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UNITED
NATIONS

Distr.
GENERAL
CEDAW/C/ISR/3
16 November 2001

Original: English


Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination
against Women



Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women


Third periodic reports of States parties


Israel *



* The present document is being issued without formal editing.
For the initial and second periodic reports submitted by the Government of Israel, see CEDAW/C/ISR/1-2, which was considered by the Committee at its seventeenth session.

Contents
Page
Introduction
2
ARTICLE 1. Definition of Discrimination Against Women
11
1. The Constitutional Level
11
2. Equal Rights Legislation
11
3. Judicial Development of the Right to Equality
13
4. The Elimination of Discrimination in the Private Sphere
13
ARTICLE 2. Obligations to Eliminate Discrimination
14
1. Legal Provisions
14
2. Legal Recourse Available for the Pursuit of Women’s Rights
14
3. Governmental Machineries, Mechanisms and Measures Established to Promote the Status of Women
15
3.1. Investigative and Study Initiatives by the Government
15
3.2. Mechanisms Implemented for the Improvement of the Status of Women
16
3.2.1. The Authority for the Advancement of Women in Israel
16
3.2.2. The Knesset Committee for the Advancement of the Status of Women
17
3.3 Governmental Performance in the Civil Service
18
3.4 Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women in Specific Government Ministries
20
3.5 Measures Taken on the Municipal Level
20
ARTICLE 3. The Development and Advancement of Women
21
ARTICLE 4. Acceleration of Equality Between Men and Women
22
1. Affirmative Action
22
1.1. Expanding Affirmative Action to Public Institutions
22
1.2. Affirmative Action in the Civil Service
23
1.3. Affirmative Action in Governmental Corporations
23
1.4. Affirmative Action in Public Corporations
24
1.5. Affirmative Action in Other Areas
24
2. Special Measures Aimed at Protecting Maternity
25
ARTICLE 5. Sex Roles and Stereotyping
26
1. Introduction
26
2. Women and Media in Israel: Ranks and Positions
26
3. Pornography
27
4. Women and Religion in Israel
28
4.1. “Women of the Wall”
28
5. Violence Against Women
29
5.1. Sexual Violence — Legal Aspects
29
5.1.1. Prevention of Sexual Harassment
31
5.1.2 Rape Law
31
5.1.3. Victims of Offences’ Rights Law — 2001
31
5.1.4. Stalking
31
5.1.5. Minimum Punishments and Protection of Witnesses
32
5.2. Family Gender-Based Violence — Legal Aspects
32
5.2.1. Recent Amendments to the Prevention of Violence in the Family Law – 1991
32
5.2.2. Other Legislative Developments
33
5.2.3. The Inter-Ministerial Committee for Treatment of Domestic Violence
34
5.3. Extent of the Phenomenon of Sexual Violence Against Women
35
5.3.1. The JDC-Brookdale Institute Survey
35
5.3.2. The Sexual Assault Help Centers Data
35
5.3.3. Police Handling of Sex Crimes Against Women
38
5.3.4. Prosecutorial Policy Regarding Sexual Violence Against Women
39
5.3.5. Sentencing for Sex Crimes
39
5.3.6. Funding of the Help Centers
39
5.4. Extent of the Phenomenon of Domestic Violence
40
5.4.1. The JDC-Brookdale Institute Survey
40
5.4.2. Police Handling of Domestic Violence
42
5.4.3. Statistical Data on Current Police Practices Regarding the Handling of Domestic Violence Cases
46
5.4.4. Sentencing for Domestic Violence
47
5.4.5. Centers for the Treatment and Prevention of Domestic Violence
48
5.4.6. “Noam Home”
48
5.4.7. Shelters for Battered Women
49
5.4.8. Hotlines
50
5.4.9. Violence Against Women within the Arab Community
50
ARTICLE 6. Suppression of the Exploitation of Women
52
