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UNITED
NATIONS
A

        General Assembly
A/7213
15 September 1968

REPORT

OF THE COMMISSIONER-GENERAL

OF THE UNITED NATIONS RELIEF

AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE

REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST

1 July 1967 - 30 June 1968


GENERAL ASSEMBLY

OFFICIAL RECORDS : TWENTY-THIRD SESSION

SUPPLEMENT No. 13 (A/7213)







UNITED NATIONS
New York, 1968



NOTE




Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document.

CONTENTS

Page
Letter of transmittal
iv
Letter from the Chairman of the Advisory Commission of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
v
INTRODUCTION
1
Chapter
IREPORT ON THE OPERATIONS OF THE AGENCY FROM 1 JULY 1967 TO 30 JUNE 1968
17
A.Relief services
17
B.Health services
23
C.Education and training services
28
D.Common services and general administration
39
E.Financial operations
40
II.BUDGET FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR 1969
44
A.Introduction
44
B.Budget estimates
45
C.Financing the budget
53
ANNEXES
I.TABLES
54
1-3
Statistics concerning registered population
54
4-8
Relief services
59
9-12
Health services
63
13-17
Education and training services
68
18
Other assistance to refugees
73
19-22
Finance
74
23
UNRWA personnel
86
II.LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE WORK OF THE AGENCY
87
III.RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY UNESCO EXECUTIVE BOARD
94
IV.RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY
97



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

15 September 1968


Sir,

I have the honour to submit my annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugee's in the Near East for the period 1 July 1967 to 30 June 1968, in compliance with the request contained in paragraph 21 of resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949 and paragraph 8 of resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958.

The report is presented in three main parts.

The introduction describes some of the major operational difficulties encountered during the year following the hostilities of June 1967, emphasizes the Agency's continuing precarious financial situation in the face of the increased responsibilities, entrusted to it under General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V), and rising costs of goods and services, and appeals to the General Assembly, in consideration of any extension of the Agency's mandate, which expires on 30 June 1969, to ensure the funds necessary to carry out whatever mandate is decided upon.

Chapter I gives an account of the Agency's activities and the measures taken in endeavouring to overcome the operational difficulties which arose as a result of the hostilities of June 1967.

Chapter II presents the Agency's budget for the calendar year 1969 for consideration by the General Assembly at its twenty-third session.

Statistical tables relating to various aspects of the Agency's work are included in annex I to the report. A note on the legal aspects of UNRWA's work is included as annex II. Resolutions adopted following discussions of UNRWA's education and health activities by the UNESCO Executive Board and the World Health Assembly, respectively, are reproduced in annexes III and IV.

The Advisory Commission of UNRWA has considered this report and its views are set forth in a letter dated 2 September 1968 from its Chairman, of which I attach a copy. Although in drafting the report I have had the benefit of the advice of the members of the Commission, it should not be assumed that the Governments represented on the Commission necessarily subscribe to all the views I have expressed.

Since a major part of UNRWA's operations during the past year have been conducted in areas under the control of the Government of Israel, I also considered it appropriate to show the report, in draft, to its representatives and have taken their views and comments into account in preparing the final text.

Accept, Sir, the assurances of my highest consideration.


(Signed) Laurence MICHELMORE
Commissioner-General
The President of the General Assembly
United Nations
New York
LETTER FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF THE ADVISORY COMMISSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE REFUGEES IN THE NEAR FAST

2 September 1968

Dear Dr. Michelmore,

At its meeting on 26 August 1968, the Advisory Commission of UNRWA carefully considered the annual report which you propose to submit to the twenty-third session of the General Assembly.

While individual members of the Commission have reserved the position of their respective Governments on a number of matters discussed in the report, as in previous years, the Commission as a whole believes that your report accurately describes the Agency's activities during the period 1 July 1967 to 30 June 1968.

The Commission is well aware of the difficult circumstances that have prevailed throughout the Agency's area of operations during the past year and considers that you and your staff merit special commendation for the manner in which the many difficulties have been surmounted and the work of the Agency accomplished without interruption.

The Commission, wishes to express the hope that the General Assembly, at its twenty-third session, in giving consideration to the extension for a further period of the Agency's mandate, will as well give consideration to the need to provide the Agency with secure and adequate income to enable it to carry out whatever mandate is entrusted to it.

Yours sincerely,

(Signed) Victor ALLARD
Chairman,
Advisory Commission
Dr. Laurence Michelmore
Commissioner-General
United Nations Relief and Works Agency
Beirut
INTRODUCTION

1. The year which followed the hostilities of June 1967 in the Middle East was one of new hardships and anxieties for the Palestine refugees, as they lived under the shadow of dangers and uncertainties. Those who became refugees for a second time (about 175,000), together with most of the 350,OOO or more other persons newly displaced from the occupied areas of southern Syria, the West Bank of Jordan, Gaza and Sinai, were in need of the very essentials of physical survival - food, water, shelter, blankets, clothing and health care and, scarcely less important, the education of their children. For many, these needs could be met only in tented camps, where winter cold and storms brought additional suffering. Inhabitants of the camps in the Jordan Valley found themselves exposed to the physical danger of military action as well, and fled again to the higher lands away from the Jordan Valley; for many it was their fourth move within a year.

2. Refugees who remained in the areas occupied by Israel, mainly in the West Bank and Gaza, felt the effects of economic dislocation, the loss of jobs and remittances from abroad, currency and banking difficulties and the pressure of increased living costs. Although the situation of some groups was alleviated as the year progressed, serious economic problems continued. Inhabitants of these areas were subject also to the psychological stress of living under an occupying authority and to restrictions of movement, curfews and the anxieties inseparable from military security measures. Refugees in Lebanon, Syria and east Jordan also felt the impact of economic difficulties which beset the areas in which they lived. For all of the refugees, the future was uncertain as they anxiously awaited the measures that might follow the Security Council resolution 242 (1967) of 22 November 1967 calling for a just and lasting peace and including as one of its elements a "just settlement of the refugee problem". They awaited also the realization of Security Council resolution 237 (1967) and General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) calling upon the Government of Israel to facilitate the return of those who were displaced after the outbreak of hostilities to their former places of residence. They noted, too, that the General Assembly once again, in resolution 2341 A (XXII), adopted on 19 December 1967, noted "with deep regret that repatriation or compensation of the refugees as provided for in paragraph 11 of General Assembly resolution 194 (III) has not been effected, that no substantial progress has been made in the program endorsed in paragraph 2 of resolution 513 (VI) for the reintegration of refugees either by repatriation or resettlement and that, therefore, the situation of the refugees continues to be a matter of serious concern". The General Assembly asked for continued efforts towards the implementation of paragraph 11 of resolution 194 (III). It is evident to the Commissioner-General, from his contacts with the Arab Governments concerned and with the refugees, that this paragraph, upon which the refugees had for so long built their hopes, remained of crucial importance to them.

3. Faced with the uncertainty of when and how the prospects offered by these resolutions of United Nations organs might be given reality, the refugees lack a basis on which to plan their lives and to build for the future.

4. While these uncertainties persist, planning how best to meet the future needs is equally difficult for UNRWA, the Governments concerned and the many non-governmental organizations which are trying to alleviate the hardships of the refugees and other displaced persons. In the meantime, attention has had to be focused on immediate, urgent problems. During the year, the Agency's field staff have carried on their work for the refugees with steadfast devotion in the face of many difficulties. Their efforts have been directed towards re-establishing and maintaining the Agency's basic services of relief, health and education for the whole refugee population and to devising means to meet the urgent new needs which have emerged. A summary of the situation in each field of UNRWA's operation follows. 1/ Throughout this report the term "refugees", "displaced refugees" or "newly displaced refugees" refers to those persons who were registered with UNRWA prior to the June 1967 hostilities; the term "displaced persons" or "other displaced persons" refers to those who were displaced after the outbreak of the June 1967 hostilities and who are not registered with UNRWA.

UNRWA services

5. In Lebanon the Agency's services continued to function normally throughout the past year. The number of refugees registered with UNRWA was 166,264 at the end of June 1968 and the number receiving rations was 103,727. During 1967, the Agency completed the work (on which it had been engaged for the past five years) of reviewing the ration entitlements of all families on the ration lists. This is a continuous process and the review has now recommenced from the beginning. The effect has been to enable the Agency to provide rations within the existing ration ceiling for all cases of proved need among newly born children and refugees applying for reinstatement on the ration rolls on grounds of having lost their capacity to support themselves. The number of applicants in the latter category has increased markedly since the hostilities. The Agency has received effective co-operation from the authorities in Lebanon in carrying out the review and rectification of the ration rolls. In health and education matters also, the Agency has benefited from the full co-operation of the authorities. Outstanding problems of concern to both the Government of Lebanon and the Agency are the replacement of unsatisfactory camps in the Beirut area, a settlement of certain large claims by the Agency for exemption from certain forms of taxation and for the reimbursement of taxes and other charges already paid by UNRWA. These claims are referred to in more detail in annex II of this report.

6. In Syria also the Agency's established services have functioned more or less normally. The number of refugees registered with UNRWA was 149,537 at the end of June 1968 and the number receiving rations was 100,503, including 4,583 added as a result of the emergency. Little progress can be reported in verifying need among ration recipients, but the authorities maintain adequate controls to reflect deaths and absences and in these respects the rolls in Syria are believed by the Agency to be reasonably accurate. In operating its health and education services, the Agency has received effective co-operation from the authorities. In education, an important matter now under discussion between the Government and the Agency is the reopening of the UNRWA training center at Homs, which was occupied by Syrian displaced persons after the hostilities of June 1967. Agreement has been reached that the center should be reopened for vocational training (instead of teacher training, as previously intended), but certain details remain to be settled. Another question concerning education is the implementation of the UNESC0 Executive Board's resolutions of 3 November 1967 and 20 June 1968 concerning, inter alia, the textbooks used in UNRWA/UNESCO schools. This is discussed in detail in paragraphs 17-19. Finally, as in the case of Lebanon, certain claims by UNRWA for reimbursement of taxes and other charges are outstanding and are referred to in more detail in annex II of this report.

7. One further operational problem calls for comment. Consequent upon the closure of the Suez Canal, and the resulting difficulty in finding shipping destined for Aqaba, most of the Agency's supplies for Jordan have had to be imported via the Port of Beirut. Here the Agency faces not only a tax on every ton unloaded in the port, but also its bulk supplies of flour and sugar are not allowed direct transport by road to Jordan. By virtue of a Tripartite Agreement of 1950 between the Governments of Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, these have to be transported by rail at higher cost to the Agency. In late 1967, the freight-cars made available to the Agency simply did not suffice to move the large volume of supplies required in Jordan so that, as a temporary measure, the three Governments allowed transport by road as far as Damascus; thereafter these supplies had to be transshipped onto the railway. This has both complicated and made more expensive the Agency's supply operations. The whole matter of the Agency's claim for these excess rail costs, which have been incurred since 1950, is referred to in annex II of this report.

