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17 October 1975
17 October 1975
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE
UNITED NATIONS EMERGENCY FORCE
(for the period 15 July 1975 to 16 October 1975)
I. COMPOSITION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE FORCE
A. Composition and command
II. ACCOMMODATIONS AND LOGISTICS
III. ACTIVITIES OF THE FORCE
A. Functions and guidelines
B. Freedom of movement
C. Personnel matters
D. Observance of the cease-fire and implementation of the Disengagement Agreement of 18 January 1974
IV. HUMANITARIAN ACTIVITIES AND CO-OPERATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)
V. DEVELOPMENTS RELATING TO THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN EGYPT AND ISRAEL OF 4 SEPTEMBER AND THE PROTOCOL OF 22 SEPTEMBER 1975
VI. FINANCIAL ASPECTS
VII. IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 338 (1973)
MAP. UNEF DEPLOYMENT AS OF 1 OCTOBER 1975
1. This report describes the activities of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) for the period 15 July to 16 October 1975. The purpose of this report is to provide the Security Council with a comprehensive description of the activities of UNEF in pursuance of the mandate laid down by the Council in its resolutions 340 (1973) and 341 (1973) of 25 and 27 October 1973 and extended by its resolutions 346 (1974) of 8 April 1974, 362 (1974) of 23 October 1974, 368 (1975) of 17 April 1975 and 371 (1975) of 24 July 1975.
2. Since my last report (S/11758 of 16 July 1975), the situation in the UNEF area of operations has remained stable and the Force has continued efficiently to carry out its assigned tasks.
I. COMPOSITION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE FORCE
Composition and command
3. As of 16 October 1975, UNEF personnel strength was as follows:
The strength figures for the Canadian and Polish logistic components assigned to the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) are not included in the above table. Also not included are six officers on loan from the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine (UNTSO) who are filling various staff positions within UNEF.
4. Lieutenant-General Ensio Siilasvuo was the Commander of UNEF until 20 August 1975 when he was appointed Chief Co-ordinator of the United Nations Peace-keeping Missions in the Middle East. Major-General Bengt Liljestrand assumed command of UNEF on the same day (see S/11808).
5. During the period under review, the deployment of UNEF has, with minor exceptions, remained unchanged. As of 1 October 1975, this deployment (see attached map) was as follows:
6. The following personnel rotations took place during the period under review:
(a) Canadian contingent: Personnel are rotated in small groups on a weekly basis. During the period, 400 personnel were rotated.
(b) Finnish contingent: Personnel are rotated in small groups at regular intervals. During the period, 166 personnel were rotated.
(c) Ghanaian contingent: The entire contingent was rotated in August 1975, having served with UNEF since February 1975.
(d) Indonesian contingent: The entire contingent was rotated in July 1975, having served with UNEF since September 1974.
(e) Polish contingent: No change from the last report (S/11758), the entire contingent having been rotated on 30 June 1975.
(f) Senegalese contingent: The entire contingent was rotated in August 1975, having served with UNEF since February 1975.
(g) Swedish contingent: No change from the last report, the entire contingent having been rotated in June 1975.
II. ACCOMMODATIONS AND LOGISTICS
7. In base camps, good progress continues to be made with the acquisition of furniture and equipment. In addition, a plan has been made to replace the unsatisfactory tented kitchen facilities with prefabricated structures complete with concrete floors. The outposts in the zone of disengagement were being improved, including the construction of protective shelters. Current efforts are focused on planning for accommodations in the new zones.
8. The shortage of spare parts, although lessening, continues to be a serious problem. Efforts are being made to speed up the acquisition of spare parts and replacement vehicles, as well as to improve the maintenance and repair of vehicles. Since the reopening of the Suez Canal, the logistic support has inevitably been complicated by difficulty in crossing the Canal in view of ship traffic and of the fact that the existing pontoon bridges are open for crossing mainly during the night.
9. The circumstances in which UNEF operates and the lack of a normal logistical infrastructure lay a particularly heavy burden on the logistical components of the Force, which undertake functions such as medical services, engineering, signals and air support that are not usually assigned to logistical support units.
