992, the body of a Palestinian was brought to Shifa Hospital (see list). According to Palestinian sources, six residents were wounded in the Gaza Strip in renewed fighting between Hamas and Fatah supporters, while nine were injured in clashes with soldiers in Sheikh Radwan and Rafah. Two soldiers were injured in the area of Nablus when their vehicle was stoned. Several gunshots were fired near an IDF patrol in Burkin (West Bank). No one was injured but searches were launched nevertheless. Stone-throwing incidents and the burning of tires were reported in the West Bank (Nablus and Ramallah). A general commercial strike was observed in the southern Gaza Strip. In addition to the encircling of the Al-Najah University, the general curfew imposed on Nablus remained in force. On 16 July 1992, police and IDF soldiers arrested 12 residents of Barta'a village, during a pre-dawn raid on the homes of suspects wanted in connection with recent nationalistic incidents in the Nahal Irron region. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992) A resident of the Nuseirat refugee camp was wounded during confrontations with an Israeli army patrol and taken to the Shifa Hospital in Gaza for treatment. Another youth was shot when soldiers dispersed demonstrators in the Shati' refugee camp. IDF soldiers also shot and wounded a youth in the Balata refugee camp when they opened fire at stone-throwers. (Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

226. On 17 and 18 July 1992, two men were killed as suspected collaborators (see list). According to Palestinian sources, 11 (or 51) residents were wounded in the Gaza Strip over the weekend (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). One was wounded in Nablus when the curfew was lifted to enable the inhabitants to buy food. At the same time, hundreds of Nablus residents started to clash with the IDF and to throw stones at soldiers encircling the University. During the clashes, a man, Imad Lubdi, 31, was shot and seriously wounded. He remained paralyzed as a result (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992). Clashes between Fatah and Hamas supporters continued despite the agreements that had been reached between the two factions. Seven people were injured as a result, five in Rafah and two in Bani Suheila. Several shots were fired at an IDF outpost in Jabalia. No one was hurt but the IDF imposed a curfew on the village. A petrol bomb was thrown at. an IDF outpost near Beit Romano, in Hebron, without causing any harm (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). A curfew was imposed on the area. Jewish settlers reported that three other petrol bombs were thrown at IDF and civilian targets in the city. However, the IDF spokesman stated that he was not aware of such incidents. A tourist was slightly injured near the marketplace in Tulkarm when his vehicle was stoned. Stone-throwing incidents were also reported in Ramallah and in the Balata refugee camp. (Ha'aretz, 19 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 19 and 20 July 1992)

227. On 19 July 1992, an Arab worker from Bethlehem was stabbed in Jerusalem, apparently by a Jew (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). Palestinian sources reported that four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip, although the IDF spokesman did not report injuries having taken place there. The majority of incidents occurred in the Jabalia and Khan Younis refugee camps. Two petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli vehicle in Ramallah but exploded on the road (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). An Arab resident complained that several shots had been fired at his vehicle near Sanur village, in the West Bank. No one was injured. (Ha'aretz, 20 July 1992)

228. On 20 July 1992, several stone-throwing incidents were reported in the West Bank: in the Balata refugee camp, in Ramallah and in Nablus. According to Palestinian sources, five residents were injured in the Khan Younis, Shati', Jabalia and Gaza City refugee camps in the Gaza Strip during clashes with the army. An Israeli Arab suffered slight burns when a petrol bomb was thrown at his truck in the centre of Nablus (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). (Ha'aretz, 21 July 1992)

229. On 21 July 1992, a man from the West Bank was shot to death when he tried to attack a Border Policeman together with another man (see list). The second assailant was arrested. Four firebombs were thrown at Israeli buses: two in the Bethlehem area, two in Ramallah and one at a police vehicle in Nablus, without causing any injury (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). According to Palestinian sources, seven residents were injured in the Gaza Strip (Gaza, three; Khan Younis, two; Jabalia refugee camp, two). Stone-throwing incidents were also reported in these refugee camps without causing any injury. An Israeli bus was stoned and a woman passenger was slightly injured in Kfar Nahlin (West Bank). (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 July 1992) According to local reports, Mahmud Khaled Kabha, 28, was killed by members of an undercover unit when he surprised them at a construction site as they were preparing an ambush. Military reports indicated that he was killed when he attacked the soldiers of a military patrol with an axe. (Al-Tali’ah, 23 July 1992)

230. On 22 July 1992, a leader of the Fatah-affiliated Black Panther group was killed in a clash with Border Policemen in the West Bank while two other gang members managed to escape (see list) (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). Four residents were reportedly injured in the Gaza Strip during clashes with the IDF whose vehicles were also stoned. Soldiers from the IDF post in Idna village (West Bank) heard gunshots. Searches were carried out and the village was placed under curfew. Gunshots were also fired at a civilian car near Kibbutz Meirav, on the slopes of Mount Gilboa. None of the passengers were injured. Two suspects from Jilaboun village were arrested. (Ha'aretz, 23 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 23 and 24 July 1992)

231. On 23 July 1992, an Israeli car was stoned in East Jerusalem and a 10-year-old girl was slightly injured by broken glass. Four residents from the Jabalia and Khan Younis refugee camps were reportedly injured. In the West Bank, a resident complained that a petrol bomb had been thrown at his car in Kalkiliya. Stone-throwing incidents were reported. A general, strike was observed in Jenin, in protest for the killing of Abu Hassan on 22 July 1992. (Ha'aretz, 24 July 1992)

232. On 24 July 1992, Israeli soldiers shot and injured in Hebron Raji Mahmud Battat, 32. Soldiers stated that they had opened fire at the car when the driver refused to obey orders to stop. A second passenger was also arrested and taken for interrogation. Battat was taken to the Alia Hospital for treatment. (Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992)

233. On 24 and 25 July 1992, a six-year-old Palestinian boy was killed by IDF soldiers when they opened fire while pursuing his father's car (see list) (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). A soldier succeeded in scooping up a grenade that was thrown at an IDF post in Jabalia before it exploded and threw it back outside the base. A fire-bomb was thrown at the Civil Administration building in Kalkiliya. It exploded but caused no injuries or damage. Four additional fire-bombs were thrown at IDF vehicles (Hebron, two; Ramallah, one; Nablus area, one) and one at a civilian vehicle in Nabi Schmuel. No injuries or damage were reported. A mine placed on the road at the entrance to Kafr Yabed (West Bank) was defused by Border Police sappers without provoking an accident. In the Hebron area, a Palestinian, was slightly wounded when the car he was driving was shot at by IDF soldiers when its occupants failed to obey orders to halt. In Bethlehem, a young Palestinian attacked a Jew with an iron bar and slightly injured him. The army conducted searches. Five residents were reportedly injured in the Gaza Strip during clashes with the army (Khan Younis, two; Jabalia, two; Gaza City, one). The IDF spokesman denied that any injuries had occurred. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 July 1992)

234. On 26 July 1992, a bomb placed on the side of the road exploded before dawn near the village of Sur Bahir, near Jerusalem, as an Israeli vehicle was passing by, but caused no damage. Two residents were reportedly injured in the Gaza Strip, in Khan Younis and in Jabalia. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 July 1992) Several explosive devices were thrown in the West Bank: in Beit Sahur, near Bethlehem (one), Um Touba area, south of Jerusalem, (one), in Askar refugee camp (one), in Ramallah (two), in Hebron (one). (Al-Fajr, 3 August 1992)

235. On 27 July 1992, a masked man from Khan Younis was shot dead by the IDF while a second man, who was carrying an axe, is believed to have been wounded (see list). The body of a woman resident of Khan Younis was brought to a hospital (see list). Three petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli vehicle near Hirbeta village, in the Ramallah area. The woman driver was not injured although one of the petrol bombs hit the car before falling on the road. Several shots were fired at an IDF outpost in Ilyar village, in the Tulkarm area. No one was injured and no damage was caused. The IDF placed the village under curfew. A man from Kalkiliya was stoned by fellow Arabs, apparently as a suspected collaborator. Palestinian sources in the Gaza Strip reported that incidents had occurred in the refugee camps of Jabalia and Shati', and in Khan Younis and Gaza City, in the course of which three residents were injured (Khan Younis, two; Gaza City, one). The IDF spokesman did not report that any resident had been injured. (Ha’aretz, 28 and 29 July 1992) During a pre-dawn raid on the northern West Bank village of Jilaboun, a joint force composed of police and IDF troops arrested three suspects wanted in connection with nationalistic incidents in the Mount Gilboa region. Two other men were arrested in the same village on 22 July 1992, after shots were fired at a car near kibbutz Meirav, inside the Green Line. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 28 July 1992) A 12-year-old boy who was allegedly throwing stones was shot in Turmus Aya, in the Ramallah area. He was subsequently taken to hospital for treatment. (Al-Fajr, 3 August 1992)

236. On 28 July 1992, a group of youths was stoned near Jerusalem's Silwan neighbourhood and one of the group's security guards was slightly wounded in the leg. Two petrol bombs were thrown at the police station in Ramallah without causing any harm. Four Palestinians were reportedly injured in clashes with the IDF in the Gaza Strip (Jabalia, three; Khan Younis, one). (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 July 1992)

237. On 29 July 1992, soldiers shot and seriously wounded a Palestinian from the Gaza Strip, after he had stabbed and slightly injured a soldier at the Erez checkpoint. A 13-year-old Jewish boy from Hebron was slightly wounded when a switch-blade knife was thrown at him. A curfew was imposed on the centre of the city. Several clashes in which three residents were reportedly injured by IDF shooting occurred in the Gaza Strip, in the Khan Younis, Jabalia and Shati' refugee camps. A grenade was thrown at the building of the Bezeq society in Ramallah. A petrol bomb was thrown at a police station in Nablus. In both cases, no injury or damage were reported. Three cars were torched and heavily damaged in East Jerusalem. Two had Israeli license plates, while one had license plates from the territories. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 July 1992)

238. On 30 July 1992, an Arab from Jerusalem killed policeman Pinhas Dadi, 39, and wounded a second one with a knife before being shot dead outside the walls of Jerusalem's Old City (see list). Three Arabs were shot and injured during IDF operations against stone-throwers in Beit Omar, near Hebron, after youths had thrown rocks at a car passing through the village. A resident from Tiberias was slightly hurt when stones were thrown at his car in Mount Gilboa, smashing the rear window. Two residents were injured in the Gaza Strip and stone-throwing incidents occurred in the refugee camps of Khan Younis, Jabalia and Shati'. A home-made bomb was discovered near the military camp that is located in the vicinity of the Dheisheh refugee camp, in the West Bank. The bomb was defused without causing any harm. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 July 1992)

239. On 31 July and 1 August 1992, two Palestinians were murdered over the weekend in the Gaza Strip (see list). Two Palestinians armed with an axe and a long knife attacked a Border Police patrol in the Tulkarm market and were injured when soldiers fired back at them (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992). A curfew was placed on the market area. Two bottles of acid were thrown at a military vehicle in Hebron, and three additional ones were found during the search. No one was injured and no damage was reported. In Kabatiya, in the Jenin area, a petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol without causing any harm. An Israeli vehicle was stoned in Beit Likya, in the Ramallah area. No one was hurt although one window on the car was smashed. One or two home-made bombs were discovered in Hebron," on the roof of a house that was used temporarily as a military outpost. The bomb was defused without causing any harm. In Hebron also, several military vehicles were set on fire at the Government's military headquarters, apparently by infiltrated agents. Slight damage was caused and Hamas graffiti were found on the walls. The nearby Ein Ashara neighbourhood was placed under curfew. Five residents were reportedly injured during incidents in Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, and in Ramallah. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 August 1992)

240. On 2 August 1992, Shimshon IDF undercover unit troops shot and killed an armed fugitive in Khan Younis (see list). Three soldiers were wounded in the shootout (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992). A second man was caught while a third one apparently managed to escape. A petrol bomb was thrown at an Israeli vehicle near Nalin village, in the Ramallah district. No injury or damage was reported. Three additional petrol bombs were found during the search. A home-made bomb was discovered by a soldier in Nablus and defused without causing harm. An Israeli vehicle was stoned in Jenin. The driver was slightly injured and light damage to the vehicle was reported. According to Palestinian sources, two residents were wounded by IDF shooting during incidents in the Gaza Strip (refugee camps of Khan Younis, Jabalia and Shati'). (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 August 1992) A Molotov cocktail was thrown at an army patrol in the Jabaliya refugee camp. The bomb exploded without causing any damage. Unidentified persons entered the compound of the army headquarters in Hebron and set fire to military vehicles. Several vehicles were destroyed and two soldiers had to be treated for smoke inhalation. (Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992)

241. On 3 August 1992, Corp. Doron Derzi, one of the Shimshon undercover unit soldiers who was wounded in the shootout in Khan Younis, died of the wounds he sustained on that occasion on 2 July (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992). According to Palestinian sources, two Palestinians were injured in the Shati' refugee damp, while several incidents were reported in Khan Younis and in the refugee camps of Jabalia and Rafah. Stone-throwing incidents were also reported in the West Bank. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 August 1992)

242. On 4 August 1992, a resident of the Gaza Strip was murdered (see list). Two IDF soldiers were slightly wounded in separate incidents. One was struck by shrapnel on the face when a hand-grenade thrown at the police building in Nablus exploded. The second soldier was injured as shots were fired at an IDF patrol in Rafah (also referred to in Al-Tali’ah, 6 August 1992; Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992). A home-made bomb was discovered near an IDF outpost in Bir Zeit, in the Ramallah area, and was subsequently neutralized. Stone-throwing incidents were reported in the refugee camps of Jabalia, Khan Younis and Shati'. Also on 4 August, a detainee was found dead in his cell at the Tulkarm detention centre (see list). (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 6 August 1992; Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992) An incendiary bottle was thrown at a tourist bus in Jerusalem, breaking the rear window. (Al-Tali'ah, 6 August 1992)

243. On 5 August 1992, two Palestinian residents of the territories Were murdered (see list). A 17-year-old resident of the Gaza Strip was injured while handling an explosive charge. A petrol bomb was thrown at a military vehicle near N'alin village, in the Ramallah area, without causing harm. A bottle was thrown at a tourist bus in East Jerusalem. No one was injured but some damage was reported (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992). Palestinian sources indicated that four residents were injured during clashes with the IDF in, the Gaza Strip (Rafah, Khan Younis and Gaza City). The IDF spokesman did not report that any injuries had occurred. Stone-throwing and other incidents were reported to have taken place in the West Bank (Tulkarm, Nablus and Ramallah). No Arab residents were wounded. (Ha'aretz, 6 August 1992)

244. On 6 August 1992, two petrol bombs were thrown at Israeli vehicles, one in the Ramallah area and the second one at the entrance of Nablus. In the second case, a boy was slightly injured by glass fragments when the window on one vehicle was smashed. A pipe-bomb was discovered by Border Police along the Green Line, near the northern Samarian villages of Faku'a and Jilaboun. The home-made device was destroyed without causing damage. Palestinian sources reported that three Palestinian residents were injured by IDF shooting in the Gaza Strip, although the IDF spokesman did not report any injuries. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 7 August 1992) Two explosive devices, were discovered, one at an army post in Hebron and the other near Galboa. Both devices were dismantled safely. (Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992)

245. On 7 and 8 August 1992, a fire-bomb was hurled at a passing Israeli car in Nablus. The bomb exploded on the road, causing no injuries or damage. A resident of Rafah was shot and wounded in the leg, apparently by Arab assailants. (Jerusalem Post, 9 August 1992)

246. On 8 August 1992, a Molotov cocktail was thrown at a border guard patrol in East Jerusalem. The bomb exploded without causing any damage. Police arrested two persons for allegedly trying to throw an additional petrol bomb. (Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

247. On 9 August 1992, two soldiers were injured in the head, one moderately and the other seriously by stones thrown at their patrols in two separate incidents in the Gaza Strip (Rafah, Gaza City). In Nablus, an Arab resident was shot and moderately wounded by troops when he prepared to throw a fire-bomb at them (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992). In Hebron, a woman tourist was slightly wounded by glass fragments when her rented car was struck by a stone. During a pre-emptive security operation in Hebron, IDF soldiers came across masked men and fired at them when they did not obey their orders to halt. The hospital reported no injuries (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992). According to Palestinian sources four residents were injured in the Gaza Strip (refugee camp of Jabalia, two; Khan Younis, two) but the IDF spokesperson did not report that any resident had been injured. Stone-throwing incidents and the burning of tires were reported in Gaza City in several of its neighbourhoods. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 August 1992) IDF soldiers in Hebron opened fire and injured Abdel Halim Raed Al Jubeh, 17, alleging that he threw stones at their patrol. (Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

248. On 10 August 1992, two residents of the Gaza Strip were murdered (see list). An improvised bomb was thrown at an IDF outpost in Khan Younis. Another petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in the area of Ramallah. The devices exploded but no injuries or damage were reported (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992) Palestinian sources reported that three residents were injured by IDF shooting in the refugee camps of Jabalia, Khan Younis and Shati'. (Ha'aretz, 11 August 1992)

249. On 11 August 1992, a resident of a Deir el-Balah was shot and killed by masked Palestinians while driving to work (see list). Another man who was with him was injured. Palestinian sources reported that three residents were wounded by IDF shooting during incidents in the Gaza Strip (refugee camps of Jabalia, Khan Younis and Shati'). The IDF spokesman did not report any injuries. In the West Bank, a petrol bomb was thrown at a military vehicle in Tulkarm but did not cause any damage. Stone-throwing incidents were also reported. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 August 1992)

250. On 12 August 1992, the IDF imposed a temporary curfew on the Kalandia refugee camp in the West Bank, when several shots were fired from a car with Israeli license plates (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992). Few incidents were reported in the territories. Two residents were injured in the khan Younis refugee camp. Stone-throwing incidents took place in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. (Ha’aretz, 13 August 1992)

251. On 13 August 1992, combined police and IDF units raided Jalam village, near Jenin, and arrested four persons wanted in connection with nationalistic incidents in the Mount Gilboa region (Jerusalem Post, 14 August 1992). A 24-year-old youth from Kabatiya, Abdel Kader Yussef Ikmeil, died when an explosive device went off, apparently while he was preparing it (see list under 14-15 August). A Molotov cocktail was thrown in Kabatiya but exploded without causing any damage. (Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

252. On 14 and 15 August 1992, an armed fugitive was killed in a shootout with an IDF patrol near Jenin (see list) (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992), while a four-year-old boy was also wounded by a ricochet in the exchange of fire. Two Palestinian residents of the territories were killed over the weekend (see list). In the Gaza Strip, near the Nuseirat refugee camp, one soldier was injured seriously and six others slightly, when their vehicles collided after being bombarded by stone-throwers as a result of which one of the drivers lost control (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992). An Israeli bus carrying Arab workers was burned in Bani Suheila (Gaza Strip) after masked men had forced the workers to get out (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992). An Arab family of five from East Jerusalem was briefly hospitalized in Nablus after masked men threw a bottle of acid into their car. Stones were thrown at an IDF post in Hebron and a soldier was slightly wounded. A curfew was imposed on Hebron. The army sealed off the area and ordered shops in the neighbourhood to close. Palestinian sources in the Gaza Strip reported that 3 residents were injured by IDF shooting while 10 residents were injured in the fights between Hamas and Fatah supporters. Stone-throwing incidents were reported in the refugee camps of the territories. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 August 1992) IDF soldiers shot and wounded Abdel Kader Ahmad Kawasmi, 12, from Hebron. He was admitted to a hospital with gunshot wounds in the head. The police stated that they were investigating the incident. (Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

253. On 16 August 1992, two Palestinians were murdered (see list). Shots were fired at an IDF patrol in Bani Suheila (Gaza Strip). Soldiers fired back and launched searches. A grenade exploded outside the fence of a military camp in the Gaza Strip without causing injuries or damage. Two petrol bombs were thrown in the Muslim quarter of Jerusalem's Old City at one of the four houses that had been occupied by Jews a week earlier. An IDF unit was stoned in Hebron by a group of masked men. One of the assailants was injured when soldiers opened fire. Five (or two) cars were torched in East Jerusalem; three were totally destroyed. Also on 16 August, it was reported that several days earlier four wanted fugitives had been caught by Border Police forces in a cave near Ya'abed village in the Jenin area. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 and 17 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

254. On 17 August 1992, the body of a Deir el-Balah resident was discovered while two villagers were killed in a brawl in Kabatiya, near Jenin (see list). Palestinian sources reported stone-throwing incidents in the refugee camps of Khan Younis, Shati' and Jabalia during which three residents were injured. Incidents also occurred in the refugee camps of the West Bank and one resident was reportedly injured in Ramallah. The IDF spokesman did not report any injuries. A wounded resident was brought to Nasser Hospital in Khan Younis, after being attacked by three masked men. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 and 19 August 1992)

255. On 18 August 1992, a Palestinian tried to stab a soldier in the Bureij refugee camp, Gaza Strip. The soldier was not wounded and the assailant was arrested. According to Palestinian sources, three residents of the Gaza Strip were injured by IDF shooting during clashes that occurred in the refugee camps of Khan Younis, Jabalia, Shati' and in Gaza City. Stone-throwing incidents were reported in the West Bank. A petrol bomb was thrown at an Israeli car near N'alin village, in the Ramallah district. The bomb did not cause any injuries or damage (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992). Hundreds of young fruit trees were destroyed in the Gush Etzion Kibbutz south-west of Bethlehem by unidentified persons. Also on 18 August, it was reported that Border Police had arrested on 16 August 1992 three armed fugitives who had been sought for a long time in the Rafah area (Gaza Strip). Weapons were also seized on that occasion. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 18 and 19 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992).

256. On 19 August 1992, it was reported that the IDF had lately captured seven members of the Red Eagle gang from Gaza. The seven, including one of the commanders, were suspected of attacking and killing Palestinians. Guns and ammunition were also found (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992). Also on 19 August, Bechor Hajaj, 55, was murdered in his hothouse in Kefar Jawitz in the Tel Mond area (within the Green Line), apparently by Arabs. Later on, Jewish residents of the area attacked a car from Jenin and smashed its windows. (Ha’aretz, 19 and 20 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 19 August 1992) According to Israel Radio,, an IDF soldier was slightly wounded when his patrol was pelted with stones in Fakua village. A Palestinian youth was arrested in Eizeryah after he threw two incendiary bottles at an Israeli vehicle. (Al-Tali'ah, 20 August 1992)

257. On 20 August 1992, a Rafah resident died of wounds that had been inflicted on 19 August 1992 by masked men (see list). Two IDF officers were slightly injured by a fire-bomb thrown at their jeep in Hebron. The bomb was one of three that were thrown at the vehicle. The patrol opened fire in response, apparently without hitting anyone. The army placed the area under curfew and conducted searches. A Hebron resident was arrested by the army after he drew a knife on the soldiers and insulted them. An Israeli driver was slightly injured by a bottle thrown at his car in East Jerusalem (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992). Also on 20 August, the IDF announced that the Security Forces had lately captured a Ramallah-based cell of the Fatah movement. Among the persons who were apprehended was a woman, Abeer Wahidi, 23, who was said to be responsible for the killing of an Israeli in December 1991 and was suspected of firing at Israeli vehicles in the area. Weapons and ammunition were also found. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992) Soldiers shot and wounded a youth in the Far'a refugee camp, in the Jenin area, after he allegedly refused orders to halt. Another Palestinian was shot and injured when soldiers opened fire at a car with Hebron license plates. The army stated that the car was driving at high speed at night and that the driver had failed to obey orders to halt. Both the driver and a passenger were arrested. Two Molotov cocktails were thrown at an Israeli but near the Psagot settlement in the area of Ramallah while another one was thrown at an army post in the Jabaliya refugee camp. The bombs exploded but caused no injuries. (Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

258. On 21 and 22 August 1992, an Israeli family of four was slightly to moderately injured when their vehicle overturned south of Hebron, after being stoned. A curfew was imposed on the venue of the incident (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992). A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF post in Beit Romano, in Hebron. The petrol bomb smashed against the wall of the post without causing any injuries or damage. The soldiers responded by opening fire. (Ha'aretz, 23 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992) Three Israeli soldiers were injured when their patrol was hit by stones in Hebron. A curfew was imposed on the area for several hours. The occupied territories observed a general strike marking the anniversary of the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem 20 years ago. (Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

259. On 22 August 1992, fire was set to two Israeli cars in East Jerusalem. The cars were completely destroyed. Police and border guards detained several youths for a number of hours and subsequently released them. (Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

260. On 23 August 1992, a man from Gaza was shot and killed (see list). A resident of Sanur (West Bank), was shot and wounded, but managed to make his way to a nearby IDF base where he stated that he had been shot by two Palestinian residents. A tourist was slightly injured when her car was stoned in the Tulkarm market and the windshield shattered. An explosive device was dismantled at a bus stop on the Jerusalem-Ramallah road near Neveh Ya'acov without causing harm (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992). A van carrying 10 workers from the territories was torched by two unknown attackers in Kfar Jawitz, probably in retaliation for the murder of Bechor Hajaj on 19 August 1992. The workers were not hurt, but the vehicle was completely destroyed. (Jerusalem Post, 24 August 1992) A Molotov cocktail was thrown at an army patrol in the Jabaliya refugee camp, in the Gaza Strip, and exploded without causing any damage. IDF soldiers used tear-gas and rubber bullets to disperse stone-throwing youths in the Shabbura quarter of Gaza City. Two young Palestinians were arrested. Similar confrontations were reported in the Shajaiyeh quarter of the same city. (Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

261. On 24 August 1992, an Arab from the Gaza Strip was stabbed to death by masked Palestinians on suspicion of cooperating with the authorities (see list). Palestinian sources reported incidents in the Gaza Strip (refugee camps of Khan Younis, Jabalia and Shati') where five residents were injured. Incidents were also reported in the West Bank, refugee camps and in Ramallah. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 August 1992) Four incidents in which Molotov cocktails were thrown were reported in the occupied territories: two at an army patrol in the Rafah refugee camp, one at an Israeli bus near Al Mazra'a Al Sharqieh and the fourth at an army patrol in Hebron. No injuries were reported. (Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

262. On 25 August 1992, it was reported that the Border Police had arrested three fugitives belonging to a Fatah cell, who operated mostly in the southern Gaza Strip. The men were suspected of murdering Arab residents, attacking soldiers and of other subversive activities. Weapons were also seized. Also on 25 August 1992, the body of a woman resident of the Gaza Strip who had been shot dead was brought to Nasser Hospital (see list). A petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol in Hebron. No injuries or damage were reported. Two residents of the Shati' refugee camp were reportedly injured. (Ha’aretz, 25 and 26 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 25 August 1992)

263. On 26 August 1992, Border Police Superintendent Ehi Avraham, 29, was killed in the early hours of the morning in a violent shootout with two armed Palestinian fugitives. The two fugitives had taken refuge in a building in Jenin and were apparently holding a number of local residents hostage. After several hours, the special anti-terror squad stormed the building and killed the two fugitives (see list). The wife of the owner of the building was also killed (see list) in the crossfire while three other persons were injured, some of them critically: Ataf Hamed Alal, 24, as well as Lawa' Khaled Alawna, 3, and her sister, Du'a, 1, both daughters of the owner of the building, who was later arrested. Three petrol bombs were thrown at IDF patrols (in Hebron, two; in Nablus, one). No injuries were reported in either attack. A curfew was imposed in Hebron at the venue of the attack. An Arab resident tried to stab a soldier near the Civil Administration office in the West Bank; he subsequently managed to escape. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 27 August 1992; Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

B. Administration of justice, including the right to a fair trial

Oral evidence

264. Witnesses testifying before the Special Committee described the conditions of their interrogation and the psychological pressure that was also used against members of their families. Mr. Samir Mourad Yahya Baaba stated the following in this connection:

265. Wives of detainees have also described the treatment they were subjected to as a result of their husband's detention. This is how a witness described the way she was treated:

266. Dr. Mohammed Jadallah, Chairman of the Union of Health Care Committees in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, who testified before the Special Committee described how his sister was arrested so that psychological pressure could be exerted on his son Mourad who was in detention:

267. A witness testifying before the Special Committee stated that judgement sometimes takes place after excessively long periods of time, often because the defendant refuses to confess:

268. Lawyers have often complained of not having access to their clients. One witness testifying before the Special Committee stated the following:

269. A witness described the conditions under which arrests take place in the following manner:

270. The wife of a detainee who testified before the Special Committee described what happened to her husband during interrogation:

271. Dr. Jadallah also described the first and subsequent arrests of his 12-year-old son Mourad:

272. In a written statement submitted to the Special Committee, Dr. Jadallah described his son's behaviour after he was released from prison:

273. A witness testifying before the Special Committee indicated that questioning under duress often resulted in forced confessions:

274. A witness has also indicated that a sentence which a defendant receives may depend on whether they have confessed or not:

275. A witness described what may also happen if a defendant does not confess:

276. One witness indicated to the Special Committee that a sentence may also be pronounced on the basis of evidence provided by a third party:

277. Dr. Jadallah provided the following information concerning evidence by a third party:

278. Numerous lawyers spoke of the bureaucratic obstacles that prevented them from exercising their profession. A witness testifying before the Special Committee stated the following:

279. Lawyers have also complained about the frequent transfers of prisoners from one detention centre to another of which neither they nor the prisoners, families were informed or were able to keep track. One witness described the problems he had encountered in this connection:

280. Numerous persons described the particularly difficult conditions under which prisoners are transferred between different detention centres or from the prison to the courthouse. A witness stated to that effect:

281. Detainees were sometimes said to have wanted "quick" justice themselves because of the conditions under which their transfers take place. In this regard, a witness stated the following;

282. Several lawyers have told the Special Committee that they were not always duly informed of when their clients' hearings took place but that they would be fined for not appearing in court. A witness provided the following description:

283. Another witness provided the following details:

284. One witness described how lawyers may also be subjected to physical assault in court:

285. The consequences of such practices can be very serious for the defendant and account for the administering of so-called "quick" justice. A witness stated to that effect:

286. One witness who testified before the Special Committee described the obstacles faced by lawyers once the sentence has been handed down:

287. A number of lawyers has described the difference in exercising their profession between Arab lawyers and their Israeli colleagues. One witness stated in this connection:

288. A witness testifying before the Special Committee has stated the following with regard to administrative detention:

289. According to several witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee, medical treatment is denied to persons under administrative detention. One person indicated in particular:

290. Accounts of the administration of justice in the occupied territories may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.587/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.589 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.590 (Mr. Samir Mourad Yahya Baaba), A/AC.145/RT.590/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.594 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.595 (anonymous witness) and A/AC.145/RT.597 (Dr. Mohammed Jadallah).


