Steps to promote the achievement of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East and the realization of the goals and objectives of the 1995 Resolution in the Middle East
Compilation of reports
Reports received from States parties
2. Canada has also called for full adherence and compliance with the Treaty by States parties in the region, and notes that seven States in the region have not concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency. Canada has also called upon Iraq to provide immediate, unconditional and unrestricted access to inspection teams of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). In this regard, Canada hosted a five-week training course in May-June 2001 for inspectors attached to UNMOVIC.
3. Canada is a strong supporter of the Middle East peace process and plays a role in the multilateral aspect of this process as Chair of the Refugee Working Group. Canada has endorsed the Mitchell report and Tenet workplan as the path to ending violence and beginning negotiations between the Israelis and the Palestinians and has called upon both parties to follow the recommendations set out therein.
I. Actively encouraging the parties concerned to promote the Middle East peace process in the spirit of reconciliation
As far as the Middle East problem is concerned, China has always taken the position of upholding justice, not seeking self-interest and basing its judgement on the rights and wrongs of the case. Proceeding from an impartial stand, China has always adopted a policy of promoting peace, and maintained that the Middle East problem should be solved in the spirit of reconciliation. During his telephone conversation on the Middle East problem with President Mubarak in September 2001, President Jiang Zemin emphasized that “we have been persistent promoters of peace, and we believe the only right way to solve the Middle East problem is through peaceful negotiation”.
In this spirit, China has always been concerned with developments in the Middle East, truly hoped that progress can be achieved in the peace process, and been unwilling to see the results attained in the peace talks during the past 10 years come to naught. China is gravely concerned and alarmed by the heavy casualties inflicted by the continuous violence and conflicts between the Israelis and the Palestinians. China is opposed to any terrorist activities aimed at civilian populations, and supports all efforts that are conducive to relaxing tension in the region. China calls on both sides to exercise restraint and remain calm, take practical measures that will help to defuse tension, and create conditions for the early resumption of peace talks.
The core element of China’s position on resolving the Middle East problem is the spirit of reconciliation. Guided by this, China has made untiring efforts to promote the resolution of the Middle East problem. The leaders of Middle Eastern countries have expressed their appreciation for the efforts made by China to settle conflicts between the Israelis and the Palestinians, and hope China can play a bigger role in relaxing tension in the region and resuming peace talks between the Israelis and the Palestinians.
II. Using different forms of bilateral contacts to promote the resolution of the Middle East problem
China has, through various forms of bilateral contacts with the parties concerned, made substantial efforts to help the parties concerned resolve the Middle East problem peacefully. These efforts are outlined as follows:
(1) Mediating the peace process during bilateral summit meetings with the Arabs and Israelis
Bilateral visits between China and Middle Eastern countries have been very frequent. President Arafat has visited China 14 times, President Mubarak 6 times, the new king of Jordan visited China twice after he assumed the throne, and the leaders of Israel have visited China many times. Chinese leaders have also visited the Middle East many times. In April 2000, Chinese President Jiang Zemin visited Palestine, Israel and Egypt.
China has always attached great importance to taking a mediating role during bilateral summit meetings with the parties concerned. When the Middle East peace process was making progress, China expressed its appreciation of the efforts made by the parties concerned, and encouraged them to continue the process so as to further its scope and depth. Following the abrupt increase in tension in the Middle East in September 2000, China continuously advised the parties concerned that the use of force and confrontation would only deepen mutual hatred and opposition, while dialog and negotiation were the right way to resolve disputes. China called on both sides to exercise restraint, actively cooperate with the mediating efforts of the international community, cease the present conflict and resume peace negotiations. During the meetings of President Jiang Zemin with Jordanian King Abdallah II and Egyptian President Mubarak in January 2000, the discussion focused on the Middle East question, explored various options for the restoration of peace in the Middle East, and tried to promote early resolution of the Middle East problem.
(2) Striving to relax tension in the Middle East through telephone conversations and written correspondence
Whenever major negative developments have occurred in the Middle East, Chinese leaders always engage in telephone conversations with leaders in the region, urging them to exercise restraint, prevent escalation of the conflict, and maintain stability in the region. Especially since the recent deterioration of the situation in the Middle East, President Jiang Zemin has conducted many telephone conversations with leaders of the Middle Eastern countries. Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan has also repeatedly made telephone calls to the Palestinian and Israeli leaders, explaining to them the views of China on the current situation in the Middle East, expressing deep concern regarding the continued deterioration of security in the region, calling on the two sides to exercise restraint and take effective measures to prevent further deterioration of the situation, and create conditions conducive to the early resumption of peace talks. Chinese leaders have also made use of t heir correspondence with leaders of the Middle East to explain the position of China and to mediate between the parties concerned.
