Follow UNISPAL Twitter RSS
After the close of the session, collated sets of fascicles will be Placed on sale for the general public.
AGENDA ITEM 5
Questions considered by the Security Council at its 838th meeting on 7 August 1958 (continued)
129. My Government rejoices in the fact that the draft resolution makes use of the machinery of the United Nations, of which it has always been a staunch supporter. It is pleased to see in this action, the credit for which belongs to the Arab delegations, the beginning of a process which should conduce to the final result which the Belgian people, it is certain, sincerely desire.
130. My Government will be happy to be among those voting for the draft resolution.
131. Mr. URQUIA (El Salvador) (translated from Spanish) : In the opinion of my delegation, two important conclusions are to be drawn from this discussion of the Middle East crisis, which was the reason for calling this emergency special session of the General Assembly. The first is that all the States represented here have once more unequivocally reaffirmed the right of self-determination of peoples and the principle of non-intervention by one State in the affairs of another. The second is that, in an extraordinarily complex and difficult situation, the General Assembly is endeavouring to prepare the way for a lasting solution based on a productive spirit of harmony and understanding among those directly involved in the present situation in the Middle East.
132. I say this because, as we know, in the atmosphere of moderation and good sense which has fortunately prevailed in our discussions no voice has been raised to dispute or deny or question the raison d'etre of Arab nationalism or the right of the Arabs to adopt for themselves the political system and form of government best suited to their traditions and customs and to their aspirations and characteristics, provided that in the exercise of that legitimate right they do not resort to force or violence and do not harm or jeopardize the existence of other peoples who have an equal right to establish themselves and develop freely within the international community.
133. What unquestionably does arouse disagreement and disapproval on the part of States not involved in the crisis in that area is the possibility that unlawful methods may be restored to, methods which are prohibited by the United Nations Charter, as is any form of direct or indirect aggression or illegal intervention for the purpose of realizing nationalistic aspirations, however justified and praiseworthy those aspirations may be in themselves.
134. This form of intervention or aggression gives rise to extremely serious situations, particularly when behind it there may or in fact does lie a very real danger of a war the consequences of which would be catastrophic, for in these times in which we live a tremendous gulf separates the most powerful States of the world, which have in their hands and can decide at will the destiny of mankind.
135. There has been discussion here of illegal intervention not only in relation to the central and primary item which the Assembly has before it, namely, the dispute between certain Arab States, but also in relation to an event which has taken place as a consequence of that dispute : the introduction of foreign military forces into Lebanon and Jordan. It has been interesting to note, however, that the majority of the speakers have kept themselves above the battle and maintained admirable calm in referring to both these matters and have refrained from either condemning or condoning the conduct of any particular Government in the present situation. To judge by the attitude of many delegations, it is the consensus that, in view of the very unusual. circumstances surrounding this problem, it would not be advisable for the General Assembly to pass a categorical judgement.
136. This, in our view, is an advantage because it does nothing to aggravate the present situation or to make more difficult the restoration of normal conditions in the area. This in turn produces another very noteworthy advantage. This is that as the General Assembly has not passed judgement concerning the events which it is examining, no precedent can later be invoked, and what has been said here cannot be held up as a doctrine or as an internationally recognized principle explaining or justifying such events.
137. The change which has taken place since yesterday with regard to the draft resolutions before us makes it unnecessary for me to refer to those which the Assembly had under consideration for several days. The new draft submitted this afternoon by the ten Arab delegations incorporates on the whole the ideas and principles already embodied in the seven-Power draft submitted by Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Liberia, Norway, Panama and Paraguay and also includes important references to the international ties and commitments which link the Arab countries. All this, together with the fact that the draft is the result of an agreement between those countries, gives us reason to hope that it will be unanimously adopted and that the mission which it entrusts to the Secretary-General will be productive in the sense that he will, in consultation with the Governments concerned and in accordance with the United Nations Charter, proceed forthwith to make such practical arrangements as will adequately help in upholding the purposes and principles of the Charter in relation to Lebanon and Jordan in the present circumstances and thereby facilitate the early withdrawal of the foreign troops from the two countries.
138. An equally encouraging feature of the draft resolution submitted by the Arab countries is the exhortation to States Members of the United Nations to act strictly in accordance with the principles of mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, of non-aggression, of strict non-interference in each other's internal affairs, and of equal and mutual benefit, and to ensure that their conduct by word and deed conforms to these principles. The same may be said of the re-quest to the Secretary-General to continue his studies now under way and in this context to consult as appropriate with the Arab countries of the Near East with a view to possible assistance regarding an Arab development institution designed to further economic growth in these countries, a request which clearly embodies the most important of the proposals put before this emergency Assembly by the Secretary-General [732nd meeting] and seconded by President Eisenhower [733rd meeting].
139. In conclusion let me say that our delegation welcomes this draft resolution and will vote in favour of it, because it is convinced that if the resolution is applied and carried out in good faith, as is to be expected, it can bring incalculable benefits to the area about which so much has been said and can serve the peace and well-being of the world as a whole.
140. Mr. VIDIC (Yugoslavia) : After ten days of a generally constructive debate, and after many meritorious efforts towards an agreed solution, the Assembly now has before it a draft resolution submitted by the parties most directly concerned - by the delegations of all the Arab States. This is a heartening conclusion to this emergency special session.
141. We have before us a solution which meets the most urgent requirements of the situation which we have been convened to consider by providing for the removal of the immediate causes of the present tension, and accurately reflects the general consensus which has emerged from our deliberations.
142. In giving its wholehearted support to the draft resolution submitted by the Arab delegations, as I am confident it will, the Assembly will end on a note of confidence and of hope. It will indeed be able to assert that its efforts have not been in vain. It will have shown a salutary awareness of the gravity of the problem with which it was confronted, and probably come out with a clearer grasp of the essentials of that problem. By its efforts the General Assembly has helped create conditions in which the Arab delegations have now come forward with their own answer to the problem confronting us, and thus, in their turn, contributed to an improved international climate.
143. Much still remains to be done. Many arduous efforts still lie ahead. Many difficulties, largely the legacy of past errors, must still be overcome. There is strong reason to hope, however, that we have accomplished a step - a significant step-in the right direction.