Written information 12/
1. Palestinian population

291. On 2 March 1992, it was reported that a minor from Bethlehem claimed damages from the West Bank Military Commander and Security Office in the amount of US$ 390,000 at the Beersheba District Court. On 13 June 1989, the minor, aged 10, was hit in the face with a rubber bullet fired by security forces operating in the neighbourhood he was living in. The incident resulted in the permanent loss of eyesight in one eye. (Ha’aretz, 2 March 1992)

292. On 4 March 1992, Amjad Mohammed Abu Draz, from Abassa in the Gaza Strip, was sentenced to two life prison terms plus 30 years. Abu Draz was accused of killing collaborators and membership in Fatah. (Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

293. On 5 March 1992, the Supreme Court invalidated the sentence passed by a District Court concerning Nidal Zalum, who killed two persons and severely injured three others in Jerusalem on 3 May 1969. The Court ruled that the two terms of life imprisonment plus three sentences of 10 years' imprisonment each would be cumulative and not run concurrently. (Ha'aretz, 6 March 1992)

294. On 5 March 1992, the Hebron Military Court sentenced Amar Ab Kader Al Snati, 25, from Beit Awa, and Ali Jabr Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Zalta, 27, from Azna, to 32 years and 11 months in prison respectively. Another youth from Gaza, Imad Hassan Al Safadi, 20, was sentenced to two life prison terms plus two years for killing collaborators and for membership in the popular committees. It was also reported that a Gaza student, Hamada Mahmud Al Berbar, 18, was sentenced to 15 months in prison for membership in the Palestinian Popular Party and for writing on walls. (Al-Tali'ah, 5 and 12 March 1992; Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

295. On 11 March 1992, Bassam Mohamed Kuttab, 23, from Nablus, and Mohamed Shukri Masri, 26, were both sentenced to life in prison on security charges and for the killing of collaborators. (Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

296. On 15 March 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced Majid Ahmad Hammad, 27, from the Jabalia refugee camp, to six life prison terms. He was accused of killing eight collaborators. In a separate development, a Palestinian journalist, Abdul Rahim Hafez Al Rimawi, 32, from Beit Reema, was sentenced to six months of administrative detention. (Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

297. On 16 March 1992, the Nablus Military Court sentenced Rashid Adnan Kan'ir, 18, of Nablus, to 10 years of imprisonment plus 5 years suspended "for terrorist activity and for attempting to kill a Jew at the end of 1990". (Ha'aretz, 17 March 1992)

298. On 22 March 1992, it was reported that the Tel Aviv District Court sentenced Juad Masrawa and Midhat Jum'a, both 21, from Taybe, to four years and two and a half years of imprisonment respectively for having thrown four petrol bombs at policemen and soldiers. (Ha’aretz, 22 March 1992)

299. On 24 March 1992, the Jenin Military Court sentenced Saleh Hseis, 20, to life imprisonment plus 30 years. He was accused, of membership in the Black Panthers, possession of weapons and the killing of collaborators. (Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

300. On 25 March 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced two youths from the Jabalia refugee camp, Kamal Abdel Fatah Abu Zeiyda, 22, and Mosleh Mohamed Al Sharafi, 23, to respectively 24 and 32 years of effective imprisonment. Both were accused of throwing incendiary bottles, firing at military patrols and of membership in popular committees. (Al-Tali’ah, 26 March 1992)

301. On 26 March 1992, it was reported that the Jerusalem District Court sentenced four youths from Jebel Al Mukabar on security charges. The youths are Issa Al Isawy, 19 (seven years in prison and two suspended), Al Shafi Ibrahim Shikeirat, 19 (six years in prison and two suspended), Ramzi Hussein Al Kanbar (four years and two suspended) and Nader Abd Mohamed Osman, 17 (four and a half, years in prison and one and a half years suspended). They were all accused of setting cars on fire and throwing incendiary bottles. (Al-Tali’ah, 26 March 1992)

302. On 27 March 1992, it was reported that Dib 'Uda, 20, and a minor, 17, both from Talat, were sentenced by the Tel Aviv District Court to 18 years of imprisonment when they were convicted of attempting to kill Avraham Kalderero in Petah Tikwa on 21 July 1991. (Ha’aretz, 27 March 1992)

303. On 1 April 1992, the High Court of Justice rejected the petition of the Arab bus company Wakef from Hebron to cancel the seizing by the IDF of the old central bus station land, following the murder of Yeshiva student Aharon Gros in 1983. (Ha'aretz, 2 April 1992)

304. On 8 April 1992, the Supreme Court found Jamal Abidayeh, of Jebel Mukaber (in East Jerusalem), guilty of kidnapping two teenage Jewish hitchhikers for ransom or with intention of murder, thus confirming the appeal of the State Prosecution against a Jerusalem District Court decision, which found him guilty of simple kidnapping. The Court, however, upheld his earlier sentence of 12 years' imprisonment. (Jerusalem Post, 9 April 1992)

305. On 13 April 1992, it was reported that the Jenin Military Court sentenced Ahmad Nawaf Samara, 22, from Burkin village near Jenin, to four life terms plus 25 years of imprisonment after he was convicted of membership in the Black Panther group and of killing collaborators. (Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

306. On 15 April 1992, Abdel Rahman Abdel Haj, 20, from Kalkiliya, was sentenced by the Tel Aviv District Court to life imprisonment plus 20 years for stabbing a woman to death and wounding three other persons in Kfar Sava on 21 February 1992. (Jerusalem Post, 16 April 1992)

307. On 28 April 1992, the Jenin Military Court postponed for the twenty-ninth time the hearing of the case of Hassan Abed Majarba, 35, from the village of Idna, in the Hebron area. Majarba first appeared in court in Hebron. His file was subsequently transferred
to Ramallah, and then to Jenin. He is charged with membership in the Fatah movement and with possession of weapons. (Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

308. On 29 April 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced four Khan Younis residents to life imprisonment plus three years for causing death with premeditation, endangering the area's security and for activities against public order in the Gaza Strip. The four defendants were Hatan Said Abd el-Ranam, Walid Muhammad Waf, Naim Jaber Faluja and Riad Yussef. (Ha'aretz, 1 May 1992) On 29 April 1992, the Jenin Military Court sentenced Bilal Ahmad Ammar, 33, to 27 years in prison. He was convicted of throwing bombs at Israeli soldiers, possession of weapons and membership in the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP). (Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

309. On 10 May 1992, the State Prosecutor's Office told the High Court of Justice that it would not prosecute Palestinian leaders Sari Nusseibeh and Radwan Abu-Ayash. The statement was a response to a request made by MK Elyakim Ha'etzni (Tehiya) that criminal charges not be filed against them for involvement in the uprising. (Jerusalem Post, 11 and 12 May 1992)

310. On 19 May 1992, the Beersheba District Court ordered the seizure of the taxi belonging to Jamal Ismail Baz, from the Nuseirat refugee camp, because it had been used to carry out a murder. Baz had already been sentenced four months earlier, to life imprisonment for the murder of a soldier, Nadav Deri, plus to 15 additional years of imprisonment for the attempted murder of another soldier. (Ha'aretz, 22 May 1992)

311. On 21 May 1992, it was reported that the Jenin Military Court sentenced two members of the Black Panther group, Faisal Abu-Rub(u) and Mohammed Naji (Asaf), from Kabatiya, to life imprisonment for the killing of soldier Yoram Cohen on 15 September 1991. (Ha’aretz, 13 and 21 May 1992)

312. On 25 May 1992, the Jerusalem District Court sentenced Raja Akram Maswadeh, 18, from the Old City of Jerusalem to one year in prison and two years' suspended sentence after having convicted her of attempting to stab a border guard near the Western Wall a few months before. (Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

313. On 31 May 1992, the Supreme Court aggravated the sentence pronounced against a 17-year-old woman from Ramallah who tried to stab a Border Policeman, Ruba Ibrahim Najar, in Jerusalem. Following the appeal, the justices sentenced her to three years' imprisonment instead of the 15 months to which she had been sentenced by the District Court. (Ha’aretz, 1 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

314. On 3 June 1992, Nadia Atzi and Mustafa Abu-Zahara, both aged 24, from Biddya in the West Bank, were each sentenced by the Tel Aviv District Court to 15 years' imprisonment for the attempted murder of a security guard in their village whom they suspected of collaborating with the authorities. (Jerusalem Post, 4 June 1992)

315. On 8 June 1992, Ahmed Salim Nijam, 48, from Haifa, was convicted for making catapults used by uprising activists and was sentenced by the Haifa Magistrates Court to performing six months of public service. (Jerusalem Post, 9 June 1992)

316. On 17 June 1992, it was reported that two Palestinian advisers to the Middle East peace talks delegation were arrested and placed under administrative detention. The men were identified as Walid Zakut, 30, from the Shati' refugee camp, and Fares Hasuna, 36, from the Bureij refugee camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

317. On 17 June 1992, Osama Jabad, 28, from Taibe, Hussein Atalla, 32, and Mahmud Sharaf, 22, both from Nablus, were sentenced by the Tel-Aviv District Court to life imprisonment for the murder of, a Taibe resident in July 1991. (Jerusalem Post, 18 June 1992)

318. On 17 June 1992, the Lydda Military Court sentenced Jihad Kamel Sharawneh, 16, from East Jerusalem to 11 years in prison plus 5 years suspended after convicting him of security offences. (Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

319. On 18 June 1992, the Tel Aviv District Court sentenced Imad Abu-Rian, 19, from Beit Lahiya, to 40 years' imprisonment for the attempted murder of two soldiers in Od Hasharon in March 1991. (Ha’aretz, 19 June 1092; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

320. On 21 June 1992, the Nablus Military Court sentenced Maher Ramez Shaker al-Masri, 20, from Nablus, to nine years' imprisonment for the murder of suspected collaborators and for shooting at and ambushing IDF forces. (Ha'aretz, 22 June 1992)

321. On 28 June 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced Bassam Muhammed Ahmed Anim to 12 years' imprisonment for leading the military branch of the Popular Front in the Gaza Strip between June and August 1991. (Ha'aretz, 29 June 1992)

322. On 2 July 1992, the Hebron Military Court sentenced Abd al-Karim Khalil, from Hebron, to 15 years' imprisonment for the attempted murder of an Israeli soldier in March 1992. (Ha’aretz, 3 July 1992)

323. On 9 July 1992, Ibrahim Salah and Mohammed Maamer, from the Bethlehem district, were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Jerusalem District Court. The two murdered Prof. Stern of Hebrew University on 22 June 1989. On a different occasion, Salah alone murdered Eli Amsalem in his home. He received two consecutive life sentences while Maamer was sentenced to one. In addition, the two defendants received 20-year sentences for the attempted murders of two other residents of Jerusalem. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 July 1992)

324. On 12 July 1992, Fua'd Abdel Rani Almalarin (or Fuad Muhammed Amarin or Abu Al Umrin), 19, from the Nuseirat refugee camp, who had stabbed Helena Rapp to death in Bat Yam on 24 May 1992, was sentenced to life imprisonment by the Tel Aviv District Court. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 13 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

325. On 20 July 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced Hafez Dubal (or Hafez Mahmud Abd a-Dubal), from the Bureij refugee camp, 2 to 5 years of imprisonment for the killing of reservist Amnon Pomerantz on 20 September 1990. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 July 1992)

326. On 20 July 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced Nuaf Awad (or Nawaf Jamal Rajab 'Awud), from the Khan Younis refugee camp to life imprisonment plus 30 years for the murder of four local residents and two attempted murders in 1989. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 July 1992)

327. On 20 July 1992, Mahmud Sudki Kassam Abu-Hanana, 27, from Arraba (West Bank) was sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment plus 6 years' suspended sentence by the Nablus Military Court for having created and trained a cell to carry out armed attacks in his village, when he came back from Iraq in 1986, where he had enlisted in Force 17, a special unit of the Fatah. (Ha’aretz, 21 July 1992)

328. On 20 July 1992, the Nablus Military Court sentenced Hamdi Hamad Hashana, 27, from Nablus, a member of the Red Eagles cell, to eight years' imprisonment; and Wail Muhammad Suleiman Awash to four years' imprisonment. Both were sentenced for "terrorist" activities they had undertaken in 1989. The two defendants were sentenced despite the fact that their lawyers did not attend the last sitting of the court. Nablus lawyers were on strike for three days at the time in protest against the suicide of a detainee in Hebron prison on 8 July 1992. The strike, considered political and unlawful, was not recognized by the Court, which refused to postpone the trial. The following day, Justice Minister David Libar complained and expressed his surprise at the fact that the Nablus Military Court had sentenced two defendants who were not represented by their lawyers, which is contrary to international law and the principles of justice. (Ha'aretz, 21 and 22 July 1992)

329. On 23 July 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed, 19, from Deir el-Balah, to life imprisonment for the murder of Rabbi Shimon Biran on 27 May 1992. (Ha'aretz, 24 July 1992)

330. On 29 July 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced 'Usama Awad Abu Nassir, 21, from Khan Younis, to four life sentences plus 100 years for the murder of four local residents suspected of collaboration and for four additional attempted murders. (Ha'aretz, 30 July 1992)

331. On 29 July 1992, the Nablus Military Court sentenced Wail Abdallah Attallah, 21, from Nablus, to 12 years imprisonment plus 5 suspended for attacking two guards at the Nablus prison in October 1990, while he was serving a sentence there, as well as for "terrorist" activities. (Ha'aretz, 30 July 1992)

332. On 30 July 1992, the Gaza Military Court sentenced Muhammed Abu Draz, 27 from Absan (Gaza Strip); to life imprisonment and another 100 years in prison for intentionally causing death, for manslaughter and for violent attacks on Arab residents who were suspected of collaborating with the authorities. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 July 1992)

333. On 23 August 1992, it was reported that, in a precedent-setting decision the Supreme Court ruled that a life sentence could be imposed on a minor convicted of murder. The Court was ruling on the appeal of the prosecution against the sentences imposed on two (or three) youths from the Nablus area convicted for the murder of the Bnei Brak Yeshiva student Baruch Ya'acov Heister two years earlier. The Tel Aviv District Court had found the two (or three) guilty of stabbing Heister to death and wounding three other persons on a bus. The attack was described as an "admission ticket" into a "terrorist" gang. The District Court, invoking the youth of the defendants, sentenced them to 20 (or 30) years of imprisonment for murder and 10 years for attempted murder. Overruling this decision, the Supreme Court sentenced them to life imprisonment for murder and 10 years for attempted murder. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 August 1992)

334. On 24 August 1992, the Hebron Military Court sentenced Khalil Mohammed Hasasna (or Khalil Mahmud Khalil), 24, of Kafr Shuyuk (West Bank), to 20 years in prison for the attempted murder of a Jewish youth near the Hebron market in June 1987. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 August 1992) The Gaza Military Court sentenced Mahmud Hinnawi, 23, from the Khan Younis refugee camp, to four terms of life imprisonment plus 30 years after he was convicted of membership in the military wing of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), the killing of four collaborators and attempts to kill soldiers. (Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)


Written information 13/
2. Israelis

335. On 5 March 1992, Herzl Buchovza, 28, of Ashdod, whose tractor-trailer crashed into a Gaza station wagon on 8 December 1987, killing 4 residents of the Jabalia refugee camp, injuring 10 and triggering off the uprising, was acquitted by the Beersheba Traffic Court regarding charges of causing the accident, manslaughter and negligence. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 12 March 1992)

336. On 12 March 1992, it was reported that Ami Nessim, a policeman with the Gaza police, appeared before a Police Disciplinary Court on charges of having sprinkled a resident of Gaza, Nasser Ibrahim Diab, with a fire hose on 19 April 1990. The defendant was convicted of improper use of strength and was reprimanded. (Ha’aretz, 12 March 1992)

337. On 16 March 1992, the Haifa District Court sentenced to three months of public service work a man from Kiryat Bialik who shot dead a resident of Jenin, while serving as a guard on a gasoline delivery truck almost three years earlier. The man had originally been charged with manslaughter, which he denied, but had agreed to a plea bargain whereby he pleaded guilty to causing death by negligence. (Jerusalem Post, 17 March 1992)

338. On 19 March 1992, it was reported that a former IDF Officer, Mordechai Ben-David, 38, of Givatayim, who sold a gun to Palestinian activist Iyad Shaluf in 1987, received a two-year suspended sentence and was ordered to pay a fine of US$ 2,150 when the Beersheba District Court ruled that imprisoning him would not serve any purpose. Iyad Shaluf was arrested in October 1990. (Jerusalem Post, 19 March 1992

339. On 20 March 1992, it was reported that a patrol commander who had beaten an Arab resident of Rafah and broken his nose on 23 June 1991, was sentenced to two months' imprisonment plus three months' suspended sentence and was demoted to the rank of private. (Ha’aretz, 20 March 1992)

340. On 23 March 1992, the judge of a military court in Jaffa was reported to have given two Israeli soldiers a reprimand for the beating of a Palestinian child in May 1992 although the soldiers were found guilty of beating and torturing the child in the Tulkarm refugee camp and of unsuitable conduct. (Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

341. On 24 March 1992, Yehuda Ben-Ariel, an Israeli who fired shots at an Arab to scare him and compel him to leave his job in the Ma'aleh Levona settlement near Shilo, was sentenced to six months' imprisonment by the Jerusalem District Court. (Jerusalem Post, 25 March 1992)

342. On 25 March 1992, it was reported that Nahshon Wohls from Kiryat Arba had been sentenced to life imprisonment for murder two weeks earlier. On 6 August 1990, he shot at a car as it passed an Israeli suburb near Hebron and killed Aziza Jabber, a pregnant woman on her way to the hospital. (Jerusalem Post, 25 March 1992)

343. On 2 April 1992, the Military Court of the Southern Region sentenced to two and a half months, plus six and a half months suspended, a Givati soldier for displaying harsh brutality towards an Arab detainee from Gaza on 17 December 1991, while the man was tied up and blindfolded. The prisoner, Mahmud Hussein Mahmud, had been arrested for throwing stones at soldiers. (Ha'aretz, 3 April 1992)

344. On 9 April 1992, peace activist David Ish-Shalom was imprisoned for seven months by the ruling of the Jerusalem District Court for violating the anti-terror law, which bans unauthorized meetings with outlawed organizations, including the PLO. (Jerusalem Post, 10 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

345. On 23 April 1992, it was reported that the Central Region Military Court sentenced two soldiers from the Shimshon special unit to a $125 fine for the first one and to four months imprisonment suspended, respectively, for beating up two residents of Khan Younis, Abd el-Latif Juluh, 66, and Mahmud Ali Alwan, 58. (Ha'aretz, 23 April 1992)

346. On 26 April 1992, it was reported that the officer investigating the shooting of two Palestinians in the village of Dura on 20 April 1992 had cleared the soldiers involved of responsibility. An Israeli couple, David and Aviva Elimelech from Luzit Moshav, who were visiting a Palestinian friend in the village, claimed that soldiers (in civilian clothing) shot at two unarmed Palestinians spraying graffiti on walls, without first ordering them to halt. One Palestinian was moderately wounded, the other one slightly. The couple stated that an officer beat Mousa Rajoub, the couple's host, when he protested the shooting. The investigating officer stated that the couple's report contained contradictions and was unreliable. Central Commander Maj.-General Danny Yatom accepted the investigating officer's findings. (Ha'aretz, 22, 26 and 28 April 1992; Jerusalem Post, 22, 23 and 26 April 1992)

347. On 27 April 1992, the Beersheba District Court sentenced Ilan Buzaglo, 28, of Beersheba, to nine years' imprisonment for selling 15 firearms to a Palestinian, Mahmud Abu Aram, from Mount Hebron. (Jerusalem Post, 28 April 1992)

348. On 18 May 1992, the Southern Command Military Court sentenced an IDF soldier to three months' imprisonment plus five suspended, for using harsh brutality against five Arab detainees at the Khan Younis interrogation facility in October 1991. The man, a recent immigrant, was a military policeman at the facility. (Ha'aretz, 19 May 1992)

349. On 19 May 1992, it was reported that the Military Court of Appeal rejected the appeal of two IDF soldiers who had been accused of harsh brutality towards Arab detainees in Dahariya prison and was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment. (Ha'aretz, 19 May 1992)

350. On 22 May 1992, it was reported that a soldier, "with the rank of private", was sentenced to six months' imprisonment by the Northern District Military Court for stealing 120 munitions from the IDF, which had ended up in the possession of a member of the Black Panther group in the territories. (Ha'aretz, 22 May 1992)

351. On 3 June 1992, it was reported that Eyal Yakov, 24, a former Border Policeman, was sentenced by the Tel Aviv District Court to performing six months of public service and to a two-year suspended sentence for injuring a resident of the Balata refugee camp by shooting him in the back with a plastic bullet on 17 December 1989. (Ha'aretz, 3 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

352. On 3 June 1992, it was reported that the Jerusalem District Court found an Israeli border guard, Yacov Khalif, not guilty of killing Bethlehem resident Fadi Zabakli on 28 December 1989. Despite the existence of a film shot by the American ABC television network documenting the whole incident, the District Court judge stated that she could not find evidence to prove that it was Khalif's bullet that had killed Zabakli. (Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992; Al-Tali'ah, 11 June 1992)

353. On 4 June 1992, the Beersheba District Court found Israeli border guard, Leor, Gorno, 23, not guilty of stabbing and wounding two Palestinians in the Rafah refugee camp. Gorno stated that he had stabbed the two in self-defense when they tried to take away his gun. The judge stated that he found contradictions in the testimonies of the two Palestinians and therefore could not pronounce Gorno guilty. (Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

354. On 6 July 1992, two Israeli soldiers were given a nine-month suspended sentence for beating and causing serious bodily injury to a Tulkarm resident more than two and a half years ago. The judge of the Netanya Magistrates Court who pronounced sentence stated that he gave a suspended sentence because the case was very old. (Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

355. On 7 July 1992, a Gaza Military Court handed down a one-month suspended sentence to the commander of the Shimshon undercover unit for the Gaza area, who was found guilty of negligence in connection with the death of Mohammed Darwish, 15, on 4 October 1989 in the Bureij refugee camp. The Court placed the commander on a year's probation for recurrent violation of regulations (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992). On 2 July 1992, the court had found the commander guilty of negligence but had pronounced him not guilty on charges of indirect responsibility for manslaughter. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 and 8 July 1992)

356. On 8 July 1992, four Border Policemen were sentenced to prison terms by the Tel Aviv District Court for torturing a group of Arab hotel workers in 1987. Eli Gabai, 24, from Mazkeret Batya was sentenced to a year in prison plus one year's probation. The three other defendants, Eli Gabai, 25, from Beersheba, Zion Cohen, 25, from Bat Yam and Avi Musafi, 25, from Rishon Lezion, were sentenced to 8 months' imprisonment plus 10 months' probation. All four were also ordered to pay damages in the amount of approximately $410 to three of the six Arabs they had attacked. (Jerusalem Post, 9 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

357. On 16 July 1992, Col. Effi Fein was severely reprimanded for ordering the harsh beating of Palestinian demonstrators in Gaza, in 1988. Sources indicated that the reprimand may have been recommended to the Chief of General Staff, Lt.-Gen. Ehud Barak, by the military Judge Advocate-General, Brig.-Gen. Ilan Schiff, in order to prevent Fein from lodging an appeal concerning the decision that he be tried at the High Court of Justice. (Jerusalem Post, 19 July 1992)

358. On 12 August 1992, it was reported that the police had recommended the closure of the inquiry file concerning the case of Jamal Rashid Ghanem, 23, from Shweike village (West Bank), who was shot and killed by Border Policemen while playing soccer at the Tulkarm stadium on 22 March 1992. The man had been wanted by the security forces for a long time. (Ha'aretz, 12 August 1992)

C. Treatment of civilians

1. General developments

(a) Harassment and Physical ill-treatment

Oral evidence

359. Numerous witnesses testifying before the Special Committee spoke of the harassment they underwent when leaving the occupied territories. One witness described his personal experience:

360. A woman testifying before the Special Committee had a similar experience:

361. Numerous witnesses have spoken about the arbitrary nature of harassment they have been subjected to. One witness stated the following:

362. A witness testifying before the Special Committee described what happened before a wedding:

363. Ms. Manal Eid Al-Moulki had a similar experience:

364. One witness described what happened to him before he was arrested:

365. One witness described what happened to the family car:

366. A number of wives of detainees have spoken about their experiences in prison when they go to visit their husbands. One wife stated the following in this connection:

367. Harassment may sometimes have lasting adverse consequences, as described by a witness:

368. Testimonies relating to the harassment and physical ill-treatment of civilians in the occupied territories may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.589 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.589/Add.1 (Ms. Manal Eid Al-Moulki), A/AC.145/RT.590/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.592 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness), and A/AC.145/RT.594 (anonymous witness).

Written information 14/

369. On 21 April 1992, the Gaza news photographer, Majdi Arabeid, or Arabeed, 28, who had been detained since 12 March 1992, was released from custody after the Foreign Press Association protested against his detention and accused the authorities of mistreating him. The photographer was filming a clash between soldiers and Palestinians for British-based Worldwide Television News (WTN) when Border Police arrested him. The army claimed that he had incited the clash in order to film it. (Jerusalem Post, 13 April 1992; Ha'aretz, Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992; Jerusalem Post, 22 April 1992) On 21 April 1992, it was reported that a resident of Dura, in the Hebron area, filed a complaint against an army officer who beat him and broke his nose. The incident occurred on 20 April 1992, when three IDF officers ordered the Dura resident, who was hosting two Israelis at the time, to approach them. An argument broke out between the resident and one of the officers. One officer punched the resident in the face. The two Israelis also stated that soldiers came to the village and opened fire at youths without warning. (Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992)

370. On 26 April 1992, Palestinian sources reported that groups of religious Jews harassed Arab merchants in Jerusalem's Old City, in order to force them to sell their stores. According to the same sources, this type of harassment was becoming more and more serious. (Ha'aretz, 26 April 1992)

371. On 4 May 1992, it was reported that Jewish extremists were harassing Palestinian shopkeepers in the Jerusalem Old City Muslim quarter with growing frequency. The Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz had reported about a week earlier that about a dozen Kach group members had attacked Nayef Abu Mayyaleh, the last Palestinian to own a shop near the Western Wall tunnel entrance, demanding that he posted some Kach leaflets on this souvenir store. When he refused to do so, the gang used force, but the shopkeeper was saved by the intervention of a passer-by.

372. On 27 June 1992, a 43-year-old man was stopped by troops in the Gaza neighbourhood of Sheikh Radwan, and was beaten up when he offered resistance, according to Palestinian sources. The man, Ziad al-Masawabi, whose identity had been mistaken, was released from a military camp after four hours once the mistake was discovered. He was given a new suit to replace his clothes, which had been ripped by soldiers. (Jerusalem Post, 28 June 1992)

373. On 17 July 1992, police questioned for an hour two delegates to the peace talks, Hanan Ashrawi and Haidar Abdel Shafi, about their televised meeting with PLO Chief Yasser Arafat on 18 June. The meeting with Arafat was the delegation's first open meeting, although Israeli law prohibits contacts with the PLO. Other members of the delegation were questioned along similar lines when they returned to Israel two weeks earlier. (Ha'aretz, 13 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 19 July 1992)

374. On 22 July 1992, Dr. Zacharia al-Ara, a member of the Palestinian delegation to the peace talks, complained that armed soldiers had forced their way into his home in Gaza early in the morning, even after he had identified himself. He indicated that the incident had occurred at 3.30 a.m. and that the soldiers stayed in the house for 40 minutes, while his family was locked in an adjacent room. The IDF stated that an army patrol and observation unit had decided to set up a temporary observation post in the area, and had chosen to set it up on the roof of Dr. al-Ara's home because it was the highest building in the area. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 July 1992)

375. On 28 July 1992, it was reported that IDF soldiers stationed at the outpost in Azun, in the Kalkiliya district, had forced Arab residents to write graffiti on walls. The IDF spokesman stated that the incident: was under investigation. (Ha’aretz, 28 July 1992)

376. On 28 May 1992, the Israeli Defense Ministry announced that the siege imposed on the Gaza Strip since 25 May 1992 would continue indefinitely, as long as the Ministry felt that the reasons for imposing it prevailed. The siege was imposed after a resident of Gaza stabbed and killed an Israeli girl near Tel Aviv on 24 May 1992. (Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)


(b) Collective punishment

(i) List of houses or rooms that were demolished or sealed

Oral evidence

377. Mr. Galal Hafez Aziza described what happened to his mother who was sealed alive in her house while the neighbouring house was being demolished:

378. The wife of a detainee described the situation she found herself in when her husband was imprisoned:

379. One witness who testified before the Special Committee stated that demolitions of houses sometimes took place on a large scale:

380. Accounts of the demolition of houses may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.585 (Mr. Galal Hafez Aziza), A/AC.145/RT.588 (anonymous witness) and A/AC.145/RT.592 (anonymous witness).