(3) Calling for a peaceful resolution of the Middle East problem by making clear the Chinese Government position through such means as statements by official spokesmen
The Chinese Foreign Ministry has been closely following developments in the Middle East situation, and it has made clear the position of the Chinese Government on the current Middle East situation through statements made by its spokesman at appropriate times. It has called for all the parties to renounce military means and to seek a negotiated solution of the Middle East issue. Moreover, on the occasions of the bilateral contacts with non-Middle East countries, China has tried to talk with the countries concerned with a view to bringing about a solution of the Middle East issue through different channels. When President Bush of the United States visited China in February 2002, the Chinese and American sides both covered Middle East issues during their bilateral talks and press conferences, in the hope that the relevant big Powers could create a favourable atmosphere for an early and peaceful resolution of the Middle East issue.
III. Under the auspices of the United Nations, seeking to solve the violent conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians and facilitate the Middle East peace process
China has consistently advocated and supported an active role for the United Nations, in particular the Security Council, in resolving the Middle East issue, and the fulfilment of their mandates under the Charter of the United Nations in quelling the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and maintaining the peace and security of the Middle East region. China holds that a negotiated political solution of the Israeli-Palestinian issues through peaceful means should be achieved in accordance with the relevant resolutions of the United Nations and the principle of “land for peace” established during the Madrid conference. Moreover, the effective implementation of the agreements by the parties concerned and the understandings among them is a key precondition for building mutual confidence and stabilizing the situation so as to move towards a lasting peace.
The Chinese Government has made its own efforts to promote the Middle East peace process and put an end to the Israeli-Palestinian violent conflict. China has actively supported, joined in the consensus on or voted for the resolutions on the Middle East issue adopted by successive sessions of the General Assembly, and, during the discussion in the Security Council, the draft resolution sponsored by the group of the Non-Aligned Movement on sending United Nations military observers. China has also participated in the consultations of successive emergency special sessions of the General Assembly on the Middle East issue and voted for the relevant resolutions. China has always supported and actively participated in the efforts of the United Nations to resolve the Middle East issue. Over the years, China has continued to provide contributions to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) and has tried its best to help the Palestinian refugees. On March 12, 2002, the Security Council adopted resolution 1397 concerning the Middle East; China actively participated in adopting the resolution and voted in favour of it. China has also called on Israel to implement unconditionally Security Council resolution 1402, fully withdraw its troops from Palestinian areas and resolve the issues through peaceful means.
IV. Supporting the efforts to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East
China has consistently supported the efforts by the countries in the areas concerned to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone on the basis of voluntary consultations. In the statement issued by China when it acceded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as early as 1992, China solemnly called on “All nuclear weapon states [to] commit themselves to supporting the proposition of establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones and respect the status of nuclear-weapon-free zone by assuming appropriate obligations”. We maintain that Israel should accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and place all its nuclear facilities under the comprehensive safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, thus realizing the goal of universal adherence to the Treaty by all the countries in the Middle East.
China endorses the provision of Article 7 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which states, “nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories”. China also supports resolution 49/71 adopted by the General Assembly in 1994 on establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, and the relevant provisions concerning a nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region in the “Decision on the Middle East Issue” by the NPT Review Conference in 1995. China is of the opinion that establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones is conducive to strengthening the international regime of nuclear non-proliferation. It also believes that there will be greater risks of nuclear proliferation in those areas where the situation is tense. China has always held that establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East can contribute to relaxing tensions in that region and giving impetus to resolving the Middle East issue. Therefore, China has given clear support to the proposition of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East ever since the proposition was first made.
The Security Council of the United Nations has adopted several resolutions calling for establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, which China has always supported by voting in favour of them. Meanwhile, China has also worked at the bilateral level to actively promote the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East. At high-level meetings between the Chinese leaders and the leaders of various countries in the Middle East, China has commended the efforts made by all countries in establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region and has consistently adhered to its clear position of supporting the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone there. Together with the rest of the international community, China is ready to continue making its efforts and contributing to the achievement of peace in the Middle East and an early establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region.
2. Pursuant to article III of the Treaty, Morocco concluded a safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1975, even though it has no nuclear capability.
3. Morocco was one of the first countries to call for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, because it considers the existence of such a zone to be not only a necessary measure to prevent proliferation and insecurity in the region but also an international goal and a factor for building global peace and security.
4. The Kingdom of Morocco has consistently supported the adoption by the General Assembly of the United Nations of the two resolutions entitled “ Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East” (A/RES/39/54) and “The risk of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East” (A/RES/52/41).
5. Morocco has signed the Treaty on the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa (Pelindaba Treaty) and strongly supports the establishment of such zones where they do not exist.
