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United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG)
United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG)
30 September 2009
HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL HOLDS GENERAL DEBATES ON SITUATION IN PALESTINE AND OCCUPIED ARAB TERRITORIES, HUMAN RIGHTS BODIES AND VIENNA DECLARATION
30 September 2009
The Human Rights Council this morning held general debates on the human rights situation in Palestine and other Occupied Arab Territories, on human rights bodies and mechanisms, and on follow-up and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.
In the general debate on the human rights situation in Palestine and other Occupied Arab Territories, speakers said that the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict provided evidence that serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, perhaps amounting to war crimes and even crimes against humanity, were committed by both sides during the conflict. This required a full and impartial investigation, and there had to be full accountability for any serious violations of international law. The United Nations Fact-Finding Mission had done its best to execute what was a biased mandate in an even-handed way, and the report held both sides responsible.
The Palestinian conflict was at the heart of the situation in the Middle East, and there had to be a Palestine State. A solution for the Palestinian refugees also had to be found. One speaker said the root cause of the Gaza tragedy was the 1988 Hamas Charter, which was a Charter that called for Jews to be killed and Israel to be eliminated. The High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Gaza Fact-Finding Mission, and the Human Rights Council were urged to unequivocally condemn the Genocidal Hamas Charter which was a defamation of religion as well as a blueprint for murder.
Speaking in the general debate on human rights situations in Palestine and other Occupied Arab Territories were Ireland, New Zealand, Lebanon, Iceland, Maldives, United Arab Emirates and League of Arab States.
The following non-governmental organizations also took the floor: Mouvement contre le Racisme et pour l’Amitié entre les Peuples, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, International Federation of Human Rights Leagues, Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America, International Human Rights Commission, International Commission of Jurists, World Union for Progressive Judaism, Centre Europe Tier Monde, North-South XXI, Defence for Children International, Hudson Institute, International Educational Development, Union of Arab Jurists, Maryam Ghasemi Educational Institute for the Support of Children, Institute for Women’s Studies and Research, Organization for Defending Victims of Violence, Association of World Citizens, United Nations Watch and Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies.
The presentation of the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict (A/HRC/12/48) can be found in press release HRC/09/118 of 29 September and the presentation of the report of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (A/HRC/12/37) on the same topic can be found in press release HRC/09/119 of 29 September.
In the general debate on human rights bodies and mechanisms, speakers said that the draft Declaration on Human Rights Training and Education should adopt a rights-based approach to education and training, and that the aspect of gender equality and participation of women should also be included in the drafting process. There was a necessity to look at the question of indigenous people in a structural approach. Any acts undermining these people affected the socio-cultural environment. With each language that died out, a whole culture died out with it. It was important for the international community to provide comprehensive and sustainable development for indigenous people. The study of the Expert Mechanism on Indigenous Peoples on the lessons learned and challenges remaining on indigenous peoples' rights to education was very important and useful, and would help States to implement this right fully, which was a cornerstone for development in all societies. The Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was in need of additional resources to ensure that priority concerns regarding the elimination of racism against indigenous peoples and recognition and exercise of the rights of indigenous peoples, along with sound advice on the ways to address these matters, were brought to the attention of the Human Rights Council.
Speaking in the general debate on human rights bodies and mechanisms were International Organization for the Rights of Education and the Freedom of Education, Indian Council of South America, North South XXI, Liberation, International Working Group for Indigenous Rights, International Club for Peace and Research, World Peace Council, Interfaith International, Comision Juridica para el Autodesarrollo de los Pueblos Originarios Andinos, Foundation for Aboriginal and Islander Research Action, Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, Amnesty International, and Association of World Citizens.
The presentation of the report of the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the first part of the general debate on human rights bodies and mechanisms can be found in press release HRC/09/117 of 28 September.