Written information 15/

Date
Name and age
Place of
residence
Remarks and source
6 March
1992






7 March
1992




7 March
1992



10 March
1992



14 April
1992








14 April
1992



14 April
1992





20 April
1992





5 May 1992







19 May 1992










21 May 1992





26 May 1992






26 May 1992




27 May 1992





14 June 1992










22 June
1992







28 June
1992






1 July
1992




20 July
1992






6 Aug. 1992






10 Aug.
1992
Bani Suheila







Rahman Yussuf
Mahmud Haj




Yussef Al
Najar



Ali Sawalha
and Mustafa Jawabreh












Jamal Khaled Abu Mohsen



Walid
Zakarim
Akel, 28
































































Gaza Strip







Kalkiliya,
West Bank




Khan
Younis



Assira village, near
Nablus

Far'a
village,
West Bank







Tubas




Nuseirat refugee camp,
Gaza Strip



Gaza City






Khan
Younis, Gaza Strip





Betunia, West Bank









El-Bireh, Beitunia




Sabra quarter, Gaza Strip




Nuseirat refugee camp


Deir el- Balah, Gaza Strip



Nuseirat refugee camp,
Gaza Strip







Azmut,
near
Nablus






Nuseirat refugee camp





Nuseirat refugee camp,
Gaza Strip


Batir and El-Khedr, Bethlehem district




Khan
Younis





Am'ari
refugee
camp
The IDF sealed the house where the residents who killed soldier Baruch Ben-Shimon on 5 March 1992 were hiding. The owner was suspected of sheltering the members of the cell that carried out the killing.
(H, 8 March 1992)

The house of Rahman Yussuf was sealed. He had killed one person and injured three others in Kfar Sava in February 1992. (H, 8 March 1992; also referred to in AF, 16 March 1992)

Israeli authorities claimed that activist Al Najar, currently detained, had been hiding in the house.
(AF, 16 March 1992)

The IDF sealed the two houses. They were sought for anti-occupation activities. (AF, 16 March 1992)


Security forces demolished the house of Iyad Diad Ahmed Khizran, who had murdered Shlomo Yehia from Kadima on 29 September 1991. He had also stabbed a Border Policeman near Tulkarm on 3 October 1991. The owner's petition to the High Court was rejected.
(H, 15 April 1992; also referred to
in AF, 20 April 1992)

Security forces demolished the house of Abu Mushen, who had killed an Israeli settler and stabbed a border guard in Tulkarm. (AF, 20 April 1992)

Security forces informed Akel’s family that the second floor of their home would be sealed. Akel had been in detention on charges of membership in the Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas. (AF, 20 April 1992)

Security forces supervised the sealing of the house of Marwan Faraj Al Zayegh, who had killed three Israelis in Jaffa one and a half years earlier. (H, 21 April 1992; also referred to in AF, 27 April 1992)

Security forces sealed off the first floor of the house of Usma Ali-Najar, suspected of involvement in the shooting attack of Amnon Yahalomi in July 1991, and of the killing of two Palestinians suspected of collaboration. (H, 6 May 1992)

Security forces sealed off the house of Hassan Mahmud Hassan Kadum, who participated in 10 petrol-bomb- throwing incidents, 6 kidnappings and violent interrogations of suspected collaborators from February to August 1990. The owner's appeal to the High Court of Justice was rejected.
(H, 20 May 1992; also referred to
in AT, 21 May 1992)

Four houses belonging to the families of inkifadah activists Mahmud Abdel Fatah Mustafa, Tarek Abdallah Hassouna and Hassan Mahmud Kadum were sealed. (AT, 21 May 1992)

The house of Hassan Al-Diri was sealed. Diri and his three sons were arrested for sheltering the Hamas activists; who were killed in an armed clash in the neighbourhood on 24 May 1992. (AF, 1 June 1992)

The house of Fouad Mohammed was sealed after he was accused of stabbing an Israeli girl near Tel Aviv on 24 May 1992. (AF, 1 June 1992)

The IDF blew up, the house of Mahmud Ibrahim Ahmed, 19, who killed Rabbi Shimon Biran on 27 May 1992 in Kfar Darom. (H, 29 May 1992; also referred to in AF, 1 June 1992)

The IDF destroyed the home of the Amarin family, after the High Court had turned down an appeal against the demolition order. Fuad al-Amarin killed Helena Rapp, a resident of Bat Yam, on 24 May 1992. (JP, 16 June 1992) The explosion is said to have been so strong that it damaged 11 surrounding homes in the camp. (Also referred to in AF, 22 June 1992)

The family homes of detainees Saleh Thabet and Aziz Alawneh were demolished. Both youths are detained on charges of throwing Molotov cocktails at Israeli military targets and settlers' vehicles, and of shooting at the Elon Moreh settlement. (AF, 29 June 1992)

The family home of Walid, Zakaria Abdel Hadi, 21, was sealed. Abdel Hadi was arrested on suspicion of killing an Israeli settler on 1 January 1992 near the Kfar Darom settlement. He is also alleged to be a member of the Hamas movement. (AF, 6 July 1992)

The occupant authorities sealed the house of Walid Akl, suspected of participation in the killing of a settler a few months before.
(AT, 2 July 1992)

Security forces sealed off the houses of Mahmud Ata Mohammed (or Malamar) and Ibrahim Khalil Ahmad Salah. Both were convicted for the slaying of Professor Stern of Hebrew University on 22 June 1989. (H, JP, 21 July 1992; also referred to in AT, 23 July 1992)

Security forces sealed off the third floor of the home of Mohammed Jazi Rajab Shureib, because he provided refuge in his home to Osama Muhammed Ali Najar, the fugitive killed on
2 August 1902. (H, 7 Aug. 1992)

Security forces sealed off two houses in the camp and another one in nearby El-Bireh, after members of the families occupying them were arrested and accused of resisting the occupation. (AF, 17 Aug. 1992)


(ii) Imposition of curfews, sealing off or closing areas

Oral evidence

381. A witness described the consequences of curfews introduced as a result of the Gulf war:

382. A witness who testified before the Special Committee provided the following figures:

383. Ms. Prances Hasso of Al-Haq described how the imposition of a curfew cost one person her life:

384. Testimonies relating to the imposition of curfews may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.586, (Ms. Frances Hasso), A/AC.145/RT.586/Add.1 (anonymous witness), and A/AC.145/RT.595 (anonymous witness).

Written information 16/

385. On 1 March 1992, the refugee camp in Rafah was placed under curfew following harsh confrontations. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 March 1992)

386. On 2 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on the town of Kalkiliya and roadblocks were set at all exits following the attack on a man from Petah Tikwa. The Dheisheh refugee camp was placed under curfew when. a woman from Jerusalem was struck in the face by a stone thrown, at her car near the camp. The curfew remained in force in Rafah and night curfew remained in force in Jenin. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 March 1992)

387. On 3 March 1992, the Balata refugee camp was placed under curfew when two shots with automatic weapons were fired at IDF patrols. The curfew remained in force in Rafah. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 4 March 1992)

388. On 4 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Kalandiya refugee camp when shots were fired from a car with Israeli license plates, which was later found abandoned near the camp. The area of the incident was closed off. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 March 1992)

389. On 5 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Balata' refugee camp when a home-made bomb was thrown at a military jeep near the camp. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 March 1992)

390. On 6 and 7 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on most of Ramallah when shots were fired at a Border Police patrol in nearby Ein Arik. The Arroub refugee camp was placed under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 March 1992)

391. On 8 March 1992, the area of Beit Hadassah was closed off and a curfew was imposed on the centre of the town when a soldier was slightly injured and several windows of houses inhabited by Israelis were cracked. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 March 1992)

392. On 9 March 1992, a curfew was placed on Asira al-Kabilia after incidents in which two Arab youths were shot and killed by the army. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 March 1992)

393. On 13 and 14 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on Hassa village when masked gunmen shot and killed two elderly Palestinians. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 March 1992)

394. On 15 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Askar refugee camp in Nablus when IDF troops raided the camp following the throwing of an improvised hand grenade. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 March 1992)

395. On 16 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Arroub refugee camp near Hebron when a fire-bomb was thrown at a military post. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 March 1992)

396. On 18 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on the village of Kulf Haris in the Tulkarm area. (Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

397. On 20 and 21 March 1992, the Gaza Strip was sealed off over the weekend to prevent contact between thousands of Palestinians from the area travelling to work in Israel and the Israeli population, following the murders of two Israelis perpetrated by a Gaza resident on 17 March. In the West Bank, the army imposed curfews on the towns of Ramallah and Hebron when youths stoned troops and paramilitary police and set up roadblocks made of burning tires. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 March 1992)

398. On 22 March 1992, a curfew was imposed on Hebron when a petrol bomb was thrown at a Border Police patrol. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 March 1992)

399. On 24 March 1992, the Dheisheh refugee camp was placed under curfew when a soldier was slightly wounded there, The Arroub refugee camp was placed under curfew when a petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol. (Ha’aretz, 25 March 1992)

400. On 25 March 1992, the IDF imposed a curfew on Rafah and its surroundings when shots were fired at an IDF patrol. The area in Nablus where two home-made bombs were thrown at public buildings (the Employment Services Office and the Municipality) was placed under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 March 1992)

401. On 26 March 1992, the area of the Dheisheh refugee camp in the Bethlehem district of Hebron was placed under curfew when several petrol, bombs were thrown. The curfew remained in force in Rafah. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 March 1992).

402. On 30 March 1992, a curfew was placed on the area near Tulkarm when a fire-bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol. The IDF placed a curfew on several Gaza area refugee camps in order to prevent incidents. The curfew in Rafah remained in force. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 March 1992)

403. On 1 April 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Rafah refugee camp, following an incident in which four Palestinians were killed and dozens of others wounded in clashes with Border Police. The incident occurred after a grenade was thrown from a car at an IDF post in Rafah township. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 April 1992; Ha'aretz, 3 April 1992)

404. On 2 April 1992, hundreds of Palestinians in the Rafah refugee camp broke the curfew imposed when four residents were killed in a clash with troops a day earlier. The village of Ein Yabrud, near Ramallah, was placed under curfew after a young resident was injured when he tried to attack IDF soldiers. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 April 1992)

405. On 3 and 4 April 1992, the army kept a tight curfew on more than 120,000 Palestinians in Rafah, following the incident of 1 April 1992. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 April 1992)

406. On 5 April 1992, the army continued to enforce the curfew imposed on Rafah on 1 April 1992. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 April 1992)

407. On 8 April 1992, the IDF placed under curfew and launched searches in the area of Bethlehem where a woman tourist was slightly injured when the windshield of her car was smashed by stones. Three fire-bombs were found during a search in Hebron and a curfew was imposed on the area. A curfew was imposed in Ramallah following celebrations in honour of Yasser Arafat when he survived a plane crash. The Balata refugee camp was also placed under curfew after youths burned tires and threw stones at soldiers. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 April 1992)

408. On 9 April 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Nuseirat refugee camp, the home of the activist belonging to the Hamas movement who had been killed by IDF troops. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 and 12 April 1992)

409. On 10 and 11 April 1992, the curfew remained in force at the Nuseirat refugee camp. Despite the curfew, a petrol bomb was thrown at an IDF patrol. Two other petrol bombs were thrown at an IDF post in Arroub. The post was slightly damaged and the camp placed under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 12 April 1992)

410. On 15 April 1992, a suburb of Gaza was placed under curfew and searches were launched when two grenades were thrown at an army checkpoint. (Ha'aretz, 16 April 1992; Jerusalem Post, 16 and 17 April 1992)

411. On 20 April 1992, a curfew was imposed on the area of Tulkarm when three petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli vehicle without causing any harm. The village of Biddya was placed under curfew when gunshots were fired at the car of the head of the village. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 April 1992; Ha'aretz, 22 April 1992)

412. On 21 April 1992, the Balata refugee camp was placed under curfew after a hand-grenade was thrown at a Border Police patrol. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 22 April 1992)

413. On 22 April 1992, soldiers immediately imposed a curfew on Jenin and several dozen Palestinians were detained for questioning when the head of the Civil Administration Health Services was stabbed to death. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 April 1992)

414. On 26 April 1992, the curfew placed on Sheikh Radwan during the weekend remained in force. (Ha'aretz, 27 April 1992 Jerusalem Post, 28 April 1992)

415. On 29 April 1992, Arraba, the locality where an incident between Palestinians and IDF soldiers took place was placed under curfew. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 April 1992)

416. On 4 May 1992, the Jabalia refugee camp was placed under curfew after the death of a 13-year-old resident who was wounded on 30 April 1992. (Ha'aretz, 5 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

417. On 7 May 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Deir el-Balah refugee camp because of disturbances. (Ha’aretz, 8 May 1992) The curfew remained in force in the villages of Karf Kadum and Bala'a as IDF soldiers searched for wanted persons following the murder of a 30-year-old resident. The Revolutionary Justice Organization claimed responsibility for the killing. The Jabalia refugee camp and Beit Lahiya remained under curfew for the third consecutive day. (Al-Tali'ah, 7 May 1992)

418. On 13 May 1992, a curfew was imposed on Imatin, near Nablus, following the shooting and death of a fugitive. (Ha'aretz, 14 May 1992)

419. On 17 May 1992, Beit Lahiya, Gaza Strip, was placed under curfew following the murder of a farmer from the Negev near the locality. (Jerusalem Post, 18 May 1992)

420. A curfew was imposed on the Rafah refugee camp following the death of Khalil Tayem, who was shot on 1 April 1992 during a confrontation between the Border Police and camp residents. (Jerusalem Post, 19 May 1992)

421. On 18 May 1992, the curfew remained in force in Beit Lahiya. (Ha'aretz, 19 May 1992)

422. On 19 May 1992, the curfew remained in force in Beit Lahiya. (Ha'aretz, 20 May 1992)

423. A curfew was imposed on the Rafah refugee camp after a confrontation in which soldiers disguised as Hamas activists were identified and fired on. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 May 1992)

424. On 24 May 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Sabra neighbourhood in Gaza following the death of three members of the Hamas-affiliated Al-Kassam group. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 May 1992)

425. On 25 May 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Maghazi and Nuseirat refugee camps while the curfew imposed on the neighbourhoods of Sabra and Sheikh Radwan remained in force. (Ha'aretz, 26 May 1992)

426. On 28 May 1992, the curfew remained in force in the refugee camps of Khan Younis, Deir el-Balah and Bureij. (Ha'aretz, 29 May 1992) The Israeli Defense Ministry announced that the siege imposed on the Gaza Strip since 25 May 1992 would continue indefinitely, as long as the Ministry felt that the reasons for imposing it prevailed. The siege was imposed after a resident of Gaza stabbed and killed an Israeli girl near Tel Aviv on 24 May 1992. Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

427. On 29 and 30 May 1992, a curfew was imposed on Beit Lahiya following the attempted murder of a Jewish vegetable merchant and his wife in the neighbouring village of Attatra. (Jerusalem Post, 31 May 1992)

428. On 1 June 1992, the A-Zuwiya village was placed under curfew, following the throwing of petrol bombs at an IDF patrol. (Ha’aretz, 2 June 1992 also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

429. On 3 June 1992, curfews were lifted in the refugee camps of Nuseirat, Maghazi and Bureij but remained in force in Deir el-Balah. The Shati' refugee camp was placed under curfew following disturbances. (Jerusalem Post, 4 June 1992; Ha'aretz, 5 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali’ah, 4 June 1992; Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

430. On 4 June 1992, a two-hour curfew was imposed on the centre of Bethlehem when a Border Policeman was attacked with a knife. The curfew that had been placed on the Shati' refugee camp was lifted. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 June 1992)

431. On 7 June 1992, Beit Umar village was placed under curfew when gunshots were fired at an IDF patrol. (Ha'aretz, 9 June 1992) The curfew continued to be imposed on Beit Sahur for the second consecutive day, without any reason given for such a measure. The town of Kabatiya, near Jenin, had been under siege for the sixth consecutive day. (Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

432. On 24 June 1992, curfews were placed on the villages of Ramin, Al-Abd, Safrin, Susa, Kufr Al Lubad, Shufa and Beit Lid in the West Bank, following the explosion of a home-made bomb next to an Israeli truck. (Ha’aretz, 25 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

433. On 25 June 1992, a curfew was imposed on Araba village, Yabad, Kufr Rai, Fahmeh, and the Jenin refugee camp following the death of an IDF soldier and three Palestinians in a shootout. (Jerusalem Post, 26 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

434. On 26 and 27 June 1992, a curfew was imposed on the centre of Hebron following the stabbing of an Israeli man. (Jerusalem Post, 28 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 2 July 1992)

435. On 30 June 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Tulkarm market, following the stoning of a Border Police patrol. (Ha’aretz, 1 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 2 July 1992)

436. On 3 and 4 July 1992, a curfew was imposed on Salfit, following the throwing of a fire-bomb at an IDF patrol. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 5 July 1992)

437. On 8 July 1992, early curfews were imposed on towns and camps in the Gaza Strip following violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah supporters. The IDF imposed a 7 p.m. rather than a 10 p.m. curfew in those parts of Rafah and the Rafah refugee camp that had not been under full curfew. Curfews were also imposed on Khan Younis and the adjacent camp as well as on the Maghazi refugee camp. The curfew in Rafah was to be raised for two hours in the morning to allow residents to go to their jobs in Israel. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 July 1992)

438. On 9 July 1992, curfews were imposed on several localities in the Gaza Strip such as Rafah and Khan Younis as well as the refugee camps of Shabura Shelida, Shati', Maghazi and Khan Younis. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 July 1992)

439. On 10 and 11 July 1992, a curfew was imposed following the disturbances in the Hebron area, which occurred after the suicide of a detainee in Hebron prison on 8 July 1992. The Balata camp had been placed under curfew after several shots had been fired in the village area. Because of the clashes between Hamas and Fatah supporters, the refugee camps of Shabura and Khan Younis as well as four neighbourhoods in Rafah were placed under curfew, which would be lifted for a number of hours in the afternoon to enable the residents to buy some food. (Ha'aretz, 13 July 1992)

440. On 13 July 1992, curfews were lifted in the southern part of the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, 14 July 1992)

441. On 14 July 1992, a curfew was imposed on Nablus following the sealing off of Al-Najah University. (Jerusalem Post, 16 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 16 July 1992; Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

442. On 15 July 1992, Nablus remained under curfew and the greater part of the city was declared a closed military area. (Jerusalem Post, 16 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

443. On 16 July 1992, Nablus remained under general curfew, but the inhabitants were able to buy food and get medical treatment. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

444. On 17 July 1992, the curfew imposed on Nablus was lifted at 7.20 p.m. (Ha'aretz, 19 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

445. On 17 and 18 July 1992, a curfew was imposed on Jabalia when shots were fired at an IDF outpost. A curfew was imposed on the centre of Nablus when a fire-bomb was thrown at an IDF post. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 July 1992

446. On 22 July 1992, a curfew was imposed on Idna village when gunshots were fired near an IDF outpost. (Ha'aretz, 23 July 1992)

447. On 27 July 1992, a curfew was imposed on 'Ilyar village in the Tulkarm area, when several shots were fired at an IDF outpost. (Ha’aretz, 28 July 1992)

448. On 29 July 1992, the centre of Hebron was placed under curfew when a Jewish boy was slightly injured by a switch-blade knife that was thrown at him. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 July 1992)

449. On 31 July and 1 August 1992, a curfew was imposed on the Tulkarm market area following the attack of a border patrol by two Palestinians. A curfew was imposed on the Ein Ashara neighbourhood following the attempted arson of military vehicles at the military government headquarters in Hebron. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 August 1992)

450. On 12 August 1992, a temporary curfew (few hours) was imposed on the Kalandia refugee camp, after several shots had been fired in the area. (Ha'aretz, 13 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992) A curfew imposed on the Tulkarm refugee camp following the throwing of an incendiary bottle at a military patrol was maintained for the second day. A curfew was also imposed on the Sabra quarter of Gaza City while IDF soldiers searched for wanted Palestinians. The curfews that had been imposed on the villages of Deir Estiya and Kufl Haris were lifted. (Al-Tali’ah, 13 August 1992)

451. On 14 and 15 August 1992, a curfew was imposed on Hebron after stones were thrown at an IDF post, injuring one soldier. (Ha'aretz, 16 August 1992)

452. On 19 August 1992, security forces sealed off an alley in the Shabura refugee camp, where an IDF soldier had been seriously injured by stones two weeks earlier. (Ha’aretz, 21 August 1992)

453. On 20 August: 1992, a curfew was placed on the area of Hebron following the throwing of three petrol bombs at an IDF patrol. (Jerusalem Post, 21 August 1992)

454. On 21 and 22 August 1992, a curfew was imposed on Hebron following the stoning of a car. (Ha'aretz, 23 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

455. On 25 August 1992, a curfew was imposed on Jenin and its refugee camp following an incident in which three Palestinians and an Israeli soldier were killed. Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

456. On 26 August 1992, a curfew was imposed on Hebron following the throwing of two petrol bombs at an IDF patrol. (Jerusalem Post, 27 August 1992)

(iii) Other forms of collective punishment

Oral evidence

457. One witness who testified before the Special Committee spoke of the consequences of the uprooting of trees:

458. A witness also described the "bureaucratic sanctions" that are being applied by the Israeli authorities against the population of the occupied territories:

459. Testimony relating to other forms of collective punishment may be found in document A/AC.145/RT.586/Add.1 (anonymous witness).

Written information 17/

460. On 23 March 1992, the High Court of Justice rejected the petition by Iyad Hizran and Jamal Abu Muhsin, the murderers of Shlomo Yahia, against the decision taken by the IDF commander of the West Bank to demolish their houses. (Ha'aretz, 24 March 1992)

461. On 13 May 1992, the house of Ali Salem Al Fararja in Bethlehem was raided for the second time by IDF soldiers searching for his wanted son, Maher, 26. Maher's brother, Ashraf, was reportedly beaten during this raid while the father was threatened in abusive terms. (Al-Tali’ah, 14 May 1992)

462. On 29 May 1992, Brig. Yomtov Samiah, who ordered the demolition of the home of Rabbi Biran's murderer in Deir el-Balah on the evening of 27 May, was reprimanded by OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Matan Vilnay for not giving the murderer's family an opportunity to appeal the decision before the house was demolished. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 May 1992)

463. On 14 June 1992, the High Court of Justice rejected a petition filed by the family of the suspected murderer of Helena Rapp, Fuad al-Amarin, 19, from the Nuseirat refugee camp, seeking to prevent the IDF from demolishing their home. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

(c) Expulsions

Oral evidence

464. Mr. Samir Mourad Yahya Baaba gave the following description of the circumstances of his deportation to the members of the Special Committee:

465. One witness described a "disguised" form of deportation applied to students from the occupied territories:

466. A second witness provided the following details:

467. A witness testifying before the Special Committee provided the following description of the review of deportation orders:

468. A witness stated that most deportations are in fact "collective”:

469. Mrs. Manal Eid Al-Moulki described what happened to her after she gave birth to her second daughter:

470. Testimonies referring to the problem of expulsions from the occupied territories may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.589/Add.1 (Ms. Manal Eid Al-Moulki), A/AC.145/RT.590, (Mr. Samir Mourad Yahya Baaba), A/AC.145/RT.594 (anonymous witness) and A/AC.145/RT.595 (anonymous witness).


Written information 18/

471 On 3 March 1992, the Israeli authorities are reported to have deported Samir Murad Al Ba'ba, 40, from Tulkarm. . He served 6 years out of a 10-year imprisonment sentence, and would now spend the remaining 4 years in exile in Jordan. (Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

472. On 12 April 1992, sources close to Palestinian delegation leader Faisal Husseini announced that Sa'ada Hama'il, from Malek (West Bank), had been nominated to become a member of the Palestinian negotiating team. Hama'il was serving the twenty-first month of a four-year sentence in Ramallah prison. He was reportedly negotiating a period of "voluntary exile", whereby he could voluntarily leave the country until the end of his sentence. Hama'il was first arrested in 1968. He was sentenced to life imprisonment after infiltrating into Israel from Jordan, and was released in 1985 in a prisoner exchange. He was arrested again in 1990 for activities related to the uprising. Sources indicated that Hamalil would be part of the broader delegation from which negotiators would be chosen to sit opposite the Israelis at the negotiating table. (Ha'aretz, 12 April 1992; Jerusalem Post, 13 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 16 April 1992) On 12 April 1992, the lawyers of the 11 Palestinians against whom deportation orders had been issued stated that they had not heard of an Israeli proposal that the 11 had agreed to voluntary exile for three years, against a cancellation of their expulsion orders. Gaza attorney Bathem Oweidah, who represents two of the persons concerned, stated that he had not heard of the proposal announced on Radio Israel. (Al-Fajr, 20 April 1992)

473. On 13 April 1992, it was reported that, according to one of the lawyers representing the 11 Palestinians slated for deportation, the possibility of going into temporary exile instead of deportation had been informally suggested to them. The idea of issuing deportation orders that were "temporary" but more frequent had been proposed by the Chief of Staff Gen. Ehud Barak, to the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Security Committee three months earlier. The Hebron Military Appeals Committee dropped deportation orders against one of the five Palestinians from the Ramallah area. The seven other men were from Gaza. All were appealing against deportation orders issued in January 1992. (Jerusalem Post, 13 April 1902)

474. On 1 May 1992, a Palestinian who had been proposed as a delegate to the peace talks, Abdel (al-)Fatah Hamaiel, 40, from Malek, was expelled to Jordan after being given the choice between going into exile or being imprisoned. Hamaiel had been appointed to be a member of the delegation while he was in prison. In 1990, the Military Court had sentenced him to four years' imprisonment for leading Fatah cells in the Ramallah area, but lie had agreed with the prosecution to serve 20 months of his prison sentence and spend 28 months in exile. An army spokesman indicated that he would be able to return once his period of exile had expired. Sixty-seven Palestinians have been expelled since the beginning of the uprising in December 1987. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 3 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

475. On 10 May 1992, it was reported that the IDF and the security authorities were envisaging the possibility of temporary exile instead of deportation concerning the 11 Palestinians against whom deportation orders had been issued in January 1992. (Ha'aretz, 10 May 1992)

476. On 16 June 1992, the Israeli authorities deported for a period of five years Ridal Abdel Fattah Mazhar, 24, from the Balata refugee camp, in exchange for allowing him to leave prison. Mazhar had been detained for four months on charges of participating in the intifadah. (Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

477. On 18 June 1992, it was reported that the wives of Palestinian residents who were not holders of Israeli identity cards were notified by the Israeli authorities in Sair and Beit Kahel that they would have to leave the territories. Al-Tali'ah added that the expulsion of wives living in the country without identity cards had been prohibited by a ruling of the Israeli Supreme Court in 1990. (Al-Tali'ah, 18 June 1992)

478. On 19 June 1992, the Israeli authorities deported Yusra Abu Ajour, 25, and her three children because the family did not have a permit to live in the occupied territories. Yusra, who is married to Mohammed Shinadeh Abu Ajur, a resident of the Dheisheh refugee camp, had been living with her husband for two years. The family had repeatedly applied for family reunification, which was never granted. The youngest of Yusra's children was only five days old when they were deported. (Al-Tali'ah, 25 July 1992; Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

479. On 25 June 1992, it was reported that the Supreme Court had delayed its consideration of the appeal of 11 residents of the territories who were defined as "leading activists in terror organizations" concerning the deportation orders issued against them in January. The judicial and security authorities were awaiting the establishment of the new Government in order to decide on their policy with regard to deportation. In the meantime, the prosecution and defense were said to be negotiating a possible agreement on deportation for a limited period. However, on 18 June 1992, it was reported that three of the seven Palestinians from Gaza who were slated for deportation had already agreed to expulsion for a period of three years, in a compromise reached with the authorities. (Ha'aretz, 18 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 18 and 25 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 25 June 1992; Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

480. On 20 July 1992, a high-ranking military source stated that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, in his capacity as Defense Minister, was to review the policy regarding the deportation of Palestinians. According to the source, Rabin had long-standing reservations concerning the deterrent value of deportations. (Jerusalem Post, 21 July 1992)

481. On 30 July 1992 it was reported that the 11 Palestinians; slated for deportation had informed the authorities that they opposed the offer to go into voluntary exile for three years. Earlier reports had stated that some of those concerned were considering taking up the Israeli offer. Deportation orders were issued against the 11 on 2 January 1992, following the slaying of Doron Shorshan in the Gaza Strip. They were not accused of the killing, but of unspecified anti-Israeli incitement. On 29 June, State Attorney Dorit Beinish asked for a delay in the Supreme Court hearing on the appeal of the 11 defendants against the deportation, which was scheduled for 2 August. She said that the new Government needed time to formulate a policy on the matter, adding that the postponement requested was also the result of a review of the principle of deportation undertaken by Prime Minister Rabin, following pressure by the IDF to rethink its deterrent value and effectiveness. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 and 31 July 1992)

482. On 24 August 1992, the Defense Ministry announced that deportation orders issued in January 1992 against 11 Palestinian activists would be cancelled. Instead, the 11 would be placed in administrative detention for "security reasons". Defense Ministry sources indicated that the move was part of large-scale goodwill gestures towards Palestinians made by the Security authorities after a sharp decline in uprising-related incidents and was timed to coincide with the renewal of the peace talks. However, Prime Minister and Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin announced he did not intend completely to abolish deportations as a punishment and stated they might be used in the future against "terrorists" accused of incitement and rioting. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

(d) Economic and social situation

Oral evidence

483. Numerous witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee stated that the already difficult economic situation in which the population of the occupied territories finds itself is further compounded by excessive taxation of their income, which is disproportionate to the policy applied to Israeli citizens. Mr. Taher Mahmoud Al-Moubtaseb, Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce in Hebron, stated the following in this connection:

484. One witness described the various taxes that are levied in the occupied territories:

485. Mr. Taher Mahmoud Al-Mouhtaseb described what may happen if taxes are not paid:

486. A witness testifying before the Special Committee described the way taxes are sometimes collected in the following manner:

487. Mr. Al-Mouhtaseb described the incidents concerning a number of bakeries:

488. One witness described what happened to the owner of a factory who had lost a bill:

489. Another witness described how arbitrary taxation may be and the consequences this may entail for factory owners:

490. Mr. Gaby Baramki, Dean of Bir Zeit University, informed the Special Committee about the taxation applied to educational institutions:

491. A witness has stated that an additional reason for the precarious economic and social, situation of the inhabitants of the occupied territories is the policy of Israel towards agricultural and industrial products from the occupied territories:

492. The same witness indicated that restrictions imposed on the freedom of movement have also affected the economic situation in the occupied territories:

493. An additional factor that has aggravated the situation of unemployment are the Palestinians who have returned from the Gulf States:

494. A witness who testified before the Special Committee stated the following with regard to the level of income in the occupied territories:

495. This is how one witness described the living conditions in one refugee camp:

496. Dr. Mohammed Jadallah, Chairman of the Union of Health Care Committees in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, described how the economic and social situation has affected the health of the inhabitants of the occupied territories:

497. The wife of a former detainee spoke about the difficulty in obtaining work permits:

498. Another witness spoke about the white magnetic card that allows a person to obtain a work permit:

499. One witness provided the following information concerning unemployment in the occupied territories:

500. The procedure to obtain a work permit is affected by the restrictions imposed on the freedom of movement. A witness stated to that effect:

501. One witness who testified before the Special Committee described the "bureaucratic" procedures that have to be fulfilled before a work permit is issued:

502. Accounts of the imposition of the economic sanctions can be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.586 (Mr. Taher Mahmoud Al-Mouhtaseb), A/AC.145/RT.586/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.588 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.589 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.587 (Mr. Gaby Baramki), A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.594 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.597 (Dr. Mohammed Jadallah).