III. ACTIVITIES OF THE FORCE
Functions and guidelines
10. The functions and guidelines of the Force are outlined in the Secretary-General's report on the implementation of Security Council resolution 340 (1973) (S/11052/Rev.1), which was approved by the Council in its resolution 341 (1973). Specific tasks consistent with its terms of reference were entrusted to UNEF by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement on Disengagement of Forces in pursuance of the Geneva Peace Conference, of 18 January 1974 (S/11198 and Add.1). The Force has continued to fulfil its tasks under that Agreement (see subsection D below). The Agreement between Egypt and Israel of 4 September 1975, its annex and the Protocol (S/11818/Add.1-5) entrusts UNEF with certain functions, which are dealt with in section V of the present report.
11. The Force Commander has continued the practice of separate meetings with the military authorities of Egypt and Israel concerning the implementation of the terms of reference of the Force and the inspections carried out by UNEF in the areas of limited forces and armaments. The relations of UNEF with the parties continue to be cordial and productive.
Freedom of movement
12. The problem of restrictions on the freedom of movement of personnel of certain contingents still exists, despite my efforts and those of the Force Commander. I remain of the opinion that UNEF must function as an “integrated and efficient military unit”, that its contingents must serve on an equal basis under the command of the Force Commander and that no differentiation can be made regarding the United Nations status of various contingents. I will continue my efforts to achieve this objective.
13. The general discipline, understanding and bearing of all members of UNEF has been exemplary, reflecting credit on the soldiers and their commanders, as well as on the countries contributing contingents.
14. During the period under review, one member of the Indonesian contingent and one member of the Finnish contingent died in vehicle accidents.
Observance of the cease-fire and implementation of the
Disengagement Agreement of 18 January 1974
15. UNEF continues to assist in the observance of the cease-fire and the Disengagement Agreement of 18 January 1974. It controls entry to the zone of disengagement through a network of checkpoints, manned observation posts and mobile patrols. In addition, it conducts weekly inspection of the limited forces areas (LFA) and bi-weekly inspection of the 30-kilometre zones with the assistance of UNTSO military observers. The Force Commander has continued to lend his assistance and good offices when one of the parties raises questions concerning the observance of the agreed limitations on armaments and forces.
16. During the period under review, there were no significant violations of the agreements.
IV. HUMANITARIAN ACTIVITIES AND CO-OPERATION WITH THE
INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)
17. UNEF has maintained close contact with ICRC representatives and has extended its assistance in the family reunification and student exchange programmes, which continue to function satisfactorily. During the period under review, 4,076 persons crossed from Egypt to Israeli-occupied territory, and 4,543 from Israeli-occupied territory to Egypt. The transfer of one body was arranged. The transfer of items such as large quantities of school-books was also conducted under UNEF auspices.
V. DEVELOPMENTS RELATING TO THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN EGYPT AND ISRAEL
OF 4 SEPTEMBER AND THE PROTOCOL OF 22 SEPTEMBER 1975
18. As I reported to the Security Council at the time (S/11818 and Add.1-3), the Agreement between Egypt and Israel was signed by representatives of the two parties in Geneva on 4 September 1975. At the request of the two parties, Lieutenant-General Ensio Siilasvuo, Chief Co-ordinator of the United Nations Peace-keeping Missions in the Middle East, signed as witness.
19. In conformity with provisions contained in the annex to the agreement, the Military Working Group of the Geneva Peace Conference on the Middle East, under the chairmanship of General Siilasvuo, began negotiations on 9 September for the preparation of a detailed Protocol for the implementation of the Agreement. After 21 meetings at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, the Military Working Group on 22 September 1975 reached agreement on the terms of the Protocol (S/11818/Add.5), which is an integral part of the Agreement.
20. The responsibilities entrusted to UNEF under the Agreement and spelled out in detail in the Protocol are more varied and extensive than the ones UNEF has been discharging under the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement on Disengagement of Forces of 18 January 1974. UNEF's new operational areas will be much larger than at present. The new functions entrusted to UNEF may be grouped as follows:
Functions of limited duration, to be performed by UNEF during the initial stage
(a) The exercise of UNEF's good offices in the transfer of oilfields, installations and infrastructures, including:
(i) Escorting third-party technicians and ensuring their safety at Ras Sudar and Abu Rodeis until completion of the Israel Defence Forces redemployment in the southern area on 30 November 1975;
(ii) Providing a channel of communication between third-party technicians and Egyptian authorities until 1 December 1975.