144. Mr. DAVID (Czechoslovakia) (translated front Russian) As the Czechoslovak delegation pointed out in its statement during the general debate [735th meeting], the armed intervention of United States and United Kingdom forces in Lebanon and Jordan has created in the Near and Middle East a danger point which has brought the peoples of the world face to face with the threat of military conflict. Accordingly, the Czechoslovak delegation, together with other delegations, has requested that the emergency special session of the General Assembly should take effective measures without delay to avert this threat. In this connexion, the Czechoslovak delegation urged the adoption of the draft resolution submitted by the USSR delegation, which called for the immediate withdrawal of the interventionist troops from Lebanon and Jordan, as a realistic and effective method of settling the dangerous situation in the Near and Middle East.
145. As the course of the general debate has shown, this appeal has been widely echoed and supported by the majority of delegations to this session, which realized the extent of the threat to peace that has arisen in the Near and Middle East as a result of United States and United Kingdom intervention in Lebanon and Jordan. Only a small group of delegations closely connected with the United States and the United Kingdom and the interventionists themselves have attempted, by means of various manoeuvres, to divert the attention of world public opinion and of this session from the solution of its main task, which is the immediate withdrawal of the interventionist forces of the United States and the United Kingdom from Lebanon and Jordan.
146. But the attempts of the United States and the United Kingdom to justify their intervention in Lebanon and Jordan were unsuccessful, owing to the rebuff they received from the overwhelming majority of delegations at this session, which called for the withdrawal of foreign forces from Lebanon and Jordan.
147. The demand that the interventionist forces should be withdrawn from both these countries has now been formulated in another draft resolution, submitted by the Arab States. Although this proposal has certain shortcomings, the Czechoslovak delegation will vote for it, in the hope that the proposed activities of the Secretary-General will be successful, that the interventionist forces of the United States and the United Kingdom will be withdrawn from Lebanon and Jordan at an early date and that the armed intervention of the United States and the United Kingdom will thus be brought to an end.
148. The statements of the majority of delegations during this emergency special session have confirmed that colonialism is doomed to extinction and that there is no force in the world which can arrest the rapid disintegration of the imperialist colonial system or suppress the struggle of the colonial and dependent peoples for their freedom and independence. Until the imperialists take this fact into account and until they desist from their shameless interference in the domestic affairs of the countries of the Arab East, apply the principles of peaceful co-existence to these countries and deal with them on a footing of equality, new threats to peace and security in the Near and Middle East and throughout the world will continue to arise.
149. In the opinion of the Czechoslovak delegation, that is the real reason for the tension in the Near and Middle East, which the Western Powers have not succeeded in masking by their references to "indirect aggression" and to the United Nations Charter, or by any of the other manoeuvres which they have attempted to execute.
150. We would be concealing the true state of affairs if we were to assert that this emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly has fully met all the expectations and hopes which the peace-loving peoples of the world, especially the peoples of the countries of the Arab East, had placed in it. Nevertheless, we regard it as a favourable development that the interventionists have not succeeded in justifying their armed intervention in Lebanon and Jordan and that their aggressive action against the Arab countries has been censured, both at this session and by world public opinion at large.
151. The Czechoslovak delegation, therefore, considers that the results of this session of the United Nations General Assembly should be regarded as positive, since they may lead. to a relaxation of international tension in the Near and Middle East and throughout the world.
152. Mr. PALAMAS (Greece) : As the unanimous adoption of the draft resolution sponsored by the ten Arab States is in sight, I wish to join the colleagues who have spoken before me from this rostrum in expressing the deep gratification of the Greek delegation at the happy outcome of our work and deliberations.
153. If the General Assembly at this emergency special session was able to induce the members of the Arab family to stand together and to pave the way to a better understanding and co-operation, it had the satisfaction of a prompt response on their part and it reaped the benefit of the creation of an example of mutual concessions and conciliation establishing a happy precedent. We fervently hope that, following the adoption of this draft resolution, the situation in the Middle East will constantly improve and that peace and security in that area will be consolidated. Our hope is based mainly on the deep confidence we have in our Secretary-General, on the continued wisdom of the Arab States immediately concerned and on the spirit of constructive co-operation displayed by the big Powers directly involved.
154. We think that the example which was set today by our Arab friends shows the way to the solution, in the same spirit, of other problems of interest to the United Nations and of potential danger to the peace and security of the world.
155. Mr. EBAN (Israel): I had extensive opportunity last night [744th meeting] of conveying to the General Assembly the views of the Government of Israel on the problems now lying before this emergency special session. The draft resolution presented by ten delegations [A/3893/Rev.1] encounters certain profound and serious reservations in my Government's mind.
156. A reference is made to an inter-State organization which has unhappily not been universal and comprehensive in the application of its principles to the States of the region as a whole. The history of the past decade is unhappily full of turbulent events and disturbances which would have been avoided if the obligation to strengthen relations between States and to stabilize their links on a basis of respect for mutual sovereignty and integrity had been applied without selectivity and discrimination. The future policy of this organization also arouses concern in my Government's mind.
157. In section I, paragraph 2 of this draft resolution, the General Assembly
159. We believe that when this draft resolution is adopted its interpretation will be determined not by the particular reservations of any Member State but by the views and principles of the overwhelming majority of our membership. The delegation of Israel has the clear sentiment that the overwhelming majority of the members of the General Assembly will understand by these words that all Member States including all Member States in the Middle East-Arab States and non-Arab States-will fall under the clear applicability of these principles.
160. Notwithstanding the reservations which I have frankly expressed, and fully comprehending the importance of unanimity in international issues of such grave moment and scope, I should like to convey the intention of my delegation, with the reservations which I have expressed, to join its voice among those who will vote for this draft resolution.
161. The PRESIDENT : There are no further speakers on my list, and I shall now request the Assembly to proceed to the vote. I said earlier that it was in my opinion desirable and in the interests of the Assembly that the draft resolution submitted by the ten Arab States Members of the United Nations be put to the vote first. The representatives of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and of Norway, the latter speaking on behalf of co-sponsors, have stated that they would not press for priority in the voting with regard to the draft resolutions submitted by them. Consequently I shall now ask the Assembly to vote on the draft resolution proposed by Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, ,Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Republic and Yemen, which is contained in document A/3893.