In the general debate on follow-up and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, speakers said it was essential for the Human Rights Council to remain permanently cognizant of the ever resonant provision of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action which stated that all human rights were universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. As they debated in the Council’s room, millions of people continued to wallow in poverty. Poverty alleviation should become the fundamental theme of the Council. In practice, many people continued to be denied enjoyment of their rights and fundamental freedoms. Human rights defenders frequently pursued their struggle while risking their own lives and the lives and well-being of their families. The international community was facing a severe challenge in handling the climate crisis, while at the same time coping with one of the most serious economic crises in decades. It was crucial that the difficulties these challenges presented were not used as a pretext to lessen commitment to fulfilling human rights obligations. All States had the obligation to protect and promote all human rights and fundamental freedoms, regardless of their political or economic systems and regardless of their diverse historical, cultural and religious experiences. The international community must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner. Governments all over the world needed to do more to improve the situation of human rights defenders. There was a need to develop and act on policies to enhance the support to and protection of human rights defenders, which was essential to realize the vision of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.
Many speakers expressed their opposition to the draft resolution on traditional values, which was being presented under this agenda item, saying it was ironic since the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action actually imposed upon States a positive obligation to work towards the elimination of the harmful effects of certain traditional or customary practices, cultural prejudices and religious extremism? It was said that the draft resolution did nothing to enhance respect for human rights, but achieved quite the opposite. It was divisive; it was polarising; and it sought to affirm a concept often used to justify human rights violations. This draft resolution did not acknowledge that many harmful practices, which constituted human rights violations, were justified by invoking traditional values. It was feared that this draft resolution would be the start of an initiative that would undermine international human rights standards.
Speaking in the general debate on follow-up and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action were Nigeria on behalf of the African Group, Sweden on behalf of the European Union, Thailand on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Uruguay on behalf of the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR), Slovenia, Norway, Russian Federation, United States, Turkey and Belarus.
The following non-governmental organizations also took the floor: International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions, Asian Forum for Human Rights, Center for Women’s Global Leadership, Association for World Education, Mouvement Contre le Racisme et pour l’Amitié entre les Peuples, Human Rights Watch, United Nations Watch, Amnesty International, International Humanist and Ethical Union, COC Netherlands, Indian Council of Education, European Union for Public Relations, International Club for Peace Research, International Institute for Non-Aligned Studies, International Commission of Jurists, Action Canada for Population and Development, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Universal Esperanto Association, and International Service for Human Rights.
Speaking in right of reply were Sri Lanka, Sudan and Iran.
The Council today is meeting in three back-to-back meetings from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. In its midday meeting, it will hear the presentation of the report of the Special Rapporteur on racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related forms of intolerance, and then hold a general debate on this agenda item.
General Debate on Human Rights Situation in Palestine and Other Occupied Arab Territories
MICHEAL TIERNEY (Ireland) said the background to the discussions at the current session was a serious and sustained effort to move the Middle East peace process on to the final stage negotiations to reach an o0verall settlement, based on the principles already set out in the Quartet Roadmap, the Arab Peace Plan, and other documents. The international community should do everything it could to support that effort. The report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict was based on extensive examinations of witnesses and submissions, and it was very regrettable that the Israeli authorities did not cooperate with the Mission. The report required very careful study: on initial examination, its findings were deeply disturbing, providing evidence that serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, perhaps amounting to war crimes and even crimes against humanity, were committed by both sides during the conflict. This required a full and impartial investigation, and there had to be full accountability for any serious violations of international law. The right to self defence, claimed by both sides, did not negate all other rights. It would be for the Human Rights Council in the first instance to consider the findings and implications of the report. Both parties should respond seriously and comprehensively to the findings of the report by investigating all allegations of possible crimes in a manner which satisfied international standards, transparently, and in such a way as to inspire confidence.