Written information 19/

503. On 4 June 1992, it was reported that as the Gaza Strip entered its tenth day of closure, UNRWA had begun emergency food distribution in several refugee camps that were under curfew. UNRWA spokesperson Claire Grimes stated that food distribution had begun in the Nuseirat refugee camp. Curfews were also said to have been lifted in the Maghazi and Bureij camps. However, Deir el-Balah, located near Kfar Darom where Rabbi Shimon Biran was murdered on 27 May 1992, remained under curfew. At least 30,000 families were said to depend directly on their breadwinners' jobs in Israel for subsistence. Their income was also said to provide a means of livelihood for numerous shopkeepers. Farmers who previously sold their produce in Israel were also said to be affected. In Gaza City, the Civil Administration had, acted to block a threat by the electricity board to cut off power to the town of 250,000 inhabitants for non-payment of about $2.1 million worth of electricity bills owing to the situation. (Jerusalem Post, 4 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

504. On 17 June 1992, it was reported that the Gaza Chamber of Commerce held a press conference together with the members of the Palestinian delegation about the economic and social situation in the Gaza Strip following its closure. Telegrams were sent to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Boutros-Ghali, and to the Israeli Defense Minister, Mr. Moshe Arens, to request an end to the sealing off of areas, which is considered as collective punishment. (Ha'aretz, 17 June 1992) Losses were estimated at $40 million (also referred to in Al-Tali’ah, 18 June 1992).

505. On 18 June 1992, it was reported that UNRWA had begun food distribution to 120,000 families in Gaza. According to UNRWA, the rate of unemployment in the Gaza Strip had reached 50 per cent. (Ha’aretz, 18 June 1992)

506. On 3 July 1992, Dov Lautman, head of the Manufacturers Association, called upon the future Rabin Government to develop industry and infrastructure in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in order to prepare these areas for Palestinian autonomy. Addressing the Trade and Industry Club in Tel Aviv, Lautman called for the immediate establishment of a Palestinian-Israeli forum of economists, diplomats and businessmen to discuss economic issues, and to ensure that "in six or nine months, the economy would not sabotage the political process". (Jerusalem Post, 5 July 1992)

507. On 22 July 1992, it was reported that the Government would not allow farmers from Gaza to market their products in Israel, since they would be in direct competition with Israeli products. Instead, the Ministry of Agriculture had pledged to help the Gazans to export their products to Europe. Some of the produce (citrus, fruits, strawberries and vegetables) were already marketed in Europe. (Jerusalem Post, 22 July 1992)

508. On 26 July 1992, hundreds of Arabs from East Jerusalem staged a peaceful demonstration against the municipal tax rates. The demonstration was organized a few days after the failure of talks between Arab traders and the municipality with a view to reaching a compromise regarding the millions of shekels in property taxes that the Arabs owed to the city. Several months earlier, the municipality had launched a campaign to force the residents of East Jerusalem to pay the taxes they owed and had sent out hundreds of notices demanding payment. In a number of cases, property was confiscated against unpaid taxes. (Jerusalem Post, 27 July 1992)

509. On 13 August 1992, a commercial strike was staged in East Jerusalem and Palestinian shopkeepers held a demonstration in order to protest the municipal tax known as arnona, which they denounced as being unfair. They complained that, although the rates were the same in both parts of Jerusalem, the continuous closures of stores over the past five years and the lower prices. in East Jerusalem made it impossible for Palestinians to pay taxes according to the Israeli scale. Israeli authorities did not exempt stores that had been closed from payment orders. Numerous Palestinians who were unable to pay the arnona tax simply moved out of Jerusalem to West Bank cities where the high municipal tax is not levied. Shopkeepers also denounced the methods used by the municipality to collect overdue taxes. Tax collectors, backed by police and border guards, were said to resort to violent raids on the homes and shops in East Jerusalem in order to carry out confiscations and arrests. Water was often cut off from households and businesses that had failed to pay the arnona. (Al-Fajr, 10 and 13 August 1992)


Written information 20/
(e) Other developments

510. On 1 June 1992, UNRWA officials reported that 15 Israeli vandals had broken into the Deir el-Balah refugee food distribution centre before dawn on 31 May 1992, and had caused $36,000 worth of damage to food. The incident occurred at a time when UNRWA was compelled to step up food distribution to needy families, since the Gaza Strip had been closed for nine days following the murder of Helena Rapp and thousands of workers from Gaza were deprived of their means of livelihood. UNRWA lodged a complaint with the Civil Administration, which confirmed that it was investigating the matter. (Jerusalem Post, 2 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

511. On 10 June 1992, high-ranking officials of the security authorities reported that, during the past months, Israeli employers had bought hundreds of vehicles for their Arab workers from the Gaza Strip in order to enable them to come to work in Israel. The vehicles were registered under the name of the Jewish employer but were considered the property of the Arab workers. Such arrangements were useful when the security authorities delivered exit licenses to all vehicles transporting more than seven persons. However, the current restrictions imposed on vehicles from the Gaza Strip now made it impossible for Israeli employers to bring their employees to Israel. (Ha’aretz, 11 June 1992)

512. On 2 July 1992, it was reported that the Civil Administration allotted approximately $815,000 to municipalities and Arab councils in the Gaza Strip in order to provide employment for youths under the age of 25, who were prohibited from entering Israel because of the recently imposed age restrictions. The project, which had started a week earlier, employed between 1,500 and 2,000 persons in the cleaning of streets and the painting of pedestrian crossings. (Ha'aretz, 2 July 1992)

513. On 26 July 1992 the Central Bureau of Statistics reported that the percentage of households in the territories equipped with color television sets, refrigerators, cars and other durable consumer goods had considerably increased over the past seven years. According to the report, the percentage of households in the West Bank equipped with color television sets had more than doubled in the past 7 years and had increased tenfold over the past 11 years. The figures were based on a survey conducted in 5,670 homes in the West Bank and 1,950 homes in the Gaza Strip. (Jerusalem Post, 27 July 1992)

514. On 3 August 1992, the Central Bureau of statistics released information, according to which the quality of life, in material terms, of Arabs living in the territories had been steadily improving over the last several years. According to the data, 75 per cent of the households in the West Bank currently had electricity 24 hours a day while 79 per cent of the households had running water. A total of 61 per cent had either a solar heater or an electric boiler for heating water. In Gaza, 97 per cent of all houses had electricity round the clock, while 93 per cent had running water. A total of 82 per cent heated water by either solar power or electricity. The survey also revealed that Arab families in the West Bank presently lived in less crowded housing facilities, thanks to both an increase in the average size of their houses and a decline in the size of the average family. In Gaza, nevertheless, housing was more crowded than in 1985 although it was still lower than in. 1974. (Jerusalem Post, 4 August 1992)

515. On 10 August 1992, the Arab Lawyers Committee decided to boycott the Ramallah Military Court in order to protest new Israeli regulations requiring lawyers and their assistants all to be present at the courthouse at the same time and to be searched before entering the courtroom. (Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

516. On 12 August 1992, it was reported that the Office for the Coordination of Activities in the Territories had agreed to grant several facilities in the field of health such as insurance for the residents of the territories in order to enhance the process of transition of power in this area. The decision was taken following the meeting on 9 August between the Vice-Coordinator of Activities in the Territories and the Organization of Palestinian-Israeli Doctors. (Ha’aretz, 12 August 1992)

517. On 23 August 1992, Prime Minister Rabin announced a series of conciliatory measures designed to coincide with the resumption of peace negotiations in Washington. The measures ordered by Rabin include, besides the release of some 800 security prisoners, the opening of streets and alleys that were blocked in the past to curb riots. Some houses that were sealed as punishment for anti-Israeli activities at least five years earlier would also be opened after the examination of each individual case. Rabin also lowered from 60 to 50 the age of Arabs in the territories who would be eligible for exemption from having to obtain entry permits into Israel. The announcement emphasized that the new measures had been checked with all the security branches involved in counter-terror operations and that they would be monitored during and after implementation. (Ha’aretz, 23 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 24 August 1992)

2. Measures affecting certain fundamental freedoms

(a) Freedom of movement

Oral evidence

518. One witness testifying before the Special Committee described how the restrictions imposed on the freedom of movement affected the education in the occupied territories:

519. Mr. Gaby Baramki, Dean of Bir Zeit University, provided more information in this regard:

520. Persons who have been absent from the occupied territories for prolonged periods have difficulties in obtaining identity cards, which consequently limits their movement. One witness stated to that effect:

521. Mr. Khaled Mohamad Shahrour indicated what happens to a person who was absent from the occupied territories at the time of a census:

522. A witness described the procedure for obtaining a permit to travel:

523. Several witnesses who testified before the Special Committee spoke of the problems with regard to travel that members of the family or relatives of detainees face when asking for permits. One witness stated in this regard:

524. Mr. Galal Hafez Aziza stated that the relatives of persons who are not allowed into the occupied territories face the same problems:

525. One witness who testified before the Special Committee described the arbitrary manner in which a person can be deprived of their identity card:

526. One witness spoke of the problems faced in this connection by persons who have been in administrative detention:

527. An additional problem is faced by persons who have green identity cards. Mr. Gaby Baramki, Dean of Bir Zeit University, stated the following in this connection:

528. Ms. Manal Eid Al-Moulki, informed the Special Committee that it is particularly difficult to obtain personal documents for children if one parent is a foreigner:

529. One witness who testified before the Special Committee stated that persons are sometimes not allowed to leave the occupied territories even to obtain medical treatment:

530. Testimonies referring to the restrictions on the right to freedom of movement may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.585 (Mr. Khaled Mohamad Shahrour), A/AC.145/RT.585 (Mr. Galal Hafez Aziza), A/AC.145/RT.586/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.587 (Mr. Gaby Baramki), A/AC.145/RT.588 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.589 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.589/Add.1 (Ms. Manal Eid Al-Moulki), A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.595 (anonymous witness).


Written information 21/

531. On 6 March 1992, it was reported that the generals of the Southern and Central Commands had decided to facilitate the life of the territories’ residents currently fasting during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan by lifting the curfews imposed on many localities in the West Bank. Side streets that were closed following "terrorist" activity were also to be reopened. OC Central Commander, Maj.-Gen. Danny Yatom, announced that IDF soldiers would be briefed on how to behave during Ramadan, when changes were expected in the residents' behaviour. Similar measures were also taken in the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, 6 March 1992)

532. On 15 March 1992, it was reported that the Palestinian Human Rights Information centre claimed that because their field worker Musa Bakri had organized testimony before the police concerning electric shock torture at the Hebron military headquarters, he was to be issued a green identity card preventing him from working in Jerusalem. The Civil Administration confirmed that Bakri was to receive a green identity card but gave a different reason. They claimed that his name had been discovered on a list of persons to be issued such a card when he called on the Civil Administration in Hebron two weeks earlier in order to obtain special permits that would enable seven former prisoners, who were holders of green identity cards, to testify at the police inquiry. The Civil Administration could not explain why Bakri's monthly permit to travel to Jerusalem had been renewed until that time. Palestinian sources indicated that former security prisoners were normally issued green identity cards upon release from prison, and that Bakri had spent three years in prison as an uprising activist. (Jerusalem Post, 15 March 1992)

533. On 19 March 1992, military sources announced that the Gaza Strip would be sealed off for an indefinite period starting 20 March 1992 at 4 a.m. All access roads leading to Gaza would be closed and tens of thousands of Palestinian workers would thus be prevented from entering Israel. The decision seemed to be based on an increasing number of violent incidents in Gaza itself as well as on several attacks perpetrated by Gazans such as the murder of two Israelis in Jaffa on 17 March. The Gaza Strip would not be placed under curfew during the sealing off period. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992)

534. On 21 March 1992, the army announced that the IDF was to reopen the Gaza Strip for free movement on 22 March 1992 following a weekend-long sealing off period. (Jerusalem Post, 22 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 23 March 1992).

535. On 8 April 1992, residents of Rafah in the Gaza Strip who had applied for travel permits to Jordan had their applications turned down. A ban on travel had been imposed on all Rafah residents since early April, following the killings of four Palestinians by IDF soldiers. (Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

536. On 10 April 1992, it was reported that the Tel Aviv District Police arrested 3,000 Palestinians between January and April 1992 in the Gush Dan area, because they were not carrying proper identity cards or were found outside the localities indicated on their work permits. According to a police official, many of the Palestinians arrested were repeat offenders and came from the West Bank, and not Gaza, where the security was tighter. (Jerusalem Post, 10 April 1992)

537. On 24 April 1992, Israeli authorities prevented Mohammed Hurani, a member of the advisory team, from travelling to Amman with the Palestinian delegation to the peace talks. Hurani had spent a year and a half in prison under administrative detention at the beginning of the intifadah. Although he was a member of the advisory team, he was re-arrested on 9 January 1992 and detained for three months. (Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

538. On 8 May 1992, it was reported that the general sealing off that had been imposed on the territories on the evening of 6 May for the duration of Remembrance Day and Independence Day was lifted on 8 May at 3 a.m. (Ha’aretz 8 May 1992; Jerusalem Post, 10 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

539. On 8 May 1992, the Israeli authorities prohibited three members of the Palestinian delegation from going to Amman. The persons in question were Hamzeh Smadi, Mahmud Nufal and Fahd Al Haj. The authorities also delayed Dr. Samir Abdallah, a member of the negotiating delegation, for four hours, along with members of the working committee on energy, headed by Abed Abu Diab. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

540. On 11 May 1992, it was reported that scores of local Palestinian activists had visited Tunis during the past year to meet with senior PLO officials and that not one among them had been prosecuted. The meetings took place every time a Palestinian delegation left for Amman on its way to talks in Washington or in Europe. Many of these activists were released from prison during the 1985 Ahmed Jibril prisoner exchange and were banned from leaving the country until peace talks began in November 1991, when they received exit visas for the first time. (Jerusalem Post, 11 May 1992) Israeli authorities reportedly prevented trainers from the Al-Ahli Club in Hebron from travelling to Jordan to attend special training courses. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

541. On 15 May 1992, it was reported that Dr. Zakaria Al-Agha and Dr. Abdul-Raheem (or Abdel-Rahman) Hamad would finally be allowed to return to Israel after having been turned back twice at the Rafiah border crossing, for refusing to allow an examination of their political files. The two delegates from Gaza attended the bilateral peace talks in Washington. (Jerusalem Post, 15 May 1992)

542. On 31 May 1992, it was reported that Jerusalem was closed off to the residents of the territories for Jerusalem Day (the day of the city's reunification). (Jerusalem Post, Ha'aretz, 31 May 1992)

543. On 31 May 1992, it was reported that the general sealing off of the Gaza Strip had remained in force for the eighth consecutive, day, in order to prevent confrontations between Jews and Arabs in Israel. The closure was decided on 24 May 1992, following the murder of Helena Rapp by a Gaza Strip resident in Bat Yam. Meanwhile, proposals were made for strict limitations to be imposed on the entrance of Arabs from Gaza into Israel, especially of persons considered as high security risk elements such as young, single Arabs and persons belonging to fundamentalist groups. As a matter of fact, statistics given by the Meretz (left-wing party) MK Amnon Rubinstein showed that, since the beginning of the uprising, 75 per cent of incidents of stabbing of Israeli civilians had been carried out by single persons, 80 per cent of whom were under 25 years of age. The remaining 20 per cent, with one exception, were carried out by persons under the age of 30. (Ha'aretz, 25, 28, 31 May and 1 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 25 and 29 May 1992)

544. The closure of the Gaza Strip was imposed following the murder of Helena Rapp in Bat Yam on 24 May 1992 by a resident of the Nuseirat refugee camp. It was extended three days later after rioting in Bat Yam, more in fear of Israeli attacks on Gazans than in fear of additional Arab attacks on Jews. The murder of Rabbi Shimon Biran on 27 May 1992 in Kfar Darom, in the Gaza Strip, and the anniversaries of the Six Day and Lebanon Wars prolonged the closure for an additional few days (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992).

545. On 8 June 1992, 1,000 workers entered Israel from the Gaza Strip as the authorities began lifting the 14-day closure. However, thousands more were turned away. New regulations that had been issued specified that all workers had to report to the Civil Administration labor offices in, Gaza in order to receive a new red card needed for admission into Israel. Workers under 28 years of age would not be allowed to enter Israel while employers would be obliged to provide work for at least 10 Palestinians. Workers from the Nuseirat refugee camp, where the suspected killer lived, were also barred from entering Israel. Before the closure, some 30,000 to 40,000 Gazans had permits to cross the Green Line daily in order to go to work. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

546. On 9 June 1992, the Ministry of Defense decided to ease the restrictions concerning the entry into Israel of workers from the Gaza Strip following protests by Israeli employers that their own livelihood was in jeopardy. The age restriction would be reduced from 28 to 25 and employers would no longer have to employ a minimum of i6 workers in the same company. However, residents of the Nuseirat refugee camp were still barred from entering Israel. (Jerusalem Post, 10 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 11 June 1992; Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

547. On 10 June 1992, about 2,600 Gazans entered Israel in order to go to work. Gaza military sources stated that these numbers were expected to increase gradually as more permits were issued. However, Palestinians attempting to leave the Gaza Strip for any other purpose would, not be allowed into Israel. (Ha'aretz; Jerusalem Post, 11 June 1992)

548. On 11 June 1992, it was reported that the security authorities had decided to grant 187 approvals for family reunification over a determined period. (Ha'aretz, 11 June 1992)

549. On 12 June 1992, it was reported that OC Central Command Maj.-Gen. Danny Yatom had announced that two requests for family reunification had been granted. (Jerusalem Post, 12 June 1992)

550. On 12 June 1992, it was reported that the number of workers allowed to enter Israel was expected to reach 20,000 by the end of the following week. No changes in regulations barring persons under 25 years of age or from the Nuseirat refugee camp from working in Israel were reported. In Gaza, the IDF took a series of measures aimed at improving the festive atmosphere on the occasion of Id al-Adha, the Muslim Feast of the Sacrifice. The beginning of the regular night curfew was moved back by one hour to 10 p.m. instead of 9 p.m. The IDF also opened the main road connecting Gaza City to Khan Younis, which had been blocked since the murder of Rabbi Shimon Biran in Kfar Darom on 27 May 1992. (Jerusalem Post, 12 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

551. On 14 June 1902, an estimated 7,600 Gazans crossed the Erez checkpoint to go to work. A riot almost broke out when more than 2,000 young Gazans who had been refused entry began throwing stones at Border Police and soldiers at the checkpoint. An air force helicopter was used to drop "a small quantity" of gravel on demonstrators, injuring some of them. Later on in the day, Col. Yisrael Ziv, the Commander of the northern Gaza Strip, announced that Israeli employers would no longer have to come to the checkpoint in order to pick up their workers. The workers would be transported by bus to pick-up points located in several towns across the country. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 18 June 1992; Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

552. On 15 June 1992, the IDF permitted almost 15,000 workers from Gaza to cross into Israel on organized bus routes, as restrictions concerning workers were being lifted progressively. Meanwhile, the Association for Civil Rights in Israel appealed to the High Court of Justice to order the IDF to lift the three-week closure imposed on the Nuseirat refugee camp. All workers were searched for weapons when they crossed the checkpoint. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

553. On 19 June 1992, it was reported that the prohibition for residents of the Nuseirat refugee camp to enter Israel in order to work would be lifted on 24 June 1992. Residents of the camp wishing to enter Israel would be subjected to age restrictions and the strict security regulations currently in. force concerning all the residents of the Gaza District. Hundreds of taxis from the Gaza Strip would also be allowed to enter Israel in order to transport workers. (Ha'aretz, 19 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 21 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

554. On 23 June 1992, the entrance of Arabs from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip into Israel was banned for the day because of Israeli elections. (Jerusalem Post, 23 June 1992; Ha'aretz, 24 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 22 and 29 June 1992)

555. On 24 June 1992, some 20,000 workers from the Gaza strip went to work in Israel. Among them were 1,000 persons from Nuseirat refugee camp who entered Israel for the first time that month. Taxis were also allowed to enter Israel. The last restriction remaining in force was the minimum age limit. (Ha'aretz, 25 June 1992)

556. On 29 June 1992, the Association for Civil Rights and three Palestinian residents appealed to the High Court of Justice to request, in an order nisi, the OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Matan Vilnai to explain why he would not allow Gazans under the age of 25 to go to work in Israel, and Gazan students studying in the West Bank to leave the Gaza Strip in connection with their studies. (Ha'aretz, 30 June 1992)

557. On 29 June 1992, Faisal Husseini and 16 members of the Palestinian delegation to the peace talks returned from Jordan across the Allenby Bridge. They were met by police who questioned them about their televised meeting with PLO leader Yasser Arafat on 18 June 1992. Reporters were not allowed to approach the delegates before they were questioned by the police. Husseini, head of the delegation's steering committee, told reporters that the delegates had been released on their own recognizance and had refused to answer questions. Meetings held in public with the presence of media are exempted by the law prohibiting unauthorized meetings with PLO officials. According to legal sources, it would be conceivable that such a loophole could be found, allowing all the parties involved to save face. (Jerusalem Post, 19, 28 and 30 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992)

558. On 3 July 1992, Israeli soldiers barred young Muslims from entering the Al-Aqsa Mosque for Friday prayers, which marked the Muslim New Year. (Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

559. On 6 July 1992, a Defense Ministry directive reduced the minimum age of workers allowed into Israel from 25 to 20. The security authorities did not allow Ali Abu-Hilal to cross the Allenby Bridge into Jordan. Abu-Hilal, a former deportee, had returned to the West Bank a year earlier. (Ha’aretz, 6 and 8 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 7 July 1992)

560. On 9 July 1992, the Israeli authorities did not allow Ali Yassin Al Makharza, 45, to cross the Allenby Bridge into Jordan. No reasons were given for the decision. Al Makharza, the selected Chairman of the village committee in Dahbiriya, near Hebron, had been dismissed from his post by the Israeli authorities in the early 1980s. (Al-Tali’ah, 16 July 1992)

561. On 21 July 1992, the Israeli authorities prevented the mother of martyr Mufid Al Ghizawi, who was killed by IDF soldiers on 5 November 1989, from travelling to Jordan. This was the third time that she was not allowed to travel to Jordan in order to receive medical treatment, although she was in possession of a travel permit issued by the Civil Administration. (Al-Tali'ah, 23 July 1992)

562. On 22 July 1992, it was reported that the security authorities decided not to lift the age restriction (20) for persons coming to work in Israel from the Gaza Strip. (Ha'aretz, 22 July 1992)

563. On 23 July 1992, Palestinian officials reported that the authorities had prevented two advisers to the Palestinian peace delegation, Ahmad Shreim of Kalkiliya and Issam Abu Bakr of Nablus, from crossing the Allenby Bridge into Jordan. A spokesperson for the military authorities confirmed that one adviser had been turned away but stated that the other one had not been listed as an official member of the team. So explanation was given as to why they were barred from leaving for Jordan. (Jerusalem Post, 24 July 1992)

564. On 23 July 1992, the Civil Administration in Gaza announced that the old work permits issued to Gazan workers would be valid until 1 August 1992 and that workers would have to ask their employers for new permits as at that date. Workers would be barred from entering Israel without the new permits. (Ha'aretz, 24 July 1992)

565. On 29 July 1992, the spokesman for the Civil Administration stated, responding to reports about long delays faced by Palestinians who want to cross the Allenby Bridge into Israel, that the facts about the situation had been deliberately misrepresented in the press. According to Palestinian sources, Israel was "creating an enormous humanitarian problem" by delaying the entry of tens of thousands of Arab visitors, some 60,000 according to the sources, from Jordan to the West Bank. The Civil Administration spokesman stated that, contrary to press reports, the closing of the Adam Bridge on 1 December had not affected the traffic across bridges, since the Allenby Bridge could easily be used by persons travelling to the northern West Bank who had previously used the Adam Bridge. According to the spokesman, 47,250 persons had crossed the two bridges into Israel between June and July 1991. Between 1 June and 26 July 1992, more than 50,000 persons had crossed the Allenby Bridge. The initial figure agreed upon with the Jordanian authorities was set at 1,750 a day, which was subsequently increased to 2,500 and is currently standing at more than 3,000 persons a day. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 30 July 1992)

566. On 12 August 1992, Justice Minister David Libai announced that within three weeks he would submit to the Committee of Ministers on Legislation his preliminary draft of an amendment to the Prevention of Terror Ordinance, permitting innocuous meetings with PLO officials. In a statement to reporters, Libai stated that as long as Israelis did not harm state security by meeting with PLO officials, they would not be prosecuted. Under the Prevention of Terror Ordinance 1986, all meetings with PLO officials were considered a crime, no matter what their purpose, was. (Jerusalem Post, 10 and 13 August 1992)

567. On 18 August 1992, the organization "A Line For the Worker" dealing with problems of workers from the territories in Israel reported that, since the Gaza Strip had been sealed off following the murder of a young woman in Bat Yam by a Gazan on 24 May, the Civil Administration had introduced a new procedure in the Gaza Strip. According to this procedure, the magnetic cards of the Gazan workers who had been previously condemned for illegal entrance into Israel would be confiscated and given back only after six months. No Gazan would be allowed to go to work in Israel without the magnetic card. (Ha'aretz, 18 August 1992)

568. On 20 August 1992, two leading Gazan Islamicists accused Israel of trying to widen the existing divisions within Palestinian society by rejecting their request to travel in order to meet with PLO leader Yasser Arafat and other leading Arab figures abroad. They were Dr. Mahmoud Zahar and Dr. Abdul-Aziz Rantisi, who are affiliated with Hamas, the Islamic Resistance Movement. (Jerusalem Post, 21 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

569. On 23 August 1992, the Palestinian peace team left for Washington after a two-day delay, stating that their dispute with the authorities at the Allenby Bridge had been settled and that they had progressed towards their goal of being treated as an official delegation. The team (35 persons) had returned to Jerusalem from the bridge on 21 August 1992, after military authorities stationed there had insisted that four members of the team under the age of 35 be given a special permit if they wanted to return home with the rest of the delegation. Israeli military law requires that males aged 16 to 35 travelling to Jordan stay abroad at least for nine months unless they obtain a permit to return sooner. The four persons concerned were Nasser Afar (or Nasser Abd al-Juhad); Wael Abu Naemeh; Ahmed Aghneim (or Ahmed Ganeim) and Wafiq Abu Sido (or Ahmed Sif). A fifth Palestinian, Awni Abu Rosh (or Uni Abu Gosh), was prevented from crossing the bridge because he had replaced another team member and his name did not appear on a list submitted to the authorities three days earlier. (Ha'aretz, 23 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 23 and 24 August 1992)

570. On 25 August 1992, IDF sources announced that men between 50 and 6O years of age were permitted for the first time in recent years to cross the Green Line from Gaza without a permit. (Jerusalem Post, 26 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

571. On 25 and 26 August 1992, it was reported that IDF soldiers in the Gaza Strip began removing barriers from sealed roads, following an order by Defense Minister Rabin. (Ha'aretz, 26 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 26 and 27 August 1992 also referred to in Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

(b) Freedom of education

Oral evidence

572. Numerous witnesses have informed the Special Committee about how the freedom of education has been affected in the occupied territories since the beginning of the popular uprising, which has resulted in prolonged closures of numerous educational institutions. Mr. Gaby Baramki, Dean of Bir Zeit University, stated the following in this connection:

573. Another witness also provided a description of off-campus teaching in the occupied territories:

574. A particular problem faced by students who have had to follow the off-campus teaching is the non-recognition of their diplomas by Israel, which prevents them from obtaining employment in Israel and the occupied territories. Mr. Gaby Baramki, Dean of Bir Zeit University, stated the following in this regard:

575. He also described other restrictions imposed on Palestinian universities:

576. A witness who also testified before the Special Committee stated the following with regard to the overcrowding of the premises of educational institutions:

577. A witness who testified before the Special Committee, spoke of the shortage of the most elementary teaching materials:

578. A witness who testified before the Special Committee indicated that there is a deliberate desire on the part of the authorities to prevent students from taking exams:

579. The denial of the right to education can be particularly preoccupying when it concerns teenage children who have been sentenced to protracted prison terms. In this connection, Dr. Jadallah, Chairman of the Union of Health Care Committees in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, described the case of his 15-year-old son Mourad:

580. Accounts on the restrictions to the right to freedom of education may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.586/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.587 (Mr. Gaby Baramki), A/AC.145/RT.587/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.594 (anonymous witness), and A/AC.145/RT.597 (Mr. Mohammed Jadallah).