The draft resolution was adopted unanimously.
162. The PRESIDENT: In view of this unanimous vote by which the Assembly has adopted the resolution, and in the light of the statements made by the representatives of the Soviet Union and of Norway, to which I have just referred, it does not seem necessary to take a vote on the other draft resolutions which have been submitted.
163. Several representatives wish to explain their votes and I call upon the first of these, the representative of Uruguay.
164. Mr. RODRIGUEZ FABREGAT (Uruguay) (translated from Spanish) : After this very satisfactory vote let me just say two words, which this time will not be three.
165. As has been noted, my delegation cast its vote in favour of the draft resolution submitted by our Arab colleagues at this emergency special session of the General Assembly. Let me make it clear that all the points of principle which my delegation set forth this morning and which in a general sense it expressed with regard to the draft resolution submitted by Norway and with regard to all the provisions of that draft resolution are equally applicable to the draft that has just. been adopted. In particular, the provisions of section I, paragraph 2, embody our viewpoint in that they apply without exception to all the countries of that part of the world, of the Near East, Arab and non-Arab, so that we shall soon be able to celebrate the establishment of peace and solidarity among those peoples to the advantage of one and all.
166. It therefore seems to us that the outlook for peace is favourable, and my delegation hopes that the mission which this Assembly has so rightly entrusted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations will be equally successful.
167. Mr. ESIN (Turkey) : My delegation was happy to support the joint resolution presented by the ten Arab States Members of this Organization.
168. I wish to express our gratification at seeing that a solution to the immediate problems before the Assembly has been found through the common effort of the countries directly concerned.
169. At the beginning of our deliberations the Foreign Minister of my country in his statement to the General Assembly referred to divergencies of a fraternal nature which might temporarily exist among our Arab neighbours and he used in this connexion the following words: "We would have preferred to see these disputes find their solution within the Arab League as has often been the case, thus excluding any interferences from foreign States". [736th meeting, para. 15.]
170. The fact that, in the resolution that has just been adopted unanimously, the General Assembly welcomes the renewed assurances given by the Arab States to observe the provisions of the Pact of the League of Arab States is therefore a matter causing particular satisfaction to my delegation.
171. I should like to add that we are in complete agreement with the principles which are reaffirmed in this resolution and with the methods which are set forth for bringing about a satisfactory solution. For these reasons my delegation has voted in favour of this resolution and hopes that its implementation will strengthen confidence, security and peace, as well as the maintenance of friendly relations among the countries of the area, based on mutual respect for the independence and sovereignty of all.
172. In concluding my remarks, Mr. President, I wish to pay tribute to the wise guidance with which you have conducted our deliberations and which has certainly played a most prominent part in the achievement of this auspicious solution.
173. My delegation also wishes to reiterate its confidence in our Secretary-General, who, we are sure, will fully succeed in his new and important task as he has done in the past.
174. Mr. PICCIONI (Italy): 2/ The resolution upon which we have just been called to vote appears to me to answer the constructive intentions increasingly revealed in this Assembly. It is only appropriate to recognize that tribute for this result should be paid first of all, Mr. President, to you, for it is you who at the beginning of this session expressed the hope that such a constructive spirit would prevail. The Italian delegation is indeed pleased to note that the appeal to all Arab States that I made at the conclusion of my earlier statement [739th meeting] did not go unheeded.
175. We are specially pleased tonight that all Arab States have met and have agreed on a formula that responds to such a general expectation. In the draft resolution we see that some of the essential principles of the Charter of our Organization have been embodied. The general respect for the Charter is an indispensable prerequisite to the peaceful development of international relations. Together with these provisions, freely adopted, we can see reflected in the draft resolution ideas that the Italian Government had upheld even before the convening of this session and that I repeated in my statement to the Assembly on 18 August. I refer specifically to the economic co-operation of the Arab countries of the Near East through the setting up of a regional institution.
176. The words spoken by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Sudan when submitting his draft resolution unquestionably afford encouragement to all of us. Undoubtedly it is, in the first place, up, to those States to decide the form which they wish this co-operation to take. For my own part, I would like to assure Mr. Mahgoub that the Italian Government would view with favour any idea taken in this direction, convinced as we are that this would be the best possible premise for a far-sighted enterprise for the benefit of the populations of the region and for the peaceful evolution of their institutions.
177. The Italian delegation is firmly convinced that concrete deeds such as this would obtain general agreement and support and would demonstrate that the important hopes raised by this Assembly were not unfounded.
178. I wish to conclude my brief remarks with our most sincere wishes to the Secretary-General for the success of his mission of peace and conciliation.
179. The PRESIDENT : Before we turn to our remaining business, may I in my capacity as President express to the delegations my sincere thanks for the co-operation and considerate spirit which they have in a most generous measure displayed in bringing the substantive and greatly significant part of this Assembly's work to the present satisfactory conclusion.
180. It will, I am sure, be a matter throughout the world of general and genuine relief and gratification that by patience and good will, and in full awareness of the difficulties still to be resolved, this Assembly has been able to make such substantial progress in reconciling differences among its members and adopting recommendations capable of attracting unanimous support.
181. Let us all hope with undivided strength, and let none of us waver in the determination to realize that hope, that the deeds - and I emphasize the word "deeds" - which will flow from this draft resolution will help to make more effective in the Middle East the principles of our Charter.
182. May the labours we have just completed build up a better understanding among neighbours and give to the peoples of that great region a stronger promise of security and freedom from fear.
183. May I in conclusion - and I feel I am speaking for the whole Assembly - express my unswerving confidence in the great abilities of our distinguished Secretary-General and wish him well in the discharge of the responsibilities which the Assembly has now entrusted to him.
REPORT OF THE CREDENTIALS COMMITTEE (A/3891)
185. The Credentials Committee was composed of the same members who served during the twelfth General Assembly, and it unanimously adopted the same report as it did at that time.