WENDY HINTON (New Zealand) said that following the hostilities in Gaza and southern Israel, New Zealand had supported the call for an impartial inquiry into the serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law that were alleged to have occurred during the conflict. The United Nations Fact-Finding Mission had done its best to execute what was a biased mandate in an even-handed way, and the report held both sides responsible. While New Zealand recognized Israel’s right to defend itself, it must do so in a way that avoided harm to civilians. At the same time, New Zealand condemned Hamas’ indiscriminate rocket attacks against Israeli civilians, and encouraged the immediate release of soldier Gilad Shalit. The report’s findings confirmed for New Zealand its commitment to a peaceful, negotiated two-State solution to the Arab-Israeli dispute. New Zealand welcomed therefore recent positive movements towards the renewal of peace negotiations and encouraged all sides to pursue a path of peace, in word and action, in order to bring an end to the conflict.
NAJLA RIACHI ASSAKER (Lebanon) said that the High Commissioner’s report on the human rights situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories met with Lebanon’s agreement. When reading the report, Lebanon could only be concerned when faced with the human rights violations committed by Israel in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Lebanon agreed with the gravity of the blockade of the Gaza Strip mentioned in the report. The Palestinian conflict was at the heart of the situation in the Middle East. Lebanon believed that peace was the only strategy overall; this could only be possible if Israel retreated to its 1967 borders. There had to be a Palestine State and a solution for the Palestinian refugees had to be found.
VETURLIDI THOR STEFANSSON (Iceland) said the deteriorating humanitarian and human rights situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory remained of grave concern and threatened stability beyond the region; at the same time the international community had the inescapable collective responsibility to ensure respect for human rights and humanitarian law. Iceland remained deeply concerned by the continued house demolitions, evictions and settlement activities in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, and demanded an immediate end to settlements and impunity. There could be no lasting peace without respect for human rights and without accountability for human rights violations, and all allegations of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights violations during the Gaza military operations must be investigated by credible, independent and transparent accountability mechanisms, taking fully into account international standards on the process of law. Iceland called for a durable solution to the Gaza crisis that addressed Israel's legitimate security concerns. It was imperative that every effort be made to bring the human tragedy in the Occupied Palestinian Territories to an end: this could be done only through negotiations and mediation; the international community must step up pressure on both sides.
SHAZRA ABDUL SATTAR (Maldives) said that the Maldives welcomed the report of the Fact-Finding Mission and the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The Maldives strongly supported the right of the people of Palestine to freely determine their own political and economic system and also supported the right of the people of Israel to live in peace and security. The Maldives agreed that the clear and manifest violations of human rights and humanitarian law that had occurred in Gaza did warrant careful and verifiable scrutiny; that accountability must be established; and that justice must be pursued. The Maldives therefore supported the recommendation, contained in the Goldstone report, that all alleged violations by both sides in the conflict be independently investigated and that those investigations, together with any subsequent prosecution, were monitored by the Security Council. The Maldives strongly believed that a negotiated outcome was the only way to ensure long-term peace, security and stability in the region and therefore called for a final, just and comprehensive settlement with the realization of two States, Israel and Palestine, living side-by-side in peace and within secure and recognized borders.
SAEED AL HABSI (United Arab Emirates) welcomed the report of the High Commissioner and expressed appreciation for the efforts made by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to monitor human rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The occupying forces had violated basic principles of humanitarian law, particularly the Geneva Fourth Convention, during its military operation in Gaza. It had not differentiated between civilians and combatants. It had targeted hospitals and schools, factories, businesses and mosques according to the report of the High Commissioner. The United Arab Emirates called on Israel to abide by its international obligations according to international humanitarian law in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Israel rejected all resolutions of the United Nations bodies.
