Question of Palestine home || Permalink || About UNISPAL || Search




Follow UNISPAL Twitter RSS

UNITED
NATIONS
A

        General Assembly
A/3686
30 June 1957

Annual Report of the Director

of the United Nations Relief and

Works Agency for Palestine Refugees

in the Near East





Covering the period 1 July 1956 to 30 June 1957














GENERAL ASSEMBLY
OFFICIAL RECORDS : TWELFTH SESSION
SUPPLEMENT No. 14 (A/3686)

NEW YORK, 1957


(Note: Formatting may be different when this document is printed.)


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Introduction1
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.
The provision of relief

Assistance towards self-support

The situation in the Gaza strip

Relationship with host Governments

The financial position

Budget for 1958

Summary conclusions
2

4

7

8

9

10

11
ANNEXES
A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.
Refugee statistics

Health services

Welfare

Self-support programmes

Education and training

Financial operations

Budget for 1958

Legal aspects of the work of the Agency

Co-operation with other United Nations organizations
12

14

22

24

29

35

40

46

49


*
* *


NOTE

INTRODUCTION 1/

1. During the year under review, the Agency passed through an unprecedented series of crises, and at the year end was confronted with an extremely grave financial situation. The latter, which will be discussed in some detail in section V below, is a cause for real alarm for everyone interested in the welfare of the Palestine refugees and in the stability of the Near East.

2. The General Assembly was informed of the Agency's increasingly precarious financial position in the Director's last annual report 2/ and in the statements he made before the Special Political Committee on 11 and 23 February 1957.3/ The Director wishes to emphasize once again that that position requires the most urgent consideration and positive action by the Members of the United Nations. As will be noted in sections I and II below, the Agency has already been forced to curtail certain of its activities because of financial stringency. Unless prompt measures are taken by the Members of the General Assembly to ensure adequate contributions for the Agency's work, a much more drastic curtailment-- with all its human and political repercussions--will be inevitable.

3. The other major crises which confronted the Agency, but through which it has managed to pass satisfactorily, will be discussed in sections III and IV of this report. They concerned the situation following the Israel occupation of the Gaza strip and incidents in the relationships between the Agency and certain of the host Governments.

4. The Agency continues to have two principal tasks, assigned to it by the General Assembly:

(a) The continuing long-term task which aims at assisting the refugees to become self-supporting; and

(b) The temporary task of providing subsistence, medical care and shelter for the refugees. The report of the Agency's accomplishments in carrying out these tasks is set forth in sections I and II below and the related annexes.

5. UNRWA has no political mission; it is not the Agency's role to bring about a political settlement of the problem of the Palestine refugees. Nevertheless, because UNRWA's operations are widely spread over several different countries and territories--Egypt and the Gaza strip, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria--it follows that all developments in these areas, be they political, military or other, have a direct impact on the Agency's work. The various factors which determine the Agency's ability to carry out its assigned tasks were discussed in the report of the Director to the eleventh session of the General Assembly 4/ and will not be repeated here at length. The experience of the past year has served to confirm the appraisal made in that report.

6. The great mass of the refugees continues to believe that a grave injustice has been done to them and to express a desire to return to their homeland. In particular, they request the implementation of paragraph 11 of General Assembly resolution 194 (III) of 11 December 1948 concerning repatriation and compensation.5/ It is not possible to estimate how many refugees would in fact accept an opportunity to be repatriated if that repatriation were to mean something different from returning to their old homes. Nevertheless, in spite of the fact that many are establishing themselves in new lives, the refugees collectively remain opposed to certain types of self-support projects which they consider would mean permanent resettlement and the abandonment of hope of repatriation. They are, in general, supported in this stand by the Arab host Governments. On the other hand, the Government of Israel has taken no affirmative action in the matter of repatriation and compensation. It remains the Director's opinion that, unless the refugees are given the choice between repatriation and compensation provided for in resolution 194 (III), or unless some other solution acceptable to all parties is found, it would be unrealistic for the General Assembly to believe that decisive progress can be accomplished by UNRWA towards the "reintegration of the refugees into the economic life of the Near East, either by repatriation or resettlement" in line with General Assembly resolution 393 (V) of 2 December 1950. However, the Agency can, in pursuance of the long-term task assigned to it by the General Assembly, carry on activities of the type discussed in section II. The Director wishes to stress that he considers it highly desirable to continue such activities--which include the extensive educational system, vocational and other technical training, and individual help to those of the refugees who seek opportunities to earn their living and become financially independent. No matter what the future may be for the displaced Palestinians, these UNRWA activities should prove of essential value in preparing the refugees, and particularly the younger generation, for constructive and happier lives.

7. With respect to the Agency's other task--its relief services, which are described in section I--these can continue to be carried on, provided local conditions do not alter materially and provided adequate funds are made available. The Director wishes to emphasize here that, in his opinion, the Palestine refugees will continue to need relief assistance for some time to come, whether it be channelled through UNRWA or otherwise.

I. THE PROVISION OF RELIEF

8. In spite of its growing financial difficulties, UNRWA succeeded in maintaining almost all existing relief services during the period under review. However, early in 1957, when it became apparent that contributions would not be sufficient to cover the costs of the full relief programme envisaged in the Agency's budget for 1956-1957, decisions were taken to limit certain parts of the programme, pursuant to the directions of the General Assembly as set forth in paragraph 1 of resolution 1018 (XI).6/ As a result of these decisions, practically all new construction (other than some shelter improvement) was brought to a halt, proposals for the continuation of the new clothing programme for children were dropped and the special proposals for improved standards of relief were not
introduced.

9. Although the basic essentials of the relief programme have been maintained, their standard--as regards food, shelter and clothing--remains inadequate. Moreover, it has remained impossible for the Agency to meet the needs of all bona fide Palestine refugees (for example, those who have not been so far receiving Agency help and who have lived on their own resources, which are now exhausted).
REGISTRATION AND NUMBERS

10. Refugee statistics, including analyses by age and country of residence, are given in annex A to this report. Compared with the number of 922,279 refugees receiving services of one kind or another on 30 June 1956, the number on 30 June 1957 had risen to 933,556.

11. The Agency's means for determining eligibility of refugees for assistance are unsatisfactory to some extent in all countries. As a result, there are some inequities in the distribution of relief, although the general order of magnitude of the relief problem is not affected. It is an inescapable fact that the Agency's system of control cannot be substantially improved without the full support and technical co-operation of the refugee leaders and of the host Governments.

12. In particular, the situation in Jordan described in previous reports,7/ where a number of ineligible persons receive rations and a number of eligible children do not, grows progressively worse. Few deaths are reported and few ration cards are amended to account for death and other causes of ineligibility. It will be recalled that, for this reason, UNRWA has been unable to give rations to refugee children born in Jordan since February 1951, and their number constantly increases. The proportion of the total ration issue going to ineligible persons therefore continues to increase at the expense of the children. As stated in previous reports to the General Assembly, the Agency has sought in every appropriate manner to rectify this situation but it has as yet been unable to do so. This has been due mainly to the political situation in Jordan, where the refugees, who are citizens and voters, oppose organized controls aimed at depriving ineligible persons of the Agency's assistance, although eligible claimants would benefit therefrom. The Government has thus far been unwilling to authorize any new measures to rectify the registration rolls. The correction of this most unfortunate situation continues to rest in the hands of the Government of Jordan and of the refugees themselves.

13. UNRWA's new and more equitable system (described in last year's report)8/ for varying the degree of assistance according to family income was instituted in Lebanon in January 1956. It has worked well from the viewpoint both of the Agency and of the refugees. The new system was introduced in Syria on 1 June 1956 solely for refugees newly employed by UNRWA, the Government being unwilling to make it generally applicable to all refugees. It has therefore had negligible results there. The system has not been applied in either the Gaza strip or Jordan but the Agency hopes that it may shortly be possible to put it into effect in all areas.
FOOD

14. There have been no changes either quantitatively or qualitatively in the basic food rations and the supplementary feeding provided by the Agency. Details are given in annex B to this report. The basic dry ration continued to provide about 1,600 calories daily in winter and 1,500 in summer; the number of rations distributed monthly remained approximately the same, at about 837,000.

15. The monthly average number of pregnant and nursing women receiving an additional special ration (equivalent to about 500 calories daily), and the average number of hot mid-day meals given on doctors' orders, remained about the same at approximately 23,000 and 44,000 respectively.

16. The special distribution of milk to children up to the age of fifteen years, to pregnant and lactating women and to sick persons on medical prescription continued at the same level as during the previous year, that is, at some 190,000 beneficiaries daily. The school milk programme showed a decrease in the number of beneficiaries in Gaza and Lebanon with an increase--especially during the latter months--in Jordan. The number of beneficiaries in Syria remained constant.

17. The Director wishes to reaffirm his statements in previous annual reports 9/ that the basic dry rations distributed by the Agency are inadequate, quantitatively and qualitatively to the needs of many of the refugees, and also that an expansion of supplementary feeding is desirable.
SHELTER

18. The percentage of refugees living in camps hardly varied during the year, though the number slightly increased. The number of tents in camps decreased from 14,000 to 8,000 and the number of huts increased from 83,000 to 90,000.

19. In the Gaza strip, the Agency has concentrated on the repair and maintenance of existing shelter, including the repair of war-damaged huts. In Jordan, the two-year programme mentioned in last year's report,10/ aiming at the elimination of tents, has continued, but inadequacy of funds has caused the rate of hut construction to be reduced. During the reporting period, about 3,100 families previously in tents were given new cement and concrete huts. Of the twenty-five camps in Jordan, nine are now without tents. It is intended as a second instalment of this programme to provide huts for another 1,400 families by the end of 1957, thus eliminating tents in seven more camps. The completion of the programme will depend upon the availability of funds. In Lebanon, roofing material has been distributed to refugees who are able to build their own huts and in Syria cash grants continue to be given for the same purpose.

20. The Director wishes to draw attention to the statements he has previously made 11/ regarding the shelter provided by the Agency: there is not enough of it, and some of it is of a very low standard. There is continuous pressure for the admission into Agency camps of destitute bona fide refugees, both those who are receiving from the Agency other types of assistance than shelter, and those who have received nothing so far from UNRWA but whose resources are now exhausted. The lack of sufficient camp accommodation for all the needy results not only in hardship for those who are excluded; it also gives rise to an increasing number of squatters in and around UNRWA official camps. These unorganized agglomerations create serious sanitary and health problems for the Agency and for the local authorities. The Director considers that several new camps should be constructed and that conditions in certain of the existing camps should be improved. The Agency's inability to achieve these ends is due partly to local problems involving host Governments and refugees and partly to the insufficiency of funds. With adequate funds much could be done, provided suitable camp sites were made available by the host Governments. However, in the case of a few camps where accommodation is so unsatisfactory that the whole camp population should really move to another site, refugees may oppose strongly any such change, either because they are now close to opportunities for some work or because they consider a move would prejudice their rights to repatriation.

21. One of the very unfortunate results of the inadequacy of funds is that the Agency cannot provide new shelter to meet many of the needs resulting from social changes among camp residents, such as marriages, divorces, increase in family size, and so on. Finally, it should be noted that the tents of many Bedouin refugees are in rags, as the Agency has been able to give them no shelter assistance.
HEALTH

22. An account of the Agency's health services, which remain substantially unchanged from the previous year, is contained in annex B to this report. Particular stress has been laid on preventive medicine; in general the health of the refugees under the Agency's care has continued to be satisfactory.

23. In November 1956, at the beginning of the Israel occupation, heavy demands were made upon the medical services and hospitals in the Gaza strip.

24. An outbreak of smallpox in Lebanon which occurred in early 1957 necessitated special measures: an isolation camp was established near Beirut and a
mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. In Lebanon, eight cases, including two deaths, occurred among refugees not living in
camps; no cases occurred among the camp population, which indicated a high state of protection by vaccination. Two cases with no deaths occurred in Jordan and none in Syria. Routine vaccination was continued at an increased tempo in the Gaza strip. Towards the end of the reporting period, the westward progress of the Asian influenza epidemic was being carefully observed, and, in consultation with WHO, plans were formulated to deal with a possible outbreak of influenza in the Agency's area.

25. Regarding tuberculosis, the use of more powerful chemotherapeutic agents has enabled emphasis to be laid on domiciliary treatment. This, together with the opening of the Agency's 150-bed wing as an addition to an existing private sanatorium in Lebanon, and of a government tuberculosis hospital in Amman,
Jordan, has reduced pressure on the Agency's tuberculosis hospital beds throughout the area: there was, for example, no waiting list by 1 May 1957.

26. The main difficulty now facing the Agency's health services is a shortage of medical staff, especially in Jordan, for doctors and nurses are leaving for work in the Jordan Army and in the Persian Gulf area, where work is better paid and offers better conditions and more security than Agency work. The shortage of nurses is expected to be partly alleviated when students graduate from the Agency's present training courses.
WELFARE

27. A description of the Agency's welfare services, consisting of group activities and individual case work, is to be found in annex C to the present report.

28. During the year, the Agency arranged for a small number of blind refugee children and orphans to be placed at no cost to the Agency in institutions for care and training in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. Last year's report described an intended experimental pilot project for the rehabilitation of larger numbers of handicapped refugee youth by their placement in institutions which would take long-term care of them against the payment of a capital sum.12/ Such institutions accept pupils only at the beginning of the academic year and it was unfortunately impossible to arrange the placement of any of the refugees concerned
before the academic year beginning in the fall of 1956.

29. During the year, further efforts have been made to develop the production and marketing of handicraft products made by refugees (embroidery, rugs, leather-work, dolls, etc.). The Agency's object is to enable the many hundreds of girls and young women engaged in this activity to make a start towards
obtaining permanent gainful employment so that they would then be able to supplement their families' income.

30. The work of the many voluntary agencies which assist the Palestine refugees is also summarized (to the extent that it concerns the Agency's mandate)
in annex C to this report. The Director wishes to take this opportunity once again to express his heartfelt thanks to the large number of agencies which have
helped the refugees in UNRWA's care by their services, by the provision of supplies (particularly used clothing) and funds, and by helping to keep the needs
of the Palestine refugees before the attention of the public in their home countries.
CLOTHING

31. The previous annual report stated that the Agency had begun to provide some new clothes for refugee children in its care.13/ This programme was continued during the year under review, and over 390,000 refugee boys and girls between the ages of one and fifteen years received an outfit of new clothes.

32. A large proportion of the cloth used in this programme was woven by refugee workers living in the Gaza strip. Cloth so woven was distributed both
in the Gaza strip and in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. It was cut out in the Agency's sewing centres, or in a workshop established by the Agency in Jordan, and made up into children's clothes by the refugee mothers.

33. Shortage of funds is unfortunately bringing this programme to an end, and no new cloth is scheduled for purchase. Stocks of cloth on hand will make it
possible to distribute a second set of clothes to a number of children during the period from July to September 1957, but the needs of the remainder will not be met.

34. An appeal has been made by certain voluntary agencies to textile manufacturers and others for gifts of cloth to continue this programme. There is so far no assurance, however, that any gifts of cloth will in fact be made. Donations of used clothing and footwear thus remain as important as ever, particularly as the above-mentioned clothing programme only applies to children. The Agency continues to pay all freight charges on donations of clothing and footwear destined for refugees.
IMPROVEMENT OF RELIEF STANDARDS

35. The Director deeply regrets that in spite of his pressing appeals,14/ supported by the host Governments and by many impartial observers, the membership of the United Nations has not been able to give the Agency an income sufficient to allow it to raise its present unsatisfactory standards of relief. Some of the
suggestions for improvements made by the Director were approved by his Advisory Commission 15/ as long as two years ago.

36. These improvements in relief standards are still necessary. They include additional food supplies, improved and additional shelter, more kerosene and clothing as well as assistance to the chronically ill. But before these improvements can even be considered further, the first concern of the Agency is to obtain funds for its existing programmes.


II. ASSISTANCE TOWARDS SELF-SUPPORT

37. The Agency's financial difficulties have adversely affected its rehabilitation programme to a much greater extent than its relief programme. As
will be noted below, decisions have had to be taken to stop some very important projects because of the lack of adequate funds.

38. These decisions include the termination of the individual grants programmes in Jordan and Syria, the stoppage of the teachers' training schools in Jordan, the deferring of construction and equipment of new vocational and agricultural training centres, the deferring of re-equipment of the agricultural training centre in the Gaza strip (following its looting in November 1956), and the ending of all new project activities. In addition, decisions have had to be taken to stop the construction of new schoolrooms and to limit the numbers of students entering secondary schools, measures which will have their effect on the
general education system.

39. It is particularly unfortunate that circumstances have brought about these results at this time, for during the year under review there has been evidence of a slight shift in the attitude of refugees towards self-support. Although the desire of the refugees for repatriation and their opposition to permanent resettlement continue unabated, there are signs among them of a growing appreciation of the desirability of self-support and of rehabilitation, in the broad sense of an improvement in their conditions of life and prospects
for the future. This shift is noticeable not only in the increased demands for assistance in individual self-support projects, but also in the substantial rise in interest in vocational training of all types and even in the frequent requests for more and better housing.

40. Those parts of the Agency's rehabilitation programme which remain after the cuts mentioned above were made include: the general education system (elementary and secondary schooling, plus a minimum of higher educational opportunities), the existing vocational training centres, the placement services and the completion of some self-support projects already under way. The Director wishes to stress that it is impossible to carry out the other parts of the originally planned programme (various small-scale self-support projects, an expanded vocational education programme and the construction of special camp facilities) unless and until the Agency is assured of adequate funds not only for
such activities but also for those first mentioned, particularly general education. A fortiori, it is impossible to undertake such activities unless and until adequate funds are first assured for the relief programme, which provides for the essential daily needs of the refugee population.

41. The effect of the shortage of funds began to have its impact on the Agency's projects in the latter part of the period under review. During the earlier months of that period, UNRWA continued its efforts to maintain the rehabilitation programme at the level provided for in the 1956-1957 budget. The Agency's activities during the year with respect to individual grants, agricultural development, placement, etc., are fully described in annex D to this report. The Agency's educational system, including its vocational training
work, is described in annex E. The following paragraphs emphasize the important points.
GENERAL EDUCATION

42. The Agency's educational system remains one of its most important means for preparing the refugees to become self-supporting wherever they may ulti-
mately live. Its object is to provide elementary education for all refugee children, secondary education for a proportion of the refugee school population roughly equal to the proportion of the indigenous school population receiving it in the host countries, university education for a small number of the most gifted students, and as much technical training as the Agency can afford.

43. During the year under review, there were 115,000 pupils and 3,137 teachers in the 372 Agency schools, as well as 53,400 UNRWA assisted refugee pupils in government and private schools. The educational system has been developed over the last few years to a point where all refugees of school age wishing to attend elementary schools may do so. The new intake now consists mainly of pupils at the normal age of entry (six years) instead of the older children who
made up a large part of the intake at the time when schooling was first provided after a gap of several years. Thus, the Agency's elementary school system
has become stabilized and the backlog in refugee education has now been overcome. Secondary education is for the most part provided by the Agency paying grants in respect of refugees attending government and private schools. In the special circumstances obtaining in the Gaza strip, temporary arrangements have been made so that all eligible refugee youths there who wish to attend secondary school may do so. This has been done mainly in order to meet the wishes of the Egyptian authorities that occupation be found for youths who would otherwise be idle.16/ The ability of the Agency to continue this arrangement during the 1958 fiscal period depends upon whether the General Assembly wishes UNRWA to afford secondary education to a larger proportion of children in the Gaza strip than elsewhere, and, if so, upon the receipt by UNRWA of adequate funds to cover the additional expenditure.

44. The shortage of trained teachers has been a permanent problem for the Agency, and one which be came acute at the time of the expansion of the education programme in 1953. The majority of the teaching staff is recruited from students leaving secondary school. Moreover, the shortage of school teachers is so general throughout the Middle East that many Agency teachers, having gained experience in
UNRWA schools, are offered by Arab Governments, and accept, work at considerably higher salaries, especially in the Persian Gulf area. Principally in order to improve the standard of teaching in UNRWA schools, but also to help in producing teachers to fill vacancies caused by resignations, the Agency planned to establish a number of teacher-training centres. On the basis of experience gained with the two pilot teacher-training centres mentioned in the last annual report,17/ two full-scale centres were opened in Jordan during the period under reference--one for 100 men and the other for forty women. These were in rented premises but the Agency had prepared all the plans to build its own premises. Lack of money has forced the closure of both centres. In addition to these schools, some teachers were being trained at Agency expense in governmental and private institutions in Jordan. This also has been stopped on financial grounds. The closing down of teacher training is a serious setback to the Agency's educational system.

45. Handicraft training for elementary and secondary pupils, which had been begun successfully in the Gaza strip, was extended to Jordan, where eighteen
units were running during the latter part of the period under review. It should be recalled that, for financial reasons, the number of units opened in Jordan was
about half the number originally planned and that the expansion of handicraft training in the Gaza strip has been limited for the same reasons.
VOCATIONAL TRAINING

46. The Agency's two existing vocational training centres at Gaza and at Kalandia, in Jordan, near Jerusalem, continued their courses, graduates from the
latter encountering no difficulty in finding work not only in Jordan but also in Iraq and the Persian Gulf area. The Gaza centre had to be closed during the greater part of the Israel occupation of the strip. This was because, with the breakdown of public transport and the imposition of strict control of movement from place to place in the strip, it became impossible for pupils to attend. In addition, the Principal and several senior teachers at the centre were Egyptians and not allowed by the Israel authorities to work. During the Israel occupation the centre was restarted for small-scale work, using its non-Egyptian staff. With the return of the Egyptian administration to the strip, the normal programme of instruction was resumed.

47. Shortage of funds has forced the Agency to suspend plans for the construction of three vocational and two agricultural training centres in Jordan and Lebanon, the planning of which is complete. Specifications, architects' drawings, detailed equipment lists and costings are ready; in one case, land has even been requisitioned by the Government. The training of instructors for these centres, which was to have been undertaken in a special unit built entirely by the students at the Kalandia centre during the period under review, has also been deferred. For the same reason, the Agency has not re-opened the agricultural training centre in the Gaza strip, which it had to close on account of the looting of cattle and equipment during the Israel occupation. This suspension of plans for the expansion of vocational and agricultural training is particularly to be deplored at a time when increasing numbers of applicants of better educational standard are beginning to present themselves for training. Shorter training courses, such as that for civil aviation technicians, have also been brought to an end.
INDIVIDUAL GRANTS PROGRAMME

48. One of the most successful means yet found by the Agency for helping refugees to become self-supporting has been the individual grants programmes in Jordan and Syria. Under the programmes, the Agency undertook to make grants, in modest per capita amounts not exceeding $500, to refugees desiring to establish themselves in economically sound ventures. The first such programme was started in Syria and was originally concentrated on the establishment of tailors, seamstresses and the like in self-supporting work, but was later expanded to cover other fields of activity, including agriculture. The programme in Jordan, which began in early 1955, made provision for grants for various types of enterprises (agricultural, commercial and industrial) and also for housing. Such programmes cannot in themselves serve to make a large percentage of the refugees self-supporting; they can, however, give to several thousands of needy refugees
the opportunities they seek to enable them to lead constructive lives and also help in a modest way the economic development of the area. The cost of these programmes has been low: more than 7,200 refugees have been made self-supporting in the two countries (5,400 in Jordan and 1,800 in Syria) at a total cost of $2,324,000.

49. The history of the Jordan programme is of particular interest. When it was first discussed publicly in 1954, there was considerable local political agitation against it on the alleged ground that its success would prejudice the refugees' rights to repatriation; and its commencement was thus delayed for several months. In its early days of operation, it also encountered constant opposition from the refugees and its success was frequently in doubt. During the year under review, the opposition diminished considerably and, even more important, increasingly large numbers of refugees sought to participate in the programme. It has, therefore, been exceptionally disappointing--to the Agency, to the interested refugees and to the Government--that lack of funds has forced the Agency to bring this project to an end. When the Agency was compelled by lack of funds to stop receiving applications, it had on hand a backlog of about 1,600 in
Jordan. Each application normally represents a family, all members of which benefit from the grant and become self-supporting.
PLACEMENT

50. Helping refugees to find jobs in the expanding economy of the Middle East is one of the Agency's important ways of assisting them to become self-
supporting. The political crises and military operations that occurred during the period under reference impaired some of the Agency's efforts, especially because of restrictions on movement. Nevertheless, as a result of increased contacts with Governments and with private industry, many hundreds of vacancies have been notified to the Agency and advertised by it among refugees. Countries in North Africa and the Persian Gulf area have sought to engage in considerable numbers refugee teachers, most of whom have been trained by the Agency.