Written information 22/

581. On 1 March 1992, it was reported that Bir Zeit University, the only university in the territories that had not reopened since the beginning of the uprising, received a closure order for a further two months. The order came from the military commander of the area. The announcement stated that security officials were to meet with university management and public figures during the next two months, with the intention of ascertaining whether the University could open "without a recurrence of the violence which existed on the eve of its closure". Bir Zeit University is currently operating outside its main campus. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

582. On 29 April 1992, Bir Zeit University, which had been closed since 8 January 1988 when officials alleged that the University was a centre of anti-Israel activities, was reopened. The Defense Minister, Moshe Arens, issued orders on 20 April 1992, allowing Bir Zeit's Science and Engineering Departments to reopen. He stated that other faculties could reopen later if the campus was quiet. (Ha'aretz, 20 April 1,992; Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 and 30 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992)

583. On 4 May 1992, it was reported that the administration and students of Bir Zeit University complained that only two faculties, the science and engineering schools, were granted permission to reopen after a four-year closure. The arts and economics departments remained closed until an unspecified date. Moreover, students from the Gaza Strip are having difficulties in getting permits from the Israeli authorities to live at or even commute to the Bir Zeit University. (Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

584. On 7 May 1992, the IDF ordered the Yalbad Elementary School in Jenin closed until further notice. The IDF spokesman alleged that students had thrown stones at soldiers from the schoolyard. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

585. On 18 May 1992, it was reported that administrators of the recently partly opened Bir Beit University in Ramallah protested to the Israeli Defense Ministry because soldiers had been setting up checkpoints near the University gate and provoking the students. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

586. On 25 May 1992, the Bethlehem University Student Union held its first elections since the beginning of the uprising, in a clear contest between PLO and Hamas supporters. The PLO list won nearly 85 per cent of the votes and all posts in the student club and administration. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 26 May 1992)

587. On 3 June 1992, it was reported that Al-Najah University in Nablus had been ordered closed for one week following disturbances. (Jerusalem Post, 3 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 4 June 1992; Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

588. On 22 June 1992, it was reported that the siege imposed on the Gaza Strip had affected 718 students who were unable to obtain permits to leave the Strip, either because they were from the Nuseirat refugee camp or because they were under 25 years of age. (Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

589. On 13 July 1992, numerous students from Gaza continued to be prevented going back to their universities in the West Bank because of orders prohibiting youths under 20 years of age leaving the Gaza Strip. (Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

590. On 14 July 1992, Border Police arrested an armed fugitive at Al-Najah University in Nablus on the day of the student elections, which were being disputed between the supporters of Fatah and those belonging to the fundamentalist Hamas movement. When the army learned that there might be other fugitives on the campus, it sealed it off and began checking the identity cards of students as they were leaving the campus. According to the army, gunmen had apparently entered the University to exert pressure on students voting in elections. Fatah won all 11 student council seats. Approximately 2,000 people, among whom were students, teachers, employees and several children, were reportedly at the University. A curfew was imposed on Nablus. (Ha'aretz, 15 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 15 and 16 July 1992)

591. On 15 July 1992, the showdown between students and soldiers entered its second day, with no sign of students giving in to IDF demands to leave the campus so that the army could arrest a handful of gunmen who were believed to be inside. Maj.-Gen. Danny Rothschild, the government Coordinator in the Territories, called in members of the Board of Trustees and other Nablus notables urging them to persuade the students, who were claiming that they were defending academic freedom, to leave the premises. The greater part of Nablus was declared a closed military area. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 July 1992) It was reported that during a meeting with national figures, Danny Rothschild, the government Coordinator in the Occupied Territories, had refused to allow food and medicines into the University of Nablus where an armed fugitive was hiding. Rothschild also refused to allow students to leave the premises in UNRWA or Red Cross buses. He insisted that they should come out one by one and be subjected to security checks. (Al-Tali'ah, 16 July 1992)

592. On 16 July 1992, attempts were being made to reach a negotiated settlement that would allow the wanted fugitives inside the university campus to leave for Jordan. The offer had been made in a broadcast of the Arabic Service of Israeli Radio, as families of the fugitives and Israeli Arab leaders had joined the behind-the-scenes talks. The IDF refused to allow food into the University, pointing out that the students were free to leave. Nablus and the surrounding camps, which encompassed almost 150,000 people, remained under curfew but residents were able to go out to buy food and obtain medical treatment. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 July 1992)

593. On 17 July 1992, an agreement was reached according to an established list and the six wanted men were deported to Jordan. They were:

(a) Majad Ismail Mahmad Al-Masri, 21 or 23, from the Balata refugee, camp;

(b) Yasser Jum’a'Abd al-Rahum Badawi, 20 or 24, from Balata;

(c) Nasser Mahmud Ahmad'Awais, 22 or 23, from Balata;

(e) 'Abdallah Daud Mahmud'Abd al-Kaud (or Kader), 30 or 32, from Balata;

(e) Mahmud Saleh Yahya (or Ibrahim) Tayim, 19 or 23, from the Ein Beit Hilma (or Elma) refugee camp;

(f) Bilal 'Abd al-Rahim Utman Dwiarat or Dweikat, 24 or 28, from Askar.

They were taken from the University by the Red Cross at 7 p.m., transported to the Allenby Bridge and accompanied to the Jordanian border, where representatives of the Government of Jordan awaited them. The IDF was not allowed to interrogate and search the men. Weapons were to be handed over to the Red Cross, but the men claimed that they were unarmed. The curfew was lifted at 7.20 p.m., and the campus was vacated. Classes were to resume on 21 July 1992, after the campus had been cleaned and repaired. (Ha'aretz, 19 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

(c) Freedom of religion

Oral evidence

594. A witness testifying before the Committee told about an incident that occurred in a mosque:

595. Another witness spoke of an incident after prayer during which persons were killed:

596. Mr. Taher Mahmoud Al-Mouhtaseb stated that Israeli soldiers often surround mosques:

597. Testimonies referring to the right of freedom of religion may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.588 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.586 (Mr. Taber Mahmoud Al-Mouhtaseb), and A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness).


Written information 23/

598. On 24 April 1992, an Israeli border patrol unit tried to arrest a Palestinian youth and threatened to hit a clergyman during Good Friday services for the Eastern Church in Ramallah. The patrol allegedly wanted to arrest the youth because he was wearing a badge representing the Palestinian flag. An army spokesman later stated that the soldiers had thought that the large gathering was a demonstration. According to eyewitnesses, soldiers were trying to provoke the people attending the service. After the ceremony, the unit followed and beat another youth who had been participating in the religious services. (Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992)

599. On 26 April 1992, Christian clergy in Ramallah protested against alleged harassment by Israeli soldiers during the Easter celebrations at a local church on 24 April 1992. Eight local priests signed a statement that indicated that soldiers had threatened worshippers with guns and grenades, and had brutally beaten up one youth during a Good Friday service at the Greek Orthodox Church there. The army announced that it was checking the report. (Jerusalem Post, 27 April 1992)


Written information 24/
(d) Freedom of expression

600. On 3 May 1992, it was reported that the Israeli Civil Administration issued an order to all officials of the Agricultural Department. In the occupied territories prohibiting them from talking to the press -- Palestinian or Israeli -- until further notice. The order included not disclosing any information on the agricultural departments, their projects and plans. (Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

601. On 9 July 1992, the High Court of Justice upheld a decision by the Ministry of the Interior to refuse a license to a paper that was to be called "Al-Wafa" to be published in, East Jerusalem. The Court, in denying the request of the publisher, Fairuz Alhatib, stated that there was a "strong basis" for suspecting that the paper would serve to promote the interests of organizations hostile to Israel in Jerusalem and its environs. (Jerusalem Post, 10 July 1992)

602. On 20 July 1992, the news forum of the Israeli Broadcasting Authority (IBA), a committee composed of new editors and the managing directors of the television and radio divisions, decided that interviews with Arab leaders from the territories should be handled in the same manner as those conducted with other newsmakers. The forum met at the request of right-wing members of the IBA plenum, asking that guidelines be established for interviews with Palestinian personalities. In taking the decision, the news forum noted that, since the opening of the Madrid peace talks, official state representatives had been meeting openly with the same newsmakers who were considered hostile by the appointees of the nationalistic camp to the IBA plenum. (Jerusalem Post, 27 July 1992)

603. On 27 July 1992, a spokesman for IBA stated that Israeli Television would not broadcast a scheduled interview with Faisal Husseini because its board of directors had not approved new guidelines on interviewing Palestinian personalities from the territories. (Jerusalem Post, 28 July 1992)

604. On 2 August 1992, the High Court of Justice gave IBA 30 days to explain its decision to allow Palestinian leader Faisal Husseini to be interviewed on the "Moked" interview program. The compliant against the "Moked" interview was filed by Elyakim Ha'etzni, after the IBA news forum asked that Palestinian leaders from the territories be presented on state television and radio in the same manner as other newsmakers. (Jerusalem Post, 3 August 1992)

3. Settlers' activities affecting the civilian population

Oral evidence

605. Numerous witnesses testifying before the Special Committee spoke of the behaviour of settlers towards the inhabitants of the occupied territories. One witness stated the following in this connection:

606. Another witness provided the following information:


Written information 25/

607. On 5 March 1992, it was reported that a new Jewish group whose aim was to struggle against the establishment of Palestinian autonomy had been formed in the territories. The group, to be known as the "Command of the Struggle to Annul the Autonomy Plan", was headed by Tehiya MK Elyakim Ha'etzni. The main activity of the group -- which had been organized over the past two months -- was to spread information about its cause throughout the West Bank and the Gaza District by way of parlor meetings, conferences and lectures. (Jerusalem Post, 5 March 1992)

608. On 8 March 1992, following the throwing of a grenade at an IDF guard post outside Beit Hadassah, in the centre of Hebron, dozens of settlers demonstrated and refused to leave the closed military area. The IDF lodged a complaint against the group with the Hebron police. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

609. On 11 March 1992, some 20 women and children from Beit Hadassah in Hebron demonstrated to protest against the reopening of the road that was closed on 8 March 1992, following the throwing of a grenade at an IDF post. (Ha’aretz, 12 March 1992)

610. On 19 March 1992, a group of Kahane Hai activists led by Binyamin Ze'ev Kahane tried to enter Kifl Haris. When they discovered that it had been sealed off by the army, they went on a rampage through the nearby Qira village. The activists were expelled from the village by soldiers and four of them were arrested after a short chase. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 20 March 1992)

611. On 25 March 1992, dozens of residents of Beit Hagai, south of Hebron, blocked the Hebron-Beersheba road during the night in protest against the recent deterioration of the security situation in the area. The residents' information centre, Uvda, reported that in the past 10 days, 15 vehicles from Beit Hagai had been stoned in the area and that during the past month, some 70 security incidents had been reported on the two roads leading to the settlement. Beit Hagai residents also blocked the road on 24 March 1992, but reopened it at the request of an IDF officer who arrived on the scene. (Jerusalem Post, 26 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

612. On 20 April 1992, the police arrested Binyamin Ze’ev Kahane, son of the late Kach leader, Rabbi Meir Kahane. Binyamin Kahane had been wanted by the police for one month, when he and other members of Kahane Hai allegedly rampaged through the streets of Tulkarm, breaking the windows of several houses. (Jerusalem Post, 21 April 1992)

613. On 5 May 1992, the Israeli police arrested three activists belonging to the Kach movement when they attempted to attack Faisal Husseini while he was at the Magistrate's Court in West Jerusalem. Husseini was in court to testify in a case concerning other Kach activists who had attacked him earlier. (Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

614. On 28 May 1992, the IDF removed in the early morning three caravans that settlers had placed in Kfar Darom, near the site where Rabbi Shimon Biran had been murdered a few hours earlier. Dozens of settlers tried to prevent the removal of caravans, but finally returned to their settlements. During the entire day following the murder, Jewish settlers burned fields and greenhouses belonging to Arabs. They also uprooted trees and destroyed gardens near Kfar Darom. The Gaza police investigated complaints against Jewish settlers filed by Arab residents. (Ha'aretz, 28 and 29 May 1992)

615. On 31 May 1992, a resident of Hebron reported that Israeli settlers attempted to set fire to his home, located near the settlement of Kharsinai, at dawn. The settlers fled when he appeared. According to local sources, settler attacks on Arab residents and property had increased significantly after the killing of Helena Rapp. (Al-Tali’ah, 4 June 1992)

616. On 31 May 1992, reports from Gaza indicated that settlers continued to attack and damage Palestinian property in the Deir el-Balah area, in revenge for the killing of a settler there the previous week. The settlers also extended the boundaries of the Kfar Darom settlement and named the expanded area after the settler who had been killed. (Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

617. On 11 June 1992, settlers from Psagot went on a rampage in El-Bireh, in the West Bank, during the night. They punctured car tires and smashed the windows of vehicles and houses following the stoning of two Israeli vehicles on the road between Psagot and El-Bireh that morning. A woman was slightly injured by a stone. The settlers were dispersed by an IDF patrol and a number of El-Bireh residents lodged a complaint against them with the Ramallah police. (Ha'aretz, 14 June 1992)

618. On 16 June 1992, the police and the IDF evacuated settlers who were blocking the main north-south road in the Gaza Strip linking Gaza to Khan Younis, in a demonstration held to demand greater security for the settlers. The incident occurred in the night of 14 June, when a drunken resident of the neighbouring Deir el-Balah refugee camp wandered into the Kfar Darom settlement where Rabbi Shimon Biran had been stabbed on 27 May. When stopped, the man responded that he wanted to kill Jews but that he was unarmed. Following this incident, settlers set Arab-owned fields and greenhouses on fire, throw stones at cars and damaged the petrol station in Deir el-Balah. They also blocked the highway near Kfar Darom when rumors spread that the army was not going to complete the building of a fence around the settlement in order to ensure its security. Before dawn on 16 June, dozens of settlers who had refused to leave the road were evacuated. Sixteen settlers were arrested on suspicion of provoking disturbances and throwing stones at Arab-owned cars and six among them were detained at Gaza prison before being transferred to another location. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 16 and 17 June 1992)

619. On 16 June 1992, IDF soldiers removed by force several settlers who were blocking a road in the Gaza Strip to protest the Israeli easing of restrictions on the movement of Gaza Strip residents. (Al-Fajr, 22 June 1992)

620. On 18 June 1992, 35 members of a group intending to create a new settlement in Ginat, north-west of Jenin, managed to reach the site in question. They unloaded equipment and set up a tent before being evacuated by soldiers with an order stating that the site had been declared a closed military area. This was the group's fifth attempt in two weeks to reach the site in Ginat. The Government had given an authorization for the settlement in 1983 but had postponed construction several times. (Ha'aretz, 5, 16 and 19 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 10 and 16 June 1992)

621. On 30 June 1992, it was reported that 12 Arabs from Hebron had filed complaints with the local police against the damage caused by Jewish residents after the stabbing of an Israeli, who sustained light injuries, in the centre of Hebron on 27 June 1992. On that day, dozens of Jewish residents from Hebron and Kiryat Arba rioted in the centre of the city. According to witnesses, dozens of Arab cars and houses were damaged during the rioting. (Ha’aretz, 28, 29 and 30 June 1992; Jerusalem Post, 30 June 1992)

622. On 1 July 1992, 10 Jewish women from Beit Hadassah, in Hebron, blocked a street for 30 minutes before being evacuated by troops. They were demanding that the IDF close Arab shops in the area. The protest followed the stabbing of a Jewish resident of Hebron on 26 June. (Jerusalem Post, 2 July 1992)

623. On 2 July 1992, settlers from Tel Rumeida in Hebron attacked several houses belonging to Arabs in the area, causing damage. These attacks followed the stabbing of a Jewish resident on 26 June. There were also reports of attacks by armed settlers from the Ru'eya settlement on Palestinian herdsmen from Tamun who were grazing their sheep in the valleys. A settler was stabbed on 28 June 1992, allegedly by a resident of Tamun. (Al-Tali’ah, 9 July 1992)

624. On 9 July 1992, Israeli settlers set on fire three cars belonging to Palestinians in Hebron. Israeli Radio indicated that the cars belonged to residents who had complained to the police three weeks before about damage caused to their cars by settlers. It said that settlers had set the cars on fire in order to intimidate the residents. Police brought in a number of settlers for questioning. (Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992, and Al-Tali'ah, 16 July 1992)

625. On 10 July 1992, Israeli police and army units stopped settlers with mobile homes who were heading towards Jenin. The settlers intended to set up a settlement to be called Ganem. (Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992)

626. On 10 and 11 July 1992, a group of Jewish settlers from Beit Hadassah went on a rampage through Hebron after an IDF post had been stoned. During an altercation with an Arab shopkeeper, a settler who had been stabbed and slightly injured two weeks earlier fired two shots in the air. The police and the army were obliged to intervene. (Ha'aretz, 12 July 1992)

627. On 12 July 1992, angry Jewish settlers went to a street in Beit Hadassah in Hebron and demanded from the Arab shopkeepers that they close their stores. The army was obliged to intervene in order to enable them to open their shops. (Ha'aretz, 13 July 1992)

628. On 20 July 1992, the IDF prevented several dozen members of the Kach movement from setting up Jewish outposts in Jericho in protest against the visit of the United States Secretary of State James Baker. The army was obliged to intervene and declared the area a closed military zone. (Jerusalem Post, 21 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992)

629. On 22 July 1992, it was reported that Kach activist Baruch Morzel was released on a $4,100 bail after being questioned for several hours by the police in connection with the destruction of Arab property following the stabbing of a Jew in Hebron several weeks earlier. (Jerusalem Post, 22 July 1992)

630. On 22 July 1992, a police spokesman stated that Kach activist Tiran Pollak would be prohibited from carrying his Uzi sub-machine-gun, which had been issued by the IDF, inside the Green Line. The decision was taken following an incident at the Palestinian Cultural Centre in East Jerusalem on 20 July, in which Pollak and six other Kach members interrupted the press conference of Palestinian spokeswoman Hanan Ashrawi. Pollak, who lives in Hebron, had been issued the Uzi sub-machine-gun for self-defense. (Jerusalem Post, 22 and 23 July 1992)

631. On 23 July 1992, in protest against the decision of the new Government to cancel the construction of almost 7,000 housing units in the territories, some 70 settlers demonstrated at the Kassem junction on the Trans-Samaria highway and blocked the traffic. The police were obliged to intervene. (Ha’aretz, 24 July 1992)

632. On 30 July 1992, the Hebron police detained Rabbi Moshe Levinger after he had led a group of some 30 settlers, some of whom were armed, on a rampage through the Arab market in Hebron in order to protest the delay in the deportation of Palestinians and the Government's decision to reduce the number of settlements. Levinger, who had been previously arrested several times for similar offences, had also served a five-month prison sentence in connection with the death of a Palestinian shopkeeper in Hebron. The night before, settlers had already gone on a rampage through the city when a Palestinian stabbed and slightly wounded a Jewish boy. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 31 July 1992)

633. On 9 August 1992, some 300 Jewish settlers from the southern West Bank built part of a house near Arba in defiance of an IDF ban (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 13 August 1992). Residents of the Kiryat Arba suburb of Hebron had begun the building the previous night, on a site listed for a government building that was to be built by the Likud Government. The floors had already been built but the project was stopped by the Labor Government two weeks earlier. The construction workers were ordered by soldiers to go home but had returned several hours later with dozens of other persons in order to stage a sit-in and refused to leave when the local IDF commander told them that they were in a closed military area. Following a confrontation with the IDF, which included an exchange of blows, the settlers received assurances that the structure would not be destroyed for 15 days, while they would try to obtain a building permit. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

634. On 10 August 1992, it was reported that settlers from Ateret Lishona had agreed to turn over a house they occupied in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem to its Palestinian owner, Na'ila Jawdat Al Zorro, by 9 August. The agreement came after the Magistrates Court in Jerusalem ordered the police to enforce a previous High Court decision ordering the settlers to evacuate the residence. (Al-Fajr, 10 and 24 August 1992)

635. On 24 August 1992, settlers were given an additional 21 days to try to convince the Government or the High Court of Justice that they should be allowed to finish the construction of a symbolic house in Kiryat Arba. However, in the process of asking for an extension, some 55 demonstrators were arrested near the disputed building. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 25 August 1992)

D. Treatment of detainees

Oral evidence

636. Numerous witnesses who testified before the Special Committee spoke of the extremely precarious situation of detainees and the inadequate conditions of detention both in the occupied territories and in Israel itself. Mr. Jeffrey Dillman, a lawyer from the Palestinian Human Rights Information Centre (PHRIC), provided the following information:

637. Mr. Dillman also described what happens to prisoners when they protest against their conditions of detention:

638. Dr. Mohammed Jadallah, Chairman of the Union of Health Care Committees in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, described how threat of sexual harassment may be used to secure the collaboration of the detainees, even when they are only children, with the authorities:

639. Several witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee have spoken about the inadequate conditions of hygiene in detention centres, which have recently led to an outbreak of skin diseases such as scabies. One witness provided the following information in this regard:

640. Dr. Mohammed Jadallah, whose 15-year-old son Mourad is a detainee, described the conditions of detention of his son:

641. Another witness provided the following information in this connection:

642. The parent of a detainee described what happened to his son:

643. Mr. Khaled Mohamad Shahrour spoke of the overcrowding of prisons and the inadequate food rations and medical treatment:

644. Mr. Shahrour also spoke about how the prison authorities prevented prisoners from organizing themselves to protest against their conditions of detention:

645. The wife of a detainee who testified before the Special Committee described what her husband told her about the conditions of detention:

646. The wife of another detainee provided the following information concerning family visits to detention centres:

647. The following information concerning visits to detainees was provided by another witness:

648. (Mr. Samir Mourad Yahya Baaba, a former detainee who testified before the Special Committee, provided information on what happens to inmates when they protest against their conditions of detention:

649. In addition, Mr. Baaba told the Special Committee about the treatment he underwent himself:

650. Another former detainee stated the following with regard to the treatment he was subjected to:

651. Dr. Mohammed Jadallah described what happened during his own imprisonment before the Special Committee:

652. Dr. Jadallah also experienced treatment in a "cupboard" or "coffin" the second time he was arrested. He stated the following in this connection:

653. A number of witnesses who testified before the Special Committee stated that political prisoners were detained together with common law detainees. The relative of a former detainee stated the following:

654. Another witness stated the following:

655. A witness who testified before the Special Committee provided additional information in this connection:

656. Testimonies relating to the treatment of detainees may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.584 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.585 (Mr. Khaled Mohamad Shahrour), A/AC.145/RT.587 (Mr. Jeffrey Dillman), A/AC.145/RT.587/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.589 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.590 (Mr. Samir Mourad Yahya Baaba), A/AC.145/RT.590/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.594 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.595 (anonymous witness), and A/AC.145/RT.597 (Dr. Mohammed Jadallah).


Written information 26/

657. On 10 March 1992, the commander of Ketziot prison, Ze'ev Shaltiel, announced that, in order to mark the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, the IDF would release during the week 300 security prisoners from the territories from the detention centre in the Negev. The persons to be released would be those having only a few months of their sentences remaining to serve. According to Shaltiel, the decision, taken by OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Matan Vilnai, would help to calm the situation in the Gaza Strip. Vilnai also decided on the early release of 16 and 17 year olds, as well as of persons who were chronically ill, even if they had more than two months of their sentences remaining to be served. Shaltiel also stated that a special effort was being made to reduce the number of administrative detainees. In contrast to previous policy, persons accused of minor offences such as stone-throwing were therefore no longer being sentenced to administrative detention. This policy reduced to 250 the number of administrative detainees in Ketziot, which had reached a record high of 3,000 in March 1988. A total of some 5,000 detainees were currently being held in Ketziot prison. Shaltiel also reported a marked decrease in the number of internal killings at Ketziot. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 11 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 16 March 1992)

658. On 11 March 1992, the first 80 detainees were released from Ketziot prison to mark the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. They were transported by bus to the Nahal Oz barrage where relatives were awaiting them. (Ha'aretz, 12 March 1992)

659. On 14 March 1992, a senior investigating officer announced that the national police had completed hearing testimony from seven former prisoners and a human rights field worker concerning allegations of electric shock torture at the Hebron military headquarters. The allegations were first made in December 1991 by the Palestinian Human Rights Information Centre. However, the investigation concerning the use of electric shock was undertaken following a report that appeared in the Hadashot newspaper in February 1991 quoting police sources as saying that the claims about the use of electric shock were substantially correct and that a special unit had been operating. To that effect in several prisons in order to extract information from stone-throwers. It was indicated that electric shock, apparently administered through a field telephone battery, had never been administered in doses important enough to cause serious injury, and had been recommended by superiors as a means for obtaining information. Al-Haq, a Ramallah-based human rights group, stated it had evidence concerning 16 cases in which electric shock had been used. (Jerusalem Post, 15 March 1992)

660. On 30 March 1992, Abie Nathan left Ramla Prison where he had been detained since October 1991, after the commutation of his 18-month prison term by President Chaim Herzog on 29 March 1992. (Jerusalem Post, 31 March 1992)

661. On 1 April 1992, Betzelem, the Israeli Information Centre on Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, reported that despite several official inquiries into the use of torture against security detainees during interrogation, there had been no improvement in their treatment. The report, based on recent interviews, was issued as a follow-up to the one published last March (1991), which was based on interviews with 41 detainees. Following the previous report, the Chief of General Staff, Gen. Ehud Barak, set up an inquiry commission under Brig. (Res.) Raphael Vardi. The Ministry of Justice and a Knesset subcommittee examined GSS interrogation practices. The GSS also participated in the inquiry. The alleged ill-treatment included sleep deprivation, hooding, long periods of confinement in small cells, being tied up in painful positions and severe beatings (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 2 April 1992). The Betzelem report noted that "there was no correlation between the intensity of the interrogation and the seriousness of the attributed offence. Most detainees were released without charges or convicted of minor offences". The report mentioned that the situation was worse in some ways than it was believed to be a year earlier, placing the number of prisoners subjected to some form of these interrogation methods at 5,000 instead of 2,000. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 2 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 6 April 1992)

662. On 15 April 1992, The High Court of Justice delayed for three months its consideration of a petition filed by the Public Committee Against Torture in Israel, asking that the GSS be barred from using "moderate physical" and "non-violent psychological" pressure against Palestinians suspected, of security offences. Such measures were permitted under the guidelines established by the Landau Commission in 1987. However, the second part of the Commission's report including the cited guidelines had never been published in relation to state security. A day earlier, State Attorney Dorit Beinish, summing up the State's case, had told the High Court of Justice that the use of a moderate amount of physical pressure during the interrogation of "terrorist" suspects was a limited, final measure, which was not subject to the whim of the interrogator. Meanwhile, Avigdor Feldman, representing the human rights group, told the Court that the guidelines had "turned into permission to torture in the territories". The same day, an affidavit (written declaration) was presented by the head of the GSS to the High Court of Justice, stating that several GSS investigators, including senior personnel, had been dismissed from their posts following evidence that they had deviated from the above-mentioned guidelines in the GSS interrogation facilities in Gaza. The justices decided that the Special Ministerial Committee (composed of the Defense and Justice Ministers) could continue to issue recommendations "within a reasonable period of time". At the time, the Committee was studying the way in which the Landau Commission's guidelines were being followed in the actual work of the GSS investigators. Avigdor Feldman opposed the delay, saying that the Committee had no interest in knowing what investigation methods the GSS employed or how it exerted physical and psychological pressure on persons under investigation but stated that the main contention was that the Government had no right to allow the GSS to exert such pressure. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15 and 16 April 1992)

663. On 16 April 1992, the Judge Advocate-General, Brig.-Gen. Ilan Schiff, told military correspondents that the IDF had never adopted the Landau Commission's recommendations that at times "moderate physical pressure might be used during interrogation" and that IDF soldiers had no right nor reason to use such violence. He also stated that all complaints or legal motions by Arab residents of the territories contending that torture had been used were "thoroughly investigated". However, Schiff also indicated that the GSS was still reluctant to assume full responsibility for the detention and interrogation of uprising-related cases, which would relieve the IDF of a task it was ill-equipped to handle. This transfer of competences had been recommended in Maj.-Gen. (Res.) Rafael Vardi's report, which was commissioned and later accepted by the Chief of General Staff, Lt.-Gen. Ehud Barak. Vardi was asked to probe the methods and procedures used by the IDF during the interrogation and detention periods, following widespread reports that violence was used excessively. As a result of the recommendations made by Vardi, the Judge Advocate-General's office had so far filed charges against one of the eight soldiers whom he had accused of employing violence. The Defense requested that the charges be dropped, but the military prosecution denied the request. On 16 April 1992, the Judge Advocate-General, Brig.-Gen. Ilan Schiff, also stated that there was a significant decrease in the number of administrative detainees, at the moment numbering 230, who had at one time reached a record high of 3,000. Nevertheless, the number of trials had risen from 16,000 in 1990 to 20,000 in 1991. (Ha’aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 April 1992)

664. On 17 April 1992, it was reported that the Judge Advocate-General's Office had closed the investigation file concerning a Palestinian detainee, Nasser al-Adin Flihi, who claimed that he had been beaten by his interrogators in Dheisheh in May 1991. (Ha’aretz, 17 April 1992)

665. On 19 April 1992, it was reported that the Southern Region Military Court was conducting proceedings against a soldier belonging to the undercover unit Shimshon for cruel treatment of an Arab prisoner. The trial was to be held in camera. (Ha’aretz, 19 April 1992)

666. On 23 April 1992, it was reported that Mustafa Salam al-Hama Majnun, from Khan Younis, testified before the Military Court of the Southern Region Command against an IDF soldier who had been accused of mistreatment. According to the charge sheet, the soldier had beaten a prisoner under his guard in Khan Younis prison in April 1991 and had him left him tied outside for three days. The soldier was also accused of beating up another detainee, Tahsin Ata al-Bamkat, during an interrogation at the same detention centre. (Ha'aretz, 23 April 1992)

667. On 27 April 1992, it was reported that the military police of Gaza had passed on to the Judge Advocate-General's Office the file of an IDF soldier suspected of severe brutality and mistreatment of five Arab detainees in the Khan Younis interrogation facilities in October 1991. The man, a recent immigrant from Russia, served as a military policeman. (Ha’aretz, 27 April 1992) On 27 April 1992, lawyers of prisoners held in Ramla prison stated that the Israeli prison authorities had placed tin plates over the windows of the solitary confinement cells, which prevent air and light from entering the rooms. An estimated 30 prisoners are held in solitary confinement in Ramla. (Al-Fajr, 4 May 1992).