(b) Monitoring the redeployment of forces by providing buffer times for the transfer of evacuated areas to Egyptian control, occupying temporary buffer zones, manning temporary observation posts and acting as a secure channel of communication and contact throughout.
(c) Escorting Egyptian personnel to and from the site of the Egyptian surveillance station at E-1 (see Map A attached to the Protocol) and ensuring their protection between 28 December 1975 and 22 February 1976.
Long-term functions of UNEF
(a) Supervision of certain limitations:
(i) Bi-weekly inspections in the limited forces and armament zones, as well as in other areas of limitations, for anti-aircraft and long-range missiles to ensure the maintenance of the agreed limitations as specified in the annex to the Agreement and the Protocol;
(ii) Verifying compliance with the limitations on the number of civilian police and unarmed aircraft and helicopters for civilian use in the southern area;
(iii) Ensuring that neither party constructs new fortifications or installations for forces of a size greater than eight standard battalions in the areas specified in section 5 (6) of the annex to the Agreement.
(b) Establishment and manning of checkpoints and observation posts:
(i) In the southern area, on the coastal road along the Gulf of Suez, the parties have requested the establishment and manning by UNEF of the following specific checkpoint and observation posts (see Map C attached to the Protocol):
Eleven land checkpoints;
Five coastal checkpoints;
Three airfield checkpoints;
Seven land observation posts.
(ii) The map attached to the Agreement (S/11818/Add.3) shows two posts in the Hammam Faroun area to be occupied by UNEF;
(iii) Under the terms of article III.1.b of the Protocol, UNEF is to maintain an unspecified number of checkpoints and observation posts along the lines of buffer zone 1 and within the area;
(iv) UNEF also is to maintain permanent checkpoints on the routes leading into buffer zones 2A and 2B and on the buffer zone lines.
(c) Patrolling functions:
(i) UNEF is to carry out patrolling functions throughout the southern area by land, coastal and air patrols;
(ii) Patrols are to be conducted along road sections for common use in the southern area;
(iii) Reconnaissance patrols are to be conducted along the lines of buffer zone 1 and within the area.
(d) Escorting activities:
(i) Escorting activities are to be carried out by UNEF in buffer zone 1.
(ii) Certain escorting duties are also to be carried out by UNEF on common road sections in the southern area.
(e) Other functions entrusted to UNEF:
(i) Ensuring the non-military character of the civilian area south of line E and west of line M as specified on the map attached to the Agreement (S/11818/Add.3);
(ii) Ensuring that traffic on the road sections for common use in the southern area is conducted in accordance with the time schedule agreed to by the parties;
(iii) Monitoring reconnaissance flights by the parties as agreed to by them;
(iv) Responsibilities in relation to the functionina of the Joine Commission established by the Agreement.
21. The present strength of UNEF (3,987 officers and men) is now at the minimum acceptable level for its current tasks. Consequently, owing to the more extensive responsibilities entrusted to UNEF as outlined above and the large increase in the areas of operation, additional military personnel and equipment will be needed to enable UNEF to execute its new functions adequately.
22. The Chief Co-ordinator, in close consultation with the Commander of UNEF, has submitted his recommendations for the necessary additional military personnel and equipment. After careful study and review of the manpower recommendation, the following additional military personnel are considered necessary:
(a) The reinforcement by one company of each of the present non-logistic contingents of UNEF, resulting in an increase of approximately 750 all ranks. Of this total one extra company of 150 men will be required by 10 November 1975. The remainder will be required early in 1976. The exact means of achieving this reinforcement is now being studied.
(b) Strengthening of the Polish logistics contingent by an engineering and building platoon of 50 officers and men by the end of January 1976. The additional personnel are required for new construction of personnel shelters and base camp facilities. There will also be a requirement for a slight increase, temporarily at least, in the mine-clearing capacity of the Polish contingent.
(c) Strengthening of the signals element of the Canadian logistic contingent by approximately 20 personnel, and of the supply element by 16.