51. The Agency also assists those refugees who request its help because they wish to emigrate but lack the resources to carry out their plans. During the period under review, 802 refugees were helped to migrate to the United States of America and 320 elsewhere.
AGRICULTURAL AND HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

52. Three of the Agency's small-scale agricultural projects (two in Jordan and one in Syria) are now considered to be reasonably well established from the
economic point of view. It is hoped that the host Governments concerned will be willing to assume responsibility for them. One of these could be increased ten-
fold in size, as good water supplies have been found as a result of the Agency's exploratory well-drilling in the Jordan Valley. The Agency, however, does not
have sufficient money to make an allotment for such a development at this time.

53. The afforestation programme in the Gaza strip has been continued. Some damage was caused to the plantations at the beginning of the Israel occupation by
the cutting of trees for fuel by the refugees, who were unable to obtain kerosene.

54. During the year under review, the Agency completed two housing projects, one in Amman and one in Jerusalem. These are for refugees who will
become fully self-supporting once freed from the burden of rent payments.
WORKS PROJECTS AND GENERAL DEVELOPMENT

55. Paragraph 5 of resolution 1018 (XI) of 28 February 1957 stated:

56. In his statement before the Special Political Committee on 23 February 1957,18/ the Director referred to this paragraph of the draft resolution, saying that it required comment "in order to avoid a misunderstanding later on". He went on to say:

57. With respect to the special works projects in Gaza mentioned in paragraph 72 of last year's annual report, the Director said to the Special Political Committee in his address of 23 February 1957 that he understood the resolution would not permit the Agency's engaging in any such projects unless they could be worked out within the framework of paragraph 5 of the resolution.

58. In view of the lack of adequate contributions to the rehabilitation fund, as well as the absence of any indication from a host Government that it was
prepared to make the engagement referred to in paragraph 5 of the resolution, the Agency has been unable to embark on any work projects or to participate in any general economic development projects of the sort mentioned in paragraphs 71, 72, and 73 of the last annual report and envisaged in paragraph 5 of resolution
1018 (XI) of the General Assembly.

III. THE SITUATION IN THE GAZA STRIP

59. An account of the emergency actions taken by the Agency as a result of the hostilities in the Near East during October and November 1956 was given in the Director's special report covering the period 1 November to mid-December 1956.19/ It will be recalled that the Agency decided that it was in the best interests of the refugees that UNRWA should attempt to carry on its work in the Gaza strip in spite of the serious difficulties caused by the Israel military operations. Plans were immediately made to that effect.

60. Despite the dislocation following the Israel occupation, the Agency's normal November ration distribution in the strip was delayed for only four days,
although the supplementary feeding programme was stopped for a longer period. This distribution was achieved in spite of the sudden suspension of the normal line of communications through Port Said and El Arish and the immobilization in Port Said of approximately one month's food supplies for the strip. Alternative emergency supplies were located and purchased--unfortunately at high prices--and shipping
procured to bring them to Haifa, the most convenient port then capable of serving the Gaza area. The Haifa supply line was used throughout the period of Israel
occupation of the strip, the Israel authorities covering the cost of port charges, warehousing and rail movement of supplies from Haifa to Gaza in the same way as the Egyptian authorities do for supplies received in Port Said and moved to Gaza.

61. Next to rations and supplementary feeding, the medical services in the Gaza strip were considered to be the most important Agency function to be restored. UNRWA undertook responsibilities (including some on behalf of the non-refugee population) far beyond those it was customarily called upon to perform. The Director's special report summarized the action taken by the Agency in this field until mid-December. Thereafter, the medical services for the refugees gradually returned more or less to normal. Whereas in October 1956 there had been six hospitals with 621 beds available in the strip, in December 1956 five of them were operating with 442 beds. Available beds increased to 542 during January 1957. The eight maternity centres in the camps had to close down during the hostilities but were all operating again before the end of February 1957.20/ A similar return to normal occurred in other branches of the medical services.

62. It took much longer to make a start towards a return to normal in the education system. It was not until 10 December 1956 that the elementary grades
were re-started and, even then, attendance, which had been 26,266 in October, was only 19,692 in December and 21,130 in January 1957. The preparatory grades
(secondary classes), the first two of which reopened in December 1956 and the second two in January 1957, saw similar low attendance at first, but senior Agency
staff made frequent visits to the schools to encourage teachers and pupils. The result was that in the elementary classes few children lost their chance of education, although the work was at a low standard because of general loss of morale; in the preparatory grades the situation, by constant effort, was maintained as well as possible in the circumstances.

63. In other fields, too, Agency activities in the Gaza strip were gradually resumed. All the thirty-one handicraft units and the nine fundamental education centres, closed in November 1956, were reopened during January 1957, though attendance at the latter was much lower than usual.

64. During the Israel occupation, the Agency encountered certain difficulties arising from the expulsion by the Israel authorities of Egyptian nationals (other than those in the medical services) employed by the Agency. The Israel Government refused to concede that these employees were covered by the Convention on Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations and insisted on treating them as enemy nationals. Protests were made by the Agency to the Military
Governor and to the Israel Foreign Ministry with the request that those employees wishing to return to Gaza be permitted to do so. This request was rejected.

65. Other difficulties were caused by the detention by the Israel authorities of some of the Agency's area staff members. Urgent and repeated representations were made by the Agency on behalf of the detainees; they met with varying degrees of success. Otherwise, UNRWA operations, on the whole, continued more or less satisfactorily in the strip, although with recurring difficulties due to prevalent fears amongst the refugees.

66. On Sunday, 4 March 1957, the Israel Military Governor called on the Agency Representative in Gaza and stated that the Israel forces were preparing to
withdraw from the Gaza strip. The following day, the Israel Military Governor requested the Agency to accept responsibility for surplus stocks of flour and sugar which were being held by the Israel authorities for the relief of the non-refugee residents in the strip. The Agency acceded to this request.

67. In the immediately following days, the Israel forces moved out of the strip and units of the United Nations Emergency Force entered. A few days later
the Egyptian Administrative Governor General entered Gaza. During the transitional period, the Agency continued to carry on its normal services and, in addition, prepared itself to expand its immediate assistance to the non-refugee population in accordance with the agreement between the Secretary-General and the Director, mentioned in paragraph 12 of the former's report to the General Assembly of 8 March 1957.21/ The fields in which UNRWA was prepared to extend its services were described in the statement made by the Secretary-General before the General Assembly on the same day:
68. UNRWA did what it could to help the non-refugee population in the above-mentioned fields for a short time. As soon as the Egyptian authorities returned, they resumed total responsibility for assistance to the non-refugee population and the Agency continued its normal services to the refugees. The Agency lent some food and medical supplies to the Egyptian authorities during this period.

69. As stated in the Director's special report covering the period
1 November to mid-December 1956, the Agency was obliged to incur heavy additional costs as a result of the unforeseen events therein mentioned. The expense and losses due to the Gaza emergency, as shown in the Agency's financial report for the twelve months ended 30 June 1957 (see table 1 of annex F) aggregated $474,811. The Agency has presented a claim for $309,658 to the Government of Israel for the
losses considered by the Agency as attributable to that Government's actions. Pending settlement of this claim, all of the additional expenses and losses have had to be met out of the Agency's fast-dwindling working capital.

IV. RELATIONSHIP WITH HOST GOVERNMENTS

70. The Director's two previous annual reports have called attention to certain difficulties arising from Government-Agency relationships which were ham-
pering the efficient carrying out of the Agency's work.23/ These difficulties have arisen partly because the humanitarian problem with which the Agency is dealing
represents for the Arab Governments a burning political issue both of internal and of foreign policy, and partly because the nature and size of the Agency's operations give them an exceptional importance in the life of the host countries. In this connexion, the Director wishes to record once again the fact that the host
Governments provide a substantial amount of assistance to the refugees and to the Agency. Some of this is channelled through the Agency's accounts and is reflected in UNRWA's records of contributions; some is given directly to the refugees and is not reflected in the Agency's accounts, such as the acceptance of refugees in government schools for which the Agency's subsidy covers only part of the total cost, assistance in providing shelter and medical care, and welfare services. It is, of course, not the purpose of this report to give a full description of this assistance, but the fact that it is given and the strain it imposes on some of the host Governments must be borne in mind when considering the Agency's work generally and, in particular, the question of UNRWA's relationship with the host Governments.

71. The difficulties referred to above have included, on the one hand, the imposition of restrictions on Agency actions, particularly in the personnel field, and, on the other hand, differences of opinion concerning the ultimate responsibility for decisions of policy about Agency work. These matters were mentioned during discussions of the Director's report by the Ad Hoc Political Committee at the tenth session of the General Assembly, and they were discussed at greater length by the Special Political Committee at the eleventh session. As a result, the General Assembly in its resolution 1018 (XI) noted:
and requested:
72. That resolution was passed on 28 February 1957, that is, after seven months of the year under review had already passed. It is thus perhaps too early
to report fully on the implementation of the resolution in all areas.

73. Nevertheless, the Director believes that, at the end of the period under review, relationships between the Agency and the host Governments were either satisfactory or considerably improved. The Agency's status as a public international organization remains not fully recognized, which causes a number of difficulties, described from their legal aspect in annex H to this report. But, from the operational point of view, the Agency's work has been able to proceed.

74. Specifically, the Director can record that the serious situations which had developed with the Egyptian and Syrian authorities concerning Agency personnel, which he reported to the General Assembly in his statement before the Special Political Committee on 11 February 1957,24/ have been or are being ameli-
orated. The Syrian Government re-admitted to Syria, in May, the two Agency officials who had been expelled in November 1956. In Gaza, there was some recurrence of the previous difficulties during the first weeks following the return of the Egyptian authorities to the area. However, the situation had improved by the end of the reporting period, and the outstanding difficulties
concerned mainly the obtaining of visas to Egypt and the issue and renewal of entry permits to the Gaza strip for Agency personnel.

75. In the other two areas, Jordan and Lebanon, there were no serious problems of Government-Agency relationship although there were two cases in which
Agency personnel were refused entry to Jordan, and although the matter of the equitable distribution of rations in Jordan (see para. 12, above) remained unresolved, there was good co-operation between each of these Governments and the Agency during the tense and difficult months of the winter of 1956-1957, when
the Agency's work for the refugees was subjected to particularly severe strains.

76. In the light of the discussions at the eleventh session of the General Assembly, of the wishes of the host Governments expressed in the resolution, and of the amelioration of the situation in recent months, the Director hopes that it will be possible to avoid many of the points of friction and misunderstanding which have arisen in the past and which have so gravely hampered the Agency's work in certain areas. He realizes that some of the underlying causes of past difficulties, mentioned in his last annual report, still exist. However, he is confident that, if the nature and extent of the Agency's responsibility and authority continue to be agreed to by the host Governments and if these are made clear by those Governments to the refugees, to the general public in the Arab States and to government officials at all levels, the Agency will be able to continue its work on behalf of the refugees with efficiency and without interruption or hindrance.

V. THE FINANCIAL POSITION

77. A report on the Agency's financial operations for the twelve months ended 30 June 1957, and an estimate concerning operations during the period from
1 July to 31 December 1957, are contained in annex F. The full facts and figures will not be repeated here. The Agency's budget for the calendar year 1958 is set forth in annex G and is discussed in section VI below. The following paragraphs highlight the important facts concerning the Agency's grave financial position, which has become a cause for real alarm. Unless effective action is taken by the General Assembly at its twelfth session to ensure adequate funds for UNRWA's work, there can be no other alternative than to curtail further the Agency's basic services to the refugees. The Director considers it his solemn duty to warn all the Member Governments of the United Nations that, in his opinion, such a curtailment at this time will bring great suffering to the refugees dependent on UNRWA for their daily needs; it will also be the cause for increased tension and instability in the area.
1 JULY 1956 TO 30 JUNE 1957

78. The essential facts concerning operations during the twelve months ended 30 June 1957 are that, in order to keep its expenditures for relief within the limits of income received, the Agency had to bring to a halt most new construction (particularly affecting refugee shelter) and it could not introduce the improvements in standards of relief proposed by the Director, endorsed by his Advisory Commission and accepted by the General Assembly. In the rehabilitation
field, the Agency was obliged, because of insufficient income, to curtail expenditures at levels very substantially below those provided for in the 1956-1957 budget, so that its operations were limited almost entirely to the general education programme, the operation of two vocational training centres and the Agency's modest placement services. Even so, it expended $6.6 million more than contributions received for rehabilitation purposes during the twelve-month period. The excess of expenditures over income received during that period was covered by the Agency's further drawing on its already greatly depleted rehabilitation reserve.

79. Paragraph 5 of annex F shows the amounts of the curtailments in both relief and rehabilitation expenditure necessitated by the inadequacy of contributions. Sections I and II above indicate the unfortunate effects of the curtailments and show the great desirability of enabling the Agency to resume the full activities that were envisaged in the budget for 1956-1957. The Director wishes to stress that, had the Agency attempted to carry on those full activities,
UNRWA would have run out of funds by the end of June 1957.
1 JULY TO 31 DECEMBER 1957

80. For the balance of the Agency's current fiscal period, that is, the six months beginning 1 July and ending 31 December 1957, it is estimated that, on the basis of past experience, contributions both for relief and for rehabilitation will unfortunately fall short of expenditures in those respective fields, even at the current reduced levels of UNRWA activity. As a result, it is estimated that at 31 December 1957 the Agency's working capital available for operational purposes will be down to the alarmingly low level of about $6.2 million, of which approximately $3.8 million will be applicable to relief and approximately $2.4 million applicable to rehabilitation, barely enough to cover expenditures for two months.

81. The urgency of the need for increased contributions will be emphasized by the facts set forth in paragraphs 82 to 84.
THE PROBLEM OF CONTRIBUTIONS

82. The Agency's total income for relief during the twelve months ended 30 June 1957 included more than $1.1 million receipts from prior years' pledges; even
so, it was barely sufficient to meet the reduced level of expenditures. With only a small amount of old pledges remaining outstanding, there can be no such windfall in the year ahead. Consequently, the 1958 budget must be met in full by pledges and payments made for the year 1958. As the minimum relief budget for that year requires expenditures of $25.7 million, and as contributions from Governments in the twelve months ended 30 June 1957 amounted to only $23.7 million (excluding the payment of old pledges), the Director wishes to stress that some $2 million more
in new money will be needed for relief in 1958 than the Agency can expect to receive, even on the assumption that the rate of contributions applicable to the past twelve-month period will continue. There is, as yet, no basis in fact for the latter assumption. Thirty-one Member States contributed to UNRWA in 1956-1957.
The extent to which any of those countries--or any of the other Member States that did not contribute--will contribute towards the 1958 budget remains to be disclosed. It is apparent that, if the General Assembly wishes the Agency to continue its relief operations, even at the existing minimum levels, arrangements
must be made so that there will be either new contributions from Members who have never contributed or else increased contributions from those who have been supporting the Agency year after year.

83. As to the rehabilitation programme, it is estimated that to continue the present reduced level of operations in the calendar year 1958 will cost $7.2
million; it would cost another $7.8 million to carry out the programmes that have been deferred or cut--that is, a total of $15 million. However, in the twelve
months ended 30 June, the Agency received only a little over $3.4 million in contributions from Governments for its rehabilitation programme, of which $1
million came from the United Kingdom and $2.4 million from the United States. Thus, even if these contributions are continued in 1958, it is quite clear that
the Agency must have $3.8 million in new money solely to maintain its present rehabilitation activities; if it is to be able to finance its full rehabilitation budget of $15 million, it must have $11.6 million in new money.

84. The immediately preceding paragraphs have dealt with the amounts of contributions needed by the Agency to continue operations. The Director must also
stress the importance of the timing of contributions: it is imperative that contributions towards the 1958 budget be received in advance of the expenditure, that is, one half before 1 January and the other half before 1 July 1958. This is essential unless and until the Agency's reserves are increased to adequate levels. As indicated above, the Agency will have on hand on 31 December 1957 cash reserves to meet its budgeted expenditures for barely two months.
WORKING CAPITAL

85. For the foregoing reasons, the Director considers it his duty to ask the Assembly not only for timely payment of funds to meet the 1958 budget in full, but also for the establishment of appropriate reserves, preferably in the form of a working capital fund. It must be borne in mind that hundreds of thousands of individuals are dependent upon UNRWA's multiple relief operations for their daily needs; that cash must be available for ordering supplies when world prices are
lowest; that close to 200,000 children depend on UNRWA for their education; that rents, salaries and other recurrent expenditures must be paid regularly and on time; and that opportunities to help refugees seeking to become self-supporting should not be missed for a temporary lack of funds.

86. Having in mind the nature and scope of UNRWA's operations, the Agency believes that its reserves, in the form of working capital available for operational purposes, should amount at least to $14 million. The Director is advised that such an amount, representing about 35 per cent of the Agency's budget
for 1958, would be in line with normal United Nations practice. As the Agency will have working capital available for operational purposes amounting to only about $6 million on 31 December 1957, additional payments of $8 million will be needed from Members of the United Nations over and above those required to finance the budget for 1958. It should be recalled here that, in the past, the Agency held a reserve of funds which resulted mainly from exceptionally large contributions to the rehabilitation programme made in the first three years of the Agency's life. These funds are nearing exhaustion and the Director's request for an appropriate working capital fund is now made as a matter of great urgency.

VI. BUDGET FOR 1958

87. In accordance with past practice and with particular reference to paragraph 7 of resolution 818 (IX) and paragraph 7 of resolution 1018 (XI) of the
General Assembly, the Director has prepared and transmitted to the Negotiating Committee for Extra-Budgetary Funds the budget for the Agency's relief and rehabilitation operations for the calendar year 1958. The Negotiating Committee has been requested to seek from the Members of the United Nations the contributions needed to cover the budgeted expenditures.

88. The Director has consulted his Advisory Commission concerning this budget. The Commission, at its meeting on 10 September 1957, concurred in the view
that it was a minimum budget, both from the point of view of the programmes that the Agency can and should carry out in pursuance of the tasks assigned it by the
General Assembly, and also from the point of view of the expenditures necessary to finance those programmes. The Commission at the same meeting placed itself on
record as recommending the budget to the General Assembly for approval.

89. The budget, together with explanatory comments and comparisons with 1957 expenditures, is contained in annex G to this report. It is presented in full in order that the General Assembly may better inform itself about the Agency's work and the need for adequate contributions.

90. The estimated requirements for 1958 amount to $40.7 million, of which $25.7 million are needed for relief services and $15 million for the rehabilitation programme. The requirements for relief are reduced to the bare minimum: they exclude provision for certain improvements in services proposed in past years by the Director and approved by the Assembly, subject to the
availability of funds; they also exclude any provision for continuing the new children's clothing programme initiated a year ago by the Agency. The rehabilitation budget of $15 million will permit the Agency to maintain those activities upon which it has already embarked (such as the education programme) and which cannot be interrupted without serious repercussions, and also to resume those activities which, in spite of their proven success in helping refugees to become self-supporting at small per capita cost, have had to be curtailed or stopped through lack of funds.

91. Prior to its tenth session, it was the practice of the General Assembly to include in the resolution regarding assistance to Palestine refugees a paragraph specifically approving the Agency's budget. The Director requests that this practice be resumed this year, as it appears to be the appropriate procedure, particularly in view of the gravity of the tasks that have been assigned to UNRWA by the General Assembly. If the programmes provided for in the budget are not in keeping with the wishes of the General Assembly, the Director requests that the Assembly indicate what changes are desired, and that it approve a budget consistent therewith.

VII. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS

92. The work of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees must, in the very nature of things, be considered against the political background of the Palestine question, to which the refugee problem is inextricably linked. During the period under review, the Agency carried out its tasks in the relief and rehabilitation fields to the extent that local conditions permitted and funds were available.

93. In the relief field, this in practice meant that, despite an unprecedented series of operational difficulties throughout the area occasioned by the military events in the Gaza strip last November, the Agency continued its essential services virtually without interruption and at extremely low cost. Shortage of funds, however, prevented the Agency from initiating improvements in its services and obliged it to halt or curtail some desirable programmes. Nevertheless, small basic relief services remain little affected as yet.

94. In the rehabilitation field, the absence of an acceptable solution to the Palestine question causes the great mass of the refugees to remain opposed to the development of large-scale projects for self-support, which they link with permanent resettlement and the abandonment of hopes for repatriation. There is, however, an increasing realization on the part of refugees and host Governments that self-support is in the long-term interests of refugees and Governments alike. Thus, although underlying political factors continued to prevent any spectacular endeavours, the Agency made progress during the year under review in helping significant numbers of refugees to become self-supporting--this on the understanding that such self-support did not affect their poliitcal rights or claims. Shortage of funds, however, obliged the Agency to postpone, curtail or halt a number of extremely worthwhile activities and to reduce its programmes in this field to very little more than its existing and limited system of general education and vocational training.

95. At the end of the reporting period, the Agency was still facing an extremely serious financial crisis which threatened its existence and urgently required action by the General Assembly. What is specifically required is the following:

(a) The payment, by those of its regular contributors who have not as yet done so, of contributions for the six-month period ending 31 December 1957, at least equivalent to half the amounts contributed for the twelve months which ended 30 June last;

(b) The approval by the Assembly of UNRWA's budget for 1958, as the minimum one consonant with the Agency's tasks;

(c) The pledging and payment of $25.7 million to meet the minimum relief expenditures in 1958;

(d) The pledging and payment of $15 million to meet the rehabilitation budget for 1958;

(e) The payment of all contributions towards the 1958 budget in advance of expenditures--that is, one-half before 1 January 1958 and the other half before
1 June 1958;

(f) The payment of $8 million to be used, with the Agency's small remaining reserve, to establish an appropriate working capital fund.

96. It must be clearly realized that UNRWA--unlike most other United Nations organs--has a continuous operating responsibility which cannot readily
be adjusted to suit financial circumstances. In some agencies, a project can be deferred from one year to another until it attains sufficiently high priority to
receive its share of the funds available. In UNRWA, most commitments are urgent and inescapable: hundreds of thousands of human beings depend upon it for the bulk of their daily food, for medical care and shelter. If UNRWA failed to provide the rations and medicines at the right times and in the right places, acute starvation and disease would become an immediate threat. Grave consequences, social and political, can also be expected to follow any curtailment of the general education programme which would condemn the huge crowds of refugee children to frustrating idleness. Only in the case of self-support projects can activities be postponed or stopped without immediately causing increased human suffering. But when these are
stopped, as most of them have been for lack of funds, the General Assembly misses an opportunity for the kind of endeavour to which it once attached great
importance.

97. Many lives are at stake. The humanitarian and political implications of stopping or cutting essential United Nations assistance to the Palestine refugees are clear. As UNRWA is only the agent of the General Assembly--having no authority or powers not granted by that body--and as UNRWA must depend on the Members of the General Assembly for its funds, the Director earnestly requests those Members to take the necessary decisions and actions called for by this report. The ultimate responsibility for the nature and extent of UNRWA's work rests with the Members of the United Nations.

ANNEXES


ANNEX A

REFUGEE STATISTICS

Table 1

NUMBER OF REFUGEES AND RATIONS DISTRIBUTED a/

June 1950
June 1951
June 1952
June 1953
June 1954
June 1955
June 1956
June 1957
Refugees
Rations
Refugees
Rations
Refugees
Rations
Refugees
Rations
Refugees
Rations
Refugees
Rations
Refugees
Rations
Refugees
Rations
Gaza
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria
Israel
TOTAL
198,227
506,200
127,600
82,194
45,800
960,021
188,227
503,423
129,041
82,824
45,800
949,315
199,789
465,741
106,896
82,861
24,380
879,667
197,233
444,403
106,068
80,499
23,434
851,637
204,356
469,576
104,901
84,224
19,616
882,673
198,427
438,775
99,903
80,674
17,176
834,955
208,560
475,620
102,095
85,473
b
871,748
199,465
431,012
97,324
79,819
b
807,620
212,600
486,631
101,636
86,191
b
887,058
207,037
443,464
100,056
83,233
b
833,790
214,601
499,606
103,600
88,179
b
905,986
208,674
441,371
101,272
84,611
b
835,928
216,971
512,706
102,625
89,977
b
922,279
213,056
437,855
101,056
85,810
b
837,777
221,058
517,388
102,586
92,524
b
933,556
214,463
433,511
101,352
87,451
b
836,777
a/ The number of rations has been corrected to the equivalent of full rations as some registered refugees receive no dry rations and others (some frontier villagers) receive half rations. Before the eighth session of the General Assembly, children under seven years old and certain Bedouins also received half rather than full rations.
b/ No longer UNRWA's responsibility.