YOUCEF TILIOUANT (League of Arab States) said the publication of the report of the High Commissioner on the situation in Palestine and the Occupied Palestinian Territories was welcomed - the report was published at the same time as the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict, which looked into events in Gaza and detailed flagrant human rights violations during the war in Gaza, including violations of the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention on defending civilians in times of war. Israel had used internationally banned weapons against defenceless innocents including women and children, leaving hundreds wounded and disabled. Israel encircled Gaza by sea, by air, by land, violating international human rights legislation, and despite all the resolutions and the requests to bring the perpetrators of such violations to justice, nothing had been done. The report also accused Palestinians as though the victims were also violators. All of these violations were tantamount to crimes of war. The violations of human rights in economic terms should also be considered. The Israel occupation should be ended, in the Syrian Golan and Palestine, and this was a pre-requirement to ensure that legitimacy triumphed and the Palestinians were able to enjoy their rights.
GIANFRANCO FATTORINI, of Movement against Racism and for Friendship among Peoples, said that the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict was valuable because it presented the violations of fundamental liberties committed by all parties to the conflict. Mouvement contre le Racisme et pour l’Amitié entre les Peuples also thanked the High Commissioner for the analysis contained in her report, which was all the more important as it reminded that the obligations in the area of human rights were permanent and bound Israel as much as the Palestinian Authority. The lack of cooperation of the Israeli Government was also deplored and the blockades against the Gaza Strip as well as the wall of shame, a racist political instrument, condemned. Further, the last Gaza conflict should not make the international community forget the other arms of Israeli politics; the colonization of the occupied territories.
DAGMAR HOLSCHER, of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, said that women were and still are particularly affected by the Gaza crisis as they were facing poverty, psychological distress and unemployment. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom therefore welcomed the recommendations of the Mission urging to give special attention to the situation of women when addressing the consequences of Operation Cast Lead. It further called on the Council to endorse all recommendations made in the report and to make arrangements for their successful implementation. The League urged the Security Council to require Israel and Palestinian authorities to undertake independent examinations of the violations of human rights and humanitarian law which had been mentioned in the report. It urged the Council to promote the respect for the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, including the establishment of an independent Palestinian State.
SAMUEL DANSETTE, of International Federation of Human Rights Leagues, reiterated their support to the recommendations of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict. It had to be acknowledged that the Mission had been conducted with professionalism and impartiality. Israel should have fully cooperated with the Mission. The legal obligation to investigate human rights and international humanitarian law violations lay primarily with the domestic authority, but if they failed to do so, international instruments had to step in. The Council should endorse the recommendations of the report and the Secretary-General should bring the report to the attention of the Security Council.
HANNAH SHABATHAI, of Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America, said that the Hadassah Medical Organization in Jerusalem was a testimony to Israel’s commitment to standards of compassion, respect for human rights and dignity of all human beings, irrespective of race of religion. Within a remarkable oasis of peace, this sophisticated medical and humanitarian institution was unique in the entire Middle East. There, medicine acted as a bridge to peace. Palestinian and Israeli doctors worked closely as friends and patients were treated regardless of who they were. The organization had been nominated in 2005 for the Nobel Peace Prize. Sadly, after the Gaza war, the Palestinian Authority had decided to cease payment for treatment of its citizens in any Israeli hospital. But Hadassah continued to extend services to Palestinians.
SAMIR ABDALLA, of Islamic Human Rights Commission, said the establishment of the Fact-Finding Mission was commendable, and many of the recommendations therein reflected the concerns of the Commission, as the sufferings of the Palestinian people continued to increase daily. The rights of the Palestinian people were not recognised by Israel. Israeli soldiers failed to distinguish between civilians and combatants, and were thus responsible for war crimes and possible crimes against humanity. The situation in Palestine remained the longest unresolved issue on the United Nations agenda. Israel should be held accountable for the violation of the laws of war, and failure to do so would raise questions on the integrity of international justice and of the Council itself.
LUKAS MACHON, of International Commission of Jurists, said the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict and the report of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights were objective and impartial, assessing the violations of international law, including war crimes and crimes against humanity. The time for accountability had come. It was the duty of every State and the international community to stop condoning impunity, and prepare the ground for prosecution of military leaders and others responsible for crimes of war. A collective Expert Mechanism should be established to consider the implementation of the recommendations and report back to the Council in six months.