668. On 29 April 1992, it was reported that 10 inquiry files concerning the mistreatment of Arab detainees by military interrogators had been opened since Maj.-Gen. (Res.) Rafael Vardi had presented his report in August 1991 about the methods and procedures used by the IDF during interrogation and detention periods. According to the decision of the Judge Advocate-General's office, five of the files had been closed, three had been returned for completion to the investigating military police, one was still being examined by the Office of Legal Practice, while one charge sheet had been filed against: the last military interrogator. (Ha'aretz, 29 April 1992)

669. On 30 April 1992, it was reported that the IDF and the security authorities were considering the possibility of changing the plastic handcuffs used for Palestinian detainees by IDF soldiers in the territories and in detention facilities. The detainees' complaint that the handcuffs were hurting and cutting them badly was checked and was found to be true. (Ha'aretz, 30 April 1992)

670. On 1 May 1992, detainee Sih Khalil Muhammed, 23, from Jabalia, was killed in Ketziot prison. Another detainee, Yassin Shehadeluz, 22, also from Jabalia, was suspected of the murder. (Ha'aretz, 4 May 1992)

671. On 5 May 1992, detainee Ahmed Ibrahim Barkat, 26, was shot dead in Ketziot prison, when he attacked a military guard with a piece of asbestos removed from the roof. (Ha'aretz, 6 May 1992)

672. On 6 May 1992, Betzelem, the Israeli Centre for Information on Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, requested the Israeli military coordinator to transfer a Palestinian political prisoner, Ibrahim Hanna Khouri, from the Ansar 3 detention centre to another prison. Betzelem stated that Khouri had suffered a heart attack and required rest and medication, which could not be provided at Ansar 3. (Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

673. On 10 May 1992, it was reported that political detainees at the Ashkelon prison continued a hunger strike in protest against prison conditions for the eighth consecutive day. Some of the prisoners were transferred to the prison hospital for treatment, suffering from ailments induced by the strike. (Al-Fajr, 18 May 1992)

674. On 22 May 1992, it was reported that during a meeting with the Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations Office at Geneva, Mr. Yitzhak Lior, the President of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Mr. Cornelio Sommaruga, called upon the Government of Israel immediately to stop the violations of the Fourth Geneva Convention. According to Mr. Sommaruga, the Red Cross, which had held personal interviews with prisoners for years, had come to the conclusion that the means used exerting physical and psychological pressure on prisoners during interrogation constituted a violation of the Geneva Convention. He also added that all the detailed reports presented by the International Committee of the Red Cross to the Government of Israel had not resulted in the improvement of the situation. (Ha’aretz, 22 May 1992)

675. On 31 May 1992, the IDF rejected the complaint lodged by the family of Samir Omar, from the Shati’ refugee camp, who claimed that their son had died after being interrogated by the security forces. The 17-year-old young man had been arrested on 13 May 1992 and detained at the Gaza central prison on suspicion of "terrorist" activities. He was released on 23 May 1992 and died on 31 May 1992. According to his parents, Samir Omar stated after his release that he had been beaten and placed in a "refrigerator", a tiny dark room with the air-conditioning turned up to result in freezing temperature. He had been taken to Shifa Hospital on 30 May 1992, after developing breathing difficulties. However, after his death, the pathologists did not find signs of violence on his body but stated that they could not determine the cause of death without carrying out an autopsy. The security forces called for an autopsy, which could not be performed since the family decided to take the body away for burial. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 June 1992)

676. On 4 June 1992, a military guard was attacked by a detainee, Adel Mustafa Darajeh, 27, at the Ketziot detention centre. The detainee was shot and moderately injured in the leg. (Ha'aretz, 5 June 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

677. On 4 June 1992, it was reported that Al Raj Ali Ibrahim Hassan, a Palestinian detained in Nablus for alleged security reasons, had appealed to humanitarian organizations to work on his release. Hassan had not been informed of the charges against him 60 days after being taken into custody. He also complained of harsh detention conditions. (Al-Tali'ah, 4 June 1992)

678. On 5 June 1992, it was reported that an autopsy performed on Samir Omar, 17, from Gaza, who died on 31 May 1992, seven days after his release from prison, could not prove that the interrogation he had undergone had been the direct cause of his death. However, the Danish pathologist appointed by the family of the deceased stated that the stress induced by interrogation as well as harsh treatment may have contributed to Samir Omar's death. (Jerusalem Post, 2 and 5 June 1992)

679. On 8 June 1992, it was reported that Samir Omar, who died 10 days after his release from an eight-day interrogation, had complained to his parents of pain in his back, chest, stomach, testicles, feet and upper thighs. Samir's father declared that his son had told him that he had been hooded and given the "refrigerator" treatment (confined to a tiny cell and exposed to freezing drafts). Samir also stated that he had been, beaten on the chest and abdomen, deprived of food, given unbearably hot and cold showers and struck on the head. On the last night of his interrogation, he stated that he had been beaten severely all over his body, especially on the testicles. (Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

680. On 12 June 1992, it was reported that the IDF had permitted 17 busloads of families of detainees to visit their relatives in Israeli prisons, including the Ketziot detention centre. The visit, which had been planned for 10 June 1992, was cancelled when the IDF prohibited the entry of persons under the age of 25 into Israel and when all relatives of detainees returned home in protest. No age limit was imposed on 11 June 1992. The IDF released 70 prisoners whose prison terms were soon coming to an end, to commemorate the Idh al-Adha, the Muslim Feast of the Sacrifice. (Jerusalem Post, 11 and 12 June 1992)

681. On 30 June 1992, Mohammed Suleiman Breis, 40, from Khan Younis, was reportedly found dead in his prison cell in Ramla prison. He is said to have died in yet unclear circumstances. The Israeli authorities declared that Breis hanged himself in his cell. Breis was detained in Ramla prison and awaiting trial. (Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992)

682. On 3 July 1992, the IDF announced that it had released over the past few weeks 10 Palestinians who had been detained in Israeli prisons since their arrest in Lebanon in 1985. The announcement by the office of the army spokesman followed a confirmation by the Red Cross that it had helped the 10 Palestinian prisoners to reach Switzerland and had subsequently provided the necessary documents enabling them to travel to a destination of their choice. (Jerusalem Post, 5 July 1992)

683. On 5 July 1992, Israel reportedly released four members of the PLO's mainstream Fatah organization who had been detained for the past 18 months. Reuters informed that the four were handed over to the officials of the International Red Cross at the Lebanese border. The report also stated that the four had been taken from a ferry travelling between Cyprus and Sidon and had been detained for questioning. (Jerusalem Post, 6 July 1992)

684. On 7 July 1992, official military sources declared that prisoner Samir Masri, 29, had escaped from custody while he was being transported to his trial at the Gaza Military Court. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 8 July 1992)

685. On 8 July 1992, Hassan Mahmud Eid, 23, from El-Bireh (West Bank) was found hanging by a bed sheet in a prison service cell in Hebron jail. Eid had been studying at the Bir Zeit University and was active in the Fatah-affiliated Shabiba movement at the University. He was arrested for the first time on 22 June 1992. On 20 July 1992, it was reported that the Bir Zeit University and several Palestinian organizations had asked the security authorities for a public and independent investigation concerning his death. At the request of several organizations, among them Betzelem, an independent medical doctor took part in the autopsy and concluded that the death was brought on by hanging. (Ha'aretz, 9, 10, 12-14 and 20 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 9 July 1992)

686. On 23 July 1992, it was reported that the Red Cross had protested to the security authorities and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Justice claiming that the security authorities had violated the agreement that they had signed in 1986. According to the agreement, prisoners under investigation in detention facilities of the IDF or of any other authority would not be detained for more than 28 days. According to the Red Cross, more than 200 detainees were currently being held in detention facilities of the IDF or other security authorities for more than 28 days, and their number was on the rise. (Ha'aretz, 23 July 1992)

687. On 4 August 1992, Mustafa Mahmud Barakat, 21 (or 24), of Anabta (West Bank), who had been detained in the GSS ward of the Tulkarm detention centre, was found dead in his cell. Military sources announced that a preliminary medical examination indicated that Barakat had died of an asthma attack. Mr. Barakat's family and several Israeli and Palestinian human rights organizations demanded that a full and independent investigation be conducted regarding the circumstances of his death and that an independent pathologist be appointed to attend Mr. Barakat's autopsy. Relatives stated that Mr. Barakat had been called for questioning soon after returning from two and a half years' study in Jordan on 29 July 1992. He was released but told to report back. They indicated that he was in good health on 3 August when he reported back to the Tulkarm prison and was arrested on that occasion. In the night of 4 August he was dead (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 6 August 1992; Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992). On 10 August, it was reported that the inquest into Mr. Barakat's death had showed that he died of an asthma attack. (The report of Dr. Hiss indicated that "Barakat died of an acute asthma attack, which was brought on by the conditions of detention". (Al-Tali'ah, 13 August 1992; Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992) The autopsy was conducted by Dr. Yehuda Hiss, from the Abu Kabir Forensic Institute, in the presence of Dr. Edward McDonnough, Deputy Medical Examiner of the State of Connecticut, who had been invited by Mr. Barakat's family (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 13 August 1992). The pathologist's report noted that the prison authorities were aware of the detainee's asthmatic condition and had stated that they had followed proper procedures for the treatment of asthmatic patients. Security authorities indicated that the result of the autopsy refuted the relatives allegations that Barakat had died as a result of torture or beating. On 12 August, the detainee's family petitioned the Israeli High Court to allow their son to receive a normal day burial, as the army was planning to hand over the body to the family and order them to bury it at night. The Court accepted the army's contention that a normal day burial could lead to demonstrations in the town and turned down the family's request. (Ha'aretz, 5-7, 10 and 14 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 5, 6, 10 and 13 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992)

688. On 6 August 1992, it was reported that the first detention centre for Arab criminal prisoners would be opened in Ramallah on 1 December in order to relieve the congestion in the overcrowded police detention centres in Israel. According to sources, only criminal prisoners would be held in the new detention centre while "uprising" prisoners would be held in IDF detention centres. In the first phase, some 70 detainees were to be imprisoned in the detention centre. (Ha'aretz, 6 August 1992)

689. On 6 August 1992, it was reported that, according to the Betzelem, 23 Palestinian detainees had died in Israeli detention centres since the beginning of the uprising in December 1987. As at 6 August 1992, five of them had died in 1992: Mustafa al-Akawi (4 February); Samir Umar (31 May); Muhammed Rayas (29 June); Hassan Eid (8 July); and Mustafa Barakat (4 August). Different circumstances of death were cited: health reasons, suicide, medical negligence, violence during investigation or murder by other detainees. The Palestinian Organization for Human Rights pointed to eight cases of detainees who had died as a result of torture or had committed suicide following torture by the end of 1991. (Ha'aretz, 6 August 1992)

690. On 7 August 1992, it was reported that the GSS would allow security prisoner Dr. Mohammed Abd el-Aziz Yussuf Juda to meet with his attorney. The GSS's decision was taken following a request filed by the Association for Civil Rights before the High Court of Justice that the prisoner should be authorized to exercise his fundamental right to meet his attorney. The prisoner, who is from Rafah, had arrived in Israel on 26 July from London where he had spent the past six years staying with relatives. He was arrested at the airport (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992). On 3 August, Attorney Tamar Peleg-Sarik from the Association for Civil Rights had tried to see him after she had heard he was detained in the GSS wing of the Gaza detention centre. She was told that an order had been issued forbidding any meeting between the detainee and his lawyer until 9 August. (Ha'aretz, 7 August 1992)

691. On 19 August 1992, it was reported that the Prisons Service had flatly denied allegations of food shortages, lack of medical services and severe overcrowding at Hebron prison made by two human rights groups. The Alternative Information Centre and the Mandela Institute for Political Prisoners stated at a press conference in Jerusalem that overcrowding and undernourishment, coupled with a lack of basic hygiene and medical care, made Hebron prison the worst in the country. They added that the conditions prevailing in the prison could lead to a prisoners' revolt. The Centre also indicated that medical services were provided mostly by paramedics with no more than 40 hours training and that patients were often asked for "collaboration with the authorities in return for treatment". Two out of five security prisoners who died in detention in 1992 died in Hebron prison. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 29 August 1992; Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

692. On 23 August 1992, Prime Minister Rabin announced that some 800 Palestinians would be released as part of a series of conciliatory measures designed to coincide with the resumption of peace negotiations in Washington. Rabin's media adviser, Gad Ben-Ari, indicated that only those prisoners who had already served more that two thirds of their sentence and who had been convicted for security offences in which no casualties were caused would be released. (Ha'aretz, 23 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 24 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

E. Annexation and settlement

Oral evidence

693. A witness who testified before the Special Committee spoke about the settlements, particularly near Jerusalem, and the roads that are being built in order to connect settlements:

694. A witness who testified before the Special Committee stated the following with regard to settlements in the Gaza Strip:

695. Another witness stated the following with regard to the Gaza Strip:

696. One witness testifying before the Special Committee provided the following information:

697. Dr. Mohammed Jadallah, Chairman of the Union of Health Care Committees in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, spoke of how the settlement policy was being perceived by the inhabitants of the occupied territories:

698. One witness provided information concerning land confiscation in the occupied Syrian Arab Golan, a summary of which is contained in paragraph 772. Accounts of the annexation and settlement policy pursued by the Israeli authorities in the occupied territories may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.586/Add.1 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.593 (anonymous witness), A/AC.145/RT.594 (anonymous witness), and A/AC.145/RT.597 (Mr. Mohammed Jadallah).


Written information 27/

699. On 2 March 1992, it was reported that the Housing Ministry was to start, in the coming weeks, preparing land in the settlement of Adam, located 7 kilometers north of Jerusalem and beyond the Green Line, in order to build 4,000 housing units. Some 300 persons were currently living in the settlement and tens of additional families were building homes in that locality within the framework of the "Build Your Own Home" program. The plan concerning the 4,000 additional units had been prepared by the Department for Municipal Construction of the Housing Ministry. The units were to be built on 5,000 dunums of land, which were declared as belonging to the State some years earlier. The 4,000 units planned to be built in Adam are not included in the annual quota of building in the territories. (Ha'aretz, 2 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 2 March 1992) On 2 March 1992, the Israeli military authorities informed the residents of Bani Naim village in the Hebron area that 5,000 dunums of their land would be seized. (Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

700. On 5 March 1992, a master plan allowing for unprecedented development in two Jerusalem neighbourhoods was approved by a special inter-ministerial committee, after having been repeatedly rejected for over a decade because it permitted too much growth in the capital's Arab sector. Master Plan 3000 B for Beit Hanina and Shuafat allowed for the construction of some 7,500 homes in these neighbourhoods, over a dozen schools and numerous new roads. When the plan was first introduced, it included zoning for almost 20,000 new homes. (Jerusalem Post, 6 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 9 March 1992)

701. On 6 March 1992, it was reported that, according to a plan presented by the officials of the Interior Ministry at a closed meeting with Jerusalem City Council leaders, the population of Pisgat Ze'ev, a northern suburb of Jerusalem located beyond the Green Line, was scheduled to skyrocket to 50,000 persons in the two coming years from its present 14,000 residents. Some 8,000 housing units were planned for Pisgat Ze'ev, including about 5,000 that are already under construction and several hundred others that were completed recently. However, according to the municipality officials, ministries have failed to allocate funding for roads, schools and, public works in the area. (Jerusalem Post, 6 and 15 March 1992)

702. On 13 March 1992, Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek won a legal victory against the plans of Housing Minister Ariel Sharon to turn a still unfinished Arab school in East Jerusalem, the Mimoniya School, and an adjacent olive grove widely known by its Hebrew name, Kerem Ha Zeitim, into a large Jewish housing project. The High Court granted Kollek's appeal for a temporary injunction preventing proposals to change the zoning of the Mimoniya school complex in Wadi Joz, and placed a de facto freeze on any development proposal for the area. The injunction was to remain in effect until the Court ruled on Kollek's petition presented on 11 March by attorney Yitzhak Eliraz, the legal adviser to the City's Building and Planning Committee. (Jerusalem Post, 12 and 15 March 1992)

703. On 26 March 1992, the Ateret Cohanim Yeshiva opened four stores in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, despite requests by the police that they wait until at least after Ramadan. The stores included two selling religious books, one selling fruit and vegetables, and a kiosk. Meanwhile, sources in the Elad Settlement Allocation (an organization dedicated to the return of Jews to the Silwan area) announced that the group would shortly enter at least five new houses in Silwan, and that it hoped to receive the approval of the Planning Board for its large housing project in the area. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 27 March 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 26 March 1992; Al-Fajr, 30 March 1992)

704. On 29 March 1992, Hebron residents appealed to the High Court of Justice to order the eviction of Israeli yeshiva students who moved into prefabricated houses placed at the old bus station a year earlier, near the Beit Romano and Shavei Hebron Yeshiva. The bus station was converted into an army post in 1983 after the stabbing of a yeshiva student in Hebron. (Jerusalem Post, 1 April 1992)

705. On 31 March 1992, the Peace Now movement announced that ground-breaking had begun on a new settlement 2 kilometers east of Elon Moreh, near Nablus. According to workers at the site, the area was slated for the construction of homes. Aharon Daub, from the West Bank and Gaza Council, explained that the new construction work concerned the extension of Elon Moreh, not the building of a new settlement, and that all the necessary permits had been obtained concerning the extension. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 1 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 2 April 1992)

706. On 2 April 1992, it was reported that the Israeli authorities had confiscated and sealed 5,767 dunums of land between the months of December 1991 and February 1992, mainly in the areas of Hebron and Ramallah in the West Bank. The Jerusalem-based Palestine Human Rights Information Centre added that 60 per cent of the seized land was for settlement purposes while the rest was for military use. In a separate development, residents of Hebron filed a petition with the Israeli Supreme Court requesting that the prefabricated units housing Jewish religious students in the city's old bus station be removed. The bus station was closed in 1983 and turned into a military outpost after the killing of an Israeli settler on the site. The location was handed over to settlers a year ago. (Al-Tali'ah, 2 April 1992; Al-Fajr, 6 April 1992)

707. On 5 April 1992, the Central Bureau of Statistics reported that the number of building starts in the territories had quadrupled during 1991, while building starts country-wide had doubled. During 1991, the number of building starts in the territories reached 8,110, or nearly 10 per cent of the 83,350 building starts recorded in the entire country. In 1990, 1,810 building starts were recorded in the territories, which amounts to some 4 per cent of the 42,410 housing units started that year. The number of apartments completed in the territories in 1991 totaled 2,270 as compared to 1,340 units in 1990. In addition, some 3,735 caravans and mini-caravans were placed throughout the territories, which accounts for 21 per cent of such structures placed throughout the country. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

708. On 9 April 1992, a West Bank and Gaza Strip Council spokesman stated that hundreds of interested callers had phoned the headquarters of "Operation Heartland" during the first 24 hours of a campaign to increase the Jewish population in the territories. According to spokesman Bob Lang, the campaign was backed by several ministries, but also by labour organizations such as the Histadrut. The Peace Now movement responded to the campaign stating that it was "an additional milestone in the efforts of the Likud Government to turn Israel into South Africa's substitute". (Ha'aretz, 9 April 1992,; Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 10 April 1992)

709. On 14 April 1992, Housing Minister Ariel Sharon stated that far less money was spent by the Government in the territories than had been alleged by left-wing groups. He released a detailed report of settlement activities for the first time since taking office. However, the figures concerning the West Bank did not include those of "Metropolitan Jerusalem", where much of the building in the territories was taking place. The two-page report showed, for instance, that 13.3 per cent of the Ministry's budget in 1990 and 1991 allocated for home construction went to the territories and that an additional 15.7 per cent of the budget had been earmarked for housing in Jerusalem, which included large housing projects outside the city's limits in Malaleh Adumim and Gush Etzion. In a summary of the road works completed over the past two years, the report stated that about $20.8 million had been invested in the territories and the Golan Heights, as compared with approximately $335 million invested elsewhere. (Jerusalem Post, 15 April 1992)

710. On 15 April 1992, it was reported that Aryan Hayat, a spokesman for the Peace Now movement, stated that the Government of Israel had allocated NIS 2.5 billion in 1991 for the building of new settlements and the expansion of existing ones. Hayat was referring to Housing Minister Ariel Sharon's report on settlement activities. (Al-Tali'ah, 16 April 1992)

711. On 16 April 1992, it was revealed in a Peace Now movement report for the months of January to March that, since the beginning of 1992, the building of some 1,330 new housing units had started in the territories. About 550 of these were temporary units in mobile homes and caravans. In several localities, such as Ofarim, Ma'aleh Adumim, Ariel and Karnei Shomron, ground-breaking had also begun for the construction of additional units. In addition to construction carried out in the already existing settlements, two new settlements had been established in March 1992 near Elon Moreh and Tekoa. (Jerusalem Post, 5 April 1992; Ha'aretz, 16 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 2 April 1992, Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

712. On 17 April 1992, it was reported that a large-scale Jewish housing project for the City of David (Silwan) had been presented to the Antiquities Authority for approval, by the Housing Ministry and the Elad Settlers Group (the housing association for Jewish settlement in Silwan). The plan called for some 200 homes to be built on an ancient site covering about 20 dunums of land adjacent to the East Jerusalem village of Silwan. (Jerusalem Post, 17 April 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992)

713. On 19 April 1992, it was reported that the Israeli authorities had cleared the ground for a 3,000-unit settlement, to be established on the land of the Deir Kiddis village. The settlement's proposed name is to be reportedly "Kiryat Sever". A road connecting a new settlement established on the land of Beit Safafa with the main road linking Jerusalem-Bethlehem was also opened. (Al-Fajr, 27 April 1992)

714. On 20 April 1992, settlers dedicated a new enclave near Karnei Shomron named "Neveh Menachem" after the former Prime Minister Menachem Begin. About 600 housing units are to be constructed in Neveh Menachem, situated on a hilltop adjacent to Karnei Shomron, 43 kilometres north-east of Jerusalem. Residents insisted that the enclave was not a new settlement but an extension of their own colony of 350 homes, even though Neveh Menachem was located about 800 metres away from Karnei Shomron and was separated from it by a deep valley. There was no direct road linking the two enclaves. (Ha’aretz, 10 April 1992; Jerusalem Post, 21 April 1,992)

715. On 21 April 1992, an interim settlement was reached in the controversy over the Government's television advertisements promoting settlement in the territories (operation Heartland). At a hearing, lawyers for the Meretz (left-wing parties), the Likud and the Housing Ministry agreed that a legal ruling would be necessary if the Government wanted to continue running the "Settling the Heartland" public service announcement before the 24 June elections. A week earlier, the Peace Now movement had lost. a High Court petition to remove the pro-settlement commercials from Israeli television on the grounds that the content was controversial and propagandistic. (Jerusalem Post, 13 and 22 April 1992)

716. On 29 April 1992, it was reported that Silwan (East Jerusalem) residents had rebuilt an illegally constructed home that had been demolished just a week earlier by the Jerusalem municipality for the second time, when the High Court denied the owner's petition for permission to build. Deputy Mayor Avraham Kahila announced that some 380 homes that had been built illegally in the Arab areas of Jerusalem were slated for demolition, adding that illegal construction infringed on the city's development plans. Many Arab residents, however, stated that they built illegally because the authorities imposed strict zoning regulations on their neighbourhood. (Jerusalem Post, 23 and 29 April 1992)

717. On 29 April 1992, it was reported that the Civil Administration had declared as land of the State 1,500 dunums adjacent to the Ephrat settlement in Gush Etzion. Three thousand five hundred people were currently living in 600 housing units in Ephrat. Some 500 additional units were at various stages of construction and 2,000 more housing units were planned to be built on the 1,500 seized dunums of land. (Ha'aretz, 29 April 1992)

718. On 3 May 1992, the Mayor of Jerusalem, Teddy Kollek, apparently was successful in blocking a Housing Ministry plan to convert an East Jerusalem school (the unfinished Mimoniya School) and nearby lands (Kerem Hazeitim) into a Jewish housing project. In a petition presented to the High Court in March, Kollek accused the Housing Ministry and Eli Sioussa, the district chief of the Jerusalem Interior Ministry, of blocking the completion of the school so that it could be included in the large housing complex planned for Kerem Hazeitim. The Court agreed to postpone its decision regarding Kollek's petition with the understanding that Sioussa would give the city a written commitment that the Planning Council would hold a meeting concerning the school. Mimoniya is. located on one of the main thoroughfares connecting central Jerusalem and Mount Scopus. (Jerusalem Post, 4 May 1992)

719. On 6 May 1992, it was reported that a perennial plan for paving some 400 kilometers of roads in the West Bank had been prepared by the Housing Ministry. Tens of kilometers of roads leading to Jewish settlements and a number of principal roads of communication were currently being paved. In addition, some $10.5 million were transferred from the Housing Ministry's regular budget for roads to a parallel budget for roads that are paved for security reasons. The parallel budget concerns three main roads.: the Trans-Samaria road, the Gilo-Gush Etzion road and the Beit Horon road. (Ha'aretz, 6 May 1992) Kol ha'Ir, an Israeli weekly, reported that the administration of Pisgat Ze'ev, a settlement near Jerusalem, was trying to thwart a plan to build 7,000 housing units for Palestinians in the East Jerusalem neighbourhood of Beit Hanina. The settlement spokesman cited security reasons for the rejection of the plan and stated that "Beit Hanina residents should live elsewhere, where they would not pose a threat to the Jewish residents". Pisgat Ze'ev was built on land expropriated from Beit Hanina. (Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

720. On 7 May 1992, the Israeli authorities are reported to have ordered the seizure of 30 dunums of land in the village of Sinjil in order to build a road intended to serve the Shilo settlement. One hundred fifty dunums of land were already confiscated in the same village three months ago. (Al-Tali'ah, 7 May 1992)

721. On 11 May 1992, it was reported that the Israeli authorities planned to build a new 40-kilometre-long highway through the Gaza Strip for the use of Israeli settlers. The plan was discovered when the Gaza Centre for Human Rights lodged an appeal with the Israeli High Court concerning the army's confiscation of land near Beit Lahiya, a village in the northern part of the Strip. The High Court ruled that the "full extent" of the construction could not begin because the army had not followed the appropriate procedures with regard to the Beit Lahiya land. The Court stipulated that the authorities must first announce their intention to build and hear the reaction of the villagers before building the highway. (Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

722. On 11 May 1992, a report prepared by a Palestinian research group from East Jerusalem, the Land and Water Establishment for Studies and Legal Services, revealed that Israel had been accelerating its settlement drive in the occupied territories despite the ongoing bilateral negotiations. Figures for the month of April 1992 showed that 3,130 dunums of land were confiscated in the occupied territories, 3,000 of them in Deir Istiya. The land was declared to be state land, which, according to the research group, is the prelude to creating a settlement. Five homes were demolished in the territories, three of them for lack of a building licence, which is nearly impossible to obtain for Palestinians. To allow for the building of a new road for settlers in the single village of Hares, 1,300 fruit and olive trees were uprooted by the authorities while, according to the same release, two roads used by Palestinians were ordered closed by the IDF. (Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

723. On 11 May 1992, the Israeli Housing Ministry and an Israeli company, Elad, reportedly drew up plans jointly for the construction of a huge settlement south of the Jerusalem's Old City wall, in the village of Silwan. The project, which would surround numerous Palestinian homes, encompasses over 30 dunums of land and would comprise 205 housing units. Officials of Elad expected the project to receive the approval of the Israeli Housing Ministry within two weeks. In a separate development, it was reported that the Israeli authorities had informed landowners that some of their land would be confiscated. Landowners were given 14 days to file complaints against the military order. The land would be taken for the expansion of a nearby settlement, Kiryat Seifer. (Al-Fajr, 11 May 1992)