Table 2

DISTRIBUTION OF REFUGEES ACCORDING TO AGE AND COUNTRY
OF RESIDENCE AS AT 30 JUNE 1957
Country0-1 years1-15 years15 years
and over
Number of
families
Gaza
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria
TOTAL
5,162
5,418
1,103
4,279
15,962
98,626
219,640
43,023
36,944
398,233
117,270
292,330
58,640
51,301
519,361
40,507
99,939
23,688
21,863
185,997

Table 3

NUMBER OF REFUGEES IN CAMPS ACCORDING TO COUNTRY

CountryJune 1950June 1951June 1952June 1953June 1954June 1955June 1956June 1957
Gaza ........
Jordan ......
Lebanon .....
Syria........

TOTAL

Number in
camps as a percentage
of the
refugees shown in Table 1
95,000
110,655
28,799
33,144

267,598





29.3%
102,586
115,867
34,363
23,478

276,294





32.3%
90,670
134,588
36,881
18,989

281,128





32.6%
81,367
145,962
37,236
17,698

282,263





32.4%
96,500
153,967
37,333
17,830

305,630





34.4%
124,107
153,250
38,670
19,725

335,752





37.1%
129,741
167,364
42,494
19,082

358,681





38.9%
123,770
171,579
45,143
20,106

360,598





38.6%


ANNEX B


HEALTH SERVICES

1. ORGANIZATION AND STAFF

1. The organization of the Agency's health services has remained substantially unchanged during the period under review. The World Health Organization, by agreement with the Agency, continues to be responsible
for the technical direction of these services by designating and providing certain of the senior staff, including the Chief Medical Officer of the Agency. With the
completion of the joint WHO--Agency health education project, WHO withdrew the services of its health education specialist at the end of September 1956, when the responsibility for the Agency's health education programme was assumed by a graduate employee of the Agency who had recently obtained his diploma in health education at the American University of Beirut.

2. In the field, a heightened awareness of the paramount importance of preventive medicine is being developed among the whole staff. Camp medical officers, in particular, are being encouraged to assume broader duties in the field of public health for the particular community which they are serving.

3. Table 1 below shows the number of established posts in the Agency's health services (including persons seconded by WHO) as at 30 June 1957. During
the period under review, the number of posts for doctors, nurses and laboratory technicians was increased. The category "others" under the heading "area staff" includes administrative, clerical, laboratory, pharmaceutical, health education and supply personnel, as well as sanitary, supplementary feeding and health education workers above the labour category. The table does not include the hundreds of workers employed in hospitals and clinics subsidized by the Agency to provide services to the refugees.

Table 1


Headquarters
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
International staff
Doctors...............................
Nurses ...............................
Sanitation officers ..................
Nutritionist .........................
Supply and materials officer (medical)
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
8
6
1
1
1
Sub-Total 17
Area staff
Doctors, full-time ...................
Doctors, part-time ...................
Dentists, full-time ..................
Dentists, part-time ..................
Nurses ...............................
Nurses: practical, aid, midwives .....
Sanitation officers ..................
Laboratory technicians ...............
Pharmacists ..........................
Health educator ......................
Food supervisors .....................

Others:
Medical ............................
Sanitation .........................
Supplementary feeding/milk .........
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0


20
0
0
19
0
1
0
20
47
3
2
1
0
2


21
9
7
12
6
2
0
18
41
2
2
2
0
1


15
6
8
48
4
1
6
53
201
2
3
2
0
1


69
22
15
15
1
1
0
17
74
4
3
1
0
1


49
44
15
94
11
5
6
109
363
11
10
7
1
5


174
81
45
Sub-total922
Labour category:
Medical ............................
Sanitation..........................
Supplementary feeding/milk..........
1
0
0
36
134
136
47
62
111
145
538
557
85
566
237
314
1,300
1,041
Sub-total

Grand total
2,655

3,594


4. As part of the Indian contribution to UNRWA, the services of two Indian medical officers have been made available to the Agency since February 1957. They are both working in hospitals in Jordan.

5. A reorganization study is being made of the existing UNRWA administrative pattern and its relation to, and effect on, the operation of the health programme to determine if a more economic and efficient pattern can be evolved.
2. CLINICS, HOSPITALS AND LABORATORIES

6. At the end of the year under review, the Agency was directly operating seventy-two static clinics and eleven mobile; they covered 112 points of service. In addition, it was utilizing the services of nine subsidized government clinics and a number of voluntary societies' clinics, as well as the out-patient department services of large hospitals in the host countries.

7. Satisfactory services have been maintained throughout the year, although temporary shortages of doctors and nurses in Jordan created some difficulties, and the outbreak of hostilities at the end of October 1956 necessitated the temporary closure of six out of the nine Agency clinics in the Gaza strip. The system already operating in Lebanon and Gaza of an individual record card for each patient was extended to all clinics in Syria and Jordan and is now universal in all four host countries. Several new clinic buildings, mainly to replace older unsatisfactory premises, have been erected; improvements have also been effected by the provision of additional rooms or by the renting of better accommodation.

8. The following table shows the number of visits paid to the Agency's clinics during the reporting period:

Table 2

Description
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
Population served by medical services a/.....


General medical cases...
Dressings and skin......
Eye cases ..............
Dental .................
TOTAL
113,000
____________

312,074
200,961
189,772
29,732

732,539
95,000
____________

388,802
193,307
85,638
22,321

690,068
430,000 b/
____________

591,026
916,225
967,058
23,778

2,498,087
278,000 b/
____________

382,478
447,597
592,563
11,498

1,434,136
916,000
__________

1,674,380
1,758,090
1,835,031
87,329

5,354,830
a/ Figures show the number of refugees and residents served by the Agency's medical services, but do not represent the total number of refugees in the respective countries.
b/ Includes services by UNRWA to 35,000 non-refugees in Jordan and 60,000 in Gaza.



9. The number of hospital beds maintained by or reserved for the Agency decreased from 2,241 in June 1956 to 2,150 in June 1957. This decrease was mainly due to a readjustment of the number of tuberculosis beds reserved for refugees in the Bureij Sanatorium at Gaza, which is operated jointly by the Agency and the Egyptian authorities, and to a reduction of forty of the number of beds in the infectious diseases hospital in the same district. In Jordan, there was a moderate reduction in the number of general paediatric and maternity beds (see para. 11 below). In Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, the number of tuberculosis beds was increased, while in Lebanon and Jordan there was an increase in the number of beds for mental patients. A breakdown into different categories of the number of beds available at 30 June 1957 for the admission of refugee patients is shown in table 3.

Table 3

Description
Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Gaza
Total
General ..........
Tuberculosis .....
Maternity ........
Paediatric .......
Mental ...........
TOTAL
127
153
12
27
40

359
112
25
16
18
1

172
667
191
58
133
30

1,079
296
150
80
23
0

549
1,202
519
166
201
71

2,159



10. In the Gaza strip, during the hostilities which occurred in the first days of November 1956, the Red Crescent hospital and the Fever hospital ceased to operate though the Southern Baptist hospital, the Dar el-Shifa hospital and the Tel el-Zouhour hospital kept open so as to deal with the wounded. Though many of the patients were discharged at their own request, the tuberculosis hospital at Bureij also stayed open so that those remaining in the hospital were cared for. As the situation became more settled, the Dar el-Shifa hospital reverted to its normal work and a new fever hospital was established by the occupying authorities in January 1957. In the interim period between the withdrawal of Israel forces and the resumption of Egyptian responsibility for the administration of the strip, the Agency's medical services provided hospitalization facilities, medical care and public health services to the non-refugee residents of the strip as well as to
the refugee population.

11. In Jordan, the number of maternity beds reserved for the Agency in the government maternity hospital at Amman was reduced from twenty-three to twelve on 1 July 1956. During August 1956, the voluntary society "Caritas" increased from eight to twenty the number of paediatric beds in Bethlehem for the treatment of refugee children referred by Agency doctors. Due to various causes, the Jerusalem and Near East Mission Trust found itself unable any longer to operate St. Luke's hospital at Hebron, and requested the Agency to re-assume responsibility for this unit. As the hospital was already largely subsidized by the Agency (the majority of beds being reserved for refugee patients), the request was acceded to and the transfer to the Agency's administration took place on 1 October 1956. In November, the number of Agency-subsidized beds in the Arab Women's League children's hospital and maternity hospital at Nablus was reduced from thirty to fifteen and from twenty-five to twelve respectively, while in December Agency beds in the government hospital at Irbed were decreased from twelve to six. At the same time, in the Baptist Hospital, at Ajloun, the number of beds was increased from twelve to nineteen but was again reduced to twelve in May 1957. In March 1957, the Save the Children Fund withdrew its medical team from the government hospital in Jericho, where it had operated the paediatric ward, the responsibility for which was passed to the government hospital staff.

12. In Lebanon, with the opening of the 150-bed tuberculosis wing at Bhannes sanatorium, it was possible to relinquish ninety beds reserved in other sanatoria for refugee patients. The number of Agency tuberculosis beds in Berachah sanatorium (Jordan) was increased from forty to fifty during August 1956, while in Syria in 1957 there was a gradual increase from five to twenty-five in the number of beds reserved for refugee patients in the government tuberculosis hospitals.

13. In Syria, agreement was reached with the government authorities for the allocation in December 1956 of seven beds in the government hospital at Dera'a for the admission of refugee patients from the south area of that country. Victoria hospital, Damascus, where a daily average of fifteen beds was utilized by the Agency, was closed on 14 November 1956, since when a corresponding increase in the number of Agency beds in other hospitals in Damascus has been arranged. With the outbreak of an epidemic of measles in Nairab Camp, Aleppo, in March 1957 the number of beds in the camp clinic was increased temporarily and additional staff was transferred from other areas to care for the increased number of patients.

14. An asylum for aged refugees of both sexes with a capacity of sixty beds has been established in Damascus by the Palestine Arab Refugee Institute (PARI),25/ food, clothing and medical care being provided for the inmates. The Agency supplies such medicines as are necessary. At the end of June 1957 the residents numbered ten men and twenty women.

15. Laboratory services continued to be provided by university laboratories, subsidized private laboratories, governmental laboratories and Agency-operated laboratories. Occasional use was also made of the laboratory of the Malaria Institute of India for the purpose of special entomological studies of malaria-vector mosquitoes. The Agency's laboratory in the Gaza strip was closed for approximately three weeks after the outbreak of hostilities in November.

3. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

16. Attendances at the Agency's maternity clinics numbered 109,701 during the period under review, compared with 123,089 for the previous reporting period. Monthly attendances at the clinics for medical supervision is the rule except towards the end of pregnancy, when attendances may be at two-weekly or one-weekly intervals. Simple health instructions are given in preparation for delivery and either a ready-made layette is provided or materials are furnished from which a layette can be made by the mother itself. A blood test for syphilis is made at the first attendance and adequate treatment is given if the test proves to be positive. Contacts are investigated and treated when necessary. Of the 18,685 blood tests carried out on pregnant women during the twelve months under review, 239 proved to be positive, i.e., 1.28 per cent. In this total, statistics for one quarterly period for Lebanon have been excluded because of the unreliable results obtained (probably due to unsatisfactory technique) from the tests carried out there.

17. Delivery normally takes place in the home or in the camp maternity centre, hospital care being usually reserved for complicated cases. All eight camp maternity centres in the Gaza strip were closed following the outbreak of hostilities in November 1956, but were gradually re-opened during the succeeding months, and now all are again functioning satisfactorily. Ante-natal clinics, however, continued to be held uninterruptedly throughout the whole period despite the political situation, and a high number of attendances were recorded. In Jordan, these clinics were discontinued for one month in January in order to make available additional staff for the smallpox vaccination campaign which was being carried out about that time.

18. The total number of attendances at infant health centres during the year under review was 350,752 (monthly average 29,230), whereas during the previous twelve months the corresponding number was 465,009 (monthly average 38,750). The issuing through the infant health centres of authorizations for special supplementary rations for nursing mothers continues to be a powerful stimulus to attendance. In some countries the number of days per week on which infant health clinics were held was decreased in order to allow the nursing staff of the clinics more time for home visiting.

19. Apart from some interruptions in Jordan because of the smallpox campaign in January, routine work was continued in all centres. This consists mainly in advising mothers on the care of infants and young children, their diet, weaning problems, personal hygiene and clothing. Prophylactic immunizations against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis and enteric group fevers are given and selection also is made of beneficiaries for supplementary feeding in the 0-2 age group.

20. Gastro-enteritis and diarrhoea among infants and young children, especially during the warm weather, is a problem in all countries in the Near
East. It was noticed in Jordan that there was a decrease in the incidence of these complaints among refugees during the summer months of 1956 in comparison with previous years; it is thought that this decrease might well have been due to an intensified anti-fly campaign that had been conducted at that time in Jordan.

21. In Jordan and in Gaza certain experiments are being carried out in respect of diets for use in the case of infants recovering from diarrhoea. Detailed menus for these diets have been drawn up along the lines recommended by an expert of the British Medical Research Council who visited the area at the Agency's invitation in 1956. In Jordan, the basis of the menu consists of labneh (skim milk, cottage cheese), while in Gaza a system of graduated feeding by bottle in accordance with a special formula is used. It will still be some time, however, before a final assessment of the relative values of the two methods can be made.

22. A special study of infant mortality during the year under review has been carried out in Kalandia camp, Jordan, and the results obtained compared with those of a similar study made in the same camp in the previous year.



These statistics are an encouraging indication of the improvements being achieved, which can be considered as attributable to the preventive health measures in operation in Agency centres, including the camp under consideration.

23. In the school health programme, 29,533 school children and 712 teachers in Agency schools were examined during the period under review. The programme proceeded normally in Lebanon and Syria, but in Gaza there were some interruptions due to the political situation, and in Jordan the work of the school teams was hindered because of staff shortages, the general smallpox vaccination campaign and the BCG vaccination campaign in the Jericho area, as well as the nutrition survey carried out during February and March 1957 in the Jerusalem and Ramallah area for which school health staff was utilized. Yet, within these limitations, a large number of children were examined. It is realized, however, that if the school health service is to be fully effective there should be available adequate follow-up arrangements and facilities.

4. NUTRITION

24. The calorie value of the basic rations supplied to refugees continued unchanged throughout the year at about 1,500 calories per day in summer and about
1,600 calories per day in winter, and with a total vegetable protein content of 41.7 and 44.2 grammes respectively. The constituents also remained unchanged except that, in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, the issue of cereals, other than flour, consisted for the greater part of the year of 50 per cent burghol and 50 per cent rice. In the Gaza strip, burghol only was issued during the period August to October while for the rest of the year rice mainly was issued as cereal.

25. The special monthly supplementary issue of dry rations, having the value of 500 calories per day, continues to be made to all women from the beginning of the fifth month of pregnancy to the end of the twelfth month after delivery. The average number of beneficiaries under this programme during the year under review was 23,000. In addition, all children up to an average age of fifteen years, as well as pregnant and nursing women, are entitled to a daily issue of liquid milk. There are approximately 190,000 beneficiaries per day. Further, a hot meal is provided six days a week to refugees certified on medical grounds as being in need of supplementary feeding. The average daily number fed in June was 44,000. This meal, which varies in calorie value, according to the age of the recipient, from 270 calories to 650 calories, includes items of fresh food such as fruit, vegetables, and meat; in recent months 500 grammes of skim milk per month has been made available to help in the preparation of the menu. The daily meal is provided for a period of three months, and is continued for a longer time if a medical examination at the end of that period indicates that the beneficiary still needs it. The increase in the cost of fresh food supplies has created a serious problem in maintaining regularly a nutritionally-balanced menu. Fish-oil capsules are issued through infant feeding centres and supplementary feeding centres and to school children attending the Agency's elementary schools. Hospital rations have continued unchanged except for one item of the hospital ration for children and tubercular patients which has been altered from 3,000 grammes of skim milk powder per month to 1,500 grammes of whole milk and 750 grammes of skim milk per month. Approximately 1,300 non-hospitalized pulmonary tuberculosis patients continue to receive double rations.

26. During the year, the school milk programme in the Gaza strip continued to be satisfactory. In Jordan, there has also been a marked increase in the number of beneficiaries. In Syria, the programme is moderately successful, but in Lebanon little progress has been achieved and the number of beneficiaries are low.

27. A preliminary nutrition survey was carried out by WHO experts during the period December 1955 to March 1956. The report is still incomplete pending further study of the nutritional status of the refugees which it is hoped will be conducted later in 1957 with the participation of WHO nutrition experts.

5. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES CONTROL

28. Epidemiology. An epidemic of smallpox broke out in Lebanon during December 1956, and lasted until February 1957. A total of 192 cases, with forty-six deaths, was recorded. Of these, only eight persons, all living outside organized camps, were refugees, of whom two died. A vigorous vaccination campaign carried out by the Agency undoubtedly prevented the disease from affecting the camp population. Prompt and vigorous vaccination campaigns had a similar effect in Syria, Jordan and the Gaza strip, only two cases, with no deaths, occurring in Jordan. No cases occurred among the refugee population in either Syria or the Gaza strip.

29. No other quarantinable disease (plague, cholera, yellow fever, typhus or louse-borne relapsing fever) occurred among the refugees during the period under review. The forty cases of relapsing fever recorded are considered on epidemiological grounds to be tick-borne infections.

30. A list of infectious diseases recorded among the refugees during the period under review is given in the following table:
Table 4


31. The most prevalent infections, particularly during the summer months due to the increase in the number of flies, are dysentery and eye diseases. Clinical malaria cases decreased by a further 50 per cent compared with the figures for the previous year, this decrease being a further result of successful anti-malaria campaigns. The number of patients suffering from enteric group fevers also showed a decrease, which may be attributed to prophylactic inoculation campaigns carried out and to an increase in safe water supplies. Diphtheria and whooping cough incidence remained fairly low as the susceptible groups are regularly protected by immunization against these diseases. Special directives on the mass treatment of syphilis, as well as on the routine schedules of treatment for helminthic diseases and bilharzia, have been issued to all medical officers.

32. An assessment of the situation in respect of trachoma is at present being made with a view to establishing a routine treatment for this disease in the form of applications of antibiotic ointment to the eyes of those infected.

33. An epidemic of measles occurred in one of the refugee camps (Nairab) in North Syria, beginning in March 1957. There were 606 cases and thirteen deaths. Prompt measures were instituted for the hospitalization and care of severe cases. An epidemiological study was made and revealed that the pattern of the spread of the disease in this particular camp was that of a wave occurring on every alternate year. Preventive measures to avoid fatalities and complications can therefore be adopted before the anticipated time of the next epidemic.

34. Immunization. The total number of immunizations given during the period under review was as follows:

Lebanon Syria Jordan Gaza Total
TAB ..........
Smallpox .....
Diphtheria ...
Pertussis ....
68,284
71,976
6,724
0
54,020
79,259
3,859
561
56,992
171,075
16,390
23,399
74,819 175,187
23,658
8,245
254,115
497,497
50,631
32,205


35. Tuberculosis control. The opening of the 150-bed wing in Bhannes sanatorium, Lebanon, for the treatment of refugee patients has been referred to
elsewhere in this report, as has the increase in the number of tuberculosis beds for refugees in Syria and Jordan. In Jordan, partly because of the better selection of cases for admission to hospital, partly because of the effect of more powerful chemotherapeutic agents and also because of the increasing facilities for chest surgery, the number of tuberculosis beds in that country is proving adequate for the need. In the Gaza strip also, a higher proportion of the tuberculous are being treated as out-patients, thus leaving sufficient beds in the Bureij sanatorium for those who require more urgent hospitalization. During recent months emphasis has been laid on domiciliary, rather than on hospital, treatment and on full use of the new chemotherapeutic agents.

36. In Syria, the government health authorities have been carrying out for some months a mass radiography survey not only among Syrian nationals, but also among the refugee population. The results will give an indication of the incidence and epidemiology of tuberculosis among the refugees living in that country. Similar surveys are proposed for other areas at a later date.

37. Both in Jordan and in Syria there is technical liaison with the government authorities in order to ensure that the development of the Agency's tuberculosis control programme is consistent with developments taking place in the national tuberculosis programmes of these two countries.

38. Malaria control. The following table gives a summary of the Agency's anti-malaria activities during the year.
Table 5

Residual spraying campaigns
Camps
sprayed
Villages
sprayed
Square metres
sprayed
Population
protected
Cost per head
in $US
Lebanon ......
Syria ........
Jordan .......
3
10
1
0
21
46
129,824
436,965
1,293,365
5,942
20,315
30,133
0.03
0.06
0.04
Larvicidal campaign (Jordan)
Estimated number of square metres oiled during the period
April-November 1956 inclusive...........................................
Number of litres DDT-pure, resin-solar oil (2.5 per cent DDT,
2 per cent resin).........................................................
58,604,400

147,720
Drainage (Jordan)
Number of linear metres cleared...........................................
Number of cubic metres dug as drains......................................
Number of square metres dried.............................................
28,100
14,275 1,000,000


39. Malaria control measures under the supervision of the Agency's epidemiologist are designed not only to give protection against the disease to the refugee population, but also to be suitable for adaptation to national malaria eradication schemes as and when such schemes are implemented.

40. In Jordan, where since 1953 the Agency has been controlling the most malaria-endemic area of the country (the Jordan and Yarmuk valleys), operations
have continued throughout the year not only in the valleys themselves but also in the neighbouring mountainous areas and, as indicated above, have resulted in a further considerable drop in the incidence of the disease during the year.

41. Regular weekly larviciding operations of all water surfaces was carried out from spring to autumn, as well as residual spraying with DDT in certain frontier villages and along the borders of uncontrolled areas, in order to prevent the infiltration of disease-carrying mosquitoes into the area under control.

42. Following the appointment of a field entomologist, special entomological studies under the direction of the Agency's epidemiologist were carried out in Jordan on the vector mosquitoes. These revealed that, in spite of continuous exposure of the vectors to DDT in the area for over three years, there was as yet no evidence that these mosquitoes had developed resistance to DDT.

43. An epidemiological survey carried out in Jordan in the controlled area showed that among 434 samples of infants' blood examined, only one gave a positive
result and this case, when investigated, proved to have been infected in an uncontrolled area. Likewise 2,450 school children examined from the controlled areas revealed an over-all parasite rate of only 0.73 per cent as against 3.3 per cent for 1955-1956.

44. From all available evidence it appears reasonable to assume that, in the area of Jordan allocated to the Agency for control of malaria, no fresh transmission of malaria now occurs even though a few of the older infections still persist. The present time and circumstances thus appear to be very favourable for the implementation of the country-wide malaria eradication scheme now being planned.

45. In Lebanon and Syria also, the Agency carried out malaria control operations to protect the refugees in such a manner as to dovetail in with the national campaigns.

46. The percentage incidence of malaria from year to year is:

Table 6
CountryJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecember
Lebanon
1952-1953..
1953-1954..
1954-1955..
1955-1956..
1956-1957..

Syria
1952-1953..
1953-1954..
1954-1955..
1955-1956..
1956-1957..

East Jordan
1952-1953..
1953-1954..
1954-1955..
1955-1956..
1956-1957..

West Jordan
1952-1953..
1953-1954..
1954-1955..
1955-1956..
1956-1957..

Gaza
1952-1953..
1953-1954..
1954-1955..
1955-1956..
1956-1957..
1.5
1.2
0.4
0.18
0.14


0.8
0.4
1.3
0.54
0.27


10.6
8.5
3.0
1.96
1.2


4.6
2.1
2.2
1.24
1.1


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
1.5
0.2
0.18
0.22


0.7
3.4
1.9
0.68
0.34


6.4
8.3
3.0
1.8
0.97


5.4
2.4
1.5
1.2
0.86


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
1.1
0.3
0.18
0.11


1.0
2.6
1.5
0.8
0.4


10.5
7.5
3.9
1.7
1.0


5.0
2.7
1.4
0.86
0.81


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
1.5
0.3
0.19
0.22


1.4
3.4
2.5
1.0
0.5


13.0
8.3
4.1
1.9
0.96


4.5
2.4
1.8
1.1
0.8


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.8
0.3
0.16
0.13


1.4
1.9
1.4
0.5
0.3


18.5
6.0
3.5
2.3
0.75


5.6
2.2
1.7
1.1
0.5


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.1
0.5
0.2
0.07
0.11


0.9
1.0
0.5
0.18
0.25


12.7
5.1
2.2
1.5
0.38


4.4
1.0
1.6
0.8
0.59


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6. ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

47. Water supplies. As the rainfall for the winters of 1955-1956 and 1956-1957 reached almost normal levels, no serious water shortages have occurred. In order to improve the existing water supply, several new reservoirs have been built in the different countries (e.g. in Shatila camp in Lebanon and in Deir Ammar, Jebal Hussein, Karameh, Zerka and Irbed camps in Jordan) while elsewhere, especially in Gaza, improvements have been effected by the sinking of new wells
and the provision of pumping equipment. Regular bacteriological control of water supplies is carried out, and adequate precautions are taken to ensure that a safe supply is provided, if necessary by chlorination of the water. Nevertheless in a few camps water must still be provided by tanker.