8. The most urgent task confronting the Agency in Syria during the past year has been the provision of temporary shelter and other essential services for the registered refugees uprooted from the Quneitra area, now occupied by Israel. The total number of these newly displaced refugees is 17,500. Most found shelter in the homes of relatives and friends or in rented accommodation in Damascus and elsewhere, but, by the end of 1967, some 4,500 were accommodated in three tented camps, two on the outskirts of Damascus and one at Dera'a. The number of displaced refugees seeking accommodation in the tented camps, however, continued to increase and, at the request of the Syrian authorities, UNRWA established a further tented camp in the Damascus area and expanded one of the camps established last autumn. At 30 June 1968, there were 7,746 refugees living in the tented camps. During the bitterly cold and stormy winter of 1967/1968, the refugees living in the tented camps in Syria had to face much hardship and discomfort. UNRWA sought to alleviate the misery of life in these camps by providing stoves for heating, bedding, concrete floors under the tents, surfaced pathways and roads, and ditches for surface drainage through the camps. The Agency has supplemented the food ration with additional protein and enlarged the hot meal program for the newly displaced refugees in these camps, as well as for those living outside who are in special need. Syrian displaced persons from the southern area, estimated at 100,000, have been provided with food, shelter and other services by the Government of Syria, and. UNRWA's help has not been required.

9. In Jordan there were some 724,000 refugees registered with UNRWA before the hostilities, including persons who were temporarily residing outside of the Agency's area of operations. After the exodus to east Jordan, the number of registered refugees still residing on the West Bank is estimated by the Agency at about 245,000 and the number in east Jordan at about 455,500, plus some 38,500 registered refugees from Gaza who have entered east Jordan since the hostilities. However, the total figure of 494,000 refugees will include some unreported deaths and absences.

10. At the time of writing this report, the situation in east Jordan is still confused as a result of the movements of population that have continued throughout the year and the difficulty of obtaining accurate figures. In addition to the 494,000 registered refugees shown in UNRWA records as now located in east Jordan, the Government of Jordan has registered some 2371500 displaced persons from the West Bank plus about 8,500 displaced persons from Gaza - a total of 246,OO0 displaced persons - which) when added to the 494,000 UNRWA-registered refugees, would bring the total number of refugees and displaced persons living in east Jordan to 740,000. However, there is, doubtless, some duplication between the UNRWA registrations and those of the Government, as well as within each group, and effort's are now under way to identify and eliminate these extra registrations. The actual number of rations issued to all recipients in east Jordan during June 1968 was 590,000. Of these, 350,O0O 2/ were issued to UNRWA-registered refugees and the remaining 240,000 to Government-registered displaced persons. (Those receiving rations represent about 40 per cent of the total population of east Jordan.) At the Government's request, UNRWA has assumed the whole responsibility for ration distribution in east Jordan, the food-stuffs issued to the Government-registered recipients being supplied from Government stocks or by UNRWA against reimbursement to UNRWA by the Government of equivalent supplies, or their cash value, plus the cost of transport and distribution. Negotiations with the Government are continuing as to the precise amounts due to the Agency.

11. Paragraphs 34 to 38 of last year's report (A/6713) described the result of the arrangements made in July and August 1967, under which slightly more than 14,000 persons returned to the West Bank. Since then, some others have been able to return on grounds of special hardship or family reunion. For the period September 1967 to 30 June 1968, the total figure is given as 2,000 by Jordan and as 3,000 by Israel. However, these numbers axe exceeded by the numbers of persons who have moved from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to east Jordan over the same period. Some easing of the difficulties faced by the refugees and other displaced persons in east Jordan has resulted from the greater freedom of movement across the river Jordan in both directions, which has been permitted in recent months. Nevertheless, the Commissioner-General feels that he should reiterate once again that UNRWA's capacity to help will be much greater if, in accordance with Security Council resolution 237 (1967), which was endorsed by the General Assembly, the inhabitants who had fled axe allowed to return to the places where they were living before the hostilities and where UNRWA's installations and facilities already exist. The General Assembly's attention is also called to the references to this matter in the resolutions adopted by the International Conference on Human Rights of 7 May 1968 (A/7098); by the Economic and Social Council in resolution 1336 (XLIV) adopted on 31 May 1968, which endorsed resolution 6 (XXIV) adopted by the Commission on Human Rights on 27 February 1968; and by the World Health Assembly on 23 May 1968, which is reproduced as annex IV of this report. The Commissioner--General also hopes that the return to the territories now occupied as a result of the June 1967 hostilities ought to be considered, and the return permitted at the earliest possible date and without waiting for the achievement of the "just settlement of the refugee problem" to which Security Council resolution, 242 (1967) refers. This, in the belief of the Commissioner-General, would conform to the wishes of the vast majority of the refugees concerned.

12. Meanwhile, during the past year, UNRWA has done its best, in close co-operation with the Jordanian authorities and with a number of voluntary agencies, to cope with the appalling problem of the great mass of refugees and other displaced persons who now eke out a miserable existence in east Jordan. One of the first difficulties faced by the Agency was that, since its administrative headquarters within Jordan were previously in Jerusalem, a completely new administrative structure had to be established in Amman. At the request of the Government of Jordan, UNRWA has accepted responsibility for running all of the six tented camps (population 78,400) now established on the uplands in east Jordan. 3/ As already mentioned, UNRWA has also undertaken, at the Government's request, the whole responsibility for ration distribution. Schools have been improvised for the children in the tented camps and for displaced refugee children living elsewhere. In all, schooling in east Jordan has had to be provided by the Agency for 20,000 more children than before the hostilities. Emergency health services have been organized with invaluable help from the Norwegian Refugee Council, the Swedish and British Save the Children Funds, the Lutheran World Federation, the Iraqi Medical Mission, the Iranian Red Lion and Sun Society and the Jordanian Red Crescent Society. Medical supplies continue to be received through the American Middle East Rehabilitation Inc. (United States of America). For the displaced refugees in the tented camps, the food ration has been increased to provide additional protein, the number of rations has been augmented by 10,000 issued to children and 2,000 to adults not previously included, and the hot meal program has been provided to increased numbers. A substantial contribution from the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (OXFAM) will cover the cost of the continuation of the emergency-supplementary feeding program for most of 1968. The provision of tents has been a continuing urgent need. The Government and UNRWA have pooled their resources, and donations of tents have been received from Governments (France and the United States providing the largest quantities), and from many non-governmental sources, such as OXFAM, the Near East Council of Churches, the German Diakonisches Werk and the American organization, NEED, Inc.

13. In spite of the added burdens and strain imposed by the continuing emergency in east Jordan, the Agency's relief and health services-have operated throughout the year without serious interruption and, in general, in a normal and regular manner. However, this was less true of the education services; these were maintained, but they suffered as a result of the continued movement of the population (see paragraph 102). Much credit for these achievements is due to the Agency's field staff in east Jordan. Effective co-operation has been maintained with the Government, and the provision of services to both refugees and other displaced persons has continued to have the character of a combined operation in which the Government, voluntary agencies and other international organizations, such as the World Food Program (WFP) and UNICEF, have all played their part. A notable advance has been made during the year in improving the system of ration distribution as a result of measures taken by the Government to ban from the distribution centers the so-called "merchants" trafficking in ration cards and rationed commodities. As a result, this long-standing abuse has now been largely eliminated and, given continuing vigilance by the authorities and UNRWA, should not recur. Important matters outstanding between the Government and the Agency relate, as in Lebanon and Syria to certain financial claims by the Agency against the Government, the largest being that in respect of the excess rail costs (see annex II). The difficulties concerning certain textbooks, whose use in UNRWA/UNESCO schools had been held in suspense as a result of the UNESCO Executive Board's resolution of 3 November 1967, should be lessened, and hopefully resolved under the Executive Board's resolution of 20 June 1968 as reported below (see paragraphs 17-19).

14. On the West Bank, UNRWA's services recovered quickly from the disruption caused by the hostilities and have functioned in a regular and effective way throughout the year. During the first weeks of the school year, attendance at the UNRWA/UNESCO schools was affected by general unrest and was both low and subject to sudden fluctuations. The three UNRWA training centers were similarly affected. But since November attendance has been regular and the schools and training centers have been running smoothly, with only occasional difficulties arising from the political uncertainty prevailing on the West Bank. Some school classes were handicapped by a lack of textbooks (as explained in paragraphs 17-19), but these difficulties were partly overcome by the preparation by UNRWA of teaching notes. The UNRWA health services have also operated regularly and without serious difficulty during the year. In both education and health matters, after initial questions of policy and jurisdiction had been explored with the authorities; the Agency has been left to carry on its work with little restriction or interference and, in general, the co-operation between UNRWA and the Israel authorities continued to be effective. Extensive revision of UNRWA's registration records and ration rolls has been necessary because of the large movement of refugees from the West Bank to east Jordan. In the process of rectifying the records, efforts have also been made, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 2341 (XXII), to ascertain deaths or absences which had not previously been recorded. Technical problems involved in ascertaining and reflecting such information in registration records have been under study. Consultations have also been held with the technical staff of the Government of Israel on the reconciliation of the UNRWA statistics with those produced in the census conducted by that Government in September 1967. More recently, emphasis has shifted to the statistics produced from the issue of identification cards. Against the Agency's current estimate of about 245,00O registered refugees remaining on the West Bank (including Jerusalem), the number of rations being distributed by the Agency is 140,000 for normal recipients. Assistance was also given during 1967 to some 6,O0O cases not previously registered with the Agency, but responsibility for emergency this group was assumed by the Government of Israel at the beginning of 1968. The Agency has been assured that the level of assistance for this group will be maintained.

15. In Gaza, the aftermath of the hostilities has been painful and prolonged and the Agency's services felt the effects of the succession of incidents and security measures, such as curfews, interrogations, detentions, and., on some occasions, the demolition of houses which followed. In addition, economic activity, always precariously based in Gaza, had slumped and the demand for the Agency's services, particularly supplementary feeding, has increased. The full range of the Agency's services was quickly re-established after the hostilities, and has been maintained. Between 40,000 and 45,000 registered refugees are believed to have left Gaza since the hostilities. The Agency's current estimate of the total number of registered refugees remaining in Gaza is about 265,000. The number of rations being issued by UNRWA in Gaza is 206,638 for regular recipients and 2,435 for emergency cases. As on the West Bank, the revision of the UNRWA registration records to reflect the movement out of Gaza, as well as deaths not previously reported, has been a major task. During the past year, UNRWA has had to undertake a considerable amount of replacement or repair of refugee shelter and other UNRWA installations which had been demolished or damaged in actions taken by the military authorities. Claims for reimbursement of expenditure involved have been presented to the Government of Israel. The Agency's education services operated throughout the year. Attendance has been below normal, even after allowing for those who had left the Gaza Strip, and has also fluctuated with the, frequency of incidents. By the turn of the year all UNRWA/UNESCO schools, with one exception, were repaired and functioning, but they continued to be handicapped by the lack of textbooks, as explained in paragraphs 17-19, and by the shortage of experienced teachers., some of whom were stranded in the United Arab Republic at the time of the hostilities and were not able to return to their duties in Gaza (see paragraph 105). However, the latter problem was largely resolved during the spring of 1968, when the bulk of these teachers, as well as some other UNRWA staff, were allowed to return. The Agency's health services have operated regularly throughout the year, but have been hampered by shortage of staff. A substantial number of the doctors and nurses serving with UNRWA in Gaza at the time of the hostilities were nationals of the United Arab Republic. In the following months, some resigned and left the Gaza Strip. It has proved extremely difficult to find replacements and a number of posts are still vacant. During the year, the Agency was unable to send staff of Arab nationality to the occupied territories, but agreement was secured in August 1968 to the movement of key Arab staff to these areas for limited periods.