1. General
52
2. The Legal Framework
52
3. Evaluation of the Actual Situation
53
4. Involvement of Minors in Prostitution
56
5. Rehabilitation Programs for Women and Girls in Distress
57
ARTICLE 7. Political and Public Life
58
1. Women in Political Life in Israel
58
2. Women’s Representation in the Knesset
58
2.1. Women as Knesset Members
59
3. Women in Government
60
4. Women in Local Authorities
60
5. Women in the Civil Service
61
5.1. Ranks of Women in the Civil Service
61
5.2. Tenders in the Civil Service
62
6. Women in Key Positions within Israel’s Economy and Public Life
62
7. The Judiciary
62
8. Government Corporations
63
9. Women in the Military
64
9.1. The Legal Framework
64
9.1.1. Implementation of the Miller Case within the Air Force and Beyond
64
9.2. Women and Men in the Military — Some Data
66
9.2.1. Women and Men Officers
66
9.2.2. Distribution of Men and Women among Jobs in the Military
67
9.2.3. Women Scientists and Engineers in the I.D.F.
67
9.2.4. Exemptions from the Military
68
9.3. The Chen — Women’s Corps
69
9.4. Sexual Harassment in the Army
70
10. Women in the Police
71
10.1. The Legal Framework
71
10.2. Women in the Police — Field Data
72
10.3. Women in the Border Police
74
10.4. Sexual Harassment within the Police Force
74
ARTICLE 8. International Representation and Participation
76
1. Women’s Representation in the Foreign Service
78
2. Women Representatives and Independent Experts in International Organizations
78
ARTICLE 9. Nationality
79
ARTICLE 10. Education
80
1. Legal Developments
80
2. Illiteracy Rates and Educational Levels
80
3. High Schools in Israel
81
3.1. General and Technological/Vocational Tracking
81
3.2. Matriculation Levels
82
3.3. Education Rates, Attendance Rates and Drop-Out Rates
84
4. Activities and Educational Programs Adopted by the Ministry of Education in order to Prevent Discrimination
86
4.1. Gender Stereotypes within School Books
86
4.2. Other Instructions and Intervention Programs of the Ministry of Education which Aim to Prevent Discrimination
86
5. Sex Education and Education on Family Life
87
6. The State Religious Education
88
7. Teachers
88
7.1. Teaching as a Feminine Profession
88
7.2. Teachers’ Salaries
89
7.3. Administrative Positions
91
7.4. Teachers Training Colleges
92
8. Physical Education and Sports
92
9. Higher Education
95
9.1. Women as Students
95
9.2. Minorities in Higher Education
98
9.3. Women on the Academic Staff
99
9.3.1. General Data
99
9.3.2. Arab-Israeli Women in the Academic Staff
102
10. Science and Technology Education for Women
102
11. The Girl-Child
103
11.1. The Adolescents and the Different Societal Systems
103
11.1.1. The Family
104
11.1.2. The School Environment
104
11.1.3. The Peer Group
105
11.2. Health Risk Behaviors and Leisure Activities
105
11.2.1. Nutrition, Eating Habits and Physical Activity
105
11.2.2. Smoking
106
11.2.3. Alcohol Use
106
11.2.4. Drug Use
106
11.2.5. Sexual Behavior Among High School Students
106
11.3. Physical and Mental Health
107
11.3.1. General Feeling and Body Image
107
11.3.2. Physical and Psychological Symptoms
108
11.3.3. Consumption of Medications
108
11.4. Injuries, Violence and Suicide
108
11.4.1. Injuries
108
11.4.2. Violence
109
11.4.3. Suicide
109
ARTICLE 11. Employment
110
1. Protection from Discrimination within the Workplace
110
2. Women’s Health and Employment
112
3. Pregnancy and Maternity Leave
113
4. Parenthood
114
5. Affirmative Action
115
6. Social Security Benefits
115
7. Employment of Women — Data and Analysis
116
7.1. Women in the Labour Market
116
7.1.1. Women’s Participation in the Workforce
116
7.2. Work Patterns