48. Excreta and refuse disposal. The construction in camps of septic latrines and to a certain extent also of permanent garbage dumps continued throughout the year, the former replacing the old fly-breeding pitlatrines. It is hoped to be able eventually to increase the number of septic latrine holes to 3 per cent of the population living in camps. Refuse is either destroyed by incineration, disposed of by burial, removed by municipal services or sold to contractors according to circumstances. Bathing facilities have been further extended and a considerably increased use is made of them especially by women.

49. Insect control; anti-fly measures. Since insecticides such as DDT and gammexane are no longer effective against flies, reliance has now to be placed for control purposes mainly on sanitation measures and on the results to be obtained from health education programmes among the refugees. Small-scale use is also
made of such insecticides as diazinon (a phosphorated compound) and chlordane, which are still effective. Space sprays containing pyrethrum extract are used
in clinics, feeding centres etc., where a rapid killing-effect against adult flies is required.

50. Anti-louse measures are carried out regularly in all fields. Since it became evident, as a result of tests carried out, that a certain degree of resistance to DDT has now been acquired by the lice, a dusting powder containing 1 per cent BHC (Lindane) has been substituted for 10 per cent DDT powder. No case of any louse-borne infection has been recorded during the last four years--an indication of the efficacy of the anti-louse measures adopted.

51. Control measures were also taken against bed-bugs and fleas. Gammexane water-dispersible powder was much used in campaigns against bed-bugs, whereas a mixture containing DDT, dieldrin, diazinon and chlordane in suitable proportions gave relief from fleas, against which flea-traps are also used.

7. PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING

52. The shortage in the Near East of qualified nurses, especially of those with training or experience in public health, continues to hamper the full development by the Agency of this field of nursing activity but, within this limitation, extensive programmes of maternal and child health, school health, tuberculosis control, health education and prophylactic immunization are in operation; in all of them the public health nurse has a most important role. An example is the very successful smallpox vaccination campaign that was carried out among the refugee population in January 1957 when some 400,000 persons were protected, the greater part of the work-load being borne by the nursing staff. Another example of what has been accomplished by the nursing staff in co-operation with the health education workers is seen in the marked increase in the number of beneficiaries under the school milk programme in Jordan that has taken place this
year. All clinic nurses are being encouraged to develop the home visiting programmes as far as possible and to apply the principles of public health nursing in the health services of the Agency.

53. A staff of 109 nurses and 363 nursing auxiliaries is provided by the Agency for the care of the sick in the Agency's own clinics and hospitals, as well
as for the various preventive services mentioned above. This number does not include the large group of nursing staff employed in clinics and hospitals subsidized by the Agency.

8. HEALTH EDUCATION OF THE PUBLIC

54. This programme has now been in operation for two years and has become an established activity achieving results which can be regarded as most encouraging in what is recognized to be necessarily a long-term operation. The effect on the school milk programme in Jordan mentioned above in paragraph 26 is an example. The effect of the anti-fly campaign also in Jordan, in which health education played a large part, on the decrease of gastro-enteritis among infants is also of significance (para. 20 above).

55. Several mobile exhibitions on subjects such as nutrition, baby feeding and fly control have been on tour, while a special film on maternal and child health has been prepared by the Agency and is proving most effective as a means of educating mothers in camps in matters of health relating to themselves and to their families.

56. One of the chief functions of the health education worker is to develop in all members of the Agency's staff, whether medical, sanitation, supplementary feeding, teaching or administrative personnel, an interest in health education and to foster it, as far as possible, within their own particular sphere of influence. Though such a goal cannot be reached in a short space of time, it may again be stated that all branches of the Agency are now at least aware of the existence of a health education programme, are being educated to understand its purpose and importance and are being encouraged to make such contributions to it
as lies in their power.

9. MEDICAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

57. The following table shows the continuation of the training programme of medical and para-medical personnel:
Table 7

Project of
fellowhip
Location
Length of
training
Number
qualified
Courses completed during the year under review
Health education ......
Public health nursing..
General nursing .......
General nursing .......
General nursing .......
Mental nursing ........
Ophthalmic medical
orderly ..............
Tuberculosis medical
orderly...............
X-ray technician ......
American University, Beirut
American University, Beirut
School of Nursing, Jordan
Baptist Hospital, Gaza
Syrian University Hospital, Damascus
Asfourieh Mental Hospital, Beirut
St. John's Ophthalmic Hospital,
Jerusalem

Hamlin Sanatorium, Beirut
Augusta Victoria Hospital, Jerusalem
11 months
11 months
3 years
3 years
4 years
3 years

3 months

2 years
1 year
1
1
12
8
1
1

6

6
4
Courses in operation
Medical ..............



Dental ...............


Veterinary ............
Pharmacy .............

Public health diploma..
General nursing ......




Midwifery ............
Public health
certificate ..........
Sanitation ...........
Health education .....
Egyptian universities
American University, Beirut
Faculté Française
Syrian University
Egyptian universities
Iraqi University
Syrian University
Egyptian universities
Egyptian universities
American University, Beirut
American University, Beirut
American University, Beirut
Makassed Hospital, Beirut
Augusta Victoria Hospital, Jerusalem
Baptist Hospital, Gaza
United Kingdom Schools
Maternité Française, Beirut

American University, Beirut
American University, Beirut
American University, Beirut
5 years
5 years
5 years
5 years
4 years
4 years
4 years
4 years
4 years
4 years
11 months
3 years
3 years
3 years
3 years
3 years
1 year

11 months
11 months
11 months
55
10
2
8
4
1
1
2
5
1
2
1
1
38
11
24
1

4
3
1


58. In addition to the above, two short courses of lectures in food hygiene were given in Jordan and were attended by a total of 125 persons, mainly Agency employees in the milk and supplementary feeding programme. A Board of Examiners was approved by the government authorities and certificates were presented to those who passed the examination successfully.

59. For the coming year a plan will be evolved for the in-service training of medical and para-medical personnel on an area basis, mainly by means of a concentrated series of lectures given over a few days on a variety of important subjects.

60. The Agency again contributed to the cost of the Seventh Middle East Medical Assembly held from 10 to 12 May 1957. Some fifty-three doctors from the Agency's staff and institutions subsidized by the Agency attended the Assembly, at which a number of distinguished guest speakers of international medical repute contributed much that was professionally stimulating.

61. Nine of the Agency's medical officers attended the Arab Medical Conference held at Cairo from 30 April to 4 May 1957.

62. The joint Agency-WHO training programme in health education came to an end in the autumn of 1956 after an effective existence of two years during which
eighteen health education workers were trained and the health education programme (described in section 8 above) firmly established in all host countries. The
replacement of the health educator seconded from WHO was noted in paragraph 1 above.
10. MEDICAL SUPPLIES

63. The provision of medical supplies has proved to be satisfactory throughout the year and relatively few items had to be purchased as an emergency on the local market. With the outbreak of hostilities in Gaza in November 1956, there was an increased call for supplies which was adequately met either from
stocks held in the Field Pharmacy in Gaza (which was partially looted) or from supplies specially despatched from Beirut. Arrangements were subsequently made for a direct delivery of a six-months' supply from overseas to Gaza but, with the return of the Egyptian authorities to the Gaza strip, the normal procedure of obtaining supplies from Beirut on medical indent was re-established. With the outbreak of smallpox in Beirut in December 1956, some 50,000 doses of vaccine were obtained from London within twenty-four hours in order to meet that serious situation.

64. A conference of field pharmacists was held in Beirut in April 1957, at which all drugs listed on the Agency's catalogue were divided into four categories
(life-saving, public health, palliative and other) with a view to ensuring that drugs in the first two categories were always available at the locations where
used and needed. An UNRWA medical formulary has also been published, listing all drugs in their therapeutic groups thus facilitating fungibility and substitution in case of shortage of any particular item. Scales of equipment for clinics serving 1,000 persons were also laid down.

11. REPORTS AND STATISTICS

65. In conjunction with a WHO expert in health statistics, the Agency's existing system of reporting and recording statistics has been reviewed and steps have been taken to improve and extend the method of collecting data in respect of morbidity rates and hospital statistics and of obtaining information in respect of
patterns of diseases occurring among the refugee population.

12. GOVERNMENTS AND VOLUNTARY SOCIETIES

66. High tribute must be paid to the most valuable contributions made by the various Governments and voluntary societies to the Agency's health programme.
Contributions have been made in different forms such as personnel, subsidized beds in hospitals, services in out-patient clinics and in maternal and child health clinics, medical supplies, supplementary food supplies, layettes and X-ray equipment, and have been of great assistance in the operation of an extensive and complicated programme. A valedictory word of thanks must also be expresssed to the Save the Children Fund which, after some seven years' work with the refugees and the Agency in Lebanon, Syria and latterly in Jordan, finally withdrew its last team from Jordan at the end of March 1957.


ANNEX C

WELFARE

1. GENERAL

1. The Agency has continued its welfare services designed to help to alleviate the unfortunate effects of years of refugee camp life and to assist extreme cases of individual hardship. A further important function of the welfare staff has been liaison with both the international and local non-governmental organizations in their work with the refugees.

2. GROUP ACTIVITIES

2. Community centres established to foster handicraft training and recreational activities, together with women's sewing centres organized for the particular benefit of refugee mothers and young girls, have continued to function during the year under reference. Six new community centre buildings were constructed in camps in Gaza, Jordan and Lebanon; in Lebanon a distribution centre was reconverted for this use. All buildings included a large central room for movie shows and other assemblies and three or four smaller rooms for craft classes. The centres help to develop social consciousness among the adult refugees and combat the monotonous drabness of refugee camp life.

3. Activities conducted in these centres indicate a gradually increasing interest as far as the younger women are concerned, especially in sewing, embroidery and knitting courses. Instructors also assist refugee mothers who wish to alter donated second-hand clothing.

Table 1

SOCIAL WELFARE CENTRES
CountryNumber of
centres
Number of
members
Number of
instructors
Number of
classes
Gaza ..........
Jordan ........
Lebanon .......
Syria .........
TOTAL
1
7
12
6
26
290
241
570
166
1,269
4
9
11
6
30
5
17
18
12
52


3. ARTS AND CRAFTS

4. Over one thousand women are now registered in arts and crafts centres in the four host countries--a third more than last year. They are all trained
first in traditional arts and crafts, and those who are sufficiently skilled produce articles for sale. This programme provides increasing opportunities for women refugees to work and thus to supplement their family incomes.

5. The seven hundred women in the centres in the Gaza strip produce cross stitch embroidery of high quality consisting mainly of articles for modern everyday use, such as table linen and embroidered skirts, which have proved increasingly popular among visitors. Refugees in Jordan excel in gold and silver embroidery on velvet jackets, caps and boleros in the Crusader style. During the past year, they have shown a marked improvement in their cross-stitch embroidery technique. Arts and crafts centres in Lebanon specialize in hand-knitted woollen articles. One centre is now successfully producing dolls dressed in colourful Palestinian and Lebanese costumes. The centres in Syria specialize in leather work.

6. The Agency's objective is to make this programme self-supporting. But the cost of production is still too high; and a survey of potential markets in Europe and elsewhere abroad has ruled out the possibility of profitably marketing products there. However, if costs are reduced by more direct local marketing on the part of organized refugee groups, it is believed that a limited number of women can earn a modest income. The Agency is actively encouraging the formation of such groups.

4. CASE WORK

7. Applications for assistance from refugees suffering extreme hardship are investigated by the Agency's social workers. The assistance given usually consists of extra clothing, blankets, food or very small sums of money. During the period under review, over 50,000 applications were received; 24,000 received non-cash assistance and 28,500 were given cash assistance totalling $31,376.

8. Members of refugees families separated by circumstances not within their control and living in different countries have also been assisted, financially and otherwise, to be reunited. This activity came to a standstill in November 1956, but requests for movement were again received towards the end of the period under review.

5. THE CARE OF ORPHANS AND HANDICAPPED CHILDREN

9. Since the Agency does not operate any institutions for the care of orphans or the training of the physically handicapped (the blind and deaf and dumb), it arranges with local voluntary agencies and institutions run by host Governments to accept some of the handicapped refugee children.

10. Two institutions in Jordan, the Dar El Awlad in Jerusalem and the Arab Development Society in Jericho, have during this year accepted the care of 167 orphans free of charge. Similarly, forty-two refugee orphans in Lebanon have been placed in orphanages in that country.

11. The Agency is undertaking the care and training of thirteen blind refugee children in the Lutheran World Federation Home for the Blind in Jerusalem. The training consists of the normal primary education programme in Braille and vocational training in blind crafts. In the same way, six blind refugee children from Lebanon are being trained in two institutions in that country, five from Syria in the National Institute for the Blind in Damascus, and three from Gaza in three separate institutions in Cairo.

6. CLOTHING PROGRAMME FOR CHILDREN

12. During the year, the Agency completed, largely through its welfare staff, its first distribution of new clothing to 390,347 refugee children aged from one to fifteen years. Each boy over two years received a pair of shorts or pants, a shirt and under-garments, and each girl a dress and under-garments; the smallest children were given rompers and under-garments. The Agency was able to use some 225,000 metres of khaki drill donated by the Government of India; this
material was made up into boys' shorts and pants, partly by local manufacturers and partly in UNRWA fundamental education and welfare centres. For the remaining garments, the Agency purchased some 1,300,000 metres of cloth, which was cut out by the refugees themselves in Agency centres and sewn for the most part by the mothers and elder sisters of the children. In Gaza, 82,756 children were clothed entirely from cloth woven by the refugee weavers in the Gaza strip. The programme was characterized by the eagerness of the refugees to take an active part in its implementation. During June 1957, a second distribution of garments was begun, designed primarily for children of school age. The Agency's shortage of funds, however, prevents a second full distribution to all children and their need for clothes collected through the generosity of the voluntary agencies therefore remains as acute as ever.

7. VOLUNTARY AGENCIES

13. The continuing humanitarian concern of the voluntary agencies for the Palestine refugees was vividly manifest during and after the hostilities in the Gaza strip. The Agency's appeal for increased help was promptly met not only by organizations who were already operating there, but by a few others who had
never previously worked in the strip.

14. The assistance to refugees by voluntary agencies is so great and covers so many fields of activities as to be indispensable as an adjunct of UNRWA's operations. In addition to hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of donated supplies, they furnish medical staff and operate hospitals, clinics, schools--both academic and vocational--and institutions for the training of handicapped children. They supplement UNRWA's feeding programme, afford shelter in many cases to refugees who live outside the camps and assist in developing recreational opportunities providing both equipment and guidance.

15. At the outbreak of hostilities in Gaza the Church World Service immediately launched an urgent appeal for more donations for the Gaza refugees. The Pontifical Mission and the Near East Christian Council which have permanent offices in Gaza, were among the first to contact their home offices and ask for more help. Senior staff from the Church World Service, the Lutheran World Federation, the Mennonite Central Committee, the Pontifical Mission and the Unitarian Service Committee of Canada visited the strip and, as a result, increased quantities of supplies were sent for the refugees there. These organizations and the Young Men's Christian Association were active in alleviating the individual hardships which developed after each change of régime in the Gaza strip. An example of outstanding devotion to duty was exhibited by the staff of the Southern Baptist Mission, U.S.A., which continued medical and surgical services to all who were brought to the doors of its hospital during the critical period. Doctors, nurses and all other hospital employees worked unceasingly under most difficult conditions and even at the peril of their lives.

16. A most important regular function of the voluntary agencies is to provide supplementary supplies, particularly of clothing. In this connexion, it is important to note that, apart from the very limited programme of new clothing for school children, the Agency does not purchase any clothing for the refugees; they
are dependent entirely on voluntary contributions. These donated supplies have considerably increased during the period under reference as is shown in the following table comparision:

Table 2

SUPPLIES DONATED BY VOLUNTARY AGENCIES
Items1955-1956
Kg.
1956-1957
Kg.
Clothing ....................
Shoes ......................
Blankets and bedding.........
Foodstuffs...................
Medical supplies.............
Miscellaneous................
1,307,047
101,581
166,889
19,833
11,430
26,297
1,761,681
142,396
34,533
781,167
75,296
21,577


17. The Agency spent $238,556 for the transportation of these supplies to the Near East. This compares with an expenditure of $187,122 during the previous year. Donating organizations have been advised by the Agency that, while all clothing is welcome, the greatest need is for clothing for men and boys, especially winter clothing. Cloth, when it can be obtained, is particularly useful, since wastage is avoided and mothers are able to sew suitable clothes for their children.

18. In this connexion, an important development during the year was the establishment in Jordan of the "point system" for distribution of donated clothing, whereby the clothing entitlement of the refugee is expressed in terms of points. This system ensures a more equitable distribution. The Near East Christian
Council has willingly adopted the plan and has made arrangements whereby the heads of refugee families can select the clothing they need according to the points to which they are entitled.

19. No voluntary agencies have established new operations among the refugees during the past year, although donations in cash and kind were received
from the American Council for Judaism and the Jewish Society for Human Service, Great Britain. On the other hand the Save the Children Fund of the United Kingdom found it necessary, because of certain reductions in its operations, to withdraw the team that had done such excellent work in Jordan and in Gaza.

20. It is impossible, in this short report, to describe the work done by each individual voluntary agency. The names of those which continued service in one way or another to alleviate the hardships of the Palestine refugees are therefore merely listed with an expression of deep appreciation for the efforts of
each:

American Friends Service Committee
American Middle East Relief
Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem (Refugee Fund)
Arab Evangelical Episcopal Community
British Red Cross Society
Canadian Lutheran World Relief
Canadian Red Cross Society
Catholic Relief Services
Church World Service
Church Missionary Society
Committee on Overseas Relief-United Church of Canada
Cooperative for American Remittances to Everywhere
Greek Orthodox Church, Bei rut
Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, Jerusalem
Joint Christian Committee for Refugee work in Lebanon
League of Red Cross Societies
Lutheran World Federation
Lutheran World Relief
Mennonite Central Committee
Near East Christian Council Committee
Near East Foundation
Netherlands Red Cross Society
New Zealand Council of Organization for Relief Services Overseas Inc.
Oxford Committee for Famine Relief
Pontifical Mission for Palestine
Save the Children Fund
Southern Baptist Mission
Unitarian Service Committee of Canada
UNRWA Women's Auxiliary
Women's Voluntary Services (British)
World Relief Commission-- National Association of Evangelicals
Young Men's Christian Association
Young Women's Christian Association

In addition, a large number of small local groups in the host countries have continued, as in the past, to help the refugees living in their neighbourhoods.

21. The Agency wishes to express its great gratitude for the devoted work of all the non-governmental organizations that have helped the Palestine refugees,
whether by their work in the field, by their collections of money and goods, or by their unremitting efforts to keep the needs of the refugees before the public.

ANNEX D

SELF-SUPPORT PROGRAMME

1. GENERAL

1. No progress has been possible in the implementation of either of the two large-scale development projects, namely the Yarmuk-Jordan Valley project
and the Sinai Desert project, in the absence of acceptance by the Governments concerned.

2. During the year under review, developments have been difficult in all self-support activities, due in part to the factors mentioned in previous reports
but, for the first time this year, due also to the Agency's critical financial situation. Although in the first six months considerable progress was made with
the individual grants programme in Jordan, decisions had to be taken in early 1957 to stop a number of projects owing to the lack of funds. This curtailment of the self-support programme came at a time when refugee interest in them was greater than it had ever been.

2. SELF-SUPPORT PROJECTS IN EGYPT AND THE GAZA STRIP
(a) Sinai project

3. As mentioned in last year's report,26/ a complementary survey was made to determine whether surplus drain water from the irrigation area east of the
Damietta branch of the Nile could be used until such time as the additional water, which was to be diverted from the Nile at the intake of the Ismalia Canal at
Cairo, could be made available. This survey was undertaken at a time when it looked as if the building of the High Dam at Aswan was likely to be delayed, and was suggested as an alternative way of getting ahead with the agricultural project in the Sinai Desert with the least possible delay. The survey was completed and the report submitted towards the end of 1956. It indicates, encouragingly, that surplus water of acceptable quality exists in sufficient quantity to meet the needs of the project. However, as a result of the situation resulting from the
military operations of last November, no further progress was made concerning the project during the period under review.
(b) Projects in Gaza

4. The occupation of the Gaza strip by Israel forces from November 1956 to March 1957 brought the Agency's self-support activities in that area to a complete standstill. The afforestation programme which had been started by the Agency in 1955 suffered greatly during this occupation: in the absence of fuel, seedlings were cut by the refugees and used as firewood. The programme was, however, resumed at the beginning of March and is progressing satisfactorily. Since then 1 million trees have been planted in an area of approximately 5,000 dunums.

5. After the looting of the Agricultural Training Centre (see annex E below) the Agency was unable to proceed with its plans for the experimental development of sandy lands, as the specialists and students of the Centre were not available to provide the leadership for the new project. Although it was not possible to operate the Centre, the farm lands continue to be farmed by the Agency and the produce is used in local hospitals.

3. SELF-SUPPORT PROJECTS IN JORDAN

(a) Individual grants programme
6. Excellent progress was made in this programme during the first six months of the year under review. Under this programme, individual grants (up to JD. 150 per capita) have been given to refugees who presented to the Agency acceptable projects leading to their self-support. These projects have included the establishment of small farm holdings, various types of small businesses, such as restaurants, libraries, groceries, dry-cleaning establishments, some industrial
projects and urban housing. This programme is now in its third fiscal year, the agreement between the Government and the Agency having been signed in August 1954. However, because of the opposition of refugee groups, it effectively started only in May 1955. It is interesting to note that during the first fiscal year (up to 30 June 1955) only two projects were approved, during the second (1955-1956) 210 projects, and during the third (1956-1957) 502. The rapid growth in the third fiscal year was most encouraging; but in early 1957 the Director, faced with a financial crisis, reluctantly decided to discontinue the programme because of the Agency's financial difficulties.

7. During the year under review, 502 grants amounting to $1,417,300 were approved, enabling 3,590 refugees to become self-supporting. Since this programme was started, $2,127,400 were approved for 714 individual projects, of which 262 were agricultural, 176 industrial, 51 commercial and 225 for urban housing; these 714 individual projects will enable 5,406 refugees to become self-supporting at an average per capita cost of about $393.

8. The discontinuation of this programme came at a time when it was becoming increasingly popular among the refugees and was meeting with growing
acceptance even among those who had strongly opposed it in the past. When the project was discontinued, 1,600 applications were outstanding, but even after this date hundreds more applications continued to be presented to the Agency.
(b) Agricultural settlements

9. Years of camp life and dependence on the Agency for care and maintenance, plus the political aversion to group "resettlement", have made it difficult for the refugees to adjust themselves to living in agricultural settlements. These factors have in large measure hampered the Agency in its efforts satisfactorily to finalize these projects. However, the Agency is hopeful that all but one of these settlements can be made to provide a reasonable living for the refugees.

10. The plan to settle eighteen refugee families at Kalonia, near Jerusalem, has finally had to be abandoned. This was due largely to the fact that, after a remarking of the demarcation line, not sufficient land was available. Reference to this problem was made in last year's annual report.27/ The housing units were handed over to the Jordan Government for use by it.

11. The refugees settled at El Hebeileh have not yet become self- supporting in spite of the efforts of the Agency. Part of the problem at El Hebeileh has been the refugees' unwillingness to accept the Agency's recommendations in the field of agriculture. Further, the refugees in this particular settlement were most unwilling to be deprived of rations from the Agency after the period stated in the agreement between the refugees and the Agency. Unfortunately, the Agency's position on this matter was not supported by the Jordan Government and the Agency has, therefore, been compelled to continue issuing rations at this settlement. Discussions are now under way with the Jordan
Government to see that the best use possible will be made of the housing facilities, but the Agency intends to spend no further money on the agricultural aspects of the project.

12. At the Jisr el Majameh settlement, thirty additional families have occupied the newly-built housing units. Results so far have been fairly encouraging and it is expected that all seventy refugee families in this settlement will become self-supporting by the end of the year 1957.

13. Major improvements were made at the Marj Na'aja agricultural settlement. A new distribution of land was made, the irrigation system improved and a farm manager installed to assist the settlers in collective farming. It is hoped that this settlement will also become self-supporting by the end of 1957.
(c) Well drilling

14. The Agency has now completed an experimental well-drilling programme which was begun in 1955. Altogether twenty-four bores were drilled on the west bank of the Jordan--fourteen in the Marj Na'aja area and ten in the Bardala area--of which sixteen were ascertained as good production wells and were developed with casing pending further use. Two of the wells are being used by the settlers at the Marj Na'aja agricultural settlement referred to above.