16. In the United Arab Republic, UNRWA has during the past year met the cost of relief support provided by the United Arab Republic authorities for some 3,000 registered refugees from Gaza. (The total number of registered refugees now in the United Arab Republic is believed to be considerably larger and the Government estimates the number of refugees and other displaced persons from Gaza at 13,000.) The Agency has also provided additional scholarships for stranded refugee students from Gaza attending universities in the United Arab Republic and some financial help for refugees at the secondary level. At the present time, the Agency is exploring with the authorities concerned the possibility of extending some modest help from UNRWA to other stranded refugee students attending universities there.

Special aspects of education and training

17. Mention has been made above of difficulties that have arisen regarding the use of textbooks in UNRWA/UNESCO schools. The policy which the Agency has followed in the past has been to conform as closely as possible to the national systems of education in each of the Arab host countries. This was necessary in the interests of the refugee children who are growing up in the social and economic environment of those countries and who need to sit for the state examinations in order to secure entrance to the secondary schools and institutions of higher education of those countries (not provided by UNRWA). Consequently the curricula and textbooks employed in the UNRWA/UNESCO schools have in the past been those prescribed by the host Governments for their own national systems of education. After the hostilities of June 1967, the Government of Israel renewed the criticism it had previously expressed that textbooks used in UNRWA/UNESCO schools contained passages giving a distorted account of the events leading up to and following the establishment of the State of Israel and that they tended to induce hatred of Israel in the minds of the children using them. The authorities in the occupied areas raised with UNRWA their objections to the continued use of a considerable number of such books in those areas. Later they prohibited the use of most of the textbooks previously prescribed for use in Gaza and of about one-third of those prescribed for use on the West Bank. They also indicated their intention to print expurgated and amended versions of the books for use in the government schools in those areas. The Agency brought these developments to the notice of UNESCO, which is responsible for the technical aspects of the UNRWA/UNESCO education program, and the Director-General arranged to bring these matters, and UNESCO's participation with UNRWA in educational activities in the occupied areas, to the attention of UNESCO's Executive Board. On 3 November 1967, the UNESCO Executive Board, meeting in Paris, unanimously approved a resolution (see annex III) which authorized the Director-General of UNESCO to co-operate with UNRWA in continuing to provide education for the refugees, both in the occupied areas and elsewhere, subject to observance of the principles of international lam regarding occupied territories and on the basis of certain principles, which included the ethical ideals laid down in the UNESCO Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the prior right of parents to choose the kind of education given to their children, respect for national, religious and linguistic traditions and the need for students to be able to pursue their studies in a system having the same socio-cultural, and particularly linguistic, characteristics.

18. The implementation of this resolution gave rise to some difficulty. In January 1968, the Director-General of UNESCO began to arrange consultations with representatives of the governments concerned. Meanwhile, it was agreed between the Director-General of UNESCO and the Commissioner-General of UNRWA that the Agency would continue, as a temporary measure, to employ the textbooks already in use in UNRWA/UNESCO schools (except for those which had been prohibited by the authorities in the occupied areas), but that the Agency would defer introducing any new textbooks which appeared prima facie to be in possible conflict with the resolution, pending scrutiny of the texts in the light of the principles enunciated in the resolution. Certain newly prescribed textbooks in Jordan and Syria were thus referred to UNESCO for scrutiny. The Arab Governments concerned have vigorously protested both the suspension of procurement and use of new books for the UNRWA/UNESCO schools in the territories controlled by them and the suspension of the use of books banned in the occupied territories by the Government of Israel, pending the review of these books by UNESCO. They have emphasized their concern for the education of the children affected and the consequences for those wishing to pursue their education in higher institutions of learning. They have made known to the Commissioner-General their view that, as applied to the territories controlled by them, the UNESCO Executive Board resolutions could constitute an infringement of their sovereignty and a violation of the right of each national, religious or linguistic community to pursue the educational programs which conform to its traditions and cultural heritage. The Arab Governments have also expressed the view that, in relation to the schools in occupied territories, alterations of curricula or textbooks are contrary to the basic human rights of the inhabitants and are contrary to United Nations resolutions, to the basic objectives of UNESCO and the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949. This question was reviewed by the UNESCO Executive Board at its session in Paris in May/June 1968, and a further resolution (see annex III) was unanimously approved by the Executive Board on 20 June 1968. The new resolution reaffirmed the principles laid down in the resolution of 3 November 1967, approved the steps taken to implement it by the Director-General as well as his collaboration with the Commissioner-General, and authorized the Director-General to pursue his efforts in this respect, notably by setting up a Commission of outside experts to examine the textbooks used in UNRWA/UNESCO schools and to make recommendations thereon to the Director-General for the assent and co-operation of the Member States concerned. The resolution also noted the intention of the Director-General to assign a UNESCO staff member to the post of Supervisor, UNRWA Education Services (Gaza-West Bank), and invited the Director-General to report progress on the implementation of his resolution at the session of the Executive Board to be held in the spring of 1969.
19. Meanwhile, in the occupied areas the Agency has not introduced into the UNRWA/UNESCO schools the expurgated or amended textbooks prepared by the authorities in Israel for use in the government schools in those areas. Instead, as a temporary substitute for the prohibited textbooks, the Agency has produced its own cyclostyled teaching notes. The texts of these notes were prepared in the UNRWA/UNESC0 Institute of Education by specialists attached to UNRWA's Department of Education in Beirut on the basis of textbooks previously used in the schools. Although these teaching notes are not a wholly satisfactory substitute for proper textbooks, it seemed to the Agency that they were the best device that could be adopted under the circumstances. The production of these notes has been a major undertaking and has certainly made a notable contribution to the continuation of the educational program for the refugee children in the very difficult conditions prevailing in the occupied areas during the past year.

20. One other major problem which has emerged regarding the provision of education in the occupied areas is that of devising some method of holding examinations for the children completing the secondary cycle of education and of securing, if possible, recognition of the result of these examinations by education authorities in the Arab world so that successful students may be able to continue their education in Arab institutions of higher education, of which there are none in the occupied areas. UNRWA has represented to all the authorities concerned the importance of finding a solution to this problem in the interests of the young refugees whose whole educational future is at stake; and the Agency has indicated that it would be prepared to give any assistance within its power in making administrative arrangements for holding examinations. Some progress has been made in this matter, as reported below in paragraphs 104 and 106.

21. An encouraging development in education during the past year has been the generous provision of funds for a number of important educational projects. This has enabled the Agency to make an impressive start on the expansion of its schools and training centers as part of a program of educational improvements which was drawn up in 1966/1967 in response to suggestions from the host governments that the Agency should lay down a comprehensive education plan based on the actual developing needs of the refugee society, irrespective of the immediate availability of funds. It was, unfortunately, not possible to discuss the details of this plan in the course of 1967, as had been intended, at a conference with representatives of the host governments, of UNESCO and of UNRWA; but it is believed that the proposals on which UNESCO and UNRWA have been working are generally in line with educational planning in those countries. The proposals were incorporated in a program and budget for 1967/1968 which was communicated to the host governments in 1967. UNRWA and UNESCO are preparing a similar study for 1968/1969, and it is hoped that means will be found during 1968 for consultations on this subject with the educational authorities of the governments concerned.

22. Special contributions were made by various donors in support of particular aspects of the educational and training program or of the program in general. Thus, the Government of Sweden, in addition to increasing its contribution to the general UNRWA budget, contributed $2 million from technical assistance funds to help finance educational and training activities.

23. A substantial contribution was also received during the year from the Danish Technical Co-operation Secretariat, comprising $318,000 for school buildings in Syria and $460.000 to help meet the operating costs of the Agency's two training centers at Ramallah. Switzerland has continued to help finance the UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education with technical assistance funds. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is providing funds for the expansion and improvement of a training center in Jordan, and for university scholarships.4/ It is hoped that other governments may also undertake special financing of educational and training activities, in addition to their regular contributions. Many individuals and organizations have supported the vocational and teacher training program by providing scholarships for trainees.

24. Very significant help for education and training has also come from the American private organization NEED, Inc., (Near East Emergency Donations, Inc.).5/ Although this assistance does not pass through the UNRWA budget, funds amounting to $4 million have been made available to UNRWA for the construction of fourteen schools in Jordan, two new training centers in Jordan, the expansion of two training centers elsewhere, the expansion of the Institute of Education, and the operation of three temporary vocational and teacher-training programs.
Assistance from international organizations, voluntary
agencies and other non-governmental sources

25. Other United Nations agencies and special programs have made notable contributions in the assistance of refugees and other displaced Persons during the year. The participation of UNESCO in the education and training program has been a major factor in the continued constructive work in that field and in coping with the special problems that have arisen in the course of the year. The role of WHO in the health program has been equally vital. The resolution adopted by the World Health Assembly, after reviewing the health program for the Palestine refugees, is included as annex IV of this report, in the belief that it will be of interest to the General Assembly.

26. For the newly displaced persons not registered with UNRWA, the food supplies provided to the governments concerned by the World Food Program, and the food and other assistance given by UNICEF, have helped to avoid starvation and to lessen the distress of those in need. In an endeavour to fulfil a continuing need for such assistance, the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization launched a joint appeal on 30 April 1968 for special contributions of food.

27. In his report of last year, the Commissioner-General paid tribute to the many donors for their generous and immediate response to appeals for assistance at the time of the hostilities. Throughout the past year most of the same donors have continued to provide funds and supplies to alleviate the needs of the refugees, and the Commissioner-General would wish once again to express to them his grateful thanks and appreciation for this additional assistance. Contributions made direct to UNRWA from all non-governmental sources are shown in Table 20 of annex I.

28. The voluntary agencies, both those operating so effectively and devotedly in the field (see table 18 of annex I), and those based elsewhere which have provided generous and understanding support to the limit of their means, have won the admiration of all who have had the privilege of association with them.

Future program

29. The current mandate of UNRWA is due to expire on 30 June 1969 and the General Assembly will no doubt wish to consider during the coming session whether the Agency's mandate should be extended for a further period and, if so, for what period and under what conditions. In this connection, it is relevant to recall that the achievement of a just settlement of the refugee problem is among the provisions and principles listed in Security Council resolution 242 of 22 November 1967 as a basis for the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East, and the outcome of the Mission of the Secretary-General's Special Representative to the Middle East would, of course, materially affect UNRWA's future role. It seems more than likely, however, that whatever stage might be reached in the Special Representative's effort, an extension of UNRWA's services beyond 30 June 1969 will be essential. The Commissioner-General believes that further comment on the question of the extension of the Agency's mandate might be deferred until the General Assembly session. He would, however, wish to recall a point that he made in paragraph 35 of his report for 1964/1965 6/ when the question was last under consideration by the General Assembly. Should the Assembly decide that the appropriate means of continuing to meet the needs of the refugees is by an extension of the Agency's mandate for a fixed period of time, the Commissioner-General would observe that there would be advantages in the planning and efficient administration of the Agency's program, in particular its educational services, in having the extension for as long a period as possible.

30. As an alternative to a fixed period, the General Assembly may wish to give consideration to an extension of the Agency's mandate for an indefinite period, subject to annual review by the General Assembly. This would be a more flexible arrangement and would allow the adjustment of the UNRWA program as may be required by future developments, while still keeping complete control in the hands of the General Assembly.

31. As for the content of the UNRWA programs during such extension as the General Assembly may authorize, this again must depend to a large extent on the outcome of the present efforts to work out a peaceful settlement in the area, including a just settlement of the refugee problem. If those efforts are successful, there would very likely be a continuing need for UNRWA's services for a transitional period while the settlement is taking effect. If, however, the aim of a just settlement of the refugee problem is not achieved and if UNRWA is called upon in those circumstances to continue providing services for the needy refugees, the basis of the Agency's operations will presumably continue to be much the same as in the past.