186. I present the report and ask the President to put it to the vote for the General Assembly's approval.
187. Mr. I.ALL (India) : The delegation of India accepts the report of the Credentials Committee subject to a reservation regarding the credentials of China and also subject to a reservation regarding the report on the validity of the credentials of the representatives of the Government of the Hungarian People's Republic.
188. I do not wish to make any remarks about these matters. Our views on them are well known.
189. Mr. SIK (Hungary) The Credentials Committee has again submitted a report to the General Assembly which makes reservations concerning the mandate of the Hungarian delegation which is entirely legal and in compliance with the stipulations of the Hungarian Constitution, and which was issued in due form according to the formal discussion of this matter in the United Nations.
190. The Hungarian delegation categorically protests against this procedure and the report of the Committee. The Committee's proposal that the General Assembly reach no decision on the credentials of the Hungarian delegation is a completely unjustified attempt to interfere in the domestic affairs of the Hungarian People's Republic. The Hungarian delegation received its mandate from the supreme organ of the Hungarian People's Republic, from the Presidential Council which is vested with the rights of the Head of State, which it has been exercising without interruption since 1953. The present Government of Hungary was also elected by the Presidential Council of the People's Republic. During the events of 1956, and since then, Hungary has continued to maintain diplomatic relations with the majority of the States Members of the United Nations, and none of these diplomatic relations has been severed.
191. Hungary's position internationally is normal in all other respects, and our contacts are continuing to expand. The Hungarian Government is fulfilling its obligations as far as concerns Hungary's membership contribution to the United Nations and other international organizations. Since 1956, Hungary has become a party to a number of international conventions under the aegis of the United Nations.
192. The Hungarian Government is receiving invitations to participate in international conferences. By trying to cast doubt on the Hungarian credentials, although aware of all these facts, the Credentials Committee is overstepping its own terms of reference and is creating a dangerous precedent in the United Nations, particularly with regard to small countries. Support for the Committee in this matter means support for the forces which are trying to spread the cold war by these means.
193. The Hungarian delegation protested against and also voted against the report of the Credentials Committee of the twelfth session of the General Assembly because of the unfounded discriminatory character of the proposal concerning the credentials of the Hungarian delegation.
194. As the Credentials Committee of the emergency special session of the General Assembly has now submitted a similar proposal, the Hungarian delegation is not in a position to accept this report either.
195. Mr. SOBOLEV (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (translated from Russian) : In connexion with consideration of the report of the Credentials Committee, the Soviet Union delegation feels it must once again draw the Assembly's attention to the question of the credentials of the persons occupying China's place in the United Nations General Assembly illegally and in contravention of the Charter.
196. It has long been clear to everyone that these private individuals who occupy China's place in the United Nations in no way represent the great country of China, but are merely agents of a clique of political bankrupts, who are ending their days under the protection of United States forces.
197. Their claims to speak as the representatives of China, whose people threw them out nine years ago, are so obviously absurd that there is no need to dwell on the matter.
198. Under the United Nations Charter, China may be represented in the General Assembly and in other United Nations organs only by representatives appointed by the Government of the People's Republic of China, which is the only lawful Chinese Government.
199. The Chinese people unanimously supports this Government, which was set up as a result of the victory of the national liberation movement. China has never before had a government which so fully represented the interests of the masses.
200. The appearance of the People's Republic of China on the international scene was an important factor in stabilizing the international situation and in strengthening peace and security in the Far East and throughout the world. The tireless efforts of the Chinese Government to apply the principles of peaceful co-existence, which it proclaimed jointly with the Indian Government, have helped it to establish friendly relations with many countries of Asia, Europe and Africa. The number of States maintaining diplomatic relations with the People's Republic China is growing every year. The People's Republic of China also maintains commercial and cultural ties with the overwhelming majority of the countries of the world.
201. In view of these facts, it is particularly scandalous that for nine years the representatives of the People's Republic of China have been deprived of the opportunity to participate in the work of the United Nations. The absence of the representatives of China, a great Power which is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council, cannot fail to undermine the authority and prestige of the United Nations, which is called upon to unite the efforts of all peace-loving peoples in the struggle to establish a stable and lasting peace.
202. The reasons for such an abnormal situation with regard to the representation of China are clear to everyone. The Government of the United States does not conceal the fact that its attitude towards the People's Republic of China is the only obstacle to the restoration of the rightful representation of China in the United Nations. The various procedural tricks and devices used each year by the United States delegation to the United Nations to prevent even the discussion of the question of the representation of China provide eloquent evidence of the absolute unfoundedness of the United States position in this matter.
203. It is time the General Assembly put an end to the practice of subordinating the United Nations to the narrow interests of individual States and abolished the abnormal situation with regard to the representation of China by reinstating the lawful representatives of the People's Republic of China.
204. With regard to the persons occupying China's seat, the Assembly has no grounds for recognizing their credentials as valid, since they represent no one but themselves and have no right to speak as the representatives of China.
205. The other question relating to the report of the Credentials Committee to which the Soviet delegation feels it must draw the Assembly's attention is the Committee's decision, also inspired by the United States, tending to cast doubt on the validity of the credentials issued to the Hungarian People's Republic by its lawful Government.
206. The Soviet delegation has categorically protested and continues to protest against this decision, which is particularly harmful to our Organization, and further poisons the business-like atmosphere which is so necessary for the success of the General Assembly's work.
207. For nearly two years, the United States has imposed upon the General Assembly, in one form or another, illegal decisions, aimed at interference in the domestic affairs of the Hungarian people.
208. These machinations by United States representatives show that that country is unwilling to refrain from attempts to use the United Nations as a cover for its own interference in the domestic affairs of other countries.
209. It is clear to everyone that the provocative hue and cry raised by the United States over the credentials of the Hungarian delegation is yet another manifestation of the subversive activities of the United States against the lawful Government of the Hungarian People's Republic. I need not remind you, in this connexion, that subversive activity and interference in the domestic affairs of other countries are contrary to the United Nations Charter.
210. We feel obliged to draw attention to the fact that the United States Government maintains diplomatic relations with the Government of the Hungarian People's Republic and that these countries are represented by diplomatic missions in each other's capitals. And yet, with no justification whatsoever, the representatives of the United States and of a number of other countries in the United Nations raise the question of the credentials of the Hungarian delegation.