15. Discussions will be held with the Jordan Government to ensure that every effort is made to use this water in the best possible manner. This well- drilling programme has cost the Agency $115,509.
(d) Livestock projects

16. In accordance with an agreement signed with the Jordan Government in November 1955 (see the previous annual report)28/, 250 Bedouin refugee families in Jordan were provided with 37,000 sheep and 500 camels; as a result, they are now self-supporting.

17. Although a large number of applications are outstanding, this successful project has unfortunately had to be discontinued in view of the present financial stringency.
(e) Urban housing

18. The urban housing project where by forty-eight housing units were built on the Jebel Nazif just outside Amman (the second of its kind in this area) was completed this year and was occupied by forty-eight families: the total cost to the Agency was $100,296. The urban housing project near Jerusalem was also
completed and twenty-eight families were settled at a total cost of $55,833.

19. Last year, the Agency bought 18 dunums of state domain in the Irbid district to construct low-cost housing units for refugees. This project has had to be abandoned because of the lack of funds for construction, and negotiations are now under way with the Jordan Government to dispose of this land and recover the Agency's expenditure of $10,328.
(f) Development Bank of Jordan

20. During the year ending 31 March 1957, the total paid-up capital of the Development Bank of Jordan remained unchanged at $1,169,000.

21. A total of 234 loans amounting to $1,289,848 had been made by the Bank between November 1951 (when it started its operations) and 31 March 1957. The number of loans in operation at the close of the year ending 31 March 1957 was 199.

22. Most of the Bank's loans went to agriculture. Of the 199 loans mentioned above, 182, amounting to $706,009, were for a variety of land- development projects, such as terracing, construction of small irrigation canals, fencing of farmlands, drilling of artesian wells and plantation of olive and mixed fruit tree orchards.

23. It is interesting to note that only seventeen loans amounting to $260,711 out of the 199 loans granted went to industry. The Bank, however, is trying to help industry, and recently loans were granted to establish (i) a tobacco factory and (ii) a marble factory, both of which are now earning badly needed foreign exchange for the country.

24. On 31 March 1957, over 2,000 refugees were employed in projects financed by the Bank, as compared with 1,800 refugees a year previously.

25. The net profit of the Bank during the financial year ending 31 March 1957 amounted to $43,355: $14,893 more than last year's net profit ($28,462). Collections on capital instalments and interest due from November 1951 to 31 March 1957 represented 85.95 per cent of the total amount due. During the period 1 July 1956 to 1 March 1957, the percentage dropped to 65.35. This sharp fall was mainly due to economic inactivity resulting from the crisis in November 1956. However, this percentage has risen since 1 March 1957.
(g) Miscellaneous projects

26. As indicated in last year's annual report the Agency, having decided to embark on a programme of construction of concrete block huts for its camps, decided to close the Ghor Nimrin tent factory as soon as the Agency's requirements of canvas and tents for replacement purposes had been completed. These replacements were necessary to allow the Agency time in which to build sufficient concrete huts to replace all tents. The factory was closed at the beginning of 1957, and negotiations are now under way to hand the factory over to the Jordan Government.

27. Since the end of 1952, the Agency has been financing an Administrative and Technical Unit attached to the Ministry of Development for helping the Government to plan and implement self-support programmes. It was this Unit which administered the individual grants programme. With the curtailment of the programme, the Agency decided not to renew the agreement with the Government for the continuation of the Unit. The operations of the Unit officially stopped at the end of June 1957, although a skeleton staff has been kept on for a few more months to wind up pending projects.

28. In view of the curtailment of self-support activities, the Agency has also decided to stop its financial assistance to the Economic Planning Unit which
was established within the Jordan Ministry of Economics and Development for the purpose of integrating the expenditure of self-support funds in Jordan into a formal programme of economic development.

4. SELF-SUPPORT PROJECTS IN LEBANON

29. There are no self-support projects in the Lebanon as the Lebanese Government has not approved this type of project.
5. SELF-SUPPORT PROJECTS IN SYRIA

30. Very little progress was achieved in self-support projects in Syria.

31. Negotiations have been under way for the final handing over of the Ramadan agricultural settlement to the Government. This settlement houses 374 refugees and comprises 1,496 dunums of land on which the refugees grow mostly wheat and barley, but also vetch, sorghum and some vegetables.

32. The individual grants programme was discontinued at the beginning of 1957 because of the Agency's growing financial difficulties. Twenty-three grants amounting to $9,200 were made during the year under review.

6. PLACEMENT SERVICES
(a) Assistance to emigrants

33. The Agency received requests for emigration assistance from most of the 2,000 Palestine refugees who emigrated to the United States of America under
the Refugee Relief Act of 1953. After careful investigation as to need, UNRWA made travel grants to 1,455 of these emigrants and, in addition, made all necessary travel arrangements. The average cost to the Agency of moving each refugee was $300.

34. Meanwhile, normal emigration of refugees to the United States and to other countries has continued, with the Agency providing the same assistance as that given to refugees emigrating under the Refugee Relief Act of 1953. For a few months after October 1956 emigration virtually came to a standstill, but it later regained momentum; in June 1957 alone, a total of fifty-three refugees emigrated abroad.

35. Altogether, the total number of emigrants (excluding those who emigrated under the Refugee Relief Act) who benefited from the Agency's assistance during the year under review, with the countries of destination, was as follows:


Australia ..................................................
Bolivia ....................................................
Brazil .....................................................
British Guiana .............................................
Canada .....................................................
Chile ......................................................
Colombia ...................................................
Federal Republic of Germany ................................
France .....................................................
Honduras ...................................................
Iran .......................................................
Ireland ....................................................
Kenya ......................................................
Kuwait .....................................................
Liberia ....................................................
Libya ......................................................
Mexico .....................................................
Morocco ....................................................
Pakistan ...................................................
Peru .......................................................
Qatar ......................................................
Saudi Arabia ...............................................
U.S.A.......................................................
Venezuela ..................................................

TOTAL
6
10
42
1
33
17
25
5
6
6
11
5
2
34
4
25
2
1
6
7
4
22
33
46

353

(b) Placement for jobs

36. The Agency's service to refugees seeking employment has been considerably enlarged. It should be noted, however, that greater success might have been achieved had it not been for complications caused by the political developments in the area and that there is still some hesitation on the part of the refugees to leave their present locations so near to their former homes in Palestine.

37. The Agency has also developed its relations with personnel departments of Governments and industries, particularly in the Persian Gulf area, in order to adapt its training and recruitment of refugees to fit their requirements. (As a result, 700 first-rate vacancy notices were received during the year under review from non-host countries alone.)

38. The demand for Palestine refugee schoolteachers has been particularly great. As a result of requests received from the Departments of Education of Bahrein, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Sudan, applications were filed by some 1,300 well qualified teachers, most of them trained by the Agency. These have been forwarded for consideration for employment at the beginning of the 1957-1958 academic year.

39. The Agency's placement activities have thus been steadily increasing; and the Agency plans to intensify its efforts in order to find new job opportunities for refugees wishing to work.

7. THE ECONOMIC BASIS OF SELF-SUPPORT

40. As in past years, the Agency has continued its economic surveys of Near and Middle East countries. These reports have assisted the Agency to make more intelligent planning and have also been of some value to the Governments concerned. Emphasis has been placed, during the year under review, on a study of
Jordan's economy, which was the subject of a special bulletin. This bulletin discussed three economic development phases and gave:

(a) An insight into the present distribution of land ownership in the Jordan Valley, both as regards privately owned and state domain lands;

(b) A comparison of recent plans to utilize the waters of the Jordan river and its tributaries which briefly appraised the five different schemes put forward for the utilization of the waters: the Bunger Plan, the TVA Plan, the Arab Plan, Israel's Seven Year Plan and the Baker/Harza Master Plan; and

(c) An account of the different industrial and agricultural projects which had been implemented or planned, whether financed by the Government or by private capital or both.

41. The Agency's economic staff has also prepared a number of subsidiary reports, including one on potential economic development in Syria, Egypt and Jordan, which dealt particularly with labour absorptive capacity and capital requirements; one on the impact of the November 1956 crisis on Jordan's and Syria's economies; and an analytical report with recommendations concerning the type, volume and geographical distribution of individual grants which should be made in Jordan.

42. A cost-of-living study in Gaza was undertaken which indicated a noticeable inflation resulting from an over-all increase in prices of commodities and from differences in foreign exchange rates as a result of events from October 1956 onwards. Another survey was conducted in Jordan comparing costs of living in
1956 with those in 1953. Finally, the regular compilation of basic statistics regarding the Agency's operation was continued.
SUMMARY

43. Statistical tables summarizing the Agency's expenditure and commitments for the self-support programme are appended herewith. These tables show:

(a) A summary of total expenditures on self-support projects from 1 January 1951 to 30 June 1957;

(b) The status of self-support projects and special activities in operation during the period 1 July 1956 to 30 June 1957 and their relation to the number of refugees rendered self-supporting;

(c) An over-all comparison between self-support funds spent and ration reductions resulting therefrom during the period January 1951 to 30 June 1957.
Table 1

SUMMARY OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES UNDER THE SELF-SUPPORT PROGRAMME
1 January 1951 to 30 June 1957
Description
1 January
to 30 June
1954
$
1 July 1954
to 30 June
1955
$
1 July 1955
to 30 June
1956
$
1 July 1956
to 30 June
1957
$
Total to
30 June
1957
$
Agricultural and lands
development...................
Commercial, financial and
industrial a/.................
Elementary and secondary
education.....................
Expenses and losses--Gaza
emergencies...................
Loans, grants, assistance to
individuals...................
Miscellaneous unclassified ....
Placement service .............
Rehabilitation administration..
Research, experimentation and
planning......................
Share of common services ......
Special activities b/ .........
Special camp facilities........
Urban housing and community
facilities....................
Vocational training and higher
education.....................

TOTAL
569,935

1,029,400

2,490,654

-

298,577
25,539
81,537
1,427,411

1,271,375
3,574,539
125,863
-

72,824

834,427

11,802,081
210,829

72,117

3,014,899

-

76,437
-
46,604
460,293

1,264,850
790,456
440,936
-

24,421

529,233

6,941,075
449,605

226,938

4,137,545

-

468,208
-
354,974
497,238

434,316
905,045
296,294
100,073

73,262

835,404

8,778,902 c/
657,922

(186,281)

4,551,869

248,296

1,580,588
-
381,779
245,120

300,450
993,632
322,347
97,524

58,774

912,249

10,164,269
1,888,291

1,142,174

14,194,967

248,296

2,423,810
25,539
864,894
2,630,062

3,270,991
6,263,672
1,185,440
197,597

229,281

3,111,313

37,676,327
a/ Relate to assistance given by the Agency to the Jordan Development Bank, the Ghor Nimrin Tent Factory and two loans in Iraq.
b/ Relate mostly to fundamental education centres and arts and crafts centres.
c/ It is to be noted that expenditures prior to 1 July 1956 under the various categories do not, in some cases, agree with those reported in the financial statements when cumulated for the same periods. This results from:
Table 2

STATUS OF PROJECTS, VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
IN OPERATION DURING THE PERIOD 1 JULY 1956 TO 30 JUNE 1957

Expenditures and ration reductions are cumulative from date of inception
Country CategoryNumber
Temporary
expenditures to
30 June 1957
$
Ration reductions
to 30 June 1957
Permanent Temporary
ration months
Egypt
Research, experimentation and planning

Gaza

Agricultural and land development
Vocational education
TOTAL, GAZA
Headquarters
Loans, grants, assistance to
individuals
Research, experimentation and planning
Special activities
Vocational education
TOTAL, HEADQUARTERS

Iraq
Commercial, financial and industrial

Jordan
Agricultural and land development
Commercial, financial and industrial
Loans, grants, assistance to
individuals
Research, experimentation and planning
Urban housing
Vocational education
TOTAL, JORDAN

Lebanon
Vocational education

Syria
Agricultural and land development
Loans, grants, assistance to
individuals
Vocational education
TOTAL, SYRIA
TOTAL, ALL COUNTRIES

Total all countries--by category:
Agricultural and land development
Commercial, financial and industrial
Loans, grants, assistance to
individuals
Research, experimentation and planning
Special activities
Urban housing
Vocational education

1



1
5

6



2
2
2
7

13


1


5
2

2
7
3
9

28


8


2

1
1

4

61
==

8
3

5
10
2
3
30

61
443,899



98,695
603,915

702,610



13,370
122,910
830,716
358,713

1,325,709


8,770


1,107,268
1,015,435

2,101,603
1,837,833
166,457
1,008,572

7,237,168


15,709


385,530

196,561
10,294

592,385

10,326,250
==========

1,591,493
1,024,205

2,311,534
2,404,642
830,716
166,457
1,997,203

10,326,250
-



7
72

79



1
22
134
215

372


5


1,743
63

4,555
67
404
391

7,223


18


409

1,825
29

2,263

9,960
=====

2,159
68

6,381
89
134
404
725

9,960
-



-
16

16



343
1,035
557
3,746

5,681


-


11,388
14,069

1,191
5,087
223
8,738

40,696


338


3,007

1,073
9

4,089

50,820
======

14,395
14,069

2,607
6,122
557
223
12,847

50,820
Notes: (1) "Commercial, financial and industrial" relates to assistance given to a motor service station in Iraq and to the Jordan Development Bank and the Ghor Nimrin Tent
Factory in Jordan.
(2) "Special activities" relate only to fundamental education centres and to arts and crafts centres operated in Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria but controlled by Headquarters.
Table 3

RATION REDUCTIONS RESULTING FROM PROJECTS, SPECIAL ACTIVITIES,
EDUCATION AND PLACEMENT ACTIVITIES

For the period 1 January 1951 to 30 June 1957

Category
Expenditures
1 January 1951
to 30 June 1957
$
Ration reductions
PermanentTemporary
ration months
Agricultural development ...............
Commercial, financial and industrial....
Loans, grants, assistance to individuals
Miscellaneous ..........................
Research, experimentation and planning..
Urban housing ..........................
Vocational education ...................

TOTAL PROJECTS

Elementary and secondary education......
Placement a/............................
Special activities .....................

GRAND TOTAL
1,888,291
1,142,174
2,423,810
25,539
3,270,991
229,281
3,111,313

12,091,399

14,194,967
864,894
1,185,440

28,336,700
2,543
286
6,783
-
99
657
4,667

15,035

5,712
2,798
252

23,797
18,183
17,784
3,519
-
16,780
223
47,021

103,510

21,393
14,153
1,223

140,279
a/ Placement also includes emigration under the U.S. Refugee Relief Act, normal emigration and repatriation.
ANNEX E

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

1. GENERAL

1. During the year under review, the number of children who benefited from the Agency's elementary and secondary education programme was 168,062
(1955-1956: 169,555). Of these, 114,705 (1955-1956: 111,890) attended elementary or secondary classes in one or other of the 372 schools (1955-1956: 350) maintained by the Agency. A total of 53,337 pupils (1955-1956: 57,665) were enrolled in government and private schools, under the Agency's grants-in-aid system. Some 250 (1955-1956: 408) students were enrolled at the Agency's two vocational training centres and 369 (1955-1956: 351) attended universities at the
Agency's expense. The reasons for the reduction in the number of trainees at the vocational training centres are given in para. 18 below. The number of teachers
employed by the Agency was 3,137 (1955-1956: 3,093).

2. Financial difficulties have to a certain extent restricted the UNRWA/UNESCO educational programme, especially as far as teacher training and
vocational training are concerned.

3. The general level of teachers is still improving as more candidates with full secondary education become available. An increasing number of teachers--especially those with high qualifications--are obtaining employment outside the area.

4. The number of girls in the Agency's schools is still increasing. Enrolment figures for girl pupils by year and by area since 1951 are shown in table 1.
Table 1

ENROLMENT OF GIRL PUPILS

AreaJune
1951
June
1952
June
1953
June
1954
June
1955
June
1956
June
1957
Gaza ...................
Jordan .................
Lebanon ................
Syria ..................

TOTAL
5,357
4,349
1,029
941

11,676
5,410
4,526
2,076
727

12,739
6,189
10,035
3,160
2,074

21,467
8,652
14,249
4,154
3,585

30,640
10,507
15,589
4,337
3,693

34,126
12,789
16,790
4,558
3,863

37,940
14,205
16,464
4,682
4,281

39,632


5. The handicraft programme, first introduced in Gaza, has this year been extended to Jordan, where eighteen units have been opened. In Gaza it suffered a severe but, fortunately, not a crippling blow in November 1955. Tools were missing and furnishings destroyed. Although the loss was heavy, normal instruction was resumed very quickly by the re-allocation of tools, etc., which were available in UNRWA stores. A marked improvement has taken place in the workmanship and beauty of the products of the centres. A summer vacation course was held in Jordan for the teachers who were to be employed in the handicraft units. It was so successful that it was decided to conduct a further course in the summer of 1957.

2. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

6. For the third year in succession there was a decrease in the number of pupils entering the lowest class of the elementary cycle. The new intake in 1956-1957 was 19,712, which should be compared with new intakes of 21,120 last year, 27,718 in 1954-1955 and 31,000 in 1953-1954. The large intakes during the year 1953-1955 correspond with the opening of many new schools, which gave an opportunity to many boys and girls between six and ten years of age to enter elementary education for the first time. The figures for 1955-1957 prove that more and more the new intakes consist of pupils who have reached the normal entry age of six years.

7. The total number of pupils registered in UNRWA/UNESCO elementary schools in May 1957 was 101,504 (63,439 boys and 38,065 girls). This compares with 102,007, 98,427 and 90,948 in the same month in 1956, 1955 and 1954 respectively. For the first time there is a decrease in the total number of pupils in the Agency's elementary schools, caused by the fact that the wave of elementary pupils of different ages who took the opportunity of education opened to them in the years 1952 to 1954 is now passing from elementary into secondary education.

8. The payment of grants-in-aid and fees for books on behalf of refugee pupils attending government and private elementary schools showed for the second time a decrease this year. This decrease is comparable to that in UNRWA/UNESCO schools. There were only 42,345 subsidized elementary school pupils in 1956-1957, as compared with 48,875 in 1955-1956, 55,964 in 1954-1955 and 52,069 in 1953-1954.

9. The total number of refugee pupils receiving elementary education at the Agency's expense was 143,849. This shows a further decline from the total
of the last two years of 150,882 over the period 1955-1956 and 154,391 for 1954-1955. The reasons for the decline have been discussed in paragraph 7 above. For the next academic year, however, and subject to the availability of funds, registration may be expected to increase reflecting the natural increase of the refugee population.

3. SECONDARY EDUCATION

10. The increasing number of pupils seeking secondary education continues to constitute a major and very pressing problem. The percentage of pupils allowed
to enter the secondary schools has again been raised by 2 1/2 per cent to an over-all of 15 per cent of the total elementary school population. The percentage for Gaza was fixed at 21.4 per cent, because of the very special situation there, whereas Jordan was allowed only 12.4 per cent. As a consequence, there were many pupils in government secondary schools in Jordan for whom no grants could be paid.

11. Table 2 shows the number of secondary school pupils according to school and area. Figures in parentheses are for 1955-1956.

Table 2

NUMBER OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS

Area Agency
schools
Government
schools
Private
schools
Totals
Gaza ...........
Jordan .........
Lebanon ........
Syria ..........
TOTAL
6,410(4,937)
4,608(3,062)
1,003( 948)
1,180( 936)13,201(9,883)
1,595(1,646)
4,295(2,484)
85 ( 62)
1,187(1,310)
7,162(5,502)
-- --
533(1,323)
2,177(1,473)
1,140( 492)
3,850(3,288)
8,005(6,583)
9,436(6,869)
3,265(2,483)
3,507(2,738)
24,213(18,673)

4. UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

12. Scholarships were awarded in the following faculties of the universities of the Middle East: agriculture, arts, commerce, dentistry, education, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, science, veterinary, tawjihi (post-matriculation year for Jordan students). As in the preceding year, care was taken to tighten the selection procedure and to ensure that all scholarshipholders were of the proper calibre. This was reflected in the gratifying standards attained by the students as well as by the number of those who graduated with
honours in June 1957.

13. The 369 scholarships granted during the academic year 1956-1957 were distributed over the four areas as shown in table 3 (figures in parentheses are
for 1955-1956).
Table 3
SCHOLARSHIP AWARDED
Gaza JordanLebanonSyriaTotals
97(90)156(149) 73(69)43(43)369(351)


14. As a result of the arrangement concluded last year between the Iraqi Ministry of Education and UNRWA, twelve refugee students were maintained in the various university faculties in Baghdad during the year 1956-1957. They were exempted from the payment of tuition fees, and UNRWA provided them with their expenses for board, lodging, and transport.

5. VOCATIONAL TRAINING

15. The year under review has, to a great extent, been devoted to the planning of additional training facilities to meet the growing demand for trained refugee personnel in the host countries as well as in the neighbouring Arab States. With the increased assurance of employment for all categories of skilled labour and trained people in the clerical fields, such as clerk/typists, as well as in the professional fields, such as site surveyors and draughtsmen, there is a steadily growing demand for this type of training by the young refugees, who foresee an independent future for themselves provided they are sufficiently trained. In consequence, applications for vocational training have been considerably greater than can be met by the existing facilities.

16. The expansion which was planned to start last year and which was unfortunately set aside, due to inadequacy of funds, consisted of two residential vocational training centres in Lebanon with an enrolment of 200 trainees in each, and one in Jordan with an enrolment of 400, as well as a residential agricultural centre in Lebanon for 120 trainees.

17. Past experience has shown how difficult it is to recruit qualified instructors in the Middle East and, considering that more than fifty instructors would be required to staff the projected centres, it was decided to set up a training unit for a selected number of experienced artisans, who would be trained as instructors while the centres were being constructed and equipped. At Kalandia Vocational Training Centre, near Jerusalem, where boarding and workshop facilities are available, a dormitory and classroom unit was constructed by the trainees of the Centre, and a comprehensive training programme was prepared by the international specialists. In short, all preparations were made to launch the programme and only the lack of funds postponed the project.

18. As a result of the Egyptian-Israeli incident, the Gaza Vocational Training Centre was closed for three months. In contrast to many of the Agency installations in the area, no looting and very little damage occurred to the buildings and equipment; they were used for the repair and maintenance of the Agency's transport and other installations which had been damaged, as well as for the production of immediate necessities. Last year's report mentioned that a temporary double-shift system had been put into effect, that preparations were under way to increase the existing workshop space to take 300 trainees on a single shift, and that plans for a dormitory to accommodate all the trainees had been prepared. It was expected that this expansion would be completed by the end of 1956. The November incident disrupted these plans and, by the time it was possible to resume them, financial restrictions were put into effect with the result that it was necessary to revert to a single shift of approximately 150 trainees, and to proceed with the construction of dormitories for that number only.

19. The Agricultural Training Centre in the Gaza strip has ceased to function. Practically all the farm equipment, including livestock, was removed and has not been returned. A small skeleton staff, consisting of two resident instructors and a group of labourers, continue to tend the farm lands belonging to the Centre.

20. In the Centres at Kalandia and Gaza, training was offered in twelve different trades. Table 4 shows the distribution of trainees by trades at the end of the session (1955-1956 totals are shown in parentheses).

Table 4

NUMBER OF TRAINEES

KalandiaGaza
Building trades
Builders a/ .................................
Carpenters .................................
Draughtsmen a/ ..............................
Plumbers a/ .................................
Electrical trades
Electricians ...............................
Radio mechanics ............................
Wiremen a/ ..................................
Mechanical trades
Auto mechanics .............................
Blacksmith/welders .........................
Blacksmith/sheet metal workers b/ ..........
Fitter machinists ..........................
Moulders b/ ................................

TOTAL
5
--
6
12

12
15
--

16
14
--
17
--

97-(136)
--
32
--
--

16
15
--

31
11
13
29
7

154-(272)
a/ Courses offered at Kalandia only.
b/ Courses offered at Gaza only.


It will be noted that the total number of trainees has fallen from 408 to 251. There are several reasons for this. As has been explained in paragraph 18, the temporary double shift at Gaza was abandoned. The single shift is fully manned. At Kalandia, a number of the trainees were offered and accepted employment before they had completed their training; the two courses shown without trainees finished shortly before the end of the session and, as it is desirable to phase the intakes to the courses with the output from the day schools, new intakes were postponed until the beginning of September. By then, the total number of trainees at the Centre will have risen to 172.

21. In addition to the training being carried out at the Agency's own centres, full-time and part-time courses have been conducted at government and private institutions in the host countries. These have consisted of courses in statistics, agriculture, etc., as well as in commercial and secretarial subjects.

6. FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION

22. During the period under review, the activities associated with fundamental education continued along the lines set out in the last annual report. A recent survey of the whole field of fundamental education centres showed that they were being well used and that two of the outstanding features were literacy teaching and the development of activities designed for women.

23. The extent to which the teaching of literacy has progressed over the last year can to some extent be judged by the number of people who, having acquired a reasonable standard of literacy in their native tongue, now struggle with the English language. It must be stressed here that this demand for English has come entirely from the refugees themselves, so that in Jordan alone eleven English classes have sprung up and are attended with enthusiasm by both men and women.

24. The centres for women's activities are notable for the influence which they are having on the home life of the camps, a fact repeatedly stressed by area
officers, and it has become commonplace to say that those women who have attended fundamental education centres at which literacy, sewing, dressmaking, embroidery and simple home economics are taught, are sought after as brides.

25. The teaching of handicrafts has proven to be worth while. As a result of the teaching of shoe-making and wood-working, a number of trainees have established themselves in small businesses.

26. During the year under review an effort was made, particularly in Jordan, to spread the idea of establishing small co-operative societies; it is pleasing to record that this has been taken up by several of the women's centres.

27. The statistical data given in the previous report remain unchanged except for a drop in the number of centres, due to the amalgamation, from seventy-eight to seventy-one. The number of staff employed shows a proportional decrease. Attendance at literacy classes remains at something over 4,000, the number varying according to seasonal activities in the camps. It can, however, be said with confidence that the accommodation available for this activity is generally fully occupied.

28. The statistics at the end of the session are shown in table 5.

Table 5

FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION STATISTICS

CountryNumber of
centres
Number of
members
Number of
instructors
Number of
classes
Gaza ...........
Jordan .........
Lebanon ........
Syria ..........
TOTAL
22
28
10
11
71
1,925
1,997
544
511
4,977
32
45
14
15
103
46
80
18
25
169


7. TEACHER TRAINING

29. In 1956-1957 academic year, twenty new women and eighty new men trainees were admitted, bringing the total number of trainees up to forty in the women's training centre at Nablus and up to 100 in the men's training centre at Ramallah. The women came directly from secondary schools, but from different levels, and the men had all completed secondary education in 1955-1956.

30. Financial difficulties forced UNRWA to close the centres. The forty original trainees took and passed a practical teaching examination conducted by the Jordan Ministry of Education.

31. The decision to close the centres was taken with great reluctance and was received with deep disappointment by staff, students and government officials.
All concerned fully realize the effect this decision will have on the level of education in the future. The Agency will certainly consider re-opening the centres as soon as funds are available, especially as there is a large and urgent demand for teachers throughout the Middle East.

8. PHYSICAL FACILITIES

32. The Agency's building programme was affected by the decision to stop all construction temporarily, because of the lack of funds. If this decision continues to apply over the whole of next year, the situation in the already over-crowded class-rooms will become more serious, the more so as it is very difficult to rent rooms.

9. UNESCO STAFF AND SERVICES

33. UNESCO has continued to recruit, and to pay the salaries of, the greater part of the body of the international specialists who direct the education and training activities of UNRWA. The number of these specialists decreased by three as a result of the closure of the teacher-training centres mentioned under paragraph 31; UNESCO has also supplied books and materials for the pilot teacher- training project in which it has taken a particular interest.



UNRWA/UNESCO SCHOOLS SHOWING NUMBER OF PUPILS PER CLASS AT THE END OF MAY 1957

Elementary classes

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Total
Country
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Gaza
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria

TOTAL
2,853
4,047
1,818
1,383

10,101
3,028
3,536
1,283
1,071

8,918
2,702
4,163
1,835
1,044

9,744
2,812
3,678
1,228
725

8,443
3,780
5,332
1,783
1,301

12,196
2,658
3,696
1,004
799

8,157
4,651
5,330
1,292
1,417

12,690
2,413
3,135
591
770

6,909
4,223
4,620
1,094
1,356

11,293
1,550
1,531
353
455

3,889
3,319
2,836
703
557

7,415
887
527
171
164

1,749
21,528
26,328
8,525
7,058

63,439
13,348
16,103
4,630
3,984

38,065
GRAND TOTAL
19,019
18,187
20,353
19,599
15,182
9,164
101,504
Secondary classes
I
II
III
IV
V
Total
Country
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
Gaza
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria

TOTAL
2,927
2,179
627
349

6,082

535
290
46
144

1,015
2,626
1,184
324
249

4,383
322
71
6
86

485
--
550
--
285

835
--
--
--
67

67
--
230
--
--

230
--
--
--
--

--
--
104
--
--

104
--
--
--
--

--
5,553
4,247
951
883

11,634
857
361
52
29

1,567
GRAND
TOTAL
7,097
4,868
902
230
104
13,201



DISTRIBUTION OF PALESTINE REFUGEE CHILDREN RECEIVING EDUCATION AS AT MAY 1957

Area
Number
of
UNRWA/
UNESCO
schools
Elementary classes
Secondary classes
Total number of
assisted refugee pupils in elementary and secondary classes in
Total
number of
refugees
receiving
education
Estimated
number of
refugee
population
April
1957
Percentage of total
refugee population
receiving education
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Government schools
Private
schools
June
1954
May
1955
May
1956
May
1957
Gaza
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria

TOTAL
74
183
49
66

372
21,528
26,328
8,525
7,058

63,439
13,348
16,103
4,630
3,984

38,065
34,876
42,431
13,155
_11,042

101,504
5,553
4,247
951
883

11,634
857
361
52
297

1,567
6,410
4,608
1,003
1,180

13,201
1,595
23,984
1,176
7,121

33,876
--
8,139
9,081
2,261

19,481
42,881
79,162
24,415
21,604

168,062
216,914
517,536
109,145
95,629

939,224
17.7
14.15
20.4
22.8

17.6
19.05
15.5
22.65
22.18

17.73
20.04
15.8
23.02
24

18.4
19.76
15.29
22.36
22.59

17.89



ANNEX F


FINANCIAL OPERATIONS

INTRODUCTION

1. For reasons explained in the last two annual reports, and after consultation with the Advisory Committee for Administrative and Budgetary Questions, the Agency is in the process of changing its accounting period from one commencing 1 July and ending 30 June to a calendar year basis. In order to do so, the current fiscal period perforce extends over eighteen months, from 1 July 1956 to 31 December 1957. The Agency's financial statements for the entire fiscal period, together with the report of the auditors, will be published early in 1958.

2. The present annex, which gives a preliminary view of the Agency's financial operations for the eighteen months ending 31 December 1957, is based
upon actual figures for the first twelve months of the fiscal period, and upon estimates for the final six months.

2. FINANCIAL REPORT
(1 July 1956-30 June 1957)

(a) Budget and expenditure

3. The Agency's current budget was reviewed by the General Assembly at its eleventh session, when the Agency was authorized to carry out its programmes
for the relief and rehabilitation of refugees "bearing in mind the limitation imposed upon it by the extent of the contributions for the fiscal year". Since this budget covered the full eighteen months from July 1956 to December 1957, and since figures for actual expenditure are available only for the first twelve months, it is not feasible to compare the two sets of figures except in a general way. Excluding provision for the Yarmuk-Jordan and Sinai projects, the budget called for total expenditure of $65.4 million, of which $43.4 million was for relief and $22.0 million was for rehabilitation. Expenditure during the twelve months ending 30 June 1957 amounted to a total of $35.2 million, of which $25 million was on relief and $10.2 million on rehabilitation, i.e., considerably below the rate of expenditure originally foreseen in the budget. This expenditure, by major categories, was as follows:

Table 1

EXPENDITURE
(In thousands of US dollars)

1 July 1956
to
30 June 1957
Relief programme
Basic subsistence .......................
Supplementary feeding ...................
Health care .............................
Shelter and camps .......................
Social welfare ..........................
Clothing for children ...................
Registration and eligibility ............
Transport within UNRWA area .............
Stores control and warehousing ..........
Relief administration ...................
Share of common services ................
Expenses and losses due to Gaza emergency.
Operational reserve .....................

TOTAL, RELIEF PROGRAMME

Rehabilitation programme
General education .......................
Vocational education ....................
Placement services ......................
Social camp facilities ..................
Special activities ......................
Projects ................................
Rehabilitation and administration .......
Share of common services ................
Expenses and losses due to Gaza emergency.

TOTAL, REHABILITATION PROGRAMME

TOTAL OF ALL PROGRAMMES
14,157
1,438
2,584
1,802
477
359
325
1,370
799
486
994
227
--

25,018


4,552
912
382
98
322
2,412
245
993
248

10,164

35,182


4. Total expenditure of $475,000 arising from the Gaza emergency was, of course, not envisaged in the original budget. Expenditure on basic subsistence was
less than anticipated because prices of basic commodities fortunately remained on the average lower than forecasts.

5. Early in 1957, it became evident that income would not be sufficient to enable the Agency to implement all the provisions of the budget, and a number
of activities were consequently deferred or, if a start had been made, were reduced in scope. These measures have not as yet appreciably affected the standards of relief services, but the rehabilitation programme has been curtailed substantially. The principal items of under-expenditure (as compared with the 1956-1957 budget) were the following:


$ Relief programme
(a) 1,835,000 By not introducing special proposals for improvements in relief
standards;
(b) 1,000,000 By bringing a halt to most new construction, particularly
replacement of unsatisfactory shelter and other construction
and equipment in existing camps;
(c) 400,000 By bringing to a halt the children's clothing programme;
(d) 1,200,000 Representing the budgeted operational reserve which was not and
is not expected to be allotted for expenditure.


4,435,000 TOTAL


$ Rehabilitation programme
(a) 1,500,000 By deferring construction of new classrooms and other
improvements for general education;
(b) 2,100,000 By deferring construction and operation of new vocational
training centres;
(c) 500,000 By deferring construction of new camps;
(d) 350,000 By reducing the fundamental education programme;
(e) 3,200,000 By bringing to an end all project activity other than those
already in progress.


7,650,000 TOTAL


(b) Income

6. Table 2 shows income actually received for the period 1 July 1956--
30 June 1957:

Table 2

INCOME
(In thousands of US dollars)

TotalReliefRehabilitation
Contributions from Governments:
From prior years' pledges..........
From current pledges...............
Other income .......................

TOTAL INCOME-TWELVE MONTHS
4,514
23,750
590

28,854
1,126
23,739
437

25,302
3,388
11
153

3,552


7. Appended to this annex is table 7 which shows the details of contributions from Governments for the period. As will be seen from this table, thirty-eight Governments (including those of the host countries) contributed to the Agency between July 1956 and June 1957, of which thirty-one were Members of the United Nations. However, as in the past, over 90 per cent of total relief income came from two countries--the United States and the United Kingdom. Attention is also drawn to the fact that, of total contributions for relief, about $23.7 million came from pledges made during the period, and $1.1 million in payments of pledges from prior years. There are now virtually no outstanding pledges for relief, and income for relief will in future depend upon new pledges. Attention is further drawn to the fact (which cannot be inferred from the table) that a significant portion of the income for relief was not received by the Agency until almost the close of the reporting period. Consequently, although the accounts reveal that a total of $25.3 million was contributed for relief, i.e., slightly more than expenditure, the Agency did not know until well into June 1957 what its total relief contributions would amount to for the twelve-month period; moreover, the money was not always available at the time when it was needed and the Agency had to use its reserves to cover its expenses pending the receipt of relief contributions.
(c) Excess of expenditure over income

8. As a result of the reductions in relief expenditure described in paragraph 5 above, expenditure on relief remained slightly ($300,000) below income. Expenditure on rehabilitation, however, exceeded current income by 6.6 million, thus reducing the working capital designated for the rehabilitation programme.
(d) Assets and liabilities

9. As of 30 June 1957, the Agency had total assets of $25,373,599, including $17,384,414 in cash on hand or with banks and other agents and $6,793,152 in supply inventories. Against these assets, the Agency had liabilities and reserves to meet liabilities amounting to $4,237,664. These liabilities and reserves consist mainly of funds required to implement contractual commitments to the staff, e.g. terminal payments, etc. Net assets (working capital) thus amounted to only $21,135,935.

10. The changes in assets and liabilities, resulting from the operations of the twelve months ending 30 June 1957, are as follows:

Table 3

CHANGES IN ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
1 July 1956--30 June 1957
(In millions of US dollars)

30 June
Decrease
(Increase)
1957
1956
Total assets ...................
Less liabilities and reserves....

NET ASSETS
25.3
4.2

21.1
30.2
3.0

27.2
4.9
(1.2)

6.1


11. Although total working capital amounted to $21.1 million, $6.8 million was, as indicated above, invested in supply inventories and a further $5.0 million was tied up in contingent liabilities in the form of goods on order for future delivery. The total investment of $11.8 million constituted the Agency's pipeline of supplies, representing about four to six months' requirements. Thus, after deducting the value of the pipeline and of non-liquid receivables amounting to $0.7 million, working capital available for operational purposes on 30 June 1957 stood at only $8.6 million. Table 4 gives an analysis of working capital as at
30 June 1957 and shows the breakdown as between relief and rehabilitation:

Table 4

ANALYSIS OF WORKING CAPITAL
As at 30 June 1957
(In thousands of US dollars)

TotalReliefRehabilitation
Working capital .................

Deduct portion not available for
operational purposes
Investment in inventories and
goods on order, etc.............
11,800 11,400 400
Non-liquid receivables ..........

TOTAL DEDUCTIONS

Working capital available for
operational purposes at 30 June
1957 ..........................
21,136




11,800

700

12,500



8,636
16,161




11,400

700

12,100



4,061
4,975




400

--

400



4,575
3. ESTIMATES COVERING FINANCIAL OPERATIONS

(1 July 1957--30 December 1957)

12. As a result of the reductions in expenditure described in paragraph 5 above, and assuming there are no unforeseen and unavoidable increases in costs, it is expected that expenditure for relief in the six months ending 31 December 1957 can be restricted to $12.3 million, and for rehabilitation to $3.9 million.
It is estimated that income for the same period will amount to $12.1 million for relief and $1.7 million for rehabilitation.

13. As regards relief income, the estimates assume the payment of virtually all pledges now outstanding, and the pledging and payment by all regular contributors of an amount equivalent pro rata to that pledged and paid for the preceding twelve months. (A payment in early July by the United Kingdom of $2.2 million for this six-month period has been included in the estimated figure for relief income.) Estimates of income for rehabilitation take into account the payment by the United Kingdom in early July of $500,000 and assume a payment by the United States of $1.2 million representing half of its contribution for this purpose in the period 1956-1957. They do not include estimates of any pledges or payments from other sources; although such pledges and payments are urgently needed, there have thus far been no indication that such will be forthcoming.

14. If the foregoing estimates prove correct, expenditure for relief will slightly exceed income (by $268,000) and expenditure for rehabilitation will exceed income by $2.2 million, making a total excess of expenditure over income of $2.4 million. This excess will, as in the past, have to be met from working capital, with the result that the amount thereof available for operational purposes will have been reduced to only $6.2 million by 31 December 1957, of which $3.8 million will be for relief and $2.4 million for rehabilitation. These amounts will be sufficient to finance barely two months of operations and are totally
inadequate in terms of sound financial practice for an agency with programmes of the type and magnitude operated by UNRWA.

4. GENERAL SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL OPERATIONS

(1 July 1956--31 December 1957)

15. On the basis of the two sets of data presented and discussed above--actual expenditure and income to 30 June 1957 and estimated expenditure and income to 31 December 1957--it is estimated that total expenditure for the eighteen-month period will amount to $51.4 million, compared with a budget of $65.4 million. (Table 6 appended hereto compares estimated total expenditure with the budget by major categories of expenditure.) Estimated total income, however, will amount to $42.6 million, leaving a net excess of expenditure of $8.8 million which must be met by drawing down working capital available for operational purposes. (Because of adjustments for prior years and reductions in inventory investment, such working capital will have declined in fact by $8.1 million, i.e., from $14.3 million at 1 July 1956 to $6.2 million at 31 December 1957.) Table 5 summarizes the estimated total excess of expenditure over income.

Table 5

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE
(In thousands of US dollars)
TotalReliefRehabilitation
1 July 1956 to 31 December 1957
Expenditure (estimated)..........
Income (estimated) .............

Excess of expenditure over income..
51,417
42,661

8,756
37,356
37,372

(16)
14,061
5,289

8,772


16. Since the foregoing table shows that estimated income for relief during the eighteen-month period will approximately equal expenditure, it should be noted that this is only due to the receipt of $1.1 million in payments of pledges that were outstanding from prior years at the beginning of the reporting period. There are now, and as at 31 December 1957 will be, virtually no such pledges outstanding. Thus, income for relief in 1958 must come from pledges made and paid for the period. A fuller discussion of requirements for 1958 in both the relief and rehabilitation fields is contained in annex G.


Table 6
BUDGET AND EXPENDITURE

(In thousands of US dollars)

Estimated
Expenditure
1 July 1956 to
31 December 1957
Budget
1 July 1956 to
31 December 1957
Relief programme
Basic subsistence ..................
Supplementary feeding ..............
Health care ........................
Shelter and camps ..................
Social welfare .....................
Clothing for children ..............
Registration and eligibility.........
Transport within UNRWA area .........
Stores control and warehousing ......
Relief administration ..............
Share of common services ...........
Expenses and losses due to
Gaza emergency ....................
Operational reserve ................

TOTAL, RELIEF PROGRAMME

Rehabilitation programme
General education ..................
Vocational education ...............
Placement services .................
Special camp facilities ............
Special activities .................
Projects ...........................
Rehabilitation and administration ...
Share of common services ...........
Expenses and losses due to
Gaza emergency ....................

TOTAL, REHABILITATION PROGRAMME

TOTAL OF ALL PROGRAMMES
21,376
2,163
3,792
2,632
674
558
492
2,007
1,247
724
1,464

227
--

37,356


6,837
1,342
453
99
446
2,848
325
1,463

248

14,061

51,417
22,222
3,795
4,517
3,914
669
960
516
2,233
1,064
768
1,507

--
1,200

43,365


8,559
3,503
651
609
801
6,000
435
1,507

--

22,065

65,430


Table 7

PLEDGES AND CONTRIBUTIONS FROM GOVERNMENTS TO UNRWA
For the twelve months ended 30 June 1957
(Expressed in US dollars)

Pledges
Contributions
received
Balance of
unpaid pledges
Name of
contributor
Description
Unpaid
from prior year
For
1956-1957
From
prior years' pledges
From
1956-1957 pledges
Prior years' pledges
1956-1967
pledges
Australia ......
Austria ........
Bahrein ........
Belgium ........
Brazil .........
Burma ..........
Cambodia .......
Canada .........

Canada .........
Ceylon .........
Denmark ........
Egypt ..........

Egypt ..........

Finland ........
France .........
France .........
France .........
France .........

Greece .........
Greece .........
Gaza
authorities
Federal Republic
of Germany.....
India ..........

Indonesia ......
Iran ...........
Israel .........

Japan ..........
Jordan .........
Jordan .........

Jordan .........
Korea ..........
Lebanon ........

Lebanon ........

Luxembourg......
Monaco .........
Morocco ........
Netherlands.....
New Zealand.....

Norway .........
Philippines.....
Pakistan .......
Pakistan .......
Qatar ..........
Saudi Arabia....
Saudi Arabia....
Sweden .........

Switzerland.....
Syria ..........
Turkey .........
United Kingdom..
United Kingdom..
United States ..
United States...
Uruguay ........
Yugoslavia ....
Yugoslavia .....
£50,000 Australian
US dollars
£700 sterling
2,500,000 Belgian francs
US dollars
30 tons of rice
US dollars
Canadian dollars 200,000 and flour
($300,000)
Canadian dollars 750,000
£500 sterling
300,000 Danish kroner
Transport, rents and port services to
31 October 1956
Transport, rents and port services
1 April to 31 December 1957
US dollars
250.8 million French francs a/
100 million French francs
100 million French francs
Rent of camp and warehouse sites to
31 December 1957
30 tons of raisins
30 tons of raisins
Rent of clinics and land to
31 December 1957

105,000 German marks
Medical services, supplies and
equipment
US dollars
250,000 rials
Transport, wharfage and port services
(1 November 1956 to 6 March 1957) US dollars
Water and camp rents
Water and camp rents to 31 December
1957 (see also footnote b/)
Medical supplies
US dollars
Refund of port charges (1 Nov. 49
to 30 June 51)
Water and rent of camp sites to
31 December 1957
2,000 US dollars
200,000 French francs
2,000,000 French francs
245,000 Dutch guilders
£50,000 sterling (cash and/or
commodities)
450,000 Norwegian kroner
US dollars
100,000 Pakistani rupees
100,000 Pakistani rupees
£3,750 sterling a/
1,000 tons of fuel
2,000 tons of fuel and 60,000 USdollars
450,000 Swedish kronor (to 31 December
1957) (see footnote d/)
Hospital equipment (balance of pledge)
Rents and transport to 31 December 1957
Turkish pounds or supplies
£3,142,914 sterling a/
£1,571,429 sterling
US dollars a/
US dollars
US dollars
Relief supplies
Cash or supplies

TOTAL
--
--
--
--
25,000
--
--

500,000
--
--
43,478

--

--
--
716,571 a/
285,714
--

--
11,000
--

--

--

31,499
30,000
3,350

--
--
120,400

--
--
2,000

107,820

--
--
286
--
--

--
--
--
21,000
--
--
55,480
--

--
19,234
--
5,000
8,800,159 a/
--
30,943,055a/
--
5,000
40,000
--

41,766,046
112,500
1,050
1,960
50,000
--
2,972
5,042

--
772,500
1,400
43,478

51,888

146,000
2,000
--
--
285,714

33,942
--
11,000

42,187

24,997

--
30,000
--

135,957
10,000
--

50,400
777
--

--

11,910
2,000
286
5,714
64,474 a/

140,000
63,202
1,250
--
21,000
10,500 a/
--
170,960

86,872 c/
--
103,300
--
--
4,400,001
--
17,500,000
--
--
40,000 c/

24,437,233
--
--
--
--
--
--
--

500,000
--
--
43,478

--

--
--
16,571 a/
285,714
--

--
11,000
--

--

--

14,210
30,000
3,350

--
--
120,400

--
--
2,000

--

--
--
286
--
--

--
--
--
21,000
--
--
54,169
--

--
322
--
--
1,000,000 a/
--
2,372,000 a/
--
--
40,000
--

4,514,500
112,500
1,050
1,960
30,000
--
--
5,042

--
708,125
1,400
43,478

51,888

38,000
2,000
--
--
142,857

22,656
--
--

26,986

24,997

--
30,000
--

135,957
10,000
--

33,600
777
--

--

7,865
2,000
286
5,714
32,895

112,000
42,135
1,250
--
21,000
10,500a/
--
60,000

57,915
--
72,857
--
--
4,400,001
--
17,500,000
--
--
--

23,749,691
--
--
--
--
25,000
--
--

--
--
--
--

--

--
--
700,000a/
--
--

--
--
--

--

--

17,289
--
--

--
--
--

--
--
--

107,820

--
--
--
--
--

--
--
--
--
--
--
1,311
--

--
18,912
--
5,000
7,800,159a/
--
28,571,055a/
--
5,000
--
--

37,251,546
--
--
--
20,000
--
2,972
--

--
64,375
--
--

--

108,000
--
--
--
142,857

11,286
--
11,000

15,201

--

--
--
--

--
--
--

16,800
--
--

--

4,045
--
--
--
31,579

28,000
21,067
--
--
--
--
--
110,960

28,957
--
30,443
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
40,000

687,542
a/ Designated by the contributor for the rehabilitation programme. Payments by the United States against its pledge for this purpose are like its contributions to the Agency's relief programme, limited by the stipulation that they may not exceed 70 per cent of total contributions received for the purpose.
b/ By agreement Jordan is to contribute JD.5,000 (US $14,000) monthly, but no payments have been received since end of November 1952, excepting the value of water and camp rents to 30 June 1957 valued at $154,000 as shown above.
c/ Subject to parliamentary approval.
d/ In addition to the above Sweden has pledged 150,000 Swedish kronor
(US $28,957) covering the six months to 30 June 1958.