724. On 14 May 1992, it was reported that the construction of a new settlement road had started on land belonging to the village of Silwad. According to the villagers, the road would be 5 kilometers long. (Al-Tali'ah, 14 May 1992)

725. On 21 May 1992, administration head Brig.-Gen. Gadi Zohar stated that the Civil Administration in the West Bank would invest $64 million in the development of the West Bank infrastructure during the coming year. (Jerusalem Post, 22 May 1992) The villagers of Salfit appealed to officials attending the peace conference, the United Nations Secretary-General and members of the EEC to intervene with the Israeli authorities in order to put a halt to the building of a projected road linking the settlements of Ariel, built on Salfit land, and Halmish, near Bir Zeit. The project would damage thousands of dunums of agricultural land in Salfit and the neighbouring villages. (Al-Tali’ah, 21 May 1992) Rev. David L. Johnson, representative of the Geneva-based Lutheran World Federation in Jerusalem, revealed that the West Jerusalem municipality had recently expropriated Lutheran land on the Mount of Olives, near the Lutheran-owned Augusta Victoria Hospital. The road to be built on this land was intended to serve Jewish settlers at the Beit Orot Institute, which is located in the area, in order that they may reach the nearby Hebrew University. (Al-Fajr, 1 June 1992)

726. On 25 May 1992, the Greek Patriarch, Diodoros I, stated that the Greek Orthodox Church would never abandon its struggle for St. John's Hospice in the Old City of Jerusalem, in response to reports that the Church was considering selling the building. St. John's Hospice had been occupied by Ateret Cohanim settlers for over two years. Hearings concerning the disputed building were scheduled to start in June at the Jerusalem Magistrates Court. (Jerusalem Post, 19 and 26 May 1992)

727. On 25 May 1992, the Jerusalem Institute for Israeli-Studies reported that the Arab population of Jerusalem had grown faster than the Jewish one since the City's reunification in 1967. According to the report, Jews, including many persons of high socio-economic standing, had been leaving the capital in very large numbers, attracted by inexpensive housing in the nearby settlements in the territories. The Arab and Jewish populations had been approximately equal in metropolitan Jerusalem, which includes towns and villages in the immediate vicinity of the municipal limits. The report also stated that the growth of the Arab population was taking place despite state support for Jewish housing projects and neighbourhoods, while Arab housing needs were generally ignored. Some 132,000 Jews were reportedly living in Jerusalem neighbourhoods beyond the Green Line (over one third of the total Jewish population), as compared to 150,000 Arabs. (Jerusalem Post, 25 May 1992)

728. On 26 May 1992, it was reported that the Gush Katif Regional Council, in collaboration with the West Bank and Gaza Council, was planning to man 15 caravans stationed one kilometre away from Kibbutz Netzarim in the Gaza Strip at the end of the week. The site was to be called Netzarim B. (Ha'aretz, 26, 28 and 29 May 1992)

729. On 27 May 1992, it was reported that settlers had cleared a road and placed two mobile homes near a new yeshiva in the A-Tur neighbourhood of East Jerusalem. According to Beit Orot Yeshiva director Benny Alon, tens of apartments were to be built on the large, fenced-off tract of land adjoining the yeshiva. (Jerusalem Post, 27 May 1992)

730. On 28 May 1992, the Council of Jewish Communities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip decided to establish a new settlement to be named "Yad Hashisha" (memorial of the six), in honour of the six Israeli civilians and soldiers who were killed in Gaza or by Gazans. The decision to establish the settlement, for which a site had not yet been selected, had to receive the support of the Government before it could be implemented. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 29 May 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 8 June 1992)

731. On 31 May 1992, it was reported that plans to build a Jewish neighbourhood in the City of David and a 200-unit apartment complex for Jewish families in the Old City's Muslim Quarter were to be presented to the Government's Special Planning Committee in the near future. The controversial projects had been held up for months by opposition from the Jerusalem municipality and archaeologists. The first project, a Jewish neighbourhood in the heart of the East Jerusalem village of Silwan (Shiloah), included 205 large apartments, several synagogues, schools and other facilities. The new neighbourhood was to cover a 30-dunum area and was to be built mostly on undeveloped land, which nevertheless surrounds several Arab homes. The second project envisaged the building of an underground parking lot, and 200 small apartments in three buildings, on a 7-dunum tract of land near Herod's Gate, also in East Jerusalem.(Jerusalem Post, 1, 4 and 15 May and 1 June 1992)

732. On 31 May 1992, the Peace Now movement reported that a new settlement was being set up about one kilometer west of Kfar Adumim, in the West Bank. According to the movement, the levelling work had already begun. However, the spokesman for the West Bank and Gaza Council, Aharon Domb, stated that the new suburb was to be located on land that had already been declared as land of the State and that the suburb already appeared on a detailed plan of Kfar Adumim. (Ha'aretz, 1 June 1992)

733. On 3 June 1992, it was reported that eight families of settlers had moved into the new Netzarim B settlement in the Gaza Strip without the approval of the Government. Fifty-two additional families were expected to arrive in the course of the following days. Seventeen caravans had been, placed on the site. (Ha'aretz, 3 June 1992)

734. On 4 June 1992, it was reported that two illegally built structures had been demolished in the A-Tur neighbourhood of East Jerusalem, in an effort by the City Hall to continue the strict enforcement of building codes throughout the capital. The two structures had been built without permits, in violation of zoning regulations, on a site defined as a "green area". No one had moved into the structures since they were unfinished. (Jerusalem Post, 4 June 1992)

735. On 4 June 1992, the Civil Administration authorities notified the Jayus Village Council about the confiscation of 2,000 dunums of their land intended for "public use". The Council was given until 15 June 1992 to file a complaint against the order. According to village sources, the confiscated land would be used for the expansion of the Sufin settlement and for the building of a settlement road. (Al-Tali'ah, 4 June 1992)

736. On 11 June 1992, it was reported that three families of settlers had arrived in the newly built Nekodim settlement, located south-east of Bethlehem. Fifty-five additional families were expected to arrive in the near future. The settlement is an extension of the Al David settlement and was approved by the Government of Israel. (Al-Tali'ah, 11 June 1992, Al-Fajr, 15 June 1992)

737. On 11 June 1992, it was reported that Israeli bulldozers, working under the protection of IDF soldiers, continued to be used on arable land in the village of Nuba, near Hebron. Khalil Jadawi, 70, stated that the operation had continued despite the complaint he had filed against the confiscation of his land two years ago. He indicated that, to date, the military court had not taken any decision regarding the case. (Al-Tali'ah, 11 June 1992)

738. On 22 June 1992, the Israeli authorities are reported to have started construction work on a new settlement near the Wad Rahal village, in the Bethlehem area. (Al-Fajr, 29 June 1992)

739. On 22 June 1992, it was reported that 2,120 housing units had been sold during the Operation Heartland campaign, launched in April by the Housing Ministry and by the West Bank and Gaza Strip Council, in order to increase the Jewish population in the territories. (Ha’aretz, 22 June 1992)

740. On 25 June 1992, it was reported that Yitzhak Rabin, in his first press conference following the Labour Party's election victory, suggested a shift in budget allocation away from settlements, but ruled out a complete freeze. He also in this regard made a clear distinction between "political" and "security" settlements. Meanwhile, Yisrael Harel, the Chairman of the Council of Jewish Communities in the West Bank and Gaza, stated that there was a reserve of 10,000 housing units, which would be sufficient to keep the Jewish population in the territories growing at a steady rate over the next two years. (Jerusalem Post, 25 June 1992)

741. On 25 June 1992, it was reported that contractors were placing the last of 27 mobile homes on concrete supports, at a site located one kilometer west of Kfar Adumim. The hill in the Judean desert was described as a new neighbourhood, and not as a settlement. The timing of the operation was described as purely coincidental and not designed to precede Rabin's taking office. Nineteen families and 16 single persons were expected to move in the following day. (Jerusalem Post, 25 June 1992)

742. On 28 June 1992, the Israeli authorities informed the owners of approximately 613 dunums of land in the village of Al Khedr, near Bethlehem, that their land had been confiscated. The owners immediately lodged a complaint against the decision. (Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992)

743. On 29 June 1992, senior Labour Party officials stated that, according to the guidelines for negotiations with a view to establishing a coalition that were being conducted by the party, the incoming Government would freeze the creation of new settlements for one year and would not expand the existing settlements except in the Jerusalem area and along the confrontation lines. (Jerusalem Post, 30 June 1992)

744. On 29 June 199,2, the Jerusalem City Council voted to ask for re-evaluation of the security implications of allowing Arabs to build houses near a major highway planned for the north of the city. The decision marked an additional setback for the widely publicized Master Plan 3000 B for Beit Hanina and Shuafat, which had been approved earlier that year after being held up and reduced by various planning committees since the early 1980s. However, the Council also ruled that even if security considerations resulted in changes in the plan, the total number of 7,500 units it comprised would not be reduced. (Jerusalem Post, 30 June 1992)

745. On 30 June 1992, it was reported that, in 1991, the investment centre had approved 55 projects for building and expansion enterprises beyond the Green Line in the amount of a general investment of $60 million, as compared with 32 projects in 1990 ($36 million) and 31 in 1989 ($19 million). (Ha'aretz, 30 June 1992)

746. On 30 June 1992, the Israeli military authorities informed landowners in Yata, near Hebron, that 3,000 dunums of their land would be confiscated. The land in question is located near the Sossai settlement. The owners declared they would contest the confiscation. (Al-Fajr, 6 July 1992)

747. On 9 July 1992, the battle over two controversial East Jerusalem Jewish housing projects came to an apparent close, with one project being rejected while the decision on the. second one was indefinitely postponed. At issue was a plan to build 240 apartments for Jewish families on a 20-dunum tract of land in Ras el-Amud as well as the Wadi Joz project. The second one would have comprised the land of the nearly completed Mimoniya School and the adjacent olive grove, known as Kerem el-Husseini, where construction of a Jewish apartment complex of over 200 housing units had been planned. The decisions. were seen as a major victory for Jerusalem's Mayor Teddy Kollek, who had successfully stalled every housing plan in the Arab neighbourhood of the city that had been put forth by settlement groups under the Likud Government. (Jerusalem Post, 1, 3 and 7-10 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 13 July 1992)

748. On 9 July 1992, it was reported that, according to the Peace How movement, less than 13,000 housing units in the territories were currently in various stages of construction, while the Housing Ministry and the Council for the West Bank and Gaza had announced some 16,500 housing units for which properly signed contracts existed. The Ministry noted that the figures did not include mobile homes, mini-caravans or houses built privately under the "Build-Your-Own-Home" scheme. Peace Now counted 4,420 additional units in this category. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 9 July 1992)

749. On 14 July 1992, Binyamin Ben-Eliezer stated, on his first day as Housing Minister, that the Rabin Government might establish new settlements in the Golan Heights and the Jordan Valley, in line with its policy of promoting settlements that were necessary for the nation's defence. He defined as a security settlement "any settlement along the border that had a direct connection with stopping forces or an attack and whose residents were organized in a manner as to be able to defend the sector". (Jerusalem Post, 15 July 1992) According to this definition, all settlements in the West Bank could be considered "security" settlements (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 16 July 1992). Ben-Eliezer insisted that Jerusalem would not be open to negotiation (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 20 July 1992).

750. On 17 July 1992, it was reported that the new Government had imposed a de facto freeze on all new public housing construction throughout the country, in a first attempt at reallocating resources away from the territories. Finance Minister Avraham Shohat and Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer released a joint statement declaring that "all unsigned building contracts were to be frozen immediately throughout the country, including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, until a decision was reached on the subject in the coming weeks". The freeze would affect some 3,500 housing units in the territories. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 July 1992)

751. On 19 July 1992, the cabinet voted in its first session that "the establishment of settlements approved by previous Governments could only be carried out with the re-approval of the present Government". At issue were the nearly one dozen settlements that had been approved by the Likud and national unity Governments over the past decade and were awaiting the final permission to be established. (Jerusalem Post, 20 July 1992; Ha’aretz, 21 July 1992)

752. On 21 July 1992, it was reported that the Housing Ministry had ordered a temporary halt concerning ground work for the construction of some 3,000 additional apartments in the territories. Contracts had already been signed between the Government and the builders for all the units. (Ha'aretz, 21 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 22 July 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 23 July 1992)

753. On 22 July 1992, Finance Minister Avraham Shohat announced that home buyers, including those in the territories, would continue to receive "special area" loans and grants until August. The plan would continue beyond August, but the amounts and the areas in which it would be available would be reviewed. The special loans and grants were introduced at the beginning of the year in order to encourage the purchase of homes in areas where a large number of housing units had remained empty. Peace Now immediately condemned the decision of the Finance Ministry, stating that most of the areas included in the program were located in the territories. (Jerusalem Post, 23 July 1992)

754. On 23 July 1992, it was reported that Peace Now had presented a survey of the housing situation in the territories, indicating that 10,443 housing units were currently under construction. The figures included 470 units for which foundations had been laid, 1,958 units whose framework had been set up, 4,124 where preliminary internal work had been completed and 3,891 in the final stages of construction. An additional 2,000 homes that had been completed but remained vacant were not included in the survey. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 23 July 1992)

755. On 23 July 1992, Finance Minister Avraham Shohat and Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer ordered the cancellation of construction work on nearly 7,000 (6,681) new housing units in the territories, including 3,136 units whose final contracts were still pending and another 3,545 units for which contracts had been signed with the builders, but where only foundation work had started (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 27 July 1992). Among the projects that were immediately halted were approximately a dozen highways in the territories, which would have cost over $80 million. Among them was the widening of the Trans-Samaria Highway and the construction of the Nablus bypass road (also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 23 July 1992). However, the Ministers gave permission for the completion of some 8,781 homes in the territories and decided not to stop the construction of 1,686 housing units in the "greater Jerusalem" area, which included Efrat, Betar, Ma'aleh Ephraim and Ma'aleh Adumim. They also allowed for the possibility of contractors being allowed to complete an additional 2,300 housing units on which construction work had just begun. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 July 1992)

756. On 27 July 1992, it was reported that large areas in the territories would probably lose their "All Development Area” status, which provided for generous grants and tax breaks, following a decision by the cabinet to establish a committee whose task would be to redraw the map of the development areas. (Jerusalem Post, 27 July 1992)

757. On 27 July 1992, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met with Finance Minister Avraham Shohat and Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer and gave his final approval of their plan, which called for the halting of the construction of 5,364 homes in the territories and 6,617 homes that were planned to be built inside the Green Line. There were no signed contracts for over half of, the almost 12,000 cancelled units and no construction work had begun. Ben-Eliezer stated that construction would be allowed to continue concerning tens of thousands of apartments on which work had already begun inside the Green Line, and concerning 10,000 units whose building had begun in the territories. (Jerusalem Post, 28 July 1992)

758. On 29 July 1992, the Jerusalem municipality ordered the demolition of the home of Mustafa Atrash from Kafr Wallejiya, despite appeals by the family and other villagers that the home, which had been built illegally, not be demolished. On 23 July 1992, the municipality demolition crews had already razed a church and an adjacent building, which had been built without the necessary permits on the Mount of Olives. Earlier in the month, on 9 July 1992, the same crews had demolished two other homes, which were also built illegally in the Arab neighbourhoods of Beit Hanina and Umm Tuba in Jerusalem. (Jerusalem Post, 10, 24 and 30 July 1992)

759. On 2 August 1992, it was reported that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer had decided several days earlier to freeze the building of some 1,200 to 1,500 housing units in the territories, whose construction -- still in the foundations stage -- had already started. So far, the freeze affected only housing units for which contracts had not been signed or where contracts had been signed but construction had not yet started. (Ha'aretz, 2 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 6 August 1992)

760. On 3 August 1992, Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer announced that the Government would have to spend up to $167 million in order to compensate contractors who were hurt by the building freeze, which amounted to almost triple the original projections. The freeze on construction in the territories declared by the new Government took effect on 23 July. Plans to build approximately 7,000 new houses in the territories were cancelled, together with projects to build a dozen highways. Also on 3 August 1992, Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek called on the Government to agree to a zoning plan for East Jerusalem, adding that he did not want to sign another demolition order until the issue had been clarified. He also added that he understood the hardships of Arab residents who faced long delays in getting building permits from the Interior Ministry. Meanwhile, the Atrash family, who live in a house in Wallajeh village within the capital's borders, themselves tore down a part of the building that had been constructed illegally. (Jerusalem Post, 4 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992)

761. On 4 August 1992, Police Minister Moshe Shahal stated in the Knesset that the Government had acted illegally when it handed two Arab houses, which were confiscated by the army for security reasons, to members of the Ateret Cohanim Yeshiva. He explained that the Government's decision to hand the buildings over to Ateret Cohanim violated article 119 of the Emergency Regulation, which served as the basis for the original confiscation in 1969. According to the regulations, "army or police units alone, and no others, were authorized to hold on to property after it had been confiscated" (also referred to in Al-Fajr, 10 August 1992). Also on 4 August 1992, a spokesman for the Housing Ministry stated that OC Central Command Maj.-Gen. Danny Yatom had issued an order freezing all private building starts in the West Bank. According to the new order, private individuals, even if they already owned the land, would not be permitted to begin construction of new homes in the West Bank. (Jerusalem Post, 5 August 1992)

762. On 6 August 1992, Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer clarified an order to freeze construction starts of private housing in the territories, stating that it was temporary, and would last while the Land Authority examined the scope of the building projects in the territories. (Ha'aretz, 6 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 6 and 7 August 1992) It was reported that Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer had stated that the Israeli Government intended to settle 50,000 additional settlers in the occupied territories. He denied that the decision was taken under pressure from the settlers. In an interview with the Ma'ariv newspaper, Ben-Eliezer indicated that the building of 1,700 housing units had started, while approximately 8,500 other units were in different stages of construction, including 5,000 under completion. He estimated the cost of these buildings at NIS 1 billion. It was reported in the Yediot Aharonot newspaper that Jewish settlers had responded to the Government's partial freeze on settlements by intensifying their activities to include work on Sundays. It was also indicated that a rabbi from the settlement had allowed for work to continue on the sabbath, provided it was done by non-Jewish workers. (Al-Tali'ah, 6 August 1992)

763. On 13 August 1992, it was reported that government funding for the purchase and renovation of apartments in the Muslim Quarter and other areas of East Jerusalem had been suspended by the Housing Minister. According to a Ministry spokesman, the order would remain in force until a report was completed on the full extent of such activity involving public funds. An interministerial committee had been set up for the purpose. The Minister also asked for an account of funds that had been invested in the past for the acquisition and renovation of East Jerusalem apartments that were not part of government housing developments. The cabinet decided to halt the f low of public funds for the purchase of property in parts of East Jerusalem where the Government believed that the presence of Jews could cause disturbances. The cabinet decision came a day after 10 Jewish families had moved on 9 August into five houses that had been purchased in the Muslim Quarter, in a demonstrative act timed to coincide with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's visit to the United States of America (Ha’aretz, 10 August 1992; Jerusalem Post, 10-13 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 17 August 1992). It was reported that 400 Arab-owned houses had been seized a few days earlier in Jerusalem. According to well-informed sources, this was the first stage in the expansion of settlement activities in Jerusalem that had been planned by several settlement groups that were grouped in the so-called Jerusalem Judaization Committee. It was also reported that, despite the settlement freeze, settlers from Mirage in the Gaza Strip had seized 250 dunums of Arab land in order to expand their settlement. (Al-Tali'ah, 13 August 1992)

764. On 16 August 1992, representatives of Peace Now charged that contractors had started building new housing units in "political settlements" in the territories, despite the building freeze. announced a month earlier by the Government. During a meeting with Housing Minister Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, "the delegation presented photographs showing that the construction of at least 30 new housing units had started in the Eli settlement, north of Ramallah. They stated that they suspected that the building of new housing had also begun in other settlements, including Revava and Beit Arye. The Peace Now delegation met with Ben-Eliezer in order to protest the Government's decision to complete 10,000 housing units already under construction in the territories and to demand the abolition of special financial inducements offered to potential Jewish home owners in those areas. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 17 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Tali'ah, 20 August 1992) The Israeli authorities are reported to have seized more than 500 dunums of cultivated land in Al Mazra' Al Gharibeh. The landowners were given two weeks to file complaints against the seizure. The land is close to the Hamlamish settlement and a road that would reach the settlement was being built between the nearby Al Janiyeh and Beitello. (Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

765. On 17 August 1992, the Jerusalem District Attorney filed a suit to evict members of the Ateret Cohanim Yeshiva from two buildings they had been holding for the past 17 months in the Muslim Quarter of Jerusalem. The two Ateret Cohanim buildings were seized by the Defence Minister and the OC Central Command for security reasons in 1969 and were handed over to Ateret Cohanim after a student from the yeshiva was killed and his body left in one of the two buildings in March 1991. (Jerusalem Post, 18 August 1992; also referred to in Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

766. On 20 August 1992, Prime Minister Rabin gave permission for the completion of the $42 million Gilo-Gush Etzion road, several weeks after suspending construction of 10 highways in the territories. In a related development, the Government decided to cancel special grants it had offered since the beginning of the year to home buyers in the territories. The change would not affect localities defined as "security settlements", metropolitan
Jerusalem, Ma'aleh Adumin, Betar, Givat Ze’ev, Gush Etzion and the Jordan Valley. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21 August 1992)

767. On 20 August 1992, it was reported that the General Secretary of the Housing Ministry, Arieh Bar, had warned contractor companies that if they were to continue building in the settlements, they would run the risk of not being paid by the Government for apartments completed before the building freeze, despite the fact that the State had undertaken to purchase them. (Ha'aretz, 20 August 1992)

768. On 23 August 1992, settlers from the Al David settlement Started construction work on 112 dunums of Palestinian-owned land in Freidis, in the Bethlehem area. Freidis residents believed the work to be a prelude to the expansion of the settlement. Landowners intended to raise the issue with the authorities. (Al-Fajr, 31 August 1992)

769. On 24 August 1992, it was reported that settlement activities and land confiscation had continued in the occupied territories despite the announcement by the Rabin Government that a freeze had been imposed on the building of new settlements. This information came in a recent report by the Jerusalem Media and Communication Centre, a Jerusalem-based Palestinian information centre. According to that report, 1,652 dunums of land had been confiscated in the West Bank and Gaza Strip since the Labor Government was elected in June. (Al-Fajr, 24 August 1992)

770. On 27 August 1992, Jewish settlers in the Hebron area are reported to have accelerated the construction work in the Gharus Valley on more than 1,200 dunums of land. According to Hebron residents, the police were making very little effort to stop the construction activities that were taking place in many parts of the city. (Al-Tali'ah, 27 August 1992)

F. Information concerning the occupied Syrian Arab Golan

Oral evidence

771. In a statement delivered before the Special Committee at Damascus on 30 April 1992, Mr. Mohammed Najdi El-Jazar, Director of the Department of International Organizations and Conferences of the Ministry of Foreign Affair of the Syrian Arab Republic, referred to the situation in the occupied Syrian Arab Golan and stated in this connection:

772. A witness who testified before the Special Committee provided the following information concerning land confiscation in the occupied Syrian Arab Golan:

773. A witness from the Syrian Arab Golan described the economic and social situation of the inhabitants:

774. Another witness provided the following information:

775. A witness who testified before the Special Committee gave the following information concerning annexation:

776. With regard to settlements, a witness stated the following:

777. One witness described how the restrictions imposed on the freedom of movement affected the education of the inhabitants of the occupied Syrian Arab Golan who wish to study in Damascus:

778. Testimonies relating to the occupied Syrian Arab Golan may be found in documents A/AC.145/RT.583 (Mr. Mohammed Najdi El-Jazar), A/AC.145/RT.584 (anonymous witness).


Written information 28/

779. On 5 March, 1992, it was reported that the Knesset approved a rescheduling of the debts of moshavim and moshav farmers, of 21 kibbutzim in the Golan Heights and the Jordan Valley as well as of 31 private concerns. (Jerusalem Post, 5 March 1992)

780. On 8 March 1992, police arrested four residents of the Syrian Arab Golan village of Buq'ata in the Golan Heights suspected of incitement to subversive activities. The suspects allegedly raised Syrian flags in the village and wrote nationalistic slogans on the walls of buildings a month earlier. (Jerusalem Post, 9 March 1992)

781. On 17 April 1992, two residents of Majdal Shams, northern Golan, were arrested on suspicion of organizing Syrian independence day celebrations among the Golan Heights Druze. Syrian, PLO and Libyan flags were raised, and nationalistic slogans were voiced during the celebrations. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 19 April 1992)

782. On 18 May 1992, the police arrested four Druze from the Golan Heights from Majdal Shams, on suspicion of incitement against the State. The suspects were to be brought before the Safed Magistrates Court for a remand hearing. (Jerusalem Post, 19 May 1992)

783. On 18 June 1§92, the imminent launching of a major campaign was announced to attract more residents to the Golan Heights. This initiative of the Golan General Council followed declarations made a week earlier by Prime Minister Shamir and the Labour Party Leader, Mr. Yitzhak Rabin, that the region would be kept by Israel because of its strategic importance. Work was reportedly nearing completion on the construction of 600 new homes in 12 settlements in the Golan, as well as an additional 700 homes in Katzrin. The construction of additional new homes, over and above these figures, was also planned. Approximately $8.3 million was also being invested during the year to improve and extend the roads in the region. (Jerusalem Post, 18 June 1992)

784. On 5 August 1992, leaders of the Golan Heights Settlers Committee lobbied the Knesset to increase support for their campaign in order to ensure that the region would remain under Israeli sovereignty. (Jerusalem Post, 6 August 1992)

785. On 18 August 1992, the heads of the Golan Heights Settlers Committee requested an urgent meeting with Prime Minister Rabin in connection with a radio announcement that Israel was prepared to offer Syria territorial concessions in return for an interim peace agreement. (Jerusalem Post, 19 August 1992)

V. CONCLUSIONS

786. The following conclusions have been formulated on the basis of the information reflected in the two periodic reports and in the present report of the Special Committee and have been prepared in accordance with the mandate of the Special Committee under the terms of General Assembly resolution 46/47. Since the twenty-third report was adopted on 22 August 1991, the conclusions thus cover the period from 23 August 1991 to 26 August 1992. The two periodic reports cover the period from 23 August to 30 November 1991 (A/47/76) and from 1 December 1991 to 29 February 1992 (A/47/262), respectively, while the present report concerns the period from 1 March to 26 August 1992.

787. It ought to be borne in mind that the unchanged frequency and intensity of incidents that occurred during the period under consideration and the impressive amount of information on the human rights situation received and examined by the Special Committee did not permit its total reflection in these reports; the Special Committee has endeavoured, within the constraints imposed by the regulations with regard to the length of United Nations documents, to include in its reports, as faithfully as possible, samples of the information it has received in order to illustrate in the best possible manner the situation of human rights in the occupied territories during the period covered by these reports.

788. Since its establishment in 1968, the Special Committee has repeatedly attempted to secure the cooperation of the Government of Israel but has consistently been denied such cooperation. During the period relevant to the present report, the Committee has once again addressed a letter to the Secretary-General seeking his intervention in order to convince the Israeli authorities to cooperate. However, it should be noted that the aforementioned letter remains without response.

789. Nevertheless, the Special Committee has benefited from the cooperation of the Governments of Egypt, Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic, and of various Palestinian representatives. As it has been precluded from visiting the occupied territories, the Special Committee has conducted, in addition to its regular meetings at Geneva, a series of meetings at Damascus, Amman and Cairo, where it travelled in April and May 1992. It heard the evidence of persons with first-hand knowledge and personal experience of the human rights situation in the occupied territories, in addition to following the situation in the occupied territories on a day-to-day basis through reports appearing in the Israeli press and the Arab press published in the occupied territories. The Special Committee also examined a number of valuable communications and reports from Governments, organizations and individuals concerning the occupied territories that reached it during the period under review.

790. The human rights situation of Palestinians and other Arabs in the occupied territories remains a matter of utmost concern for the Special Committee in view of the continuing repression of the popular uprising by the Israeli authorities, the arbitrariness in the administration of justice when it concerns the Palestinian and other Arab population of the territories and the measures of collective punishment, which entail serious social, economic and educational consequences.

791. As it has stressed since the outset of its activities, the Special Committee considers that the overall hardships faced by the population of the occupied territories derive from the fact that occupation itself constitutes a violation of human rights. Israel has continued to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration on the occupied territories in violation of its obligations as a State party to the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, which stipulates that military occupation is to be considered a temporary, de facto situation giving no right whatsoever to the occupying Power over the territorial integrity of the occupied territories. However, Israel does not recognize the applicability of the, Fourth Geneva Convention to these territories but has asserted that it applies most of its provisions in practice for, humanitarian reasons and has continued to claim that certain territories it has occupied since 1967 constitute a part of the State of Israel, a claim that has been refuted unanimously by the international community.

792. The policy Israel has pursued in this regard has led to a further intensification of settlement activity through the expropriation of land and the transfer of Israeli citizens, particularly of recent Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to the occupied territories. These and related measures such as the diversion of water resources, the uprooting of olive and citrus trees, the destruction of fields, the expropriation of land used for grazing, the excessive use of pesticides and other chemicals that modify the environment, declaring land as belonging to the State and the proclamation of closed military zones would appear to indicate a will to modify the demographic composition of the occupied territories by inducing Palestinians and the other Arab population of the territories to leave their homeland. In addition, persons with personal experience of the situation in the territories have informed the Special Committee that settlements are often built between Arab villages so that contact among them would be cut off. The most recent evidence that has come before the Special Committee shows that the Israeli authorities are creating a new infrastructure of roads and highways linking the settlements but bypassing Palestinian towns and villages. Ha'aretz reported on 6 May 1992 that some $10.5 million was being transferred from the Housing Ministry's regular budget for roads to a parallel budget for roads that are paved for security reasons.