211. This United States position can only be regarded as two-faced. The activities of that country leave no doubt as to who is really using indirect aggression as an instrument of State foreign policy.
212. It is characteristic that neither in the Credentials Committee nor in the General Assembly did anyone in fact dispute the validity of the Hungarian delegation's credentials. Moreover, it could not be otherwise, since the Hungarian delegation submitted, in the form prescribed by the rules of procedure, the credentials issued to it by the only lawful Government of Hungary. This Government has been formed and operates in strict conformity with the Constitution and internal legislation of Hungary. It enjoys the unanimous support of the Hungarian people. The Government of the Hungarian People's Republic conducts a peaceful foreign policy and maintains diplomatic relations with the majority of States Members of the United Nations.
213. The Credentials Committee had no grounds for casting doubt on the credentials of the delegation of the Hungarian People's Republic. The decision imposed upon the Committee is incorrect and harmful, for it is prejudicial to the United Nations and contrary to its Charter.
214. The Soviet delegation felt it necessary to explain its position to the members of the General Assembly in order to leave no doubt that its vote in favour of the report of the Credentials Committee involves no change in its position with regard to the representation of China in the United Nations or with regard to the credentials of the delegation of the Hungarian People's Republic.
215. Mr. LODGE (United States of America): I think it is a great pity, really, that after the General Assembly has just made this inspiring showing of unanimity on the Arab resolution for the Near East, the Soviet Union should see fit to raise these contentious questions and once again to attack the United States. As you all know, I have never started an attack on the Soviet Union in all the years that I have been here, but I am obliged, of course, to respond to an attack that is made upon my Government, just the way any other member here present would be obliged to respond if an attack were made on the Government which he represented. Therefore, with a degree of reluctance, I shall reply very briefly to the strictures which ;Mr. Sobolev has seen fit to make against the United States.
216. The position of the United States on the Chinese representation question can be stated as follows. The Chinese Communist regime stands branded as an aggressor. This was the decision of the General Assembly. This decision has not been repealed. Consequently, there can be no justification for inviting the aggressor to sit here among us as if it were a law-abiding, peace-loving Member. The Charter does not take the view of the so-called realists that the General Assembly should be a mere cockpit in which the law-abiding and the criminal are indiscriminately scrambled up. The Charter contains a moral standard and it is up to us to uphold it. The United States therefore continues to oppose any move or moves designed to exclude the representatives of the Government of the Republic of China or to seat representatives of the Chinese Communist regime. So much for the Chinese representation question.
217. The United States believes that the General Assembly should approve the report of its Credentials Committee [A/3891], which includes the motion "that the Committee take no decision regarding the credentials submitted on behalf of the representatives of Hungary". This motion was approved in the Credentials Committee by a vote of 6 to 1, with 2 abstentions, and it is in accord with previous decisions of the Credentials Committee both at the eleventh and at the twelfth sessions of the General Assembly.
218. The General Assembly at its 677th plenary meeting on 14 September 1957 adopted a resolution by which it found that "the present Hungarian regime has been imposed on the Hungarian people by the armed intervention of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics". Those are not my words; I have quoted directly from resolution 1153 (XI), paragraph 4 (b).
219. In the view of the United States, there have been no subsequent actions either by the Hungarian authorities or by the Soviet Union to justify any different judgement today. On the contrary, recent events have confirmed the validity of this view. The revolting spectacle of secret trials and secret executions has served to remind humanity of the brutal measures which Soviet and Hungarian authorities depend upon to ensure their control of the Hungarian people. The world also noted how closely the announcement of the executions of Premier Nagy and his associates followed upon Mr. Khrushchev's visit to that unhappy country, during which he stated his disapproval of the "leniency" exercised by Hungarian courts. It is little wonder that many suspect that the executions took place not in Hungary but in Moscow.
220. Similarly, we recall Mr. Kàdàr's statement of 11 November 1956 in which he said: "I, who have myself been a member of Nagy's Government, hereby state that, according to the best of my knowledge, neither Imre Nagy nor his political group has willingly supported the counter-revolution." We also recall Mr. Kadar's statement of 27 November 1956 in which he said : "We have promised not to start any punitive proceedings against Imre Nagy, and we shall keep our word." How good was that word?
221. These facts were most recently brought to our attention by the special report dated 14 July 1958, just a little more than a month ago, of the Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary, document A/3849, which confirmed "the continued policy of repression carried out at the present time in Hungary". Although the Hungarian regime claimed in June that these executions closed the book on the 1956 counter-revolution, reports continue to reach us of trials which are under way today, particularly large number of trials of students, of young people, who are accused of having participated in the uprising.
222. In these conditions, the United States believes that the General Assembly should not take a decision regarding the credentials submitted on behalf of the representatives of Hungary.
223. U THANT (Burma) : While my delegation will vote for the adoption of the report of the Credentials Committee, I would be failing in my duty if I did not make a few observations on the credentials of the representatives of China. My delegation does not recognize as valid the credentials of the present representatives of the Government of China. Let there be no misunderstanding about our attitude. Our advocacy of China's admission to this world Organization is in no way prompted by political or ideological considerations. In fact, Burma and China have very different political and ideological backgrounds, but this difference is no reason why Burma should stand in the way of China's admission to the United Nations.
224. There is one paramount reason why Burma has consistently supported any move from any quarter for China's admission to the United Nations. The main job of the United Nations is to settle disputes without war. The more countries disapprove of one another, the more important it is that their accusations and counter-accusations should take place within this Organization; otherwise they may settle their disputes only on the battlefield. The United Nations exists precisely to prevent this from happening. By excluding the People's Republic of China, one damages not Peking but the United Nations, which is thereby ruled out as an effective instrument of international conciliation.
225. With these few reservations, my delegation will vote for the adoption of this report.
226. Mr. TSIANG (China): The statement made by the Soviet Union representative is unworthy of this Assembly in both substance and language, unworthy in that part which relates to China as well as in that part which relates to Hungary. If the Soviet representative could have his own way I am sure that he would have not only the seat of China but the seats of all countries in this hall occupied by his comrades. We have not reached that point yet. At this hour, I do not wish to prolong or to start a controversy.
