The price and demand for bread did not fluctuate significantly during the conflict. The price of bread remained stable before, during and after the conflict and price controls are in place by local authorities. All 47 bakeries in the Gaza Strip have returned to full functioning capacity, although there were reported concerns about the restoration of adequate supplies of cooking gas, spare parts and regular electricity service.
While slight shortages were experienced during the conflict for certain fresh foods (some vegetables, dairy products, eggs) food commodities supplies have returned to pre-conflict levels, with no shortages reported and no difficulties to procure the commodities from wholesalers. The market is connected and working well, with all items (food and non food) available in all governorates at the same price.
Farmers whose greenhouse or farm land was damaged are at risk of missing the season to grow vegetables and lose their income for the season. Those with partially damaged animal farms are under threat of losing more livestock due to the cold weather. Immediate reconstruction of the completely damaged and partially damaged agricultural assets including green houses, irrigation networks, water wells, and animal sheds is required.