793. Various illustrations of the Israeli settlement policy are to be found in the reports of the Special Committee such as the information that appeared in Ha'aretz on 12 September 1991 that the rate of settlement development in the territories was at that time three times higher than the rate that had been announced by Mr. Sharon while he was Minister of Housing. The Jerusalem Post reported on 22 October that the IDF had expropriated 100,000 dunums of land between Ramallah and the Jordan Valley owned by five Arab villages. Other Israeli press reports quoted statements by the Central Bureau of Statistics made on 5 April 1992 according to which the number of building starts in the territories had quadrupled during 1991, while building starts country-wide had doubled. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 6 April 1992; Al-Fajr, 13 April 1992)

794. The Special Committee took note with interest of a number of statements concerning changes in the settlement policy made by the newly elected Government of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. In his first press conference following the Labour Party's election victory, as reported on 25 June 1992 in the Jerusalem Post, Prime Minister Rabin suggested a shift in budget allocation away from settlements, but ruled out a complete freeze. He also made a clear distinction between "political" and "security" settlements. On 18 June 1992, the same newspaper announced the imminent launching of a major campaign to attract more residents to the Golan Heights following earlier declarations by the former Prime Minister Shamir and Mr. Rabin that the region would be kept by Israel because of its strategic importance. The Jerusalem Post reported on 15 July 1992 that the new Housing Minister had indicated that the Government might establish new "security" settlements in the Golan Heights and the Jordan Valley, defining them as "any settlement along the border that had a direct connection with stopping forces or an attack, and whose residents were organized in a manner as to be able to defend the sector".

795. On the other hand, it was reported that two controversial East Jerusalem Jewish housing projects in the city's Arab neighbourhood, which would have included over 200 housing units, were halted. (Jerusalem Post, 1, 3, and 7-10 July 1992) In a first attempt to reallocate resources away from the territories, the Government was reported to have imposed a de facto freeze on all new public housing construction throughout the country. The Finance and Housing Ministers released a joint statement declaring that "all unsigned building contracts were to be frozen immediately throughout the country, including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip". (Ha’aretz, 16 July 1992; Jerusalem Post, 17 July 1992) In its first session on 19 July 1992, the cabinet voted that "the establishment of settlements approved by previous Governments could only be carried out with the re-approval of the present Government". (Jerusalem Post, 20 July 1992; Ha'aretz, 21 July 1992) In addition, the Finance and Housing Ministers ordered the cancellation of construction work on nearly 7,000 new housing units in the territories, including almost a dozen highways. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 24 July 1992) On 27 July 1992, the Prime Minister gave his final approval to a plan that called for the halting of the construction of 5,364 homes in the territories and 6,617 homes that were planned to be built inside the Green Line. (Jerusalem Post, 28 July 1992)

796. At another level, concerning the situation of human rights, the resistance of Palestinian and other Arab civilians against the occupation has continued. The Israeli authorities have so far continued to quell the resistance as well As the popular uprising, which is currently in its fifth year, implementing harsh repressive measures against the population of the occupied territories, without taking into account the necessity or applying them with the proportionality warranted by the offence. Several witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee have confirmed the broad application of the new instructions that had been issued to soldiers and civilians in the territories concerning rules for opening fire, which have resulted in a rise in the number of deaths among the population. In May 1992, one witness stated in this regard:

797. The disproportionate use of force against civilians often consists of the utilization of live ammunition and other cruel means of inflicting heavy loss of life and causing severe and widespread injuries, which usually occur during clashes of the civilian population with the army or Border Policemen, army raids, demonstrations or clashes with settlers.

798. In addition, the number of persons who are said to have been killed in unclear circumstances, often as a result of being ambushed, has continued to grow. It is difficult to determine with certainty the cause of these killings. The violence and indiscriminate repression has affected all age groups, including very young children, women and the elderly, and has resulted in a climate of fear, tension and suspicion among the population of the territories.

799. A preoccupying development already brought to the attention, of the Special Committee is the increasing use of "undercover" units to infiltrate the population and carry out "death squad" killings. During the fourth year of the uprising, between 8 December 1990 and 7 December 1991, 34 Palestinians are reported to have been killed by undercover units. During the first four months of the fifth year of the uprising, between 8 December 1991 and 8 April 1992, 20 Palestinians were killed by such units. In the course of testimonies the Special Committee has heard recently, one witness stated:

800. A second disquieting development brought to the Special Committee's attention is the continued increase in the number of casualties among children in the territories, in addition to the tens of thousands of children who have been wounded or maimed since the beginning of the popular uprising. Deaths of children usually occur during stone-throwing incidents and demonstrations. However, many of those killed were not involved in any violent action other than writing graffiti, being bystanders at demonstrations or clashes or simply walking to school. A witness stated to that effect:

801. During the period under review, serious shortcomings have continued to be observed in the area of the administration of justice, which has been transferred increasingly to the competence of military courts. The Special Committee was informed recently that this practice has been extended in the occupied territories, to include even traffic offences. The number of Arab civilians in detention, including administrative detention, continues to be very high and is the. consequence of the policy of "quick justice" implemented by the authorities. According to a report transmitted by Amnesty International in September 1991, more than 14,000 Palestinians had spent some time in administrative detention since the beginning of the popular uprising.

802. Proceedings before courts have been described on the whole as summary and arbitrary and as denying the basic legal safeguards, including the right to a fair trial. As the Special Committee has already had the occasion to point out, this situation was aggravated on 26 June 1991 when the law on military courts in the territories was amended, permitting a single-justice bench to impose prison sentences of up to 10 years. Since the outbreak of the uprising, administrative detention, which has often turned out to be arbitrary, has continued to be imposed for excessive periods. This has been attributed, inter alia, to bureaucratic delays owing to the very large numbers of persons concerned and the commensurate lack of personnel to deal with the files. Most defendants continue to be imprisoned for the entire duration of the legal proceedings.

803. Several witnesses who testified before the Special Committee indicated that extracting confessions under duress was common practice. Members of detainees' families have also been detained arbitrarily in order to exert psychological pressure on them and this has included pregnant women and women with small children. No contact with the legal counsel was permitted during the entire interrogation period, which could last several months. Lawyers have complained about the difficulties encountered in gaining access to their clients' files as well as the procedural obstacles to which they were subjected during the trials. One example of this practice was reported by Ha'aretz on 21 and 22 July 1992 when the Nablus Military Court sentenced two defendants in the absence of their lawyers. It also stated that Justice Minister David Libar expressed his surprise that the Nablus Military Court would sentence defendants who were not represented by their lawyers, which is contrary to international law and the principles of justice. A number of lawyers are said to have been attacked physically by security guards in the courthouses. One witness who testified before the Special Committee described a case in which he was involved personally:

804. In addition, the relatives of arrested persons are systematically subjected to economic and psychological pressures such as the denial or cancellation of work and travel permits. Lawyers and families are often not notified of the place of incarceration or about the transfer of prisoners from one detention centre to another.

805. The Special Committee continues to be concerned by the pronounced contrast between the severity of the sentences imposed upon the Arab population, which are often disproportionate to the, offence with which they are charged, and the leniency from which Israeli citizens have continued to benefit, even when they are charged with the killing or ill-treatment of Arab civilians, in flagrant violation of the fundamental right of all persons to equality before the courts and tribunals. An example of such practice was reported in Ha'aretz on 3 September 1991 when the Ramallah Military Court sentenced three members of the Islamic Jihad movement to 15 years of imprisonment for the attempted kidnapping of a soldier. On the other hand, the IDF commander for the Gaza Strip suspended a second lieutenant following an incident during which a 10-year-old youth died in the Shati' Camp. (Ha'aretz, 10 October 1991) Al-Fajr reported on 16 December 1991 that a 14-year-old youth had been sentenced to seven years in prison for membership in the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine while a resident of Beit Lahiya, Khalil Hamdouneh, was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment by the Beer Sheba Military Court for allegedly hitting two Israelis with a hammer. (Al-Fajr, 13 January 1992) In contrast, the Southern Region Military Court acquitted an IDF captain who had been accused of beating, kicking and hitting an Arab lawyer with his rifle butt during a trial in the Gaza Military Court. The Court ruled that the lawyer had exaggerated the gravity of the blows and that the officer had acted in conformity with his authority under the existing regulations, as the person in charge of preventing disorder. (Ha'aretz, 10 January 1992)

806. An additional grave deficiency in the administration of justice is the practice of dual punishment imposed on Palestinians whose houses have been demolished in addition to receiving harsh sentences. Such measures of collective punishment also affect the innocent members of the family or relatives of the detainee and are prohibited by the Fourth Geneva Convention.

807. During the period under consideration, the situation of detainees has continued to be critical and remains a source of serious preoccupation for the Special Committee. The number of Palestinian and other Arab civilians in detention, which had increased significantly since the beginning of the popular uprising, continues to be very high. According to the estimates of the Palestinian Human Rights Information Centre, over 120,000 persons have been arrested and held for over 24 hours since the beginning of the uprising. In 1991 alone, the Centre believes that over 20,000 Palestinians were arrested and held for over 24 hours. From the testimonies it has heard recently, the Committee has noted a further deterioration in the status and treatment of prisoners, which is characterized by systematic torture and both physical and psychological ill-treatment, such as deprivation of food and sleep, being tied up in painful positions and in extremely reduced spaces. Such practices have often resulted in severe injuries, permanent incapacitation and even death. Prisoners have also been threatened with harm to family members who have on occasion been interrogated and subjected to intimidation, even when this concerned pregnant women and wives with very small children who were present during the entire questioning.

808. An example of such practices is the death of Mustafa Akkawi, aged 33, in the GSS ward at Hebron Prison on 4 February 1992. When he was brought before Judge Knobler at the Hebron Military Court on 3 February 1992, Akkawi is reported to have complained that he had been beaten during interrogation and showed the judge bruises and blue marks on the upper part of his body. A witness stated the following in connection with the case of Mustafa Akkawi:

809. Despite the official version of the results of the autopsy stating that Mr. Akkawi had died of "cardiac arteriosclerosis", a New York pathologist, Dr. Michael Baden, who also participated in the autopsy, indicated that Akkawi had "died of a heart attack precipitated by the emotional pressure, physical exertion and freezing temperature he was forced to withstand, along with a lack of proper medical care".

810. According to the human rights group Betzelem, since the beginning of the uprising, five Palestinians have died as a result of torture during interrogation, while two committed suicide shortly after interrogation. (Ha’aretz, 5-7 and 9-13 February 1992; Jerusalem Post, 6, 9, 12-14 and 18 February 1992; Al-Fajr, 10 February 1992) A witness testifying before the Special Committee described other torture practices used in Israeli detention centres:

811. A particularly disquieting development brought to the attention of the Special Committee was the alleged use of electric shock torture on prisoners during interrogation. The Jerusalem Post reported on 15 March 1992 that allegations concerning this practice had first been made by the Palestinian Human Rights Information Centre in December 1991. It was stated that a report that appeared in the Hadashot newspaper in February 1991 quoted police sources as saying that the claims about the use of electric shocks were substantially correct and that a special unit had been operating to that effect in several prisons in order to extract information from stone-throwers. It was also indicated that the Al-Haq human rights group based in Ramallah had stated it had evidence concerning several cases in which electric shock had been used. In this connection, a witness stated:.

812. A matter of deep concern for the Special Committee is that minors have continued to be detained and tortured, although Israel has ratified the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The Committee has received evidence that even children aged 12 have been arrested, beaten and tortured for several days at a time. Referring to the experiences of his son, who has been arrested and detained on four separate occasions, the father of a minor who appeared before the Special Committee stated:

813. In a press release issued on 21 May 1992, the International Committee of the Red Cross stated its position on the treatment of Palestinian detainees under interrogation. It "called upon the Israeli Government to put an immediate end to the ill-treatment inflicted during interrogation on detainees from the occupied territories", adding that "confessions obtained under duress moreover preclude any fair trial". The Committee has "in particular urged the authorities to prohibit all forms of ill-treatment, including insults and threats, to forbid interrogation by co-detainees and the exertion of pressure to induce. detainees to collaborate, to improve the material conditions of detention and to limit to the strict minimum the time detainees have to spend in interrogation sections".

814. Contrary to the provisions of article 76 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, detainees have continued to be held in prisons and detention centres inside Israel itself such as Ketziot, located in the Negev desert, where the prevailing conditions have been described as particularly harsh throughout the year. According to witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee, even the family and relatives, for whom it is very difficult to visit detainees at such prisons because of their distance from the occupied territories, spent most of the time allotted for visits in queues and were subjected to lengthy and detailed body searches. An additional difficulty for relatives as well as lawyers is keeping track of a prisoner's whereabouts owing to frequent unannounced transfers of detainees to different prisons. The physical conditions to which the prisoners are subjected during transfers have been described as being particularly harsh, with the prisoners' hands constantly tied behind their backs with plastic strings or plastic handcuffs, which are said to be particularly painful and cause injuries and swelling.

815. In addition, conditions of detention have been described as inadequate in terms of facilities, food, clothing and the availability of medical services. Prisoners are said to be given daily food rations of only 1,400 calories. Owing to the insufficient food intake, prisoners are exposed to disease, while many are reported to have died of deliberate medical negligence. The Special Committee was informed of the outbreak of scabies in prisons on several occasions. The overcrowding of cells has continued, and a lack of ventilation and humidity in the cells has also been reported. Witnesses have reported that when prisoners have protested against their conditions of detention, the prison authorities have reacted violently. An incident has been reported that involved the throwing of tear-gas canisters inside the cells, after which 800 prisoners had to undergo medical treatment.

816. The Special Committee has observed that acts of harassment: against the civilian population of the occupied territories have continued. One example is the excessively time-consuming and rigid procedure the inhabitants of the occupied territories are required to fulfil in order to obtain administrative authorizations and documents such as a driver's licence or a birth certificate. Numerous witnesses have described the treatment they have been subjected to when leaving or entering the occupied territories, as well as incidents when soldiers and members of the security forces have forcibly entered into houses, attacked the occupants and destroyed their property. One witness provided the following example:

817. According to the testimonies the Committee has heard recently, settlers have been involved in numerous incidents of this type. On several occasions, settlers have raided villages and refugee camps, attacking the inhabitants and destroying their property and have often uprooted trees. It has been reported that the Israeli armed forces were not always able to control such outbursts of violence and aggression against Palestinians and other Arabs, which have only compounded the climate of tension and fear prevailing in the occupied territories. Several witnesses have described a widespread practice that consisted of posing as hitchhikers and subsequently attacking the persons in the vehicle that would pick them up and stealing or severely damaging it.

818. During the period under review, the Special Committee has observed a continuation in the implementation of measures of collective punishment in occupied territories, in violation of the relevant provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Houses built without the necessary permits and in particular those belonging to detainees have been demolished, leaving their often numerous family and relatives in an extremely precarious position. The Special Committee was informed that, on occasion, the Israeli authorities made the occupants themselves pay for the bulldozers carrying out the demolition. This has been compounded by the uprooting of olive and citrus fruit trees. A practice that has also seriously affected the economic as well as the health situation of the population of the occupied territories is the continued imposition of prolonged curfews on numerous towns and villages, on occasion for several days at a time. In addition to the already severe restrictions concerning entry into Israel, this measure has deprived numerous families of their means of livelihood, bringing them to the threshold of the poverty line.

819. Numerous witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee during its recent mission of inquiry have spoken about the untenable situation with regard to the Government of Israel's taxation policy in the occupied territories, which imposes extremely heavy taxes on the income of the Palestinian and other Arab population and has led to the bankruptcy or closing of many enterprises and businesses. This policy has been illustrated in the following manner:

820. During the reporting period, the Special Committee has noted a continuation in the issuing of deportations orders for alleged security reasons against the inhabitants of the occupied territories, in violation of article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Despite repeated international protests, the cases of 11 persons who were slated for deportation at the beginning of this year are still pending before the High Court of Justice. The recently introduced practice of "conditional banishment" of persons alleged to be leading activists of the uprising has continued. An example is the expulsion to Jordan on 17 July 1992 of six Palestinian students, following the five-day siege of Al-Najah National University in Nablus. In addition, the Israeli authorities have continued to expel Palestinians and other Arabs without a valid "staying visa", which often concerns the non-resident wives and children of inhabitants of the occupied territories. The status of these persons may have very serious repercussions since persons with no identity or residence documents, including small children, are said to not be admitted to hospital, even in case of an emergency. A number of witnesses have informed the Special Committee that not being in the occupied territories at the time of a census has deprived them of the necessary documents. This situation has been aggravated after the Persian Gulf war when numerous Palestinians were compelled to leave the region. Family reunion has been impeded if they had. lived abroad for a long time, if they were married abroad and if their children were born in foreign countries. A mother who testified before the Special Committee described the sometimes dramatic circumstances under which a deportation takes place:

821. The Special Committee has noted with interest the information that no decisions will be taken concerning deportations orders that have been issued against Palestinians and other Arabs from the occupied territories and that the Government of Israel is reconsidering the usefulness of this practice.

822. According to the evidence that has come before the Special Committee, the enjoyment of certain fundamental freedoms by the inhabitants of the occupied territories has continued to be restricted. In addition to the widespread imposition of curfews, which restrict the freedom of movement, the Israeli authorities have continued to issue green identity cards to persons who are perceived as a threat to security and are thus prevented from entering Israel and East Jerusalem. These cards are systematically issued to former detainees or persons against whom administrative detention orders have been issued and have resulted in entire families being deprived of their means of livelihood.

823. On 28 October 1991, Ha'aretz and Jerusalem Post reported that three advisers to the Palestinian delegation at the Madrid peace conference were prohibited from leaving the occupied territories because they had been convicted of security offences. On 30 December 1991, Al-Fajr reported that the Israeli Commander of the Central Region had signed order C 91-2, which stipulates that the inhabitants of the territories must receive official
permits from the authorities to cultivate their land or graze livestock on it. Ha'aretz and Jerusalem Post reported on 15 December that as at 14 December 1991 the movement of Arab residents was restricted to a distance of 150 meters away from the main roads on each side during the night hours from 5 p.m. to 6 a.m. The roadsides would be declared closed military areas. Such restrictions have also affected the freedom of education when students from Gaza were informed that they would need permits in order to stay at the UNRWA vocational centre in Ramallah. Some students are said to have been arrested for lack of such permits by soldiers in the West Bank. (Al-Tali'ah, 13 February 1992; Al-Fajr, 17 February 1992)

824. An additional example of the severe restriction of the freedom of movement was the 14-day closure of the Gaza Strip following the murder of Helena Rapp, an Israeli girl from Bat Yam. Ha'aretz and Jerusalem Post reported on 9 June 1992 that new regulations that had been issued required all workers to report to the Civil Administration Labour Office in Gaza in order to receive a new card needed for admission into Israel. It was indicated further that no workers under 28 years of age would be allowed to enter Israel while employers would be obliged to provide work for at least 10 Palestinians. It is estimated that some 30,000 to 40,000 workers were affected by these measures. The age limit was subsequently reduced in stages.

825. Restrictions have continued with regard to the freedom of expression. Jerusalem Post reported on 10 July 1992 that the High Court of Justice had upheld a decision of the Ministry of the Interior to refuse the issuing of a licence to a newspaper that was to be published in East Jerusalem called Al-Wafa, stating that there was a "strong basis" for suspecting that the paper would serve to promote the interests of organizations hostile to Israel. However, the Special Committee noted with interest the announcement that the newly elected Government of Israel was considering rescinding the law that stipulates that contacts with representatives of the PLO are illegal.

826. A number of communications received by the Special Committee indicate that the freedom of religion has continued to be infringed during the period under consideration. Ha’aretz and Jerusalem Post reported on 19, 20 and 21 November 1991 that Israeli intelligence officers, special forces and border guards broke into the Islamic courthouse in East Jerusalem and seized a number of documents.

827. From the evidence that has come before it, the Special Committee has noted that the freedom of education has continued to be restricted by the numerous closures of academic institutions, some of which have been closed since the beginning of the popular uprising. Some of those which have been allowed to reopen are subjected to periodic closures as a result of incidents that are not necessarily related to the actions of students but were alleged to have been provoked by Israeli security forces. It was reported that young boys were the particular targets in such actions and that students were on occasion beaten during such incidents when tear-gas canisters were also thrown. A recent incident concerned Al-Najah University in Nablus when the army sealed off the campus on 14 July 1992 on suspicion that there might be armed fugitives on the premises. Approximately 2,000 persons, including students, professors, employees and several children, were blocked on the campus for several days and a curfew was imposed on the city, affecting almost 150,000 persons. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 15-17 July 1992) In addition to creating psychological stress, the long-term effects of closures and the systematic imposition of curfews in general has led to a dramatic decline in the once high academic standards and educational level of the Palestinian people. The restriction of the freedom of movement has also affected the freedom of persons to choose their place of study, as is the case of students from Gaza who need permission from the military governor of the West Bank in order to study there.

828. The Special Committee was also informed of the severe shortages of classrooms and teaching material, including blackboards, and the restrictions placed on the importation of books, even when they were available in the libraries of Israeli universities. An additional difficulty faced by Palestinian students is the non-recognition by the Israeli authorities of diplomas obtained from universities that have been subjected to official closures, even when they are recognized internationally, on the basis of a curriculum that has been fulfilled outside the university premises. As a result, students are unable to find employment in Israel and in the occupied territories. Despite the efforts of the Israeli military authorities to insinuate that this is illegal, almost all of the universities "started off campus teaching, in order to maintain a connection between the students and the staff and to maintain some semblance of a university".

829. The policy of annexation and settlement pursued by the Israeli authorities has also affected the occupied Syrian Arab Golan. As has already been stated, the Jerusalem Post reported on 15 July 1992 that "security" settlements would be established in the Golan Heights and the Jordan Valley, despite the recent changes in settlement policy announced by the newly elected Government of Israel. Land is said to have recently been confiscated in the region of Buq'ata, where military outposts are said to have been established, thus preventing the shepherds from grazing their flocks. Witnesses who have testified before the Special Committee have spoken of the harassment to which they are subjected by soldiers when they try to communicate with their families through megaphones and binoculars across the demarcation line, alleging that soldiers turn their radios on at full volume and move their cars back and forth in order to create noise.

830. The comprehensive picture drawn by the Special Committee on the basis of the evidence and information it has examined has led it to conclude that the situation of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms in the occupied territories has continued to be extremely serious in the course of the reporting period from 23 August 1991 to 26 August 1992. The physical and psychological stress the Palestinian people and other Arabs of the occupied territories consequently continue to endure remains a threat to international peace and security. On the basis of the evidence that has come before it, the Special Committee has noted that the peace process that began with the Madrid Conference has not yet had a significant effect on the overall enjoyment of human rights in the occupied territories. It would therefore like to reiterate the need for a comprehensive, just and lasting settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict through negotiations, taking into account the rights of all peoples in the area, including the national rights of the Palestinian people and other Arabs of the occupied territories.

831. The provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which is the principal international instrument in humanitarian law that applies to the occupied territories, have continued to be violated. The Israeli occupation forces have also continued to disregard the relevant provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as numerous resolutions relative to the situation of civilians in the occupied territories that have been adopted by various United Nations organs, in particular, those adopted by the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Human Rights, in addition to relevant resolutions adopted by UNESCO, WHO and ILO.

832. In the meantime, and in view of the gravity of the situation, the Special Committee wishes to recommend once more the implementation of urgent measures that would safeguard the basic human rights of the Palestinian people and other Arabs in the occupied territories. Such measures could include the following:

(a) The full application, by Israel, of the relevant provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which remains the main international instrument in humanitarian law that applies to the occupied territories, and whose applicability to those territories has repeatedly been reaffirmed by the Security Council, the General Assembly and other relevant organs of the United Nations;

(b) The full compliance with all resolutions pertinent to the question of Palestine as adopted by the Security Council and the General Assembly, as well as other relevant resolutions adopted by UNESCO, WHO and ILO;

(c) The creation of conditions of confidence and security conducive to promoting respect for human rights;

(d) The full cooperation of the Israeli authorities with the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to protect detained persons, in particular by ensuring full access of its representatives to such persons;

(e) The full support, by Member States, of the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross in the occupied territories, and positive response by Member States to any appeals for additional assistance, including funds to finance the extra activities required by the unprecedented increase in the number of detained persons;

(f) The full support, by Member States, of UNRWA activities in the occupied territories in order to enable UNRWA to maintain and improve the general assistance provided to the refugee population;

(g) The unrestricted cooperation of the Israeli authorities with UNRWA representatives and full respect by the Israeli authorities of the privileges and immunities that the Agency enjoys as an international body providing humanitarian services to Palestinian refugees in the occupied territories.

833. The Special Committee hopes that in the ongoing negotiations the situation of human rights would take centre stage in the debate conducive to the building of confidence and mutual respect out of which a more favourable climate would emerge so as to ensure respect for human rights.

VI. ADOPTION OF THE REPORT

834. The present report was approved and signed by the Special Committee on 24 August 1992 in accordance with rule 20 of its rules of procedure.

Notes

1/ Documents A/8089; A/8389 and Corr.1 and 2; A/8389/Add.1 and Add.1/Corr.1 and 2; A/8828; A/9148 and Add.1; A/9817; A/10272; A/31/218; A/32/284; A/33/356; A/34/631; A/35/425; A/36/579; A/37/485; A/38/409; A/39/591; A/40/702; A/41/680; A/42/650; A/43/694; A/44/599; A/45/576; and A/46/522.

2/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 101, document A/8237; ibid., Twenty-sixth Session, Annexes, agenda item 40, document A/8630; ibid., Twenty-seventh Session, Annexes, agenda item 42, document A/8950; ibid., Twenty-eight Session, Annexes, agenda item 45, document A/9374; ibid., Twenty-ninth Session, Annexes, agenda item 40, document A/9872; ibid., Thirtieth Session, Annexes, agenda item 52, document A/10461; ibid., Thirty-first Session, Annexes, agenda item 55, document A/31/399; ibid., Thirty-second Session, Annexes, agenda item 57, document A/32/407; ibid., Thirty-third Session, Annexes, agenda item 55, document A/33/439; ibid., Thirty-fourth Session, Annexes, agenda item 51, document A/34/691 and Add.1; ibid., Thirty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 57, document A/35/674; ibid., Thirty-sixth Session, Annexes, agenda item 64, document A/36/632/Add.1; ibid., Thirty-seventh Session,
Annexes, agenda item 61, document A/37/698; ibid., Thirty-eighth Session, Annexes, agenda item 69, document A/38/718; ibid., Thirty-ninth Session, Annexes, agenda item 71, document A/39/712; ibid., Fortieth Session, Annexes, agenda item 75, document A/40/890; ibid., Forty-first Session, Annexes, agenda item 71, document A/41/750; ibid., Forty-second Session, Annexes, agenda item 75, document A/42/811; ibid., Forty-third Session, Annexes, agenda item 77, document A/43/904; ibid., Forty-fourth Session, Annexes, agenda item 77, document A/44/816; ibid., Forty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 75, document A/45/823 and Corr.1; and "ibid., Forty-sixth Session, Annexes, agenda item 73, document A/46/639.

3/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 101, document A/8089, annex III.

4/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, No. 973, p. 287.

5/ Ibid., No. 972, p. 135.

6/ Ibid., vol. 249, No. 3511, p. 215.

7/ Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Hague Convention and Declarations of 1899 and 1907, New York, Oxford University Press, 1915.

8/ General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI).

9/ See also paras. 12 to 20 of document A/47/76 and paras. 5 to 18 of document A/47/262.

10/ See also para. 21 of document A/47/76 and para. 19 of document A/47/262.

11/ See also paras. 22 to 100 of document A/47/76 and paras. 20 to 94 of document A/47/262.

12/ See also paras. 101 to 122 of document A/47/76 and paras. 95 to 122 of document A/47/262.

13/ See also paras. 123 to 131 of document A/47/76 and paras. 123 to 130 of document A/47/262.

14/ See also paras. 132 to 135 of document A/47/76 and paras. 131 to 134 of document A/47/262.

15/ See also para. 136 of document A/47/76 and para. 134 of document A/47/262.

16/ See also paras. 138 to 168 of document A/47/76 and paras. 135 to 175 of document A/47/262.

17/ See also para. 137 of document A/47/76 and paras. 173 to 176 of document A/47/262.

18/ See also paras. 170 to 173 of document A/47/76 and paras. 177 to 186 of document A/47/262.

19/ See also paras. 174 to 176 of document A/47/76 and paras. 187 to 192 of document A/47/262.

20/ See also paras. 193 to 195 of document A/47/262.

21/ See also para. 177 of document A/47/76 and paras. 196 to 202 of document A/47/262.

22/ See also paras. 181 to 184 of document A/47/76 and paras. 203 to 214 of document A/47/262.

23/ See also para. 179 of document A/47/76.

24/ See also para. 180 of document A/47/76.

25/ See also paras. 215 to 230 of document A/47/262.

26/ See also paras. 185 to 193 of document A/47/76 and paras. 231 to 239 of document A/47/262.

27/ See also paras. 194 to 212 of document A/47/76 and paras. 240 to 264 of document A/47/262.

28/ See also paras. 213 to 217 of document A/47/76.


ANNEX

Map showing Israeli settlements established, planned or under
construction in the territories occupied since 1967


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