DAVID LITTMAN, of World Union for Progressive Judaism, said that it was remarkable that in the over 400 pages of the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict, and that of the High Commissioner, there was not a single mention of the root cause of the Gaza tragedy – namely, the 1988 Hamas Charter, which was a Charter that called for Jews to be killed and Israel to be eliminated. Iran further provided military and economic support for Hamas, in line with its Charter’s aims, and with President Ahmadinejad’s repeated calls for Israel to be wiped off the map. The World Union for Progressive Judaism solemnly called on the High Commissioner, the Gaza Fact-Finding Mission, and this Human Rights Council, to act now by unequivocally condemning the Genocidal Hamas Charter which was a defamation of religion as well as a blueprint for murder. It also called on the newly elected Director-General of the United Nations Economic, Social and Cultural Organization to insist on the replacement of this well-documented culture of hate and death in schools and television by United Nations human rights education in reality – not simply as “relayed to the Mission”.
MALIK OZDEN, of Europe-Third World Centre, in a joint statement with World Federation of Trade Unions, said that the Human Rights Council had yesterday heard the presentation of two major reports on the Gaza conflict. These two reports had established the primary responsibility of the authorities of Israel for violations. Israel did not keep its agreement with Hamas and its army had committed war crimes, for which Centre Europe Tier Monde demanded a judicial persecution of those responsible. Israel also continued its policy of seizure and destruction of the property of Palestinian people. As had been rightly stressed by the High Commissioner for Human Rights, there could be no lasting peace without respect for human rights.
ROBERT HARVEN, of North-South XXI, said that North-South XXI appreciated the quality of the Fact-Finding Mission’s report. They had however some doubts over the international organizations’ capacity to take binding decisions. As Mandela had put it, it was the oppressor who decided the form of the fight. International law and the United Nations resolutions were the guiding principles to solve the issue. The adoption of the report by the Council would prove to be a tool to raise international awareness and lead those organizations that had binding power to lift the blockade of Gaza.
Ms. L. VAN HAREN, of Defence for Children International, welcomed the references in the report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for children and armed conflict to some of the child rights violations that were perpetrated during the recent Israeli military offensive in Gaza. At least 352 of the confirmed fatalities had been children, 101 of whom had been less than eight years of age. Educational facilities appeared to have been directly targeted. Eighteen schools had been completely destroyed. Between January and March 2009, arbitrary detention of children had increased.
MICHAEL HASSEL, of Hudson Institute, said as the Council returned time and time again to the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Members preferred to take a backward look to the hostilities - the positive efforts currently deployed by the United States to bring the two sides together to negotiate an agreement on the fundamental issues were hardly ever discussed in the Council. Similarly unnoticed in this Council was the improvement of the security situation on the West Bank, which in turn had visibly improved the economic performance of that area to the point that the International Monetary Fund predicted a rate of growth of seven per cent this year. The tone of the report of the High Commissioner appeared to reflect the bias prevalent in the Council, rather than maintaining a position of even-handedness, as behoved the United Nations Secretariat.
The Representative of International Educational Development, said the Council should concern itself with allegations against States that did not have independent judiciaries, internal control mechanisms, and were undemocratic. Israel was a democracy that applied the rule of law. The mandate and scope of the investigation was flawed from the outset, and the resolution mandating the Mission was not neutral. At least one member of the Mission was openly biased and the report contained inappropriate language. With this background, it was hardly surprising that the Mission contained many serious errors, both in fact and in law, and endorsed rumours without independent investigation, even rumours which eyewitness accounts had established to be false. The Mission had judged Israel to violate a standard that simply did not exist in international law, that of disproportionate response. The Council should respect the autonomy and independence of Israel's judiciary. This investigation should be closed, and the Council should focus on upholding established principles of international law and human rights, rather than fomenting such a purely political debate.