32. Subject to these considerations, the Agency would wish to emphasize the need for further improvements which are highly desirable in the educational and health services provided to the refugees, and its hope that funds might become available for these purposes. In education, the Agency would wish to continue its efforts to improve the quality of the teaching provided in the UNRWA/UNSCO schools. The main elements in such an improvement would be a further substantial increase in the proportion of qualified teachers, to be achieved by an expansion of in-service training facilities, and a reduction in the pupil/teacher ratio by the recruitment of more teachers and the construction of additional classrooms. Another priority objective would be the replacement, over a period of about three years, of the many thoroughly unsatisfactory school buildings, both rented premises and temporary structures erected by UNRWA in the early years after 1950. The Agency would also wish to continue to expand and improve the training program, both pre-service teacher training and vocational, with the aim of increasing capacity by 50 per cent. A considerable beginning has already been made in this latter respect with the special allocations of funds received during the past year. It is perhaps hardly necessary to emphasize that these proposed improvements and expansion of the Agency's schools, training centres and in-service training program could achieve their purpose only if the funds were forthcoming to meet the running costs of the existing program, as well as of the improvements.

33. In health, the Agency would wish to give attention, after the maintenance of its existing services to three major improvements. First, it would hope to continue the process on which it has been engaged for some years past, of replacing unsatisfactory buildings now used as health centres and clinics and to improve the equipment and facilities needed there. Many of the replacements so far carried out have been financed by special donations from non-governmental sources and the Agency would hope to receive further donations of this kind in future. Second, the Agency would hope to be able to make a determined effort to improve living conditions in the UNRWA camps, particularly those in urban areas. Some of these improvements, such as the provision of better roads and pathways, street lighting and community services, would fall outside the scope of the health services. But a major part of the work of camp improvement would be the provision of better water supplies, sewage schemes and other sanitary services. The third objective would be to improve the health care and nutritional protection afforded for the pre-school group of children aged from two to six years. In the past this especially vulnerable group has received less attention, relative to their needs, than the infants during their first two years of life.

Finance

34. Financially, the Agency's situation continues to be precarious and the outlook for the future is even more alarming. In the four years ending 31 December 1966, expenditures exceeded income by $6 million, and the Agency's working capital was reduced to $14.2 million. In 1967, a number of special contributions were made after the hostilities to help the Agency carry on during the emergency. Taking these contributions into account, the Agency ended the year on 31 December 1967 with $2.5 million more than it had at the beginning. For 1968, however expenditures will be materially higher than before, because of increased needs and higher prices, and are expected to exceed income, during the year by $3.7 million. 7/ Even after offsetting against this $3.7 million deficit for 1968 the "carry-over" of $2.5 million from 1967, there will still be a gap of $1.2 million, and the Agency's working capital will fall to its lowest level.

35. For the year 1.969, a further increase in expenditure appears inevitable. To carry on the present programs will cost $42.5 million. Income, on the basis of present indications, is not expected to exceed $37.6 million. The prospective deficit is consequently $4.9 million. Nor can any further deficits be covered by the remaining working capital, which on 1 January 1969 will probably be reduced to $13.0 million. Very little of this amount will be in the form of cash, but will consist of supplies in the "pipeline" (about $6 million) and contributions pledged, but not yet received (about $7 million).

36. In the Commissioner-General's opinion, it would be neither feasible nor realistic to attempt to resolve this problem by reducing services to the refugees. The services being provided at an average cost of less than $40 per refugee per year are under present economically depressed conditions in the area, even more vital to the refugees than before the hostilities, and any attempt to reduce services by closing food distribution centres, health centres or schools would have a disastrous effect on people already suffering severe hardships and psychological tensions as a result of the events of the past year. Increased income is therefore absolutely essential, and the Commissioner-General urgently requests the General Assembly to take measures to assure that financial resources will be adequate to carry on the humanitarian mandate which the General Assembly has entrusted to UNRWA.

Summary and conclusions

37. It is a matter of satisfaction that, by concerted efforts an the part of the Governments the intergovernmental organizations and voluntary agencies, the immediate and essential physical needs of the thousands of persons displaced by the June 1967 hostilities, and their aftermath, have been largely met. At least, it can be said that, while human suffering abounds among these displaced, neither famine nor epidemic have been added to their plight.

38. However, while aid from many quarters came immediately and generously after the hostilities, with the passage of time interest and aid will almost inevitably begin to dwindle. Yet, the situation of these thousands of displaced refugees and other persons is likely to worsen rather than improve as the full impact of the hostilities and tensions in the Middle East burden the economies of those Arab countries which have become a place of refuge. The financial responsibilities falling on these countries have been particularly heavy and are continuing.

39. In relation to UNRWA, its capacity to help is reduced by the fact that some of its best camps, schools, clinics and other facilities stand idle in Jericho and other camps on the West Bank are partly empty, while the former inhabitants eke out a bare subsistence in tented camps or other temporary accommodation in east Jordan. UNRWA has been prepared, and is prepared, to improve the conditions within these emergency, tented camps to the best of its ability. But the incongruity of having to improvise and expend limited resources, while decent, permanent camps and facilities lie idle on the Vest Bank is striking.

40. UNRWA position has therefore been that, in the absence thus far of the "just settlement of the refugee problem", which the Security Council is resolution 242 of 22 November 1967 rightly views as an essential part of a "just and lasting peace in the Middle East", those who fled after the outbreak of hostilities should be allowed to return to the places where they were living before June 1967. This, it is believed, corresponds to the expressed will of both the Security Council and the General Assembly.

41. In any event, with or without this enormous relief to UNRWA which such a return would bring, UNRWA is determined to carry out its present mandate from the General Assembly to the maximum. limits possible within its budgetary capabilities. UNRWA believes, in the event that the General Assembly should decide to prolong its mandate, that the situation of the refugees requires it not only to maintain, but also to expand its health and education services and it will do so to the extent that the availability of funds permits. Some funds for capital projects, particularly in the field of education, are already being made available by generous donations from governments and non-governmental bodies. Above all, what is needed by the Agency is the basic, and assured, cost of running its established services and the new facilities being made available from these funds for capital projects. It is these normal, operational costs which are vital to the maintenance of these services and, correspondingly, to the daily lives of the refugees. In recent years, appeals for increased voluntary contributions have been made repeatedly by the General Assembly itself, the President of the, General Assembly on occasion and the Secretary-General, and by the Commissioner-General of UNRWA. While increased support has come from some contributors, the total response has fallen considerably short of what is required. During the twenty-first session of the General Assembly, the suggestion was made that one means of improving the present unsatisfactory basis of UNRWA's financing might be to transfer the Agency's administrative expenses - something between $3.2 to $4 million a year - to the assessed budget of the United Nations. The General Assembly may wish, during the present session, to give further consideration to this proposal or to other means of assuring that the necessary funds would be forthcoming. The Commissioner-General feels bound to point out, however, that unless the Agency in one way or another receives additional contributions, amounting to 10 per cent of its prospective income for the current year, a reduction in services to the refugee population would be inescapable, with resulting human hardship and suffering and the likelihood that the efforts of the Secretary-General's Special Representative appointed under Security Council resolution 242 (1967) would be jeopardized. The Commissioner-General knows that the General Assembly is fully aware of the importance of the fact that a prolongation of UNRWA's mandate should be accompanied by the willingness of the Member States to provide the funds necessary to carry out that mandate.

______________________

1/ Information concerning the origin of the Agency and its mission and work will be found in the following annual reports and other United Nations documents:
A. Final report of the United Nations Economic Survey Mission for the Middle East (28 December 1949) (A/AC.25/6, parts I and II).
B. Report of the Secretary-General on Assistance to Palestine Refugees: Official Records of the General Assembly. Fourth Session, Ad Hoc Political Committee Annexes, vol. II,(A/1060), p. 14.
C. Proposals for the continuation of United Nations assistance to Palestine refugees. Document submitted by the Secretary-General to the fourteenth session of the General Assembly (A/4121).
D. Report by the Secretary-General under General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) and Security Council resolution 237 (1967) (A/6787).
E. Reports of the Director (Commissioner-General) of UNRWA and special reports of the Director and Advisory Commission to the General Assembly:
(i) Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifth Session, Supplement No. 19 (A/l451/Rev.l);
(ii) Ibid., Sixth Session, Supplements Nos. 16 and 16A (A/1905 and Add.1);
(iii) Ibid., Seventh Session. Supplements Nos.13 and 13A (A/2171 and Add.1);
(iv) Ibid., Eighth Session, Supplements Nos. 12 and 12A (A/2470 and Add.1);
(v) Ibid., Ninth Session, Supplements Nos. 17 and 17A (A/2717 and Add.1);
(vi) Ibid., Tenth Session, Supplements Nos. 15 and 15A (A/2978 and Add.1);
(vii) Ibid., Eleventh Session, Supplements Nos. 14 and 14A (A/3212 and Add.1);
(viii) Ibid., Twelfth Session. Supplement No. 14 (A/3686 and A/3735);
(ix) Ibid., Thirteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/3931 and A/3948);
(x) Ibid., Fourteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/4213);
(xi) Ibid., Fifteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/4478);
(xii) Ibid., Sixteenth Session. Supplement No._14 (A/4861);
(xiii) Ibid., Seventeenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/5214);
(xiv) Ibid., Eighteenth Session. Supplement No. 13 (A/5513);
(xv) Ibid., Nineteenth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/5813);
(xvi) Ibid., Twentieth Session. Supplement No. 13 (A/6013);
(xvii) Ibid., Twenty-first Session. Supplement No. 13 (A/6313);
(xviii) Ibid., Twenty-second Session. Supplement No. 13 (A/6713);
(xix) A/6723 and Add.l. For the printed text, see Official Records of the Security Council, Twenty-second Year, Supplement for April, May and June 1967, documents S/8001 and Add.1;
(xx) A/6787 and Corr. 1;
(xxi) A/7060.
F. Pertinent General Assembly resolutions:
194 (III) of 11 December 1948; 212 (III) of 19 November 1948; 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949; 393 (V) of 2 December 1950; 513 (VI) of 26 January 1952; 614 (VII) of 6 November 1952; 720 (VIII) of 27 November 1953; 818 (IX) of 4 December 1954; 916 (X) Of 3 December 1955; 1018 (XI) of 28 February 1957; 1191 (XII) of 12 December 1957; 1315 (XIII) of 21 April 1961; 1725 (XVI) of 20 December 1961; 1856 (XVII) of 20 December 1962; 1912 (XVIII) of 3 December 1963; 2002 (XIX) of 10 February 1965; 2052 (XX) of 15 December 1965; 2154 (XXI) of 17 November 1966; 2252 (ES-V) of 4 July 1967; 2341 (XXII) of 19 December 1967.

2/ Including 43,553 children among the newly displaced refugees living outside tented camps, who have been excluded because of ration ceilings, but for whom the Government is providing rations during the emergency.

3/ A report of the Commissioner-General on the flight of the refugees from the previous camps in the Jordan Valley was distributed by the Secretary-General on 2 March 1968 as document A/7060 and S/8435.

4/ The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is also financing an urban shelter scheme at Amman to accommodate about 3,000 families.

5/ NEED, Inc. has also provided about $1.7 million towards the establishment, and improvement of the temporary camps in east Jordan and Syria.