6. Within the League of Arab States, Morocco is taking part in the development of technical and legal mechanisms for establishing a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.
7. Within IAEA, Morocco is actively promoting the application of the Agency’s safeguards regime throughout the Middle East region, considering it to be an international security measure which must involve all States.
8. Morocco encourages all States in the Middle East region, including Israel, to conclude general safeguards agreements with IAEA, as an important step towards creating a climate of confidence among the States of the region and a measure preliminary to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East.
9. Morocco has contributed to promoting confidence-building measures between the States parties to the conflict in the Middle East, inter alia, by taking part in the activities of the multilateral working group responsible for regional security and disarmament issues in the Middle East.
10. The establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East region requires that the only State in the region that is not yet a party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, namely Israel, should be able to accede to it and place its nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards regime.
11. The Kingdom of Morocco is taking sustained action at both the regional and the international level to make all States of the region aware of the need to commit themselves to the establishment of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.
12. The Kingdom of Morocco continues to reiterate its call to the nuclear Powers, particularly the depositaries of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the international community and the international organizations to assume their respective responsibilities with regard to the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East region.
1. After the 2000 Review Conference, during the fifty-fifth and fifty-sixth sessions of the United Nations General Assembly, Sweden voted in favour of the resolution calling for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East (resolutions 55/30 and 56/21). This resolution calls upon all countries of the region that have not done so, pending the establishment of the zone, to agree to place their nuclear activities under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.
2. Sweden also voted in favour of the resolution entitled “The risk of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East” (resolutions 55/36 and 56/27). This resolution reaffirms the importance of Israel’s accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the placement of all its nuclear facilities under comprehensive IAEA safeguards, in realizing the goal of universal adherence to the Treaty in the Middle East.
Security Council resolution 687 (1991), and in particular paragraph 14
3. In 1991, the Security Council set up a Special Commission to investigate the extensive Iraqi programmes on weapons of mass destruction. This task is now taken over by the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) as provided for in Security Council resolution 1284 (1999). In 1999, the Secretary-General of the United Nations appointed Dr. Hans Blix of Sweden to be the Commission’s Executive Chairman.
The Conference on Disarmament
4. In February 2002, the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ms. Anna Lindh, made a statement in the Conference on Disarmament and called upon all States remaining outside the Non-Proliferation Treaty to accede to the Treaty as non-nuclear-weapon States and to place their facilities under comprehensive safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency.
5. The Foreign Minister also stated that Iraq has not fulfilled its obligations and still refuses to allow UNMOVIC access. Ms. Lindh called upon Iraq to comply with its obligations under the Charter of the United Nations and resolution 1284 (1999) to allow the international community to verify that there are no weapons of mass destruction in the country. She went on to state that the Additional Protocol to the IAEA Safeguards Agreement had been developed as a reaction to the clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq. It is a major accomplishment and will help build trust that all States comply with their non-proliferation commitments. Sweden has completed the ratification procedure and the Protocol will enter into force as soon as the remaining few European Union countries have ratified as planned. Ms. Lindh called upon all States to conclude additional protocol agreements with IAEA.
Middle East peace process
6. Sweden has made several efforts to promote the Middle East peace process. In spring 2000, Sweden hosted talks between the parties concerning final status issues. The results were later used in the Camp David negotiations and in the Taba negotiations. During the Swedish Presidency of the European Union in spring 2001, promoting peace in the Middle East was a priority. The Swedish Prime Minister has visited the region and the Swedish Foreign Minister has visited the region twice, in close coordination with the European Union.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
2. One of our greatest concerns in the region is Iraq’s long-standing failure to comply with its United Nations disarmament and monitoring obligations and cooperate with inspectors of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and IAEA. The United Kingdom will remain at the forefront of international efforts to secure full, accurate disclosures of Iraq’s illicit ballistic missile, nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programmes. We believe that the international community cannot afford to ignore this threat. Rigorous United Nations inspections would give the international community welcome assurance that Iraq’s programmes no longer pose a threat to regional and global security.
3. The United Kingdom has also taken steps with other countries in the region to establish the conditions for a zone free of weapons of mass destruction. Together with our European Union partners, we have carried out extensive lobbying activity to secure adherence by States in the Middle East to key non-proliferation agreements. Since the last Review Conference of the Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, we have lobbied States in the region on the question of ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the IAEA Additional Protocol.
4. We also recognize the impact that the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians has on international efforts to create a weapons-of-mass-destruction-free zone in the region. The United Kingdom is committed to efforts to move the Middle East peace process forward. We are actively engaged in efforts to end the violence, build confidence and resume talks based on Security Council resolutions 242 (1967), 338 (1973) and 1397 (2002) and the principle of “land for peace”.