ELIAS KHOURI, of Union of Arab Jurists, said that yesterday the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict had submitted its report which dealt with the crimes committed by the Israeli occupation forces in Gaza in a professional and objective manner. The report also found that the Israeli military operation targeted Palestinians without distinguishing between civilian and armed people. Such a violation of international humanitarian law constituted war crimes and crimes against humanity, which put the international community before a test. These crimes were a continuation of other crimes Israel had committed, and the international community remained silent on this issue. The Union of Arab Jurists asserted that it was necessary to bring the authors of such crimes to the International Criminal Court.
ESMAEIL BASSIR ZADEH, of Maryam Ghasemi Educational Charity Institute, said that what was happening in Gaza was a violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention. It was well known that children were the real, innocent victims of conflicts such as that in Gaza. The Maryam Ghasemi Educational Institute for the Support of Children called on all proponents of peace to condemn all violations that had been committed against children, and also called on all Nations and everybody to compel Israel to respect the rights of children. In these times of modernity, how could the international community remain indifferent before the crimes in Gaza, the Maryam Ghasemi Educational Institute for the Support of Children asked, also wondering why it was women and children that suffered most from this conflict.
FARZANE MOSTOFIFAR, of Institute for Women’s Studies and Research, said that the thing that set the Gaza conflict apart from other conflicts was the failure to adhere to international human rights and humanitarian law principles. Unconventional weapons had been used openly and public buildings had been destroyed indiscriminately. The laws on armed conflict were another instance that had not been observed. Israel did not observe the Geneva Conventions and their Protocols. The follow-up of the recommendations by the Fact-Finding Mission and any efforts to raise these issues and concerns at the United Nations General Assembly was not an unreasonable expectation they had from the Council.
MAHMOUDREZA GOLSHANPAZHOOH, of the Organization for Defending Victims of Violence, commended the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict. Unfortunately, but not surprisingly, possible war crimes against humanity, and numerous evidence indicating serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law by Israeli army were some of the subjects which had been repeatedly mentioned in the report. What could be logically deducted from the destruction of food supplies installations, water sanitation systems and residential houses? Alongside these unjustifiable acts, there were also different violations arising from Israeli treatment of Palestinians in the West Bank.
GENEVIEVE JOURDAN, of Association of World Citizens, said in the West Bank, the density of the population was very high, with 3,800 people per square kilometre, with concomitant density of suffering. The Palestinian people continued to face a general denial of human rights and food rights, with no resources and a heightened dependency on humanitarian aid, as well as facing drought and armed conflict. Three quarters of agricultural land had not been irrigated for over a year. There was minimal access to drinking water, the quality of which was below World Health Organization standards and even considered dangerous. People were deprived of movement. There was pressure on essential services. How could the international community promote the respect that it ought to bring to the Palestinian people and bring about the establishment of an independent State, the speaker asked - peace should be peaceful and look to the future, and that was a task all should strive for together.
BETHANY SINGER-BAEFSKY, of United Nations Watch, said during the debates on the Goldstone report, much was heard on the need for justice, accountability and transparency - and yet, this item, the human rights situation in Palestine and other Occupied Arab Territories, was the only country-specific item on the Council's agenda. Under the Council's related permanent investigation, Israel's actions were presumed to be violations. This was not justice. The chief premise of reform of the Commission was to remove the bias, namely this agenda item, however, the Council had turned a blind eye to recent massacres in Iran and China, focusing only on this agenda item, singling out one specific human rights item, ignoring the range of human rights violations throughout the world.
JEREMIE SMITH, of Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, said that the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict had been characterized by a balanced approach. The impunity that Israel and some Palestinian armed groups had enjoyed must be addressed and groups that had been holding their own populations hostage to brutal actions needed to be held to accountability. Further, the acceptance or rejection of the report of the Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict had become a factor on which the future credibility of this Council would largely depend. The Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies called on each delegate to communicate the real dangers of impunity to their capitals to ensure that their Governments did not stand on the sides of those that tolerated impunity.