227. I should like to state the following for the record : First of all, all patriotic and freedom-loving Chinese regard the Communist regime in Peiping as un-Chinese in origin, un-Chinese in nature and un-Chinese in purpose. If the Soviet Union should wish to have more power and more votes in the Assembly, it could have, say, the Republic of Kazakhstan come here. But if China is to be Chinese, then it could not be the regime sitting in Peiping. Then, of course, in the second place, the members of the Assembly are fully aware of the fact that that regime was branded by this Assembly as an aggressor. It is not only unrepresentative of China, but it is unworthy of a seat in this Assembly.
228. The remarks of the representative of Burma are quite painful to me. He has stated his views several times, and I would not wish at this hour to take up his statements at any length, We, in China, are struggling for our freedom. We expect no help from Burma, but we certainly hope that the Government and the people of Burma will adopt towards the great struggle in my country the minimum stand of neutrality. The stand that the Burmese representative has taken here is not that of a neutralist State. However, in my opinion, there is much involved in this great struggle in China, not only the future of the Chinese, but perhaps the future of all countries in Asia. I hope the Burmese people and the Burmese Government will reconsider their stand. They might yet find that the struggle that we are making in China is also indirectly for the good of Burma.
229. In this special Assembly I exercised much restraint because I did not wish to make it controversial; therefore, my statement was brief and I did not touch on any controversial questions. But it was very painful to me to see a delegation which represents a Government that defies the resolutions of the General Assembly and keeps troops in Hungary come here to demand that foreign troops be withdrawn from Lebanon and Jordan.
230. I think the report of the Credentials Committee, so far as the delegation of Hungary is concerned, is too much of a compromise. I feel that the Committee should have recommended that the present so-called Hungarian delegation should be unseated. Certainly a regime which has slaughtered its own people with the aid of a foreign army has no right to take a seat in our midst.
231. Mr. SHASHA (Nepal) : In view of the lateness of the hour, I will just say a word with regard to the attitude of my Government towards the approval of the report of the Credentials Committee.
232. We would vote for the approval of the report of the Credentials Committee with the reservation that our affirmative vote or our vote in favour of the report will not in any way modify our position with regard to the recognition of the People's Republic of China, the real Government of China. I do not wish to enlarge on the subject because our views are too well known to need any reiteration here at the moment.
233. Mr. SASTROAMIDJOJO (Indonesia) : The delegation of Indonesia will vote for the report but our vote in favour of it is in no way to be interpreted as a change in my Government's policy towards the representation of China in this Organization. The position of the Indonesian Government with regard to the representation of China is well known to members of this Assembly. It is the considered opinion of my Government that the only Government having the right to speak on behalf of the Chinese people is the Central Government of the People's Republic of China with its capital in Peking. It is for this reason that the Indonesian delegation considers that the representatives appointed by this Government are the only legitimate representatives entitled to speak on behalf of China.
234. With this reservation, my delegation will vote for the report of the Credentials Committee.
235. Mr. VOUTOV (Bulgaria) : We have just heard the report of the Credentials Committee. Accepting the report as a whole, the Bulgarian delegation considers it necessary to voice its disagreement with two points therein; the first regarding the proposal of the Committee for recognizing the credentials of the persons who have usurped for themselves the right to represent China, and the second regarding the failure to take a decision on the credentials of the delegation of the Hungarian People's Republic.
236. The delegation of the People's Republic of Bulgaria holds the view that by recognizing as valid the credentials of the self-appointed representatives of China a serious insult is being inflicted on, and an act of great injustice being done against the great Chinese people, which constitutes the world's largest population.
237. It is common knowledge that owing to the hostile policy of some Western countries, and in particular of the United States, towards it the Chinese People's Republic is not represented in the United Nations. Here there are representatives of the handful of Kuomintang men who have succeeded temporarily in staying on Taiwan. But here there are no representatives of the 600 million strong Chinese people who have liberated themselves from a centuries-old yoke and who have taken their destinies into their own hands. Ever since 1949 it has sounded strange to call the Chiang Kai-shek representatives the representatives of the Chinese people in the United Nations. But it is impermissible and outrageous now in 1958 - when the Chinese People's Republic has been recognized by thirty-three countries comprising a population of over 1,000 million people and when, without that great country, no solution is possible of any great international problem - to continue this abnormal and harmful situation. But if certain circles in countries like the United States are interested in conducting a hostile policy towards the Chinese people, why should the United Nations become an instrument of such a policy? If some United States representatives close their eyes to the world's map and do not want to admit that there is a vast Chinese land, with one fourth of the world's population, why should the United Nations feel obliged to follow in the footsteps of the blind?
238. The Chinese People's Republic exists and it will go on existing and flourishing, its consolidation will go on as it goes along the road to socialism, despite the non-recognition of its existence by certain circles. The continuation of this attitude, insulting to the Chinese people, will not make them abandon their road - the road of ever - greater successes in all spheres of their development. It will not prevent them from taking an active part in international life as a great Power, fighting for peace and co-operation among the nations. It is not so much the Chinese People's Republic that loses by its not being represented in the United Nations due to the pressure of the United States. It is the United Nations, above all, that loses by this because the representatives of such a great country are absent from the consideration of all important international questions. It becomes ever clearer that no solution of a number of international questions is at all possible without the participation of the Chinese People's Republic.
239. On the other hand, it should be stressed once again that the United Nations is not an organization of countries with identical regimes, that its membership cannot be dictated by the likes of this or that country, that it is an organization of peoples which have the right to elect their own representatives and to establish their own regimes. If this is so, why is the continuation of this abnormal situation allowed? It is imperative that an end be put once and for all to this abnormal state of affairs and that the Chinese people take their legitimate place in the United Nations. The Bulgarian delegation declares once more that it cannot accept as representatives of the Chinese People's Republic anybody but the representatives of the Chinese People's Government. That is why our delegation does not approve the report of the Committee on Credentials concerning the representation of China.