(d) The present air unit should be reinforced by the addition of four helicopters, one Buffalo aircraft and two STOL (short take-off and landing) aircraft and their crews. This reinforcement, which is made necessary by the much greater extent of the new areas of operation and requirements for air patrols, supply and medical evacuation, should be effected as soon as possible.
(e) A naval unit for coastal patrol functions, consisting of four vessels, by November.
23. I shall keep the Security Council informed of developments in relation to the required additional personnel and equipment.
VI. FINANCIAL ASPECTS
24. Based on the increased manpower requirements stated above and on having the necessary resources in equipment and material at its disposal, the increase in the costs of UNEF for a period of one year ending 24 October 1976 is tentatively estimated at $32 million over and above the authorized level of $65 million for the previous year, assuming continuance of present rates for troop costs. In case the naval vessels and additional aircraft required by the Force, as mentioned above, together with all the necessary facilities and crews, including operational costs, are not provided without expense to the United Nations, an additional $10 million will have to be added to the aforementioned estimates. The estimate reflects the phased-in build up of the Force. It also includes provision for one-time costs involved in the construction of a number of prefabricated base camps and observation posts in the areas of operation as well as in the provision of additional equipment, such as specialized vehicles, needed for the operation of the Force.
VII. IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 338 (1973)
25. In deciding in its resolution 371 (1975) to renew the mandate of UNEF for a further period of three months until 24 October 1975, the Security Council also called upon the parties concerned to implement immediately its resolution 338 (1973) and requested me to submit to it, at the end of that period, a report on developments in the situation in the Middle East and the measures taken to implement that resolution.
26. In my last report dated 16 July 1975 (S/11758), I mentioned the efforts made at several levels to advance the implementation of resolution 338 (1973). These efforts have continued during the period under review. In this connexion I note that in article I of the Agreement of 4 September 1975, the Governments of Egypt and Israel have stated that:
“The conflict between them and in the Middle East shall not be resolved by military force but by peaceful means.
“The Agreement concluded by the parties 18 January 1974, within the framework of the Geneva Peace Conference, constituted a first step towards a just and durable peace according to the provisions of Security Council resolution 338 of 22 October 1973.
“They are determined to reach a final and just peace settlement by means of negotiations called for by Security Council resolution 338, this Agreement being a significant step towards that end.”
In article VIII of the same Agreement, the two Governments have stated:
“This Agreement is regarded by the parties as a significant step toward a just and lasting peace. It is not a final peace agreement.
“The parties shall continue their efforts to negotiate a final peace agreement within the framework of the Geneva peace conference in accordance with Security Council resolution 338.”
27. During the period under review, the situation in the UNEF area of operation has remained quiet. Both sides have continued generally to comply with the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement on Disengagement of Forces of 18 January 1974 and to extend their co-operation to UNEF in the performance of its tasks. The cease-fire has been maintained and there have been no significant violations.
28. The interim agreement between Egypt and Israel, concluded last September, is an important development. However, any relaxation of the search for a comprehensive settlement covering all aspects of the Middle East problem could be especially dangerous in the months to come. It is my earnest hope, therefore, that urgent efforts will be undertaken by all concerned to tackle the Middle East problem in all its aspects, with a view both to maintaining quiet in the region and to arriving at the comprehensive settlement called for by the Security Council in its resolution 338 (1973).
29. The Agreement of 4 September 1975 and its Protocol have entrusted UNEF with new tasks which are described in the body of this report. The presence of UNEF remains essential, not only to help maintain the cease-fire called for by the Security Council in its resolution 338 (1973), but also to assist in the implementation of the new Agreement. In the circumstances and considering the relevant provisions of the Agreement, I therefore recommend the extension of the mandate of UNEF.
30. In concluding this report, I wish once again to place on record my appreciation to the Governments contributing troops to the United Nations Emergency Force. I wish also to take this opportunity to pay tribute to the Commanders of the Force, Lieutenant-General Ensio Siilasvuo until 20 August 1975 and since that time Major-General Bengt Liljestrand, to the officers and men of the Force and its civilian staff, as well as to the military observers of UNTSO who co-operate with and assist UNEF in the fulfilment of its responsibilities. They have performed with exemplary devotion and efficiency the important task assigned to them by the Security Council.