119
7.3. Unemployment
122
7.4. The Careers of Women: Levels and Salaries
123
7.4.1. Women’s Occupational Distribution and Gender Segregation
123
7.4.2. The Glass Ceiling Phenomenon
126
7.4.3. Salary and Earning Gaps
127
8. Time Use
130
9. Vocational and Professional Training for Women
132
10. Child-care
133
11. Enforcement of Employment Legislation
134
11.1. The Department of Supervision of Labor Laws of the Ministry of Labor and Welfare
134
11.2. The Department of Labor Law Enforcement
135
12. Women’s Employment among the Arab Population in Israel
135
ARTICLE 12. Equality in Access to Health Care
137
1. Introduction
137
2. Equality in Health Care
138
3. Special Health Services for Women
139
3.1. Pre/Post-Natal Services: Delivery Rooms and Maternity Wards
139
3.2. Geriatric Services
139
4. Family Planning among Israeli Women
141
4.1. Legal Abortions
141
4.2. Abortion Rates
141
5. Fertility Rates, Treatments, and Services
144
5.1. Birth Rates and Fertility Rates
144
5.2. Fertility Treatments and Services
146
6. Life Expectancy
147
7. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death
147
7.1. Infant Mortality Rates
147
7.2. Maternal Mortality Rates
148
7.3. Causes of Death
149
7.4. Breast Cancer and Mammograms
149
8. Hospitalization
149
8.1. General
149
8.2. Mental Health and Psychiatric Hospitalization
150
9. Risk Behaviors as Health Factors
150
9.1. Smoking
150
9.2. Eating Disorders
151
9.3. Violence as a Health Factor
151
10. AIDS
153
11. Women in Health Care
153
11.1. Women in Medical Schools
153
11.2. Women as Medical Personnel
154
11.3. Senior Positions for Women in the Health System
154
12. Arab Women’s Health
155
12.1. The Relationship with the Doctor Providing Treatment, Access to Services and Health Awareness
155
12.2. Mammograms in the Arab Sector
156
12.3. Other Health Data
157
ARTICLE 13. Social and Economic Benefits
158
1. Social Benefits and the Welfare State in Israel
158
1.1. Social Benefits
158
1.1.1. Maternity Insurance
159
1.1.2. Old Age and Survivors’ (Widows’) Benefits
160
1.1.3. Disability Insurance
160
1.1.4. Unemployment Benefits
160
1.1.5. Children’s Allowances
160
1.1.6. Alimony Payments
160
1.2. Poverty of Women
161
1.2.1. Single-Parent Families
161
1.2.2. Poverty among the Elderly
163
ARTICLE 14. Rural Women
164
1. Bedouin Women
164
1.1. Education
164
1.2. Employment and Welfare
166
1.3. Health
167
1.3.1. Infant Mortality
167
1.3.2. Other Health Indicators
167
1.3.3. Ritual Female Genital Operations (Female Circumcision)
168
2. Immigrant Women from Ethiopia
168
2.1. Preface
168
2.2. Education
168
2.3. Health Awareness
169
2.3.1. Ritual Female Genital Operations (Female Circumcision)
170
2.4. The Family Unit
170
2.5. Employment
171
2.5.1. Professional Job Training
171
2.5.2. Finding Employment
172
2.5.3. The Effect of the Marital Status on Employment
172
2.5.4. Professional Ambitions among Ethiopian Youth
172
3. Women with Disabilities
173
3.1. General and Legal Framework
173
3.2. General Economic and Personal Situation
174
3.3. Special Health Concerns of Women with Disabilities
176
3.4. Employment
176
ARTICLE 15. Equality before the Law and in Civil Matters
178
ARTICLE 16. Equality in Marriage and Family Life
179
1. Introduction
179
2. The Family in Israel: Some Demographic Data
179
2.1. Marriages
180
2.2. Divorces
181
3. Minimum Marital Age
183
4. Same-Sex Couples
184
5. Parents and Children
185
5.1. Child Support
185
6. New Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy
185
7. Personal Status of Arab Women
186

Full report:

cedawcisr3.pdf




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