240. The delegation of the People's Republic of Bulgaria cannot agree to the proposal for not taking a decision on the credentials of the Hungarian People's Republic. We consider that there are absolutely no grounds for voicing any doubts over the legitimacy of the credentials of the Hungarian delegation. The aims of the proposal made in the report are entirely transparent. These are the aims of certain interested circles in some Western countries, as regards the Hungarian People's Republic, which use every opportunity to slander the people's Government of the Hungarian People's Republic, to keep up the spirit of the enemies of the Hungarian people. The dreams of the enemies of the Hungarian people about restoring the old capitalist regime in Hungary have been completely shattered. But in this case the question arises, why should the United Nations be put in the service of the interests of such circles? Now that the whole world knows who were the inspirers of the anti-peoples putsch in Hungary in 1956, after the legitimacy of today's Parliament has been repeatedly and clearly proved in the United Nations, as well as that of the Presidium of the Parliament and of the Government appointed by it, why are the credentials of the Hungarian People's Republic being questioned? We consider that the aim of raising this question, that is to say doubts as to the credentials of the Hungarian delegation, is to poison the creative atmosphere in the United Nations and to divert the attention of the United Nations and world public opinion from the vital international problems like the one we have been considering at the third emergency special session.
241. Having all this in mind, the Bulgarian delegation cannot approve the report of the Committee on Credentials concerning the delegation of the Hungarian People's Republic. We consider that the credentials of the Hungarian delegation to the third emergency special session of the United Nations Assembly are legitimate and perfectly in order.
242. Mr. MICHALOWSKI (Poland) : In accepting the report of the Credentials Committee, my delegation cannot agree with the reservations included in this report. It seems to me superfluous at present to recall here, once more, all the legal arguments calling for the restoration of the rightful representation of the Chinese people in the organs of the United Nations. They have been recalled here frequently, and their validity has never been undermined. But the political reality, the position of the Republic of China in international relations, its power and role, should not be underestimated either. The People's Republic of China does not cease to be one of the major Powers merely because certain Governments prevent it from taking its legitimate place in the United Nations. We consider that a speedy solution of the question of the representation of China, and seating it in the United Nations, will help us considerably in the work of the United Nations.
243. It is our strongest desire to make the work of the United Nations more effective. Therefore we consider that the presence of the representatives of China in the United Nations is of particular importance. The great Chinese nation should be given the opportunity to play fully in this Assembly the part due to it in world affairs, the role which it has already played in the past and is playing now outside this Organization. This will fully comply with the principle of coexistence which we confirmed today in our work.
244. We also find in this report a remark concerning the credentials of the Hungarian delegation. We consider unjust the questioning of these credentials by the Committee. The credentials were issued by a legal Government in compliance with established United Nations procedure. To question them amounts to interference in the internal affairs of Hungary - and we have heard this from this tribune tonight. Therefore we consider the reservation in the report concerning Hungary fully unfounded.
245. Mr. KENAWI (United Arab Republic) : My delegation has on several occasions made its position clear on the question under discussion. That is why I will be very brief at this late hour.
246. My delegation wishes merely to state that it accepts the report of the Credentials Committee, while reserving our position on the credentials of China and Hungary.
247. Mr. MAGHERU (Romania) (translated from French) : It is the intention of my delegation to take a stand on the question of the representation of China. During the twelfth regular session and also at earlier sessions of the Assembly, it explained in detail why it believed that only the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, which alone represents the great Chinese people and exercises legal authority over the territory of China, could appoint the lawful representative of China. M my delegation has already stated, there is no argument of law or fact that can be advanced to justify the presence of representatives of the group of refugees from Taiwan at the deliberations of the United Nations. That is why my delegation is in no wise able to agree with the conclusions of the majority of members of the Credentials Committee on the question of the representation of China in the General Assembly.
248. My delegation also wishes to express its disapproval of the fact that the question of the representation of the Hungarian People's Republic has again been raised. We wish to state categorically that the validity of the credentials of the Hungarian delegation and its right, in accordance with the Charter, to a seat in the General Assembly can in no way be questioned. There is absolutely no justification for contending that this delegation does not represent the Hungarian Government, which has its mandate from the people and alone exercises authority in the country, a fact which is moreover recognized by all those countries which maintain diplomatic relations with it. The insinuations repeatedly made from this rostrum can in no way alter the rights of the Hungarian delegation. In my delegation's opinion it is high time for the General Assembly to put an end to these persistent attempts by certain countries to interfere in the internal affairs of Hungary and to poison the international climate. Subject to these reservations, my delegation will vote in favour of the report of the Credentials Committee.
249. Mr. VIDIC (Yugoslavia) : I wish it to be placed on record on this occasion also that my delegation's vote in favour of the report of the Credentials Committee does not imply agreement with those parts of the report concerning China and Hungary.
250. Mr. MALILE (Albania) (translated from French) : My delegation, while voting in favour of the report of the Credentials Committee, feels compelled to state that it does not recognize the credentials of the self-styled representative of China. We must point out that the great Chinese people are still without representation in the United Nations. Among the delegations represented at this Assembly, China's seat is occupied by the representative of a clique long since turned out by the Chinese people. The Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China is the only lawful Government of the Chinese people. It represents the Chinese people by all the standards of international law, and it exercises authority throughout the country, with the exception of the island of Formosa, which is occupied by the United States. Only the Government of the People's Republic of China can represent the Chinese people in the United Nations and all its organs. The People's Republic of China is a great world Power. No one is unaware of its efforts to strengthen peace and security in the world. Its policy is one of peace based on the principles of peaceful coexistence, and it supports all proposals designed to reduce international tension. Whatever the United States may do to prevent the People's Republic of China from occupying its seat in the United Nations, those efforts will never succeed, and sooner or later the People's Republic of China will occupy the seat to which it is legally entitled. This irregular state of affairs, the purpose of which is to deny the rights of approximately one-quarter of the world's population to take part in deliberations of the United Nations, cannot fail to have a negative effect and to reflect on the authority of this Organization.