General note:

The foregoing table, taken from the Agency's financial report for the twelve months ended 30 June 1957, is reproduced infull in this annex so as to provide information with regard to income that is directly comparable with the figures for actual expenditure for the same period, the latest date for which such information is available. As of the date of writing this report (mid-September), however, data on contributions received was available through 31 August 1957, and is summarized in this note for information.
In the two months of July and August 1957, the Agency received total contributions of $2.9 million, of which $2.7 million represented a payment from the United Kingdom for the six months ending 31 December 1957, of which $2.2 million was for relief and $0.5 million for rehabilitation. The balance of approximately $200,000 was made up of a variety of smaller payments from several countries, including the continued rendering of services by the host countries valued at their monthly rates as well as services and/or supplies from France, India and Turkey, and payments in cash from Belgium ($20,000), France ($71,429), Japan ($5,000), New Zealand ($28,000), Norway ($21,067), Pakistan ($10,482) and Sweden ($28,957). The Cambodian contribution sent in error to UNRWA instead of UNTAA, has been repaid and subsequent accounts adjusted accordingly.
With regard to pledges for relief still outstanding, the following may be noted: the rice from Burma is reported to be en route; the payment of the balance of the Canadian pledge is expected in October or November; the raisins from Greece are expected shortly after the crop is gathered in the fall; the outstanding pledge of the Netherlands represents an additional pledge for 1956-1957 and payment is expected before 31 December 1957; the kerosene from Saudi Arabia is available and will be called upon for distribution during the coming winter; and discussions with Yugoslavia are going on with regard to the type of supplies that can be made available and will be useful to the Agency.



ANNEX G


BUDGET FOR FISCAL PERIOD 1958

INTRODUCTION

1. Submitted herewith is the Agency's budget for the fiscal period 1958 (1 January-31 December 1958). It is estimated that during this period the Agency will require $40,660,000 in order to enable it to carry out the minimum essential programme of relief services ($25,660,000) and the basic essentials of a rehabilitation programme ($15 million). Details of these programmes are given in the attached table and in paragraphs 5 to 67 below. The problem of financing the 1958 budget is treated in paragraphs 68 to 70.

2. It must be emphasized that the programmes and activities provided for in this budget are the minimum ones that the Agency can and should carry out in both the relief and the rehabilitation fields in pursuance of the tasks assigned to it by the General Assembly. In fact, there are several areas in which the Agency would like to see the programmes expanded or improved, and it is only because of past experience and the present outlook that the 1958 budget does not provide for such expansions and improvements. Should larger amounts be contributed to the Agency than experience would indicate, it would wish to provide for such things on a selective basis. This is also a minimum budget with regard to the amounts of money that it is estimated will be required to carry out the programmes incorporated therein, great care having been taken to relate estimates of funds required to actual expenditure to date in 1957. It must also be emphasized that, to finance any budget along the lines hereby presented, it will be necessary for the Agency to receive contributions fully equal to expenditure and in advance of that expenditure, inasmuch as the Agency's available working capital will have been virtually exhausted by 31 December 1957.

3. Previously, it has been customary to compare the budget of one fiscal period with the budget for the preceding fiscal period. On this occasion, the 1958 budget estimates have been compared with estimated expenditure during the calendar year 1957 (based upon actual expenditure during the first seven months of the year). There are two reasons for this departure from normal practice. First, the preceding fiscal period in this case covers eighteen months (in order to permit the transfer of our accounts to a calendar year basis) whereas the present budget covers twelve months only. Secondly, shortage of funds brought about reductions in expenditure or the elimination of a number of items which would have involved expenditure in 1957, so that comparison with estimated expenditure over the whole of 1957 is probably more significant than comparison with a part of the 1956-1957 budget.

4. It should be emphasized that the 1958 estimates are based upon the assumption that supply prices, particularly those for basic food commodities, will not rise beyond the levels of 1957. Should a significant price variation occur, this would modify the amounts of funds which will be required.
1. RELIEF PROGRAMME

(a) General

5. The budget of $25,660,000 for the relief programme provides only for continuation of services at essentially the same minimum standards and levels as
prevailed in 1956/57, and at the same commodity price levels. Minimum, but unavoidable, additional provision has been made for population increases and for normal staff salary increments, but virtually no provision has been made for construction or equipment except for the replacement of worn-out shelters in camps and for essential sanitation facilities, plus a modest provision to meet the ever-increasing demands for additional shelter. In short, this budget represents the minimum essential requirements for food, shelter and medical care, at standards below which the Agency cannot operate without grave risk to the well- being of the refugees.

(b) Basic subsistence

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$14,850,000 $14,600,000

6. This budget heading provides for a ration of flour, rice, sugar, lentils, dates and other basic dry commodities giving approximately 1,500 calories daily in summer and 1,600 calories daily in winter for an average of 842,300 beneficiaries. Also included are a ration of 150 grammes of soap per month and one
blanket per three persons per year for the same number of beneficiaries, and a ration of 1 1/2 litres of kerosene per person per month during five months of winter for 380,000 persons in camps.

7. The cost of basic subsistence includes (in addition to the purchase cost of supplies) port costs on supplies, their transport to field warehouses, control of their quality, and their distribution to entitled recipients. The costs of warehousing of commodities, however, and transportation from warehouses to distribution centres are provided for under "Stores control and warehousing" in section (i) and under "Transport within the UNRWA area" in section (h) below.

8. The increase of $250,000 over 1957 estimated expenditure covers staff increments and a modest provision for an increase in the refugee population. As stated in paragraph 5 above, no provision has been made for possible commodity price increases over 1957 levels.
(c) Supplementary feeding

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$1,520,000 $1,480,000

9. This budget heading provides for special rations supplementing the basic subsistence ration for certain categories of refugees who require additional food, as follows:

Type of ration
Calories
per day
Type of
beneficiary
Number of
beneficiaries
(i) Whole milk........
(ii) Skim milk ........


(iii) One hot meal
per day ..........
(iv) Special ration of
flour, rice, etc..
(v) Special ration of
flour, rice, etc..
(vi) Vitamin rations...
195
175



600/650

500

1,500/1,600
--
Babies 0-1 year
Children age 1-15 }
Nursing and pregnant women }
Special medical cases }

Special nutrition cases

Nursing and pregnant women

Non-hospitalized TB cases
School children }
Nursing and pregnant women }
Special medical cases }
12,650

197,406


48,030

26,150

1,550

155,500

10. The cost of supplementary feeding is computed in the same manner, and with the same reservation respecting warehousing and transport, as noted for basic
subsistence in paragraph 6 above, but it includes also provision for the cost of reconstituting and sterilizing dried milk powder and for the preparation and serving of the hot meals.

11. The increase of $40,000 over the 1957 estimated expenditure is principally due to the fact that, in early 1957, feeding activity in the Gaza strip was still at a very low level following the Israel movement into the
strip in late 1956. Operations in the Gaza strip are now back at normal levels, however.
(d) Health care

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$2,500,000 $2,500,000

12. This budget heading covers both preventive and curative medical treatment in clinics and hospitals for approximately 900,000 refugees, including general medical care, dental care, mental health care and special tuberculosis control measures.

13. The computed costs of health care cover all costs associated with the health care programme except for the transport of medical supplies within the UNRWA area, which are provided for separately (see section (h) below).

14. Although the 1958 budget is the same as the 1957 estimated expenditure, the former contains no provision for construction and equipment, on which $90,000 will be expended in 1957. The savings in construction have been absorbed by necessary increases in recurrent costs, including larger provision for Bhannes Sanitorium for tuberculosis patients (which was in operation only during the last eight months of 1957), larger provision for operations in the Gaza strip (which were unavoidably at very low levels during early 1957 but have now returned to normal) and normal staff increments.
(e) Shelter and camps
1958 budget 1957 estimate
$1,730,000 $1,530,000

15. This budget heading covers the provision and maintenance of shelter for approximately 380,000 refugees, together with water supplies, sanitation facilities, insect and rodent control, etc. (These latter provisions also apply to approximately 35,000 additional refugees who have established themselves on the outskirts of UNRWA camps.)

16. The 1958 budget provision includes the following requirements:


1958
budget
$
1957
estimate
$
(i)

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Recurring costs of shelter repair,
sanitation, water supply, etc. ......
Replacement of worn-out shelter......
Provision of additional shelter......
Miscellaneous construction (latrines, incinerators, roads, etc.)
830,000
650,000
150,000

100,000

1,730,000
810,000
520,000
50,000

150,00

1,530,000


17. The increase of $20,000 in the provision for recurring costs represents provision for urgently needed improvements in sanitation operations in Jordan and for normal staff increments.

18. The provision of $650,000 for shelter replacement represents continuation of a programme started in 1956 and continued in 1957, aimed at replacing wornout tents with permanent shelter rather than with new tents. Although construction of a permanent shelter initially costs somewhat more than provision of a tent, it costs much less in the long run (requiring no replace-
ment and much lower maintenance cost) and provides an infinitely better form of shelter. Prior to 1957, replacement of worn-out tents with new tents absorbed
from $200,000 to $300,00 per year of shelter funds, while their annual repair required additional thousands of dollars. By 1957, the programme of replacing worn-out tents with permanent shelter had progressed to the extent that virtually no new tents were expected to be bought that year. No provision at all is made for 1958 for buying new tents, subject to the availability of sufficient funds to continue the programme of replacing worn-out tents with permanent shelter. Should funds provided for this purpose in 1958 be inadequate, however, it will be necessary for the Agency to use whatever funds are provided for the purchase of tents, since some form of shelter must be provided for the thousands of refugee families in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria whose present tents will become unusable in 1958.

19. The provision of $150,000 for additional shelter (as distinguished from replacement or worn-out shelter) is sufficient to provide shelter for only about 15,000 persons and represents the most pressing needs arising from social changes, expanding families, etc. The increase of $100,000 over 1957 estimated expenditures is necessary to provide not only for new requirements which will arise in 1958 but also for those unmet needs which arose in prior years and have now become doubly urgent.

20. The inclusion of $100,000 under the heading of miscellaneous camp construction is for the provision of urgently needed additional sanitation facilities, principally latrines. Other camp facilities (bath-houses, slaughter houses, better drainage, etc.) which are also needed, have been excluded from the estimates as being of a lower priority of need.
(f) Social welfare

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$590,000 $480,000

21. This budget heading covers the following activities:

(i) $240,000 for case work among those refugees who are in particular need of assistance--widows, orphans, the aged, the chronically sick and the permanently handicapped in circumstances of exceptional hardship--together with limited assistance towards burial costs and to religious institutions serving the refugees.

(ii) $200,000 for ocean freight and distribution of donated clothing (which will be in 1958 the only source of clothing for the refugees). It is due mainly to the generous efforts of voluntary agencies that clothing of the refugees is possible. The Agency's contributions towards the programme covers only the cost of ocean freight, transportation within UNRWA area, and (in some cases) final distribution.

In 1957, the Agency expects to spend $500,000 on its recently initiated programme for the provision of new clothing for children. In view of the uncertainty concerning the adequacy of expected contributions, it has reluctantly been decided to delete this item from the 1958 budget as being of less pressing importance to the well-being of the refugees than food, medical care and shelter. The refugees' need for clothing nevertheless remains and increases each year.

(iii) $150,000 for operation of a limited number of community centres where facilities already exist and are definitely contributing to the welfare of appreciable numbers of refugees. This activity was formerly charged to the rehabilitation programme budget heading of "Special activities" and covered fundamental education and community centres as well as welfare centres. Reduction and reorganization of this activity has led to transfer of the budget for such centres as will remain in operation, to the "Social welfare" heading under the relief programme.

22. The increase of $110,000 over 1957 estimated expenditure is due to the above-mentioned transfer to this budget heading of community centres ($150,000),
partially offset by an anticipated reduction in freight costs on donated clothing ($40,000).
(g) Registration and eligibility

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$330,000 $325,000

23. This budget heading provides for the cost of registering refugees, determining their eligibility for Agency assistance and preparing operational statistics on health, education and other aspects of the Agency's work.

24. The increase over 1957 estimated expenditure is due to normal staff increments.
(h) Transport within UNRWA area

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$1,340,000 $1,285,000

25. This budget heading covers the cost of all passenger transport within the UNRWA area and of all transport (including port operations) of supplies from
point of reception to point of consumption, with the exception of port costs on basic food commodities and their transport to field warehouses. This exception is made to avoid the apparent fluctuations in the cost of basic subsistence which would otherwise arise from the fact that basic commodities are purchased locally at times and purchased abroad at other times. (See also paragraph 7 above.)

26. Transport costs are essentially dependent upon the volume and scope of Agency activities requiring transport. However, it must be noted that local transport cost rates have risen appreciably in the past year, a factor which has been reflected in the provision under this budget heading. On the other hand, efforts are being made to reduce transport requirements as much as possible, and appreciable savings have been made, particularly on passenger transport.

27. As noted in paragraph 30 below, this budget heading now includes certain port costs previously included under the budget heading of "Stores control and warehousing".

28. The increase of $55,000 over 1957 estimated expenditure is principally due to the transfer to this function of certain port operations, as mentioned above, since increases in freight rates and staff increments have been virtually offset by savings on passenger transport.
(i) Stores control and warehousing
1958 budget 1957 estimate
$700,000 $860,000

29. This budget heading covers the warehousing of supplies after receipt in the UNRWA area, together with administrative costs associated with the proper control of supply inventories valued at several million dollars.

30. In previous years, certain costs of port operations in Beirut and Port Said were included under the heading of "Stores control and warehousing". These
costs have now been transferred to the budget heading of "Transport within the UNRWA area" (see para. 27 above) as being more properly a cost of transport rather than of warehousing.

31. The decrease of $160,000 from 1957 estimated expenditure is due to the transfer of port costs to transport function as mentioned above ($50,000), the reduction of provision for supply handling losses ($39,000), and the absence of provision for construction ($84,000 in 1957), partly offset by normal staff increments and the operation of a new warehouse in Jordan.
(j) Common services

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$2,500,000 $2,600,000

32. This budget heading covers the general administration of both the relief programme and the rehabilitation programme, at headquarters and field offices, together with the costs of legal, finance, public information, personnel administration and similar general services, and of the New York liaison office.

33. Although common services costs benefit both the relief and the rehabilitation programmes, they have been included in the 1958 budget under the relief programme for technical reasons which are explained in paragraph 38 below, entitled "Costs allocated to the rehabilitation programme".

34. In prior years, certain costs now included under "Common services" were charged directly to the relief programme or to the rehabilitation programme under the headings of "Relief administration" and "Rehabilitation administration". Following a revision in the organizational structure of the Agency, however, consolidation of the Agency's administration has made it expedient to budget all general administration under "Common services", subject to allocation of costs as described in paragraph 38 below.

35. The decrease of $100,000 from 1957 estimated expenditure is essentially the result of the administrative consolidation referred to above and of operational streamlining, especially in technical services, partially offset by normal staff increments. Possibilities of additional savings from further consolidation are under active consideration, to be implemented to the greatest extent possible.
(k) Operational reserve

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$800,000 (Not applicable)

36. An amount of $800,000 has been included under this heading to provide for operational contingencies and for emergencies such as winter storm damage to
shelters. This amount represents only 3 per cent of the relief programme budget (including common services) and is considered the minimum consistent with safety,
especially as no reserves of this or any other type are contained in any of the other budget headings.

37. The operational reserve does not include any provision for possible commodity price increases. In the event of material price increases, the amounts involved might well be large enough to require additional funds and a reappraisal of the entire budget.
(1) Cost allocated to rehabilitation programme

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$1,200,000 $1,160,000

38. The operations of registration and eligibility, stores control and warehousing, transport within UNRWA area and common services, although initially
charged in their entirety to the relief programme because they operate primarily for relief purposes, are of benefit to the rehabilitation programme as well. Twenty-five per cent of the total cost of these operations has therefore been credited to the relief programme and debited to the rehabilitation programme, this proportion being the share of administration and service costs considered applicable to the latter programme.

39. The increase of $40,000 over 1957 estimated expenditure is due to a more accurate allocation of costs to the rehabilitation programme than in prior years.

2. REHABILITATION PROGRAMME

(a) General

40. The budget of $15 million for the rehabilitation programme provides for two different priorities of operations: those which remain after a reduction in activity resulting from the shortfall in contributions in 1957 (and which are truly minimum requirements), and those which could lead directly to the rehabilitation of considerable numbers of refugees but which will be implemented only if and when funds are actually forthcoming, in addition to those required for first priority operations.

41. The first priority includes general education (normal programme), existing vocational education activities, placement services, completion of existing projects and the administrative and service costs allocated from the relief programme. Such funds as the Agency has available for the rehabilitation programme in 1958 will go first to these activities, for which the total budgeted cost is $7,190,000.

42. The second priority includes a special programme of general education in the Gaza strip, expansion of the vocational education programme, resumption
of project activity (particularly the individual grants programme) and the construction of special camp facilities in certain locations. No funds are at present available for these extremely desirable objectives, and nothing can be done to achieve them unless funds are made available. A total of $7,810,000 is required for this category of rehabilitation operations.
(b) General education (normal programme)

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$4,700,000 $4,650,000

43. This budget heading covers the provision of primary education (grades 1 to 6) for practically all refugee children for whom primary education is requested, and of secondary education (grades 7 to 11 or 12) for a certain percentage of refugee children (set at 15 per cent of the primary students in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria and 21.4 per cent in Gaza). The curriculum also includes handicraft training for students in those areas where it was possible to provide facilities for such training before the shortage of funds in 1957 forced postponement of further construction. General education activities are conducted both in Agency-operated schools and by subsidies to private and government- operated schools.

44. Budgeting for general education is complicated by the fact that the school year runs from July to the following June, while the budget year runs from January to December. The budget period 1958 therefore covers the last half of the school year 1957-1958 and the first half of the school year 1958-1959. Provision has necessarily been made for the effect of population growth between the two school years, the number of students for which provision has been made being as follows:


School year
1957-1958
School year
1958-1959
Primary education............
Secondary education..........
TOTAL
152,000
26,500
188,500
155,500
27,000
192,500


45. No provision has been made for construction of any sort in 1958, although additional classrooms and administrative facilities are badly needed properly to accommodate increased numbers of pupils in certain areas and to relieve overcrowding in other areas. Much of the construction budgeted in 1956-1957 for these purposes was deferred because of the shortage of funds.

46. The increase of $50,000 over 1957 estimated expenditure is due to the provision for an increased number of pupils ($90,000), normal salary increments and upgradings ($130,000), and the replacement of the balance of the supplies destroyed during the occupation of Gaza by Israel ($25,000), offset by the absence of provision for new class-rooms ($195,000 in 1957).
(c) General education (special programme in the
Gaza strip).

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$200,000 $75,000

47. It has been the Agency's policy to provide secondary education (grades 7 to 11 or 12) for a certain percentage of refugee children, based on a gradually
increasing scale related to the general education standards existing in the host countries. In 1957, however, shortage of funds made it necessary to limit further increase in the percentage of secondary pupils and to set the percentage for the school year 1957-1958 at approximately the same level as prevailed during the school year 1956-1957. The reflection of this policy is set forth in paragraph 43 above, wherein the 1958 budget for the normal general education programme is noted as providing for secondary education for a number of children equal to 15 per cent of the children receiving primary education in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan and 21.4 per cent in Gaza (the unusually high percentage allowed in Gaza reflecting the Agency's previous recognition of the exceptional circumstances prevailing there since 1954-1955).

48. For the school year 1957-1958, however (which falls partly in the budget period 1957 and partly in the budget period 1958), the Agency has been requested by the Egyptian Government to provide secondary education for all eligible children who have completed their primary education. To do so will mean providing secondary education for approximately 3,800 additional children in the school year 1957-1958 and 5,000 additional children in the school year 1958-1959 and increase the ratio of secondary students to primary students in the Gaza strip from the existing level of 21.4 per cent to 32 per cent in the school year 1957-1958 and 35 per cent in the school year 1958-1959. The estimated cost of providing secondary education for these additional children is $170,000 in the school year 1957-1958 and $220,000 in the school year 1958-1959. Of these amounts, $75,000 will be required in the budget period 1957, $200,000 in 1958, and $115,000 in 1959, since school years run from July to June while budget years run from January to December.

49. It must be emphasized that provision of secondary education for these additional numbers of children in the Gaza strip is not and cannot be recommended
solely on educational grounds. However, because of the almost total absence of employment opportunities, a special situation exists in the Gaza strip which the
General Assembly may consider justifies the expenditure of a proportionately larger amount on education there than would otherwise be the case.

50. For the first half of the school year 1957-1958 (which falls in the budget period 1957), the Agency will undertake to pay to the Egyptian authorities approximately 50 per cent of the normal annual subsidy rate for each of the 3,800 additional children in question. However, it cannot undertake to pay the remaining 50 per cent pertaining to the last half of the school year 1957-1958 nor any of the amounts required for the first half of the school year 1958-1959 (both of which fall, as noted above, in the budget period 1958) unless the General Assembly both approves the 1958 budget for this purpose and provides the necessary funds.
(d) Vocational education

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$2,750,000 $900,000

51. This budget heading covers the provision of a limited number of university scholarships for training in medicine, the sciences, and other professions in demand in the Middle East, together with the construction and operation of vocational, agricultural and teacher-training centres and other vocational education activities.

52. As noted in paragraph 40 above, this budget heading covers both existing activities which it is considered should be continued if at all possible, and proposed activities which, if implemented (or reactivated in certain cases where shortage of funds in 1957 forced a closedown), would contribute materially toward making considerable numbers of refugees self-supporting at a comparatively low cost. Provision included for the first category is as follows:


Activity Cost
$
(i)
(ii)

(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
University scholarships for professional training ..
Operation of two existing vocational training
centres (Jordan and Gaza) ..........................
Commercial training (Gaza and Lebanon) .............
Teacher training (Gaza) ............................
Nursing training (Jordan and Gaza)..................
Miscellaneous courses (all areas)...................
Administration and common instruction...............

TOTAL
250,000

229,000
60,000
52,000
24,000
25,000
50,000

690,000


53. Provision in the budget for activities to be initiated or reopened includes the following:

Activity
1958 capital
cost
$
1958 opera-
ting cost
$
1958
total costs
$
Annual operating
cost after 1958
$
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)
Vocational training centre, Jordan.....................
Vocational training centre, Lebanon....................
Men's teacher training centre, Jordan.............
Women's teacher training centre, Jordan.............
Agricultural training centre, Gaza...............
Agricultural training centre, Lebanon............

TOTAL
540,000

578,000

200,000

197,000

50,000a/

212,000

1,777,000
---

---

95,000

88,000

100,000

---

283,000
540,000

578,000

295,000

285,000

150,000

212,000

2,060,000
244,000

244,000

95,000

88,000

100,000

100,000

871,000
a/ To replace looted equipment only. Buildings are already constructed.


54. No budget provision is included for operating costs in 1958 for any of the proposed vocational training centres or for the proposed agricultural training centre in Lebanon because construction, if approved, will require all or most of the year 1958. Annual operating costs of these centres thereafter are shown for purposes of information only.

55. Budget provision has been included for operating costs in 1958 for the two proposed teacher-training centres and for the Gaza agricultural training centre because, if construction is approved, these centres will be reopened immediately, either in rented premises (in the case of the teacher-training centres) or in existing facilities (in the case of the Gaza agricultural training centre). Annual operating costs of these centres after 1958 are also shown for information.

56. Such funds as become available for vocational education in 1958 will go first to the activities listed under paragraph 52 above, while the activties listed under paragraph 53 above will be undertaken only if the Agency receives assurance of sufficient funds not only to initiate them but also to maintain them for a reasonable period of years at the estimated annual operating cost rates shown in paragraph 53.
(e) Placement services

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$150,000 $190,000

57. This budget heading covers the operation of a placement service designed to help qualified refugees to find jobs, together with the provision of subsidies for refugees who wish to migrate to areas where employment opportunities exist.

58. The 1958 budget provision covers only the operation of the placement service plus a modest provision for migration subsidies. In 1957 a considerable amount was spent on migration subsidies, particularly for refugees desiring to migrate to the United States under the Refugee Relief Act, which has since expired. Should this law be re-enacted, the Agency will request additional funds to the extent that refugees indicate a desire to migrate to the United States and require subsidies in order to do so.
(f) Special camp facilities

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$1,000,000 $15,000

59. This heading provides for the construction of new camps to accommodate refugees whose present shelter is thoroughly unsatisfactory and badly located. Governments are aware of the consequences of permitting the refugees to remain in such shelter and are pressing the Agency to undertake camp construction. On the
two occassions on which it has been possible to meet these requests, the refugees have benefited by the change and their morale has greatly improved.

60. Shortage of funds in 1957 made it impossible to implement plans to construct more camps of this kind but provision has been made in the 1958 budget so that if sufficient funds are received, plans now shelved can quickly be implemented.

61. No useful comparison can be made between 1958 and 1957, as the estimated 1957 expenditure represents only the balance of the 1955-1956 programmes not completed until early 1957.
(g)Projects and special activities

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$5,000,000 $1,755,000

62. This budget heading covers various small and medium scale rehabilitation projects and activities which enable refugees to become self-supporting and which consist principally of agricultural, land development, industrial and commercial projects.