6/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Twentieth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/6013)

7/ The Commissioner-General gratefully acknowledges the actions of the following countries, which increased their regular contributions or made special contributions in 1968: Abu Dhabi, Canada, Republic of China, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Mexico, Niger, Norway and Sweden. The United Kingdom increased its sterling contribution in order to maintain the dollar value. (A complete list of government contributions is given in table 20 of annex I.)

CHAPTER I

REPORT ON THE OPERATIONS OF THE AGENCY FROM 1 JULY 1967 TO 30 JUNE 1968

42. This section of the report describes the Agency's main activities during the period 1 July 1967 to 30 June 1968. Practically all aspects of the Agency's operation during this period have been affected by the hostilities of June 1967 and subsequent military actions, as well as the additional responsibilities entrusted to the Agency in General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) and reaffirmed in resolution 2341 (XXII). Some of the difficulties encountered as a result of the military actions and the measures taken in compliance with the resolution are included with the normal reporting under each activity. Supplemental information on the estimated expenditure for each activity in the calendary year 1968 and the actual expenditure in 1967 is given in chapter II of the report, which presents the Agency's budget for the year 1969. A note on the legal aspects of UNRWA's work is appended as annex II of the report.

A. Relief services

43. The movement of refugees from the West Bank to east Jordan continued throughout the year and has been supplemented by a steady flow of refugees from Gaza, although there was a noticeable drop in numbers towards the end of the year covered by this report. This movement inevitably caused difficulties with the Agency's records and strict identification procedures were introduced at distribution centers in Gaza, the West Bank and east Jordan to ensure that only eligible refugees were issued rations. In Gaza and on the West Bank, other checks have been, and continue to be, made on the existence and presence of family members, particularly in those cases where families have become divided in the movement of the population to east Jordan and where family rations have been claimed and issued to eligible family members in two places. As a result of the strict controls which have been introduced, a substantial number of ineligible persons have been removed from the ration rolls. It will, however, be many months before precise figures will be available in view of the constant movement of the population; for example, some refugees, whose entitlement to rations has been removed because of absence in West Bank and Gaza, subsequently claim rations in east Jordan.

44. Before the hostilities in June 1967, the registration records for the whole of Jordan were held in Jerusalem (West Bank) and it was there also that the majority of the eligibility and registration staff was located. Following the hostilities, it became necessary to establish a new record center in Amman (east Jordan) to which those departments of the Agency concerned with relief services in that area could refer. Because of the limited number of trained staff available in east Jordan, and the operational problems inherent in the unstable situation, it has not been possible to complete the task of establishing new records in Amman in respect of the newly displaced registered refugees. Considerable progress had been made by February, when the exodus of refugees from the new Jordan valley camps, prompted by a series of military actions, made obsolete the records then established and new ones had to be started afresh, so that the refugees could receive rations and services in their new locations. The records in respect of displaced registered refugees are still incomplete, and the need to proceed with this essential task has inevitably delayed the registration and the normal recording of the changes in family composition, such as births, deaths, marriages, etc. The number of births alone among the refugees normally residing in east Jordan, which have yet to be recorded in the Agency's records, may amount to 12,000. It is with these deficiencies in mind therefore that the following statistics must be read.

45. The number of refugees registered with the Agency on 30 June 1968 was 1,364,294 8/ compared with 1,344,576 on 31 May 1967. The number of UNRWA rations issued in June 1968 was 862,988 including issues being made on an emergency basis. (In each of the first few months after the hostilities, as many as 956,000 rations were issued.) The number of refugees registered with the Agency, but not receiving rations is 501,000 compared with 485,000 in June 1967. Tables 1 to 3 of annex I give statistics of the number of registered refugees, the categories of services to which they are entitled, and changes in the composition and entitlement of refugee families as recorded by the Agency.

46. In addition to its normal program of distribution of rations to registered refugees, the Agency, at the request of the Jordan Government and at the Government's expense, has distributed rations to all displaced persons (not registered with the Agency) in east Jordan. In the month of June 1968, 240,000 such persons received rations.
___________

8/ This figure is larger than the total of the numbers reported in the Introduction for each field (see paragraphs 5, 6, 10, 14, 15 and 16), as it includes registered refugees now in the United Arab Republic and others formerly registered on the West Bank or in Gaza who are now living elsewhere. The total registration figure includes about 30,000 people in special categories, such as, Jerusalem Poor, Gaza Poor and Frontier Villagers.

Eligibility and registration

47. Although it has not been possible to continue normal rectification in east Jordan and the West Bank because of the confusion created in respect of the Agency's registration records by the mass movement of the population, nevertheless a substantial number of ineligible persons have been removed from the ration rolls in the process of establishing the present whereabouts of registered refugee families. Considerable progress in this respect has been made in Gaza and the West Bank, but much remains to be done. In east Jordan, where the majority of the displaced refugees have taken shelter, progress has been much slower because of the continuous movement of refugees into and within the territory. Also in east Jordan, because of the volume of work, it has not been possible, as stated in paragraph 44, to reflect in Agency records all changes in family composition reported during the year. Therefore, the Agency's registration records, in respect of east Jordan and, to a lesser extent, Gaza and the West Bank, and the statistics based on these records, are incomplete.

48. In Lebanon and Syria, work in respect of eligibility and registration has proceeded normally throughout the year.

49. In all areas of the Agency's operation, the names of 55,327 persons, including 47,300 ration recipients, were removed from the rolls during the twelve months ending 30 June 1968 (compared with 21,554 in the twelve months ending 30 June 1967). However, a number of newly displaced refugees were being issued with "temporary" rations in east Jordan during June 1968 and a large proportion of these will be reinstated on the ration rolls once their eligibility has been established. In place of those refugees who have been removed from the ration rolls, 16,078 rations were issued during the year to children on the waiting list whose families were found to be suffering extreme hardship.

50. All children of displaced refugees (9,597) residing in the tented camps in east Jordan have been issued with rations by the Agency as an emergency measure, and the children of those displaced refugees living outside camps have been issued with rations donated by the Jordan Government. Similarly, in Syria 3,022 children of displaced refugees have been issued with rations by the Agency.

51. The financial position of the Agency made it necessary to continue its restrictions on the number of ration recipients, and the number of children over the age of one year for whom no rations are available continues to grow. By June 1968, these children totaled 299,232, of whom 154,372 were in east Jordan, 71,722 on the West Bank, 7,665 in Lebanon, 28,300 in Syria and 37,173 in the Gaza Strip, although, as stated above, 9,597 of these children in east Jordan and 3,022 in Syria are being issued with rations by the Agency as an emergency measure and a further 43,553 are being issued with rations donated by the Jordan Government.

Basic rations

52. The content of the basic food rations, which provided approximately 1,500 calories per day in summer and 1,600 in winter, remained unchanged during the period covered by this report. Details of the rations and of other supplies distributed to the refugees are contained in table 4 of annex I. During the year, the Agency imported for its normal program some 112,300 tons of flour and some 25,500 tons of other food-stuffs for distribution to the refugees. The cost of these supplies, together with the cost of distribution, accounted for approximately 33 per cent of the Agency's budget.

Supplementary feeding

53. In view of the fact that UNRWA's basic ration contains no items of fresh food or animal protein, the supplementary feeding program was established with a view to meeting all basic nutritional requirements of the most vulnerable sectors of the refugee population. Supplements consist of liquid milk, hot meals and vitamin preparations, provided on a daily basis to selected categories, while extra dry rations are issued monthly to pregnant and nursing women and tuberculosis out-patients. As a substitute for milk, CSM (a high protein blended food consisting of cornflour, soya bean and milk powder) is presently being issued in the normal program to children from six to ten years of age. As an emergency measure since the June hostilities, CSM has also been issued as a high-protein food to certain other categories, as indicated below.

54. The Agency's milk distribution program is made possible normally by a special annual contribution of skim milk power from the United States Government. During the period under review, this amounted to 1,011 metric tons, as well as 1,029 metric tons of CSM. A substantial contribution (2,100 tons) of skim milk power was also received from the Canadian Government. The receipt of these quantities of skim milk has made possible the resumption of the school milk program, which had been suspended in the previous year due to shortage of supplies, and the expansion of milk distribution to newly displaced refugee children from six to fifteen years of age. The Agency maintained the daily issue of a mixture of whole and skim milk to infants from the age of six to twelve months and to non-breast-fed babies under six months, as well as the distribution of reconstituted skim milk on twenty-six days a month to children one to six years of age, to pregnant and nursing women and to patients on medical recommendation.

55. The Agency continued to provide nutritionally-balanced hot meals six days a week in supplementary feeding centers and food distribution points varying in number from 106 to 1211 and located in camps and in other communities having sizable refugee populations. Owing to the mass movement of refugees out of certain areas, eight centres (one in Syria, five on West Bank, two in east Jordan) ceased to operate, while for the newly established emergency camps temporary feeding arrangements had to be made. Normally, the meals are available to all children up to the sixth birthday, and on medical recommendation to those from six to fifteen years of age, with a daily ceiling of 45,000 for both groups. Following the hostilities, the ceiling was increased from 45,000 to 71,500 to include an additional 8,000 children below six years of age and 18,500 displaced children six to fifteen years of age. A balanced high-protein menu continued to be provided for the treatment of infants and young children suffering from gastroenteritis or malnutrition, or both. Vitamin A and D capsules were issued twenty-six days a month to children below six years of age who were attending supplementary feeding centres. Elementary school children continued to receive multi-vitamin tablets on twelve days in the month; these were replaced by vitamin A and D capsules early in 1968. Extra dry rations were issued monthly, on medical certification, to expectant mothers from the fifth month of pregnancy, to nursing mothers for a full year after delivery, and to non-hospitalized tuberculosis patients. Children in the age group six to ten years received, with effect from October 1967, a monthly issue of 500 grams of CSM.

56. An emergency supplementary feeding program, which was introduced for newly displaced refugees and other displaced persons following the June hostilities, was continued throughout the period of this report. This consisted of a daily hot meal and milk six days a week, to all displaced children up to fifteen years of age, as well as a monthly protein supplement of one twelve-ounce tin of meat and 500 grams of CSM to all displaced refugees in Syria, to those living in tented camps in east Jordan and to displaced and identified hardship cases on the West Bank. In Syria, a further supplement consisting of flour, oil, and rice was provided to displaced refugees living in tented camps and to identified cases of hardship among the same category living outside these camps in order to have the Agency's ration conform as closely as possible in food value to that issued by the Syrian Government to the Syrian displaced persons.

57. In response to appeals made by the Commissioner-General for assistance in meeting the increased demands which were made upon the Agency as a result of the June 1967 hostilities, many contributions were received in cash or in kind. The latter included milk, canned meat and various other food items.

58. Tables 5 and 6 of annex I give, in summary, the numbers of various categories of refugees who were benefiting from the milk and supplementary feeding programs.

Camps and shelter

59. The number of refugees recorded as residing in established Agency camps fell from 532,990 in May 1967 to 454,232 in June 1968 (see table 7, annex I), mainly because of the exodus to east Jordan from the large camps in the Jordan Valley on the West Bank, following the hostilities in June 1967. The Agency has, however, with the assistance of the Jordan Government, established six new emergency camps in east Jordan in which 78,400 (see table 8, annex I) registered refugees and displaced persons were living in June 1968.