251. As regards paragraph 9 of the report of the Credentials Committee, which concerns the credentials of the delegation of the Hungarian People's Republic, it is the view of my delegation that there are no grounds for questioning the validity of those credentials because they are absolutely in order and in accordance with rule 27 of the General Assembly's rule of procedure. The baseless challenge put forward by the United States delegation and the slanderous attack just made by the United States representative are designed to revive the cold-war campaign and to camouflage the armed intervention in the Near and Middle East.
252. All the peoples of the world earnestly request the United States and the United Kingdom to cease interfering in the internal affairs of the Arab and other States. Any scheme to divert attention from these rightful requests will certainly not mislead the peoples of the world. Such attempts are useless and doomed to failure.
253. Mr. SUBASINGHE (Ceylon) : The delegation of Ceylon accepts the report of the Credentials Committee, subject to reservations regarding the representation of China and the credentials of the representatives of Hungary.
254. The Government of Ceylon has recognized the People's Republic of China and maintains diplomatic relations with it. It is the view of the Government of Ceylon that the Government of the People's Republic is the only effective Government of China. We consider that to ignore the Government of the People's Republic of China is to ignore a very important historical fact.
255. Mr. DAVID (Czechoslovakia) (translated from Russian) : The delegation of Czechoslovakia strongly protests against the fact that, at this emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly, the place of China, which belongs to the representatives of the People's Republic of China, has been unlawfully occupied by agents of the bankrupt Chiang Kai-shek regime. The decision adopted by the majority of the Credentials Committee infringes the principle of universality on which our Organization is based, is detrimental to its prestige and weakens the force of its decisions.
256. The absence of representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China seriously impairs the effectiveness of our Organization's work. Without the participation of that Republic, no international problem either in the Far East or in any other area of the world can find a sound and lasting solution. This is fully relevant to the present special emergency session of the General Assembly, the purpose of which is to take effective steps to avert the danger of a military conflict in the Near and Middle East arising out of the military intervention of the United States in Lebanon and the United Kingdom in Jordan.
257. From the date of its establishment, the Government of the People's Republic of China has consistently pursued a peaceful foreign policy directed towards a reduction of international tension both in the Far East and throughout the world. This is borne out by that Government's decision to withdraw all Chinese people's volunteers from Korea by the end of this year by agreement with the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
258. The peaceful foreign policy pursued by the Government of the People's Republic of China, as was also noted in the communique of 3 August 1958 on the Soviet-Chinese negotiations at Peking, finds ever-increasing support and sympathy among the peoples of all countries. Thirty countries to date have recognized the Government of the People's Republic of China and have established diplomatic relations with it.
259. In addition, the People's Republic of China maintains broad political, economic and cultural relations with many countries throughout the world. China's economy and industry are being built up with unbelievable speed. The gigantic task which the Chinese people have set themselves-to catch up with and overtake the United Kingdom during the next fifteen years in the production of the most important consumer goods-will in some branches he fulfilled in the coming year.
264. As a result of its peaceful foreign policy and its rapid economic expansion, the authority and international status of the People's Republic of China are constantly being strengthened and enhanced.
261. It is an abnormal situation that the only lawful representatives of the Great Chinese nation, which numbers 600 million people, should continue to be excluded from the work of our Organization. As a result of the intrigues of the United States, the agents of the discredited Chiang Kai-shek clique from Taiwan continue to be seated in the United Nations.
262. The majority of the Credentials Committee questioned the credentials of the delegation of the Hungarian People's Republic. This is a new act of provocation directed against that country in line with similar attempts at previous sessions of the United Nations General Assembly.
263. The Czechoslovak delegation strongly protests against this action by the majority of the Credentials Committee. The attitude adopted by that majority constitutes gross interference in the domestic affairs of a State Member of the United Nations and is completely incompatible with the United Nations Charter.
264. It would seem that the delegations of some States are again trying to bring up the old, thread-bare slander and to attack the Hungarian People's Republic in order to divert attention from a settlement of the pressing problems raised by the intervention of the United States and the United Kingdom in Lebanon and Jordan. Such manoeuvres are by no means new. Mention need only be made of the events of the autumn of 1956, when the imperialist Powers attempted to use the illegitimate discussion of the so-called "Hungarian question" as a smoke-screen for the armed aggression of the United Kingdom, France and Israel against Egypt.
265. As in 1956, so also on this occasion, no such manoeuvre will deceive world opinion, which is resolutely calling for an immediate end to the imperialist intervention in the Near and Middle East.
266. The credentials of the delegation of the Hungarian People's Republic were issued by the lawful Hungarian Government, which enjoys the full confidence of the Hungarian people, in the manner prescribed by the constitution of the Hungarian People's Republic. The Czechoslovak
delegation, therefore, does not concur in the position of the majority of the Credentials Committee as outlined in document A/3891.
267. The Czechoslovak delegation will vote in favour of approving the report of the Credentials Committee; its favourable vote may not, however, in any circumstances be interpreted as implying recognition of the legitimacy of the credentials of the Chiang Kai-shek representative.
268. I must repeat that only a representative whose credentials have been issued by the Government of the People's Republic of China can represent China in the United Nations.
269. The Czechoslovak delegation also considers that the credentials of the Hungarian delegation are in order, since they were issued by the lawful Government of the Hungarian People's Republic.
270. Mr. CAIMEROM MEASKETH (Cambodia) (translated from French) : My delegation will vote in favour of the report of the Credentials Committee but wishes to make reservations on the question of the representation of China.
271. The PRESIDENT: I call on the representative of Hungary, who wishes to use the right of reply in respect of the statement of the representative of the United States.
272. Mr. SIK (Hungary): The Hungarian delegation has already made clear its point of view concerning the discrimination against the credentials of the Hungarian delegation. As far as the speech of the representative of the United States is concerned, I have only to say that the so-called Hungarian question is not on the agenda and that the arguments of Mr. Lodge are not new. They have been refuted by the Hungarian delegation several times, and they will be refuted again when the question is under discussion.
273. The PRESIDENT : The Assembly will now vote on the draft resolution which appears in paragraph 15 of document A/3891.
1/ Mr. Fujiyama spoke in Japanese. The English version of his statement was supplied by the delegation.
2/ Mr. Piccioni spoke in Italian. The English version of his statement was supplied by the delegation.