63. The budget provision of $5,000,000 includes $450,000 required to complete projects already entered into but not expected to be completed by 31 December 1957. The balance of $4,550,000 represents the Agency's estimate of what it could reasonably expect to spend with satisfactory results on new or reactivated projects during 1958 if funds are made available. One of the principal plans, and one of the first that would be implemented if funds are forthcoming, is the reopening in Jordan of the individual grants programme, which had to be halted in 1957 because of shortage of funds.

64. No provision has been included for the Jordan/Yarmuk Valley or Sinai Desert schemes, although funds for these projects would be requested at the appropriate time should it appear that their implementation has become possible.

65. Early in 1957, shortage of funds caused any additional projects under consideration to be abandoned for the time being, so that the estimated 1957 expenditure represents only the completion or continuation of projects then existing. No useful comparison is therefore possible between the 1958 budget and the 1957 estimated expenditure.
(h) Costs allocated from relief programme

1958 budget 1957 estimate
$1,200,000 $1,160,000

66. As noted in paragraph 38 above, all of the Agency's general administration, registration and eligibility, transport and warehousing costs are initially charged to the relief programme, with a subsequent reallocation of an appropriate share to the rehabilitation programme. This is both proper and necessary, because certain funds received by the Agency specifically designated for the rehabilitation programme should be charged thereto.

67. For further explanation of this item and explanation of the increase over 1957, please refer to paragraphs 38 and 39.

3. FINANCING THE 1958 BUDGET

(a) Relief Programme

68. The Agency's estimated working capital (excess of assets over liabilities) for the relief programme at 31 December 1957 is not expected to exceed $15.9 million even under the most favourable conditions (which assume pavments by that date pro rata for the last six months of 1957 by the United States and others not vet pledged). Of this amount, approximately $12.1 million will be tied up in supply inventories, or committed for the forward purchasing of supplies (which is essential if the Agency is to buy economically), or consist of non-liquid assets, such as claims against Governments and other accounts receivable not readily convertible into cash. This will leave only about $3.8 million available at 31 December 1957 for current operations. Since the Agency disburses relief programme funds at the rate of $2.1 million per month, less than two months' operations will be provided for at the start of the 1958 fiscal vear.
This margin cannot possibly afford to be reduced. Moreover, virtuallv all prior years' pledges have now been paid. New pledges must therefore be made--and paid-- for the whole of the Agency's relief programme budget for 1958 if relief operations are to continue.

69. It is also most essential that pavment of these pledges be made in time to permit the Agency to carry on its operations without interruption. In previous years, the Agency's rehabilitation programme working capital was large enough to permit the Agency to "borrow" rehabilitation programme funds for relief programme purposes when relief programme contributions were slow in arriving; repayment was then made when relief programme contributions were received. This is
no longer possible. As noted in paragraph 70 below, the rehabilitation fund will also be practically exhausted at 31 December 1957. It is therefore necessary that at least half of the Agency's 1958 relief budget be covered by payments on or before January 1958 and the balance on or before July 1958 if the Agency is to carry out this programme.
(b) Rehabilitation programme

70. The most optimistic current estimates of the Agency's working capital available for the rehabilitation programme at 31 December 1957 are only $2.8 million. This takes into account a contribution of $0.5 million recently received from the United Kingdom and it assumes a contribution from the United States of $1.1 million for the six months ending 31 December 1957 (this being proportionate to its contribution for the twelve months ended 30 June 1957). Moreover, $0.4 million of this working capital will either be tied up in supply inventories, committed for forward procurement, or tied up in non-liquid assets, thus leaving only $2.4 million of liquid funds available for operations. Since the Agency must disburse funds at the minimum rate of $0.6 million per month, this reserve will carry along the Agency's existing rehabilitation operations, in the absence of
further contributions, for barely four months; if the Agency is to resume the full programme provided for in the budget, these reserves will be sufficient for only
two months of operation. It is therefore absolutely essential that the 1958 rehabilitation programme budget also be covered in its entirety by current payments from contributors, and that payments be received by the Agency in time.

UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR
PALESTINE REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST

Budget for fiscal period 1958
(expressed in thousands of US dollars)
1958
budget
$
1957
estimated
expenditure
$
Increase
(decrease)
$
Relief Programme
Basic subsistence.......................
Supplementary feeding...................
Health care.............................
Shelter and camps.......................
Social welfare..........................
Clothing for children...................
Registration and eligibility............
Transport within UNRWA area.............
Store control and warehousing...........
Common services.........................
Operational reserve.....................

Sub-Total

Costs allocated to rehabilitation
programme.............................

TOTAL, RELIEF PROGRAMME
14,850
1,520
2,500
1,730
590
--
330
1,340
700
2,500
800

26,860


(1,200)

25,660
14,600
1,480
2,500
1,530
480
500
325
1,285
860
2,600
--

26,160


(1,160)

25,000
250
40
--
200
110
(500)
5
55
(160)
(100)
800

700


(40)

600
Rehabilitation programme
General education:
Normal programme .....................
Special programme in Gaza.............


Vocational education .................
Placement services ...................
Special camp facilities ..............
Projects and special activities.......
Costs allocated from relief
programme ..........................
4,700
200

4,900
2,750
150
1,000
5,000

1,200
4,650
75

4,725
900
190
15
1,755

1,160
50
125

175
1,850
(40)
985
3,245

40
TOTAL, REHABILITATION PROGRAMME

TOTAL OF ALL PROGRAMMES
15,000

40,660
8,745

33,745
6,255

6,915


ANNEX H

LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE WORK OF THE AGENCY

1. INTRODUCTION

1. An international organization such as UNRWA which is operational in character, that is, one which directly administers a relief and rehabilitation programme involving nearly one million refugees who are scattered in four countries, is concerned with a multitude of legal matters, ranging from commercial law to the law governing public international organizations. As the Agency conducts its operations on the territories of sovereign States, it is inevitable that a number of these legal matters are also of concern to their Governments. Equally, a number of questions arising from the Agency's relationship with the host Governments raise legal issues.

2. GENERAL LEGAL ACTIVITIES AND PROBLEMS

2. The Agency's legal work was augmented during the period under review as a consequence of the hostilities which occurred in November 1956. The additional legal problems resulted from, inter alia, cancellation or variation of commercial contracts as a result of impossibility of performance, deviation by ships in order to avoid what was considered to be a danger zone, and demands for increase in prices. They also involved negotiations with Governments concerning the procedure under which the Agency could operate, as well as the preparation of claims for losses sustained by the Agency and its staff during the hostilities.

3. Some of the legal problems involved were novel in character and necessitated study and collaboration with the Office of the Legal Counsel of the United Nations Secretariat. Close contact was maintained with that Office particularly on those legal aspects of the Agency's work which might affect the United Nations at large. A number of legal services were rendered by the Agency to the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF).

4. During the period under review, the Agency was faced, principally as a result of the hostilities, with a number of problems involving the protection to be given by Member States of the United Nations to a public international organization and its staff. In those cases where such protection was not forthcoming the Agency filed claims for the damages which it and its staff suffered (see paras. 8 and 10 below).

5. The Agency's new staff regulations mentioned in the last report 29/ were finalized during the year and agreed with the Secretary-General in accordance with paragraph 9(b) of General Assembly resolution 302 (IV). They were issued, effective 1 July 1957, together with provisional staff rules. The issuance of such
rules and regulations will be of great assistance in coping with the various legal problems of an administrative character which have arisen in the past and will arise undoubtedly in future. Bearing in mind that the Agency has only some 130 internationally recruited staff members and over 10,000 locally recruited staff members, it is inevitable that many problems, novel to United Nations practice and procedures, arise.

6. The United Nations Administrative Tribunal rendered its decision (Judgment No. 65) on the merits of the special case mentioned in the last
report 30/ and rejected the claim of the applicant for damages in the amount of $29,250. It allowed the sum of $150 in costs and recommended settlement of a small claim involving terminal indemnity. The applicant subsequently appealed to the Committee of the General Assembly on Applications for Review of Administrative Judgments to request an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice concerning the Judgment of the Tribunal. The Committee declared that there was not a substantial basis for the application and, therefore, decided that the International Court of Justice should not be asked for an advisory opinion. Another application was filed during the year with the Administrative Tribunal by another former staff member in which wrongful termination was alleged, among other things. Briefs were deposited with the Tribunal and it is anticipated that the case will be adjudicated shortly.31/

7. Following the United Nations pattern, the procedure of ad hoc appeals boards has been maintained. The provisions of the new staff regulations and rules
will, in future, regularize the terms of reference and procedure of such boards.

8. The Agency lodged a claim in the amount of $3,378.42 against the Government of Israel for the destruction of an Agency school in September 1956
caused by the incursion of Israel forces into Jordan. According to the official report of the Mixed Armistice Commission, the action of the Israel forces, as a result of which the school was destroyed, was a breach by Israel of article III, paragraph 2, of the General Armistice Agreement. The Agency lodged a further claim
with the Government of Israel in the estimated amount of $309,658 for damages suffered by UNRWA and its staff as a proximate result of the occupation of the Gaza strip by Israel forces. The Agency will file yet another claim with the Government in the near future for injuries or death suffered by certain of its staff members.

9. Aside from the assistance provided the Agency by the Office of the Legal Counsel of the United Nations, mentioned in paragraph 3 above, useful aid was rendered to the Agency by the legal advisors of the various specialized agencies.

3. LEGAL WORK IN THE VARIOUS HOST COUNTRIES

(a) The Gaza strip

10. During the occupation of Gaza by the forces of Israel, eight local UNRWA staff members were killed, others were imprisoned and eighteen staff members of Egyptian nationality, seconded to the Agency by the Egyptian Government, were deported on alleged security grounds. Appropriate protests were lodged by the Agency with the Israel Government as a result of the above actions (see paras. 4 and 8 above).

11. As mentioned in the last report,32/ the Agency encountered during the preceding year serious difficulties with the Egyptian authorities in that they refused permits for certain officials to enter or re-enter Gaza on Agency business and in some cases refused to issue the necessary authorization for certain of the Agency staff to leave Gaza. This situation grew worse during the early part of the period under review;33/ there was also some recurrence of these difficulties following the return of the Egyptian authorities in March 1957. Appropriate protests were lodged by the Agency with the Egyptian Government. During the course of the latter part of the reporting period, the majority of the cases were resolved satisfactorily, although a few cases are as yet outstanding. The principal remaining problem is that the renewal or issue of entry permits to the
Gaza strip are subject to such long delays as often to impede Agency officials from moving in and out of the strip at the particular times required.

12. The Agency encountered various other problems--most of which were settled in the latter part of the reporting period after protests and negotiations--which indicated a lack of understanding on the part of the authorities of the status of the Agency as an organ of the United Nations and that of its staff as officials of such an organization. Thus, shortly after the return
of the Egyptian administration to Gaza the Agency was informed by the Egyptian authorities that they did not desire on the Agency's staff in Gaza officials who were nationals of countries with which Egypt had severed diplomatic relations. Such a position is contrary to Articles 100 and 101 of the Charter.

13. Further, the Egyptian Government insisted that its authorities have a censor present when the Agency was handling its official mail pouch in Gaza. After
representations by the Agency, the matter was settled satisfactorily.

14. One of the factors contributing to the existence of the above problems is that officials of the Government do not recognize that the Agency is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations.34/ Another contributory factor is a difference of opinion between the Government and the Agency as to the exact scope of the agreement which was entered into by the two parties in 1950 when only a very short-lived organization was envisaged.
(b) Jordan

15. Negotiations regarding the revision of the subsisting agreement governing the over-all relationship between the Agency and the Government of Jordan continued during the period under review. At one point a draft was preliminarily accepted by both parties but was subsequently radically modified by the Government. Negotiations continued in an effort to bring to a minimum the main points of difference between the parties.

16. The claim, mentioned in the last report,35/ submitted to the Jordan Government in respect of loss and damage suffered by the Agency and its officials during the civil disorders and riots, was again rejected by the Government. The grounds of the new rejection again failed to take into consideration the established rule of international law which imposes on Governments a special obligation for the protection of the property of public international organizations and of their staff.

17. A new development occurred during the period under review, in that the Jordan authorities refused to permit the entry into Jordan of two international staff members of the Agency without any reason being given for such action. Although appropriate protests were lodged by the Agency, the matter remained unresolved at the end of the reporting period.36/
(c) Lebanon

18. Some progress was made during the period under review in obtaining the duty and tax reimbursement owed the Agency by the Lebanese Government under the provisions of the agreement between the Government and the Agency dated 26 November 1954. However, settlement under two of the principal headings of the financial clauses of the agreement, viz. port dues and charges incurred by the compulsory use of the railway for part of the Agency's transportation (see para. 26 below) give rise to difficulties which are still under discussion.

19. Differences of opinion regarding the interpretation of certain provisions of the Convention on Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations to which Lebanon is a party, as well as of those of the agreement of 26 November 1954, particularly in respect of customs and taxation matters, were a source of expense and trouble to the Agency and its staff.

20. In addition, certain of the Agency's officials were personally served with summonses in connexion with acts performed in the course of their duties. International officials have been fined, and their possessions subjected to distraint, without any prior notification to the Agency, despite the fact that the problem involved was in the process of negotiation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
(d) Syria

21. As already reported, the Agency had to face a particularly difficult situation arising from the arrest and subsequent expulsion by the Syrian authorities, on 5 November 1956, of the Agency's representative in Syria (of French nationality), as well as of one of his senior officials (of British nationality).37/ After numerous approaches by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations and the Director of the Agency, the two officials resumed their duties in Syria at the beginning of May 1957.

22. Also, some of the problems mentioned in the last report 38/ recurred in the past year: an international official of the Agency, transferred from Egypt, was unable, in spite of all previous assurances, to obtain his entry visa into Syria. The Agency's chief nurse was compelled to leave Syria, on the charge that she had entered the country illegally; this, in spite of the fact that she carried the documents normally accepted for entry into Syria of UNRWA staff on official duty. Access to UNRWA camps has, at times, been denied to certain of the Agency's officials. Finally, on occasion, the inviolability of Agency premises has not been respected. In all these cases, the Agency made appropriate protests.

23. One of the two cases referred to in the preceding report 39/ was decided by the Court of Cassation in a manner which took the Agency's legal status into account. The other case, on the other hand, gave rise to a decision, rendered by the same court against the advice of its Public Prosecutor, by which the Agency was determined to be a public body of the Republic of Syria.

24. The Syrian Government persisted during the year in its attempt to collect income taxes from the Agency's area staff in respect of salaries paid to them by the Agency, in spite of the provisions of article V of the Convention on Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. Summonses were issued to certain of such staff members, accompanied by threats of execution in the event of default of payment. The matter has been the subject of exchange of views at the highest
level, but no final solution, satisfactory to the Agency, has been reached as yet.

25. Fuel purchased by the Agency continues to be liable to the payment of taxes from which it should normally be exempt by virtue of its legal status. Requests by the Agency for exemption or reimbursement of municipal taxes have met with partial success.

26. Syria, as well as Jordan and Lebanon, insists that UNRWA respect agreements concluded between the three Governments which have the effect of forcing the Agency to transport certain of its supplies by rail, although this form of transportation is not only more costly but also has the effect of causing serious delays in the forwarding of supplies to the refugees. The Agency is not a party to these agreements and has indicated on several occasions that it should be freed from the burdens they impose. The Agency contends that, as applied to it, they are contrary to the legal texts governing the relationship between Member States of the United Nations and its organs. The situation has unnecessarily complicated the task of the Agency in moving its supplies, on some occasions even endangering the Agency's supply position in Jordan; it has also entailed considerable extra expense. Negotiations continue on the problem but so far without success.




ANNEX I

CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATIONS

1. GENERAL

1. Throughout the year under review, UNRWA has continued to receive assistance from other members of the United Nations family and on several occasions has assisted some United Nations bodies and specialized agencies operating in the area.

2. Most United Nations organizations and specialized agencies which have offices in Beirut were provided, either free or at cost, with various administrative services by the Agency.

3. Following an agreement between the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Directors-General of the specialized agencies, the Director was invited to assist United Nations staff members and their dependants in certain areas of the Near East, should it at any time be undesirable for them to remain at their duty stations as a result of the crisis in the area in October and November. In consequence, the Agency has assisted in the movement of dependants and certain
staff members of United Nations agencies operating in Gaza, Jordan and Syria. Some were flown out of Gaza, Jordan and Syria by United Nations aircraft and others brought out to Lebanon by road. Billeting arrangements were made in Beirut, and the Agency chartered an aircraft and established a transit office in Athens to supervise their onward movement to other centres in Europe.

4. The Agency was represented at the meeting of the Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions held in Geneva at the end of March 1957.

2. UNITED NATIONS BODIES

(a) United Nations Children's Fund

5. Although UNICEF has continued its interest in the welfare of the Arab refugees, it has contributed no goods direct to the Agency's programme during the past year.

6. At the beginning of the year under review, UNICEF continued its programme of assistance to non-refugee mothers and children living in the Gaza strip. The Egyptian authorities assumed responsibility for this programme from
1 September 1956. However, UNICEF's programme of assistance for mothers and children living in frontier villages in Jordan continued, the number of people assisted remaining at about 50,000. These persons are not refugees within UNRWA's mandate but all of them have had their livelihood affected by the results of the Palestine conflict. UNICEF uses the Agency's services for the distribution of supplies for this programme, UNRWA charging UNICEF with the cost of transport within Jordan.

7. In accordance with an agreement under which UNRWA pays the estimated costs of the services rendered by UNICEF, the latter has continued to act on UNRWA's behalf as the purchasing agent for general goods, the bulk of the medical supplies required for the refugees and, in some cases, for commodities for the
basic ration. UNICEF has continued to act as liaison between the Agency and United States Government Departments for the procurement of surplus commodities, and also provides the Agency with reports showing market trends.

8. Towards the end of the period under review, UNRWA made arrangements with the Lebanese Government whereby the Government took over responsibility for malaria control in refugee camps in Lebanon. In accordance with its agreement with the Lebanese Government, UNICEF provides the insecticides for these malaria control operations as part of its over-all assistance to the malaria eradication campaign in Lebanon. In addition, UNICEF has provided some insecticides, vehicles and equipment as its contribution to the joint programme for the eradication of malaria in Jordan, in which the Jordanian Government, WHO and UNRWA also participate. UNRWA remains solely responsible for supplies, vehicles and equipment in the Yarmuk-Jordan area where it is itself responsible for the anti-malaria campaign.
(b) United Nations Emergency Force
9. There has been full co-operation between the United Nations Emergency Force and UNRWA since the establishment of the Force. Not only has there been contact and consultation on matters of common concern in the Gaza strip, but also UNRWA has been able to give UNEF help and advice through its headquarters personnel in Beirut. UNRWA has in turn benefited from the presence of UNEF in the Gaza strip and the help and advice which UNEF has been able to give.

10. UNRWA has been acting as procurement, forwarding and shipping agent for UNEF in respect of all goods that UNEF wishes to have procured in the Beirut area or through merchants in Beirut. Arrangements are being worked out to ensure that the additional costs of these services to UNRWA are reimbursed by UNEF. In addition, the Agency has been able to provide certain emergency supplies which it could spare from stocks in its own warehouses.
(c) United Nations Information Centres

11. Co-operation between the Agency and the United Nations Information Centres has been intensified during the year under review and the result has been a better understanding of the Agency's operations and problems in the areas covered by the Centres, as well as a wider dissemination of information about the Agency. Directors of the Centres have been kept fully informed of the Agency's work and have been able to arrange press conferences and other appointments for senior members of the Agency's staff who were visiting their areas of operations. The Directors of the Centres have also been most helpful in advising the Agency of developments in their areas of interest to UNRWA in its work. In the absence of a United Nations Information Centre in Rome, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has acted in a similar way as regards public information on the Agency's behalf. The Agency has in its turn offered the United Nations and specialized agencies all possible assistance as regards public information in its own area of operations.
(d) United Nations Truce Supervision Organization

12. In addition to normal consultation and exchange of information on matters of common concern, the Truce Supervision Organization, has given the Agency invaluable help during the crisis of October and November in Gaza and Syria.

3. SPECIALIZED AGENCIES

(a) United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization

13. As in previous years, UNESCO continued to take an active interest in all aspects of the education programme and to give the Agency very helpful technical advice when and as needed. Contributions have continued to be received under the UNESCO gift coupons scheme.

14. On 1 July 1956, fourteen senior members of the Agency's Education Division, including the Chief of the Division, were on secondment from UNESCO. During the period under review, cuts in the Agency's education programme caused the number of seconded staff to be reduced to eight on 30 June 1957.
(b) World Health Organization

15. During the year under review, WHO continued its interest in the health programme and provided very valuable technical help to the Agency through the exchange of information on nutritional and epidemiological problems and otherwise. The secondment of the Agency's Chief Medical Officer and of three other senior members of the Agency's health staff has continued.

16. The Regional WHO meeting in Teheran and the WHO General Assembly in Geneva were attended by an Agency representative.
(c) Food and Agricultural Organization

17. Regular consultations between UNRWA and FAO regarding refugee nutrition have continued during the past year.
Notes

1/ A detailed description of the origin of the Agency and its mission and work prior to 1 July 1956 will be found in the following annual reports and other United Nations documents:

A. Final report of the United Nations Economic Survey Mission for the Middle East (28 December 1949) (A/AC.25/6, parts I and II).

B. Report of the Secretary-General on Assistance to Palestine Refugees: Official Records of the General Assembly, Fourth Session, Ad Hoc Political Committee, Annexes, vol. II, p. 14 (A/1060).

C. Reports of the Director of UNRWA and special reports of the Director and Advisory Commission to the General Assembly:

D. Pert inent General Assembly resolutions: 194 (III) of 11 December 1948; 212 (III) of 19 November 1948; 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949; 393 (V) of 2 December 1950; 513 (VI) of 26 January 1952; 614 (VII) of 6 November 1952; 720 (VIII) of 27 November 1953;
818 (IX) of 4 December 1954; 916 (X) of 3 December 1955; 1018 (XI) of 28 February 1957.

The special report of the Director, covering the period 1 November 1956 to mid-December 1956 (A/3212/Add.1), informed the General Assembly of certain emergency actions which were taken by the Agency during that period.

2/ A/3212, paras. 85 to 99.

3/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Eleventh Session, Annexes, agenda item 23, documents A/SPC/9 and A/SPC/13.

4/ A/3212, paras. 5, 6, 7, 52, 53 and 54.

5/ "The General Assembly . . . . . 11. Resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible."

6/ "The General Assembly . . . 1. Directs the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East to pursue its programme for the relief and rehabilitation of refugees, bearing in mind the limitation imposed upon it by the extent of the contributions for the fiscal year."

7/ Annual report and special report to the tenth session (A/2978, para. 9 and A/2978/Add.1, section VI); annual report to the eleventh session (A/3212, para. 14).

8/ A/3212, paras. 15 to 18.

9/ For example, A/3212, paras. 24 and 21.

10/ A/3212, para. 27.

11/ A/3212, paras. 30 to 33.

12/ A/3212, paras. 42 and 43.

13/ A/3212, para. 45.

14/ For example in A/3212, paras. 47 to 51.

15/ A/3017. The Commission's membership consists of representatives of the Governments of Belgium, Egypt, France, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America.

16/ This problem was described in the last annual report, A/3212, para. 60.

17/ A/3212, para. 57.

18/ A/SPC/13.

19/ A/3212/Add.1.

20/ Those at Rafah and Khan Yunis were used as casualty clearing stations during hostilities.

21/ A/3568.

22/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Eleventh Session, 668th meeting.

23/ A/2978, para. 59 and annex G; A/3212, paras. 74-84 and annex G.

24/ A/SPC/9.

25/ The Agency of the Syrian Government responsible for care of refugees.

26/ A/3212, annex D, para. 40.

27/ A/3212, annex D, para. 14.

28/ A/3212, annex D, para. 18.

29/ A/3212, annex G, para. 8.

30/ A/3212, annex G, para. 11.

31/ The Tribunal rendered its decision on 23 August 1957. (Judgment No. 70). It rejected all the claims of the applicant, including his claim for damages in the amount of approximately $31,000.

32/ A/3212, annex G, para. 13.

33/ A/3212/Add. 1, para. 3.

34/ On 17 August 1957, a Gaza court rendered a decision to the effect that the Agency was not an organ of the United Nations; that under the agreement of 1950 it did not enjoy jurisdictional immunity; and that, therefore, the court was competent to hear a claim lodged against the Agency by a former staff member.

35/ A/3212, annex G, para. 17.

36/ One of the two cases mentioned above was satisfactorily settled after the end of the reporting period.

37/ A/3212/Add. 1, para. 35.

38/ A/3212, annex G, para. 24.

39/ A/3212, annex G, para. 24.







emspecsess1.56


Follow UNISPAL RSS Twitter