60. Because of the uncertain situation which prevailed throughout the year, no new major construction work was undertaken apart from emergency measures. The housing scheme in Amman to re-house 600 families was just completed at the outbreak of hostilities, but before the families for whom the shelters were intended could be moved, they were occupied by refugees and other displaced persons from the West Bank. In Lebanon, ninety shelters were built in Rashidieh Camp to re-house refugees whose shelters had suffered damage from the sea during winter storms or who had been transferred from other locations. In Gaza, work was confined to the repair of refugee shelters and installations damaged during and following the hostilities. No shelter programs were authorized for Syria or the West Bank.

61. Immediately following the hostilities, seven emergency camps were established in east Jordan and a program to improve conditions in the camps during the winter was put in hand. One thousand framework shelters had been erected and work on 21,000 more was well in hand before the end of 1967. In addition, the construction of latrines, water supplies, paths, storm water drainage and concrete floors with low-skirting walls for tents was in progress. The latter, together with erection of framework shelters, had, however, to be abandoned owing to insistence of the refugees on temporary measures only to alleviate their living conditions. Finally, when a fresh outbreak of hostilities occurred in February 1968, the occupants abandoned the valley camps almost overnight. The situation there did not permit their return and all work was stopped. The establishment of six new camps in the hill areas of Jordan was then immediately put in hand. At one of these locations, Zizia, the Iranian Red Lion and Sun Society undertook the construction of camp facilities of a more solid character, and these are nearing completion.

62. In Syria, of the 17,500 refugees displaced from south Syria because of the hostilities, 7,746 were accommodated in tented camps by 7 June 1968. Considerable progress has been made in improving the living conditions in these camps. Latrines and drinking water have been provided in all camps and, in order to protect the refugees against rainstorms and flooding, concrete storm water disposal systems and concrete floors with low-skirting walls around the tents were constructed, as well as concrete pathways and asphalt roads.

Special hardship assistance

Clothing

63. The voluntary agencies, through the, generous help of their contributors abroad, continued to bear the main responsibility for meeting the needs of the refugees for clothing, considerably increased during 1967, as a result of the hostilities, when many of the refugees fled from their homes with only the clothing they were wearing. During the year, over 1,400 tons of used clothing were received by UNRWA and distributed to registered refugees in need in east Jordan and on the West Bank Lebanon and Gaza. The Agency itself spent some $30,000 on inland transportation costs and on ocean freight for clothing received from abroad.

64. While the following agencies generously maintained and indeed increased their regular contributions to meet the needs of the many thousands of registered refugees and other displaced persons, other special donations were received from various organizations in the United States, Canada and Europe, which were of great assistance in meeting emergency clothing needs.

American Friends Service Committee
Canadian Lutheran World Relief
Caritas-Verband (Federal Republic of Germany)
Church of Scotland
Church of World 'Service (United States)
Lutheran World Relief, Inc.
Mennonite Central Committee (United States)
Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (United Kingdom)
Red Cross Society (Canada)
Unitarian Service Committee of Canada
United Church of Canada
Vastkustens Efterkrisgshjalp (Sweden)
Women's Royal Voluntary Service (United Kingdom)

Case-work program

65. This program continued to render assistance to the most needy members of tile refugee community who, because of chronic illnesses, widowhood, old age or owing to circumstances arising from the emergency, became destitute and in special need of material assistance or guidance. This past-year, some 12,000 families were assisted with small cash grants to help them survive their particularly critical situation. Others were assisted with special issues of clothing, blankets, kerosene and layettes.

66. In the months following the hostilities, the Agency's welfare staff on the West Bank extended emergency social services to both refugees and displaced persons in the area, particularly inhabitants of villages in the border areas, which had been destroyed. Assistance included cash, clothing, blankets, layettes, utensils, etc. Similar emergency assistance was provided in Gaza and to newly displaced refugees in east Jordan and Syria.

67. In addition, case-workers counseled refugees on personal and family problems. They also placed in institutions 161 orphans and fifty aged persons.

B. Health services

68. Although the hostilities of June 1967 and the series of military incidents which took place at the end of 10 7 and early this year created many difficulties for the Agency's health services, the Agency, in co-operation with the government health authorities concerned in the respective fields, was able to establish emergency medical facilities and services and provide basic sanitation services for the refugees and other displaced persons sheltered in tented camps in Jordan and Syria. Such facilities and services were progressively improved and their standard raised to that provided by the Agency in its normal program.

69. This latter program, available to the whole of the entitled Palestine refugee population, continued as a comprehensive system of health protection, comprising both preventive and curative services. At the same time, the Agency continued to adhere to the principle that its health services should be at levels largely equivalent to the services provided by the respective Governments for comparable sections of their own populations. Technical guidance continued to be available from WHO in accordance with the agreement by which that organization provided advisory and consultative service in health matters to UNRWA. At the twenty-first session of the World Health Assembly, which met in Geneva in May 1968, the annual report of UNRWA's Director of Health was considered and the Assembly subsequently adopted a resolution which is reproduced in annex IV of this report.

During the year, the UNRWA health services benefited from the advice of a WH0 maternal and child health nutrition team, which studied the health and nutrition status of the mothers and children among the newly displaced refugees.

70. As in past years, and particularly following the June 1967 conflict, the Agency has received generous contributions to the health program from various donors, including Governments, charitable organizations, universities, business corporations and individuals; contributions of vaccines from Governments in the area of the Agency's operation had a special preventive value. Whether in cash or in kind, these contributions have been designed to meet a variety of needs related mainly to the emergency and have included such items as temporary health centre buildings and basic sanitation facilities in tented camps, provision of personnel, free hospital and laboratory services, medical supplies, supplementary food items, infant layettes, and support in immunization campaigns.

71. During the period under review, the Agency made provision for health services to refugees and other displaced persons at locations numbering 120 at the beginning and 108 by the end of the period. While the Agency operated health centres or clinics at most of those locations, host Governments and voluntary agencies made available mainly medical care on a subsidy basis at seventeen points. Of the ninety-one Agency centres, eight were of an emergency or temporary type established in the tented camps (six in the valley area of east Jordan and two in the Damascus area of Syria). When the Jordan valley camps were abandoned in February 1968 after a series of military actions, five new centres of a temporary type were established in the relocated tented camps of the east Jordan uplands. Health services in the sixth temporary camp established at Zizia were provided by the Iranian Red Lion and Sun Society. Meanwhile, as a result of the June hostilities and subsequent events, the Agency lost the use of health centre or clinic facilities at seven locations in the Quneitra area of Syria (where no refugees remained), four on the West Bank and nine in east Jordan, including six in the valley area, but excluding those in the abandoned camps. While all health centres continued to function in the Gaza Strip, a rather serious staffing problem arose there with the departure of some of the medical officers and graduate nurses of United Arab Republic nationality and with the difficulties encountered in securing replacement for them.

72. In recent years, the Agency has endeavored to replaced old, unsatisfactory health centres and clinics. Most of the remaining old centres have been in operation since 1948 when, under the emergency situation prevailing at that time, there was virtually no choice but to use such accommodation as was available. In 1967, a new centre with modern facilities was completed at Jabalia camp in the Gaza Strip to replace an old health centre, for which purpose funds had been donated by the Belgian Committee for Refugees. A new centre is presently being constructed to replace an old one at Rafah Camp in the Gaza Strip with funds donated by the Norwegian Refugee Council. Funds have been received from the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (United Kingdom) for replacement of the centre at Jalazone Camp on the West Bank. It is hoped that further contributions will be forthcoming to enable the Agency to replace the remaining unsuitable health centres.

Curative and preventive medical services

Clinics, hospitals and laboratories

73. The curative services which are provided include medical consultations, referrals to specialists and hospitals, ophthalmic treatment, injections and dressings, dispensing of medicines, and limited dental care. The preventive services comprise communicable diseases control, maternal care, infant care, school health and health education of the public. Table 9 of annex I provides a summary of health centre attendance.

74. The number of registered refugees eligible for health services was higher than that of the previous year by 1.8 per cent. In addition, some 15,000 displaced persons (not registered with UNRWA) availed themselves of the Agency's out-patient services in east Jordan, in accordance with the extended mandate entrusted to the Agency by General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) of 4 July 1967.

75. The Agency's hospital policy continued to be one of subsidizing occupancy of beds in local institutions operated by government or local authorities, universities, charitable organizations or private agencies. In addition, the Agency maintained its direct operation of two hospitals on the West Bank, one a small cottage hospital at Qalqilya and the other a tuberculosis hospital at Nablus. The latter was closed in March 1968 when alternative facilities of a better standard were provided at the subsidized Augusta Victoria Hospital in Jerusalem. The Government of Israel has assumed certain obligations of providing special medical treatment on a basis comparable to that on which the governmental authorities had previously provided similar treatment. The Agency shared with the Government Health Department in Gaza the operational responsibilities of another tuberculosis hospital. Agreements with a number of the subsidized hospitals had to be revised to take into account the mass movement of refugees to east Jordan. Table 10 of annex I shows the hospital facilities available to the refugees.

76. Laboratory services were provided to meet the Agency's clinical and public health needs, by Government, university or private laboratories - in certain instances free of charge, but mostly on a subsidy basis. The Agency continues to maintain its own central laboratory in Gaza, as well as four small clinical laboratories there and in Lebanon. This service is now in the process of being extended through the establishment of similar small laboratories in selected larger health centres.

Control of communicable diseases

77. No cases of the six quarantinable diseases (cholera, plague, relapsing fever, smallpox, typhus and yellow fever) were reported among the refugee population during the period under review. Programs of mass vaccination and revaccination against smallpox were carried out in all fields, in co-operation with the Governments, in view of the threat occasioned by outbreaks in certain of the Middle East States. The emergency created by the mass movement and relocation of refugees and other displaced persons in Jordan and Syria, at the time of the June 1967 conflict, called for both urgent and longer-term measures of health protection. Steps were taken by the Agency, in co-ordination with the Ministries of Health in the two countries, to avert epidemics through mass disinfestation and immunization, in addition to the basic sanitation measures undertaken. While the practice of giving six-monthly reinforcing doses of cholera vaccine had been introduced on a regular basis for the refugee population in all fields, it was decided at the end of 1967 that this was no longer necessary and was discontinued.

78. Communicable eye diseases, and particularly trachoma, have continued to show a downward trend among the refugees. While there was a moderate increase in the incidence of specific dysentery's, notably in east Jordan, there has been an over-all decrease in respect of infectious hepatitis. In the last six months of 1967, acute poliomyelitis showed a sharp rise of incidence over the previous two-year level, but a steady decline of this incidence has been apparent in the first half of 1968. Mass immunization of children against poliomyelitis was being supplanted gradually in most of the fields by the procedure of routine immunization of infants in their first year of life. Other diseases which showed an increased incidence during the year included measles (especially in east Jordan) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (confined to Syria). The reported incidence of new cases of tuberculosis showed a marked decline in Gaza. By the end of the reporting period, there was a moderate increase in east Jordan in the number of discovered cases of tuberculosis, not surprising in view of the large increase in the number of refugees. At present, the Jordan Government is conducting a mass tuberculosis survey and control program in the tented camps of east Jordan. In Lebanon, the number of reported cases of tuberculosis has shown a substantial increase, which is attributed to a more active case-finding program. In Syria, the incidence has remained at a relatively low level.

79. Table 11 of annex I lists the numbers of cases of communicable diseases reported among the refugee population.

Maternal and child health

80. At the end of the reporting period, maternal and child health services were being provided in seventy-seven of the Agency's health centres, including the eight temporary centres in the tented camps of east Jordan and Syria, and in one voluntary agency clinic. Certain clinics ceased to function in those health centres, which became non-operative as a result of the hostilities. Four semi-mobile maternal and child health units were donated by the Norwegian Refugee Council and were operated by teams provided by the Norwegian Save the Children Fund, the Jordanian Red Crescent Society, the British Save the Children Fund and the Lutheran World Federation. Special attention continued to be devoted to expectant and nursing mothers, infants and children in the first two years of life and to school children. Infant health clinics continued to report regularly on underweight infants. Those suffering from severe gastroenteritis or malnutrition, or both, were referred to one of the Agency's seventeen rehydration/nutrition centres or, in locations where these centres do not exist, to supplementary feeding centres, where a special high-protein diet is available for them. Infants and small children continued to be routinely immunized against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, the enteric groups of fevers, poliomyelitis and smallpox, while BCG vaccination was being added during the course of the year.

81. The school health program, conducted by health units and mobile health teams, included school-entrance and follow-up medical examinations, prophylactic immunization of children and teachers, sanitary inspection of school premises and health education activities.

82. Statistical information on maternal and infant care and on school health services is presented in table 12 of annex I.

83. While it is considered that infants and children of school age are provided with at least minimally satisfactory standards of health care, the Agency has long believed that its health protective services for the pre-school sector (two to six years) of the child population were riot adequate. In order to provide regular supervision, parental guidance and specific corrective and preventive care for this vulnerable age group, it is hoped that it may be possible to establish, throughout the Agency's area of operations, mobile health teams which would work closely with the regular staff of the Agency's health centres. Such teams would carry out screening examinations, prescribe the necessary medical, nutritional and other care required. Their activities would be complemented by the health centre staff, particularly in follow-up care and in health educational activities. The implementation of such a scheme would be dependent upon funds being made available for the purpose.

Health education

84. The health education program, which is directed to all sectors of the refugee population under the general guidance of twenty-four health education workers, aims at promoting health awareness and stimulating self-help among the refugees. Widespread use is made of visual aids such as posters, pamphlets, health calendars, flannel graphs and health films. Activities included special programs for World Health Day and the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the World Health Organization in all fields. Special attention was paid during the period under review to the needs of the newly displaced refugees, in view of their less favorable living conditions.

Nursing services

85. At the end of the period under review, the Agency was employing 167 graduate nurses and midwives 297 auxiliary nurses and fifty-six traditional midwives (dayahs). This staff has provided nursing services in both the preventive and curative fields, engaging in the following activities: maternal and child health, layette distribution, school health, health education, home-visiting, supervision of infant-feeding, individual and mass immunization, tuberculosis and venereal diseases control, and care of the sick in clinics, hospitals and rehydration/nutrition centres. Nursing services were maintained at effective levels in the tented camps of east Jordan and Syria, despite the difficult working conditions, and in the Gaza Strip, although a serious shortage of nursing staff arose there as a result of departures following the hostilities. Due credit must be accorded to the nursing staff of the various clinics and hospitals subsidized by the Agency for the part they played in the medical care program for the refugees.

Nutrition

86. While a general surveillance of the health of the refugees is maintained through the Agency's preventive and curative services, the aim of the supplementary feeding and milk distribution program is to protect the nutritional state of the most vulnerable groups of the population, which include those in the age of growth and development (infants, pre-school and school children), pregnant and nursing women and selected medical cases.

87. The details of this program, which is administered and operated by the Agency's Health Department, are described in paragraphs 53 to 58 of this report.

Environmental sanitation

88. The environmental sanitation program is primarily concerned with the provision, in Agency administered camps, of safe and adequate water supplies, sanitary waste disposal, surface drainage, and control of insect and rodent vectors of disease. The program was largely maintained at the established level.

In the tented camps for refugees and other displaced persons in east Jordan and Syria, similar facilities and services of a more temporary nature were provided. The construction of family latrines to replace public latrines in the established camps continued to be encouraged and assisted by the Agency. Composting, incineration or dumping, depending on local circumstances, continued as the methods employed in garbage disposal. Close co-operation was maintained with government health authorities in the malaria eradication programs. Fly control was based mainly on prevention of breeding by biological methods, supplemented by insecticidal spraying. The sanitation labourer force in camps was maintained at a ratio of 1.7 labourers per 1,000 of camp population with the exception that in the newly established tented camps a ratio of 2-5 laborers, is being applied.

89. If funds could be made available the Agency considers that the improvement of environmental sanitation facilities in established camps is desirable. These improvements would consist of the extension of piped water supplies, mechanization of refuse disposal, extension or improvement of drainage and sewerage systems (in collaboration with local authorities where possible), support for the program of individual family-latrine construction, and improvement in methods of vector control.

Medical education and training

90. In the field of health sciences, 311 refugee students are holders of Agency university scholarships (see paragraph 134). Of these, 252 are studying medicine, ten dentistry, forty-eight pharmaceutical chemistry and one sanitary science. In addition, forty-six students are receiving basic nursing training and twelve students midwifery training. There are thirty-nine students under training as assistant pharmacists, eleven as public health inspectors, six as x-ray technicians, fifteen as laboratory technicians and six as physiotherapists. A course in in-service training in maternal and child health was given to sixteen and eight graduate nurses in Lebanon and Syria, respectively, while in Gaza fourteen senior staff nurses, nine practical nurses and six midwives received individual maternal and child health training at the UNRWA/Swedish Health Center.

C. Education and training services

91. For most of the Agency's schools, the 1966-1967 school year had just come to an end when the large-scale hostilities took place in June 1967. In Syria and east Jordan, the empty school buildings served as temporary shelter for the thousands of refugees and other displaced persons while tented camps were being established in the valley and on the uplands of east Jordan and in south and central Syria.

92. While the coincidence of the hostilities with the end of the school year lessened their immediate impact on the general education program, it was necessary to make major adjustments before the next school year began in order to cope with the situation resulting from the movement of tens of thousands of refugee families from their former places of residence. As the Agency's vocational and teacher training centers are normally operated for a longer period into the summer, the outbreak of the hostilities interrupted the school year at these centers. At that time, all of the training centers were immediately closed. While most of the centers re-opened. shortly after the cessation of hostilities those on the West Bank remained closed throughout the summer months. At the beginning of the 1967-1968 school year, it was found that many of the trainees did not report back to the centers on the West Bank; to a lesser extent, the same situation prevailed in Gaza. The opening of the centers in the occupied areas was also affected by curfews and other measures taken by the authorities on security grounds. However, training was subsequently resumed in all the areas, with the intention of extending the school year as required to make up for the late start. In the following paragraphs, some of the difficulties encountered, and the measures taken in the areas affected by the hostilities in order to permit the continuation of the education and training program for the children of the displaced refugee families, are described briefly, in addition to the normal reporting.

93. In previous annual reports, tributes have been paid to the large measure of support received by the Agency, from both governmental and non-governmental sources, specifically directed towards its activities in the field of education and training. The importance of the Agency's work in this field has received increasing recognition, not only as a means of achieving the economic rehabilitation of individual refugees, but also as a form of technical assistance to a community in special need of external aid. Some of this assistance is also referred to in the following paragraphs.

General education

94. The number of refugee children benefiting from the Agency's general education program continued to increase in the l967-1968 school year in Lebanon and Syria, and to a greater extent in east Jordan owing to the influx of refugee families from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. For this same reason, school population on the West Bank and in Gaza had decreased and, particularly in the Gaza Strip, attendance at schools was adversely affected by events which occurred throughout the year. The attendance of children in the tented camps in east Jordan was interrupted by the movement of the refugee population on several occasions within that area as a result of military actions and winter storms. However, it was possible to provide virtually all refugee children of school age in all of the Agency's areas of operations with at least the opportunity of continuing their education if circumstances permitted. In most areas, there were indications of a return to normality towards the end of the 1967-1968 school year, leading to the expectation that the next school year would see an over-all increase in school enrolment, consistent with the normal trend in recent years, resulting in further demands on the Agency's resources.

95. In statistical terms, it may be reported that during the school year just ended the Agency operated 446 elementary and preparatory schools, 261 of them Agency-built, 154 in rented premises, twenty-six tented schools in the newly- established camps and five shared premises with Government schools, providing education for 179,591 refugee children. An additional 41,602 refugee children were enrolled in Government and private schools in the elementary and. preparatory cycles, covering the first nine years of education, making a grand total of 221,193, an over-all decrease over last year's enrolment of 2-5 per cent.

96. Attendance at secondary schools was also somewhat less than normal during the school year 1967-1968 (15,226 as against 18,200 in the 1966-1967 school year). The Agency itself does not operate schools in the upper secondary cycle of general education, but provides a measure of assistance by way of grants, allowances or subsidies to eligible refugee students enrolled in Government and private schools. Some 14,000 refugee students were assisted in this way during the 1967-1968 school year. As pointed out in previous reports, the subsidy paid by the Agency covers only a small part of the actual cost of the education provided, the main burden being borne by the Governments concerned.

97. Tables 13-16 of annex I provide details of number and distribution of refugee students receiving education, but any survey of the figures for the school year 1967-1968 must take into account the varying adverse conditions which prevailed in each of the Agency's areas of operation during that period and which are summarized below.

98. An appreciable percentage of the Agency's teaching staff, which now numbers 5,250, was, affected by the hostilities and their aftermath. Hundreds of those who had already left the West Bank and the Gaza Strip at the end of the 1966--1967 school year on leave or who had joined the mass movement of their fellow Palestinians following the conflict, were not immediately permitted to return. As a result, in the early months of the new school year, considerable time and effort were expended by the Agency in its endeavor to meet the need for teaching staff. The application of the restrictions, imposed by the authorities on the movement of Arab nationals into the occupied areas, to Agency staff of Arab nationality (locally recruited and international) also added to the problems of reorganizing the UNRWA/UNESCO education services.

Lebanon

99. Despite some unrest among the refugee population, the school year began and ended on schedule and was carried on throughout the year under more or less normal conditions, with a 7 per cent increase in the enrolment over-all in the elementary, preparatory and, secondary cycles. The teaching of French in Lebanon was extended to the fourth preparatory grade at the beginning of this school year. Funds are being sought to enable the Agency to undertake a program of school construction in Lebanon in order to provide sorely needed additional schools and to replace unsatisfactory premises.

Syria

100. The Agency had lost the use of its seventeen schools in the Quneitra area of Syria owing to the evacuation of that area by the refugee families. Consequently, at the beginning of the 1967-1968 school year, it was necessary to find places for about 3,000 refugee children in schools elsewhere. Most of the children were enrolled in established UNRWA/UNESCO schools in and around Damascus, which operated on a double shift to accommodate the increased numbers of pupils in that area, and two new schools were set up, one of which was in a tented camp. The opening of the schools in the fall had to be delayed, owing to the occupation of many of the classrooms by refugees until other accommodation could be found for them. However, by the end of October all of the Agency's schools were operating. Following on the late start in the academic year, school enrolment showed an increase in all three levels of general education, averaging 4.2 per cent over the previous school year.

101 Plans have been prepared for the construction of new schools in Syria to replace rented premises which are, for the most part, not suited for use as schools, as well as to replace old buildings and provide additional accommodation -for the increasing number of children attending schools. As mentioned in paragraph 23 of this report, the Danish Technical Co-operation Secretariat hag already contributed a substantial sum for this purpose and it is expected that some of the schools will be ready for occupancy early in 1969.

East Jordan

102. At the beginning of the 1967-1968 school year, the Agency had to find school places in east Jordan for a total of some 20,000 additional refugee children 11,000 of whom were living in tented camps. Practically all existing schools in the urban areas of east Jordan, particularly in Amman, have been on double shift throughout this school year to accommodate the children of families who took up residence with relatives, friends or in other private quarters. In the tented camps, where schools were established under canvas, winter storms and flooding, and a series of military actions, resulting in further mass movements of the refugees in February and March, disrupted the schooling of the children. In an endeavor to help them make up for the time lost during the year, the closing of the schools thus affected has been delayed until 15 July. Despite all the efforts that were made to provide educational services in east Jordan, it seems clear that many children who previously attended schools either on the West Bank or in Gaza did not attend classes in 1967-1968, or attended only irregularly. A program of school building is planned for east Jordan to replace old premises and provide additional accommodation, which will be financed by funds from NEED, Inc., and from other sources.

West Bank

103. Only minor damage and some looting of Agency schools occurred at the time of the hostilities in June 1967. The re-equipping of the looted schools was facilitated by the transfer of furniture and equipment from the Agency's schools left idle by the flight of refugees (twenty schools, mostly in the Jericho area, are standing empty). At the beginning of the school year, there was a reluctance on the part of many refugee families to send their children to school. Measures taken by the authorities in connection with security incidents, and restrictions on movement of the population also affected the education program. While Agency schools opened at the beginning of September, Government schools remained closed until 11 November. During the first few months of the school year, attendance was generally at a very low level, but this situation gradually improved and by the early spring of 1968 teachers and pupils alike were endeavoring to offset the loss of time by giving more serious attention to their work. The schools are remaining open until 18 July to help compensate for the time lost at the beginning of the school year. There was a lack of textbooks for some subjects (see paragraphs 17-19), and teaching notes were prepared by Agency staff to replace them. While the Agency had sought to make special arrangements for the return of staff members to the West Bank, including a number of teachers, the Government of Israel indicated that they could apply to return only within the framework of certain rules for the return of residents of the West Bank, published by the Government on 10 July 1967. The Agency, therefore, encouraged such staff to apply by completing the application form provided for this purpose. However, among the persons given permits to return prior to the end of August 1967, only nine teachers, of a total of sixty-seven who had applied, were permitted to return.

104. The problem of holding examinations for students completing the secondary cycle referred to in paragraph 20 of this report) is believed to have been satisfactorily solved, at least for the time being. Most of the 1967 examinations had been held prior to the event of the hostilities. For 1968, a committee of Arab educators residing on the West Bank has undertaken the task of conducting end-of-year examinations in July, and the certificates to be issued to successful candidates by this committee are expected to be endorsed by the Jordan education authorities as being equivalent to their State certificates.

Gaza

105. In the Gaza Strip, during and immediately after the hostilities, ninety of the Agency's 100 schools were damaged and looted it, varying degrees to the extent of an estimated $220,000 in value. By the end of 1967, with the exception of one school at Rafah, which had been completely demolished, all Agency schools were repaired and re-equipped. An acute problem in the Gaza Strip throughout the school year was the shortage of qualified and experienced teachers. At the time of the hostilities, the schools were closed and some 180 teachers had already left on leave or to take university examinations in neighboring countries, mostly in the United Arab Republic; subsequently forty-eight teachers were deported, six were killed during the hostilities and another forty left their posts shortly after the hostilities or during the school year, making a total of 274 teachers displaced. It was, therefore, necessary to recruit replacements who, for the most part, were unqualified. Following correspondence and negotiations with the Government of Israel, the endeavors of the Agency, supported by the Director-General of UNESCO, to have its teachers, who were stranded in the United Arab Republic, returned, finally met with considerable success. In March/April 1968, 134 were permitted to return and the number still stranded in the United Arab Republic was reduced to six. Seventy of the seventy-nine textbooks used in the Gaza Strip were banned by the occupying authorities and teaching notes were prepared by Agency staff and put into use as available during the school year (see paragraphs 17-19). Attendance at schools varied considerably throughout the year, as it was interrupted and affected by measures taken by the authorities, such as curfews, demolition of houses adjacent to Agency schools in camps, detention of teachers, and intrusion into schools. Although the schools normally close at the beginning of June, they remained open until the end of June to make up for some of the time lost during the year.

106. The problem of holding examinations for the students completing the secondary cycle of education also arose in the Gaza Strip (see paragraph 20). The hostilities of June 1967 took place before the commencement of the end-of-year examinations and, including the students who completed the secondary cycle in June 1968, there were some 4.,500 Pupils for whom the possibility of following higher studies in Arab universities depended on their taking examinations which would be recognized by Arab education authorities. (Examinations held by the local authorities in January 1968 were not so recognized.) One group of some 500 Gaza pupils succeeded in going to east Jordan to sit for the United Arab Republic secondary school-leaving certificate examinations organized at a center in Amman in June 1968. For the remaining students, examinations conducted by the Gaza Department of Education were finally arranged for early July 1968, the results of which, it is hoped, will be recognized by Arab education authorities.

Youth activities program

107. The Agency's youth activities program in some areas was disrupted at the time of the hostilities in June 1967. Repairs to centers, where necessary, are being carried out and damaged equipment replaced so that the program can be developed in accordance with circumstances prevailing in the various fields. The Agency operates a total of thirty-four youth activities centers, six of which have been established in the tented camps in east Jordan. Co-operation with the World Alliance of YMCA's with respect to these activities has continued to be fruitful and a new program is being developed this year to educate youth in community service. This program provides for technical guidance to Agency staff responsible for youth activities, the training of refugee volunteer leaders in youth activities I and the development of services to the community in the tented camps. This new program is being sponsored and financed jointly by UNRWA and the YMCA.

108. Since August 1967, four youth work camps have been operated in the emergency camps in east Jordan, where a large number of volunteers from UNRWA's youth activities centers participated in community projects designed to improve living conditions. These young men assisted in the pitching of tents for schools, clinics, distribution centers and living quarters, improving camp roads, unloading trucks of supplies, carrying out surveys of the refugee population, clearing ground for sports activities and giving effective leadership in recreational programs for school boys. One of these work groups consisted of thirty refugee scouts from a camp in Amman, who volunteered for services and helped to establish the installations of the new tented camps at Baqa'a (east Jordan).

Pre-school play centers

109. The operation of the Agency's pre-school play centers is normally financed from special contributions. Although insufficient funds for this purpose were received during the year, the Agency continued to operate the established centers, because of the greater need following the hostilities of June 1967 to keep under supervision the children in this vulnerable age group. Originally intended to provide refugee children of pre-school age with rudimentary training in a cheerful atmosphere, the scope of the program has now been extended to provide routine medical supervision of the children and to the provision of a meal and milk before they return home. The physical condition of children attending these centers is noticeably superior to other refugee children in the same community. It is hoped that sufficient special contributions will be received to enable the establishment of similar centers in the new refugee camps as well as the continuation of the present program.

Teacher training

110. The Agency's program of teacher training falls into two distinct categories, the pre-service training of secondary school graduates in two-year courses at UNRWA training centers or in Government centers, and the in-service training of Agency teaching staff undertaken by the UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education, which operates Agency-wide from its headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon.

Pre-service

111. The Agency's three existing residential teacher training centers, each of which presently conducts two-year courses, resumed operation in the fall of 1967. At the Ramallah Women's Training Center (West Bank), a combined teacher and. vocational training institution, the only second-year students were those whose homes were on the West Bank or Gaza and whose families had not crossed over to east Jordan. (At the time of the hostilities, all of the trainees were evacuated from this center by special arrangement, but the West Bank and Gaza residents were given special authorization and crossed back from east Jordan on 27 August 1967.) Of 160 teacher trainees who should have continued their second year, only 117 returned. It was decided, therefore, to enroll a larger number of first-year trainees in order to make as full use of the Center as possible and, as refugees from the other countries were not permitted to enter the occupied territory, the new intake was made up of refugee girls from Gaza and the West Bank who could qualify for entrance. There are now 297 teacher trainees at the Center, of whom 180 are first-year students.

112. At the Ramallah Men's Teacher Training Center, it was found that a large number of trainees, who were in the first year of their course prior to June 1967, had fled to east Jordan. Of the 200 who were in the first year, only sixty students reported back to the center to continue their training. As the center has a capacity for a total of 400 trainees, the enrolment of first-year students was substantially increased and consisted of 322 young men from Gaza and the West Bank, making a total of 382 first- and second-year students.

113. At the Technical and Teacher Training Institute at Siblin in the Lebanon, there are 204 teacher trainees, of whom 117 are in their first year. The larger number of first-year students was decided on by the Agency to compensate in some measure for the loss of employment and university opportunities as a result of the hostilities.

114. To serve the needs of the displaced West Bank students, who were being trained as teachers in the two UNRWA pre-service centers at Ramallah, two new temporary teacher training courses were organized by the Agency in east Jordan; one for girls in a rented school in Amman with an enrolment of thirty-six second year and seventy-eight first-year trainees, and the other for young men at the Agency's vocational training center at Wadi Seer, near Amman, with an enrolment of 120 second-year and eighty first-year trainees. (NEED, Inc. has provided. the funds to cover the cost of this training.) Elsewhere in Amman, twenty-two trainees from the Ramallah Men's Teacher Training Center were found temporary quarters to enable them to conclude their training.

115. The total number of refugee students enrolled in UNRWA pre-service teacher training courses in 1967-1968 was therefore 1,219, compared with 1,121 in 1966-1967

116. In order to augment the facilities for teacher training, especially for young men from east Jordan and for girls from east Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, the Agency plans to construct two new training centers near Amman with funds provided by NEED, Inc.

In-service

117. Since its establishment in 1964, and within the framework of its first phase of operations, the UWRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education has completed two of its basic two-year courses for the in-service training of elementary school teachers. Out of an initial 862 teachers enrolled in the first course in October 1964, and of 600 enrolled in the second course in May 1965, 741 and 151 teachers, respectively, have successfully completed all the requirements of their training program, and have been recognized by the Agency as professional certified teachers. The low number of successful candidates in the second course is because of the non-completion of the course by teachers who were enrolled from Gaza and the West Bank. Their training was scheduled to be completed in the summer of 1967, but had to be delayed to the first half of 1968 as a consequence of the June 1967 conflict. They are expected to qualify at the end of June 1968.

118. In addition, 1,384 Agency teachers are still undergoing in-service training with the Institute, having begun their training in 1965, 1966 or 1967, and following two-year or three-year basic professional courses, depending on the level of their academic background on enrolment. Of these, 742 will complete their training in August 1968, 484 in August 1969 and 158 in August 1970. The total number of teachers who have so far been involved in this program of on-the-job professional training is 2,846. This represents about 54 per cent of the total number of UNRWA teachers.

119. At the beginning of the 1967-1968 school year the Institute embarked upon the second phase of its operation, namely, the training of teachers engaged in UNRWA/UNESCO preparatory schools, by organizing a two-year course for 193 preparatory teachers of mathematics, from all fields of the Agency's operation. Training courses in other subjects will be started at the beginning of the 1968-1969 school year.

120. The Institute was established in co-operation with UNESCO and the Government of Switzerland, which provided the funds for its operation, in rented premises in Beirut, Lebanon. While at its inception the Institute was considered by UNESCO as a pilot project, the success of its activities during the four years of its existence, as well as its potential for expansion into all areas related, to the improvement of teaching methods, have become apparent. Consistent with the Agency's considered need to continue and to expand its efforts to improve the quality of teaching in UNRWA/UNESCO schools, it is important that the Institute be accommodated in more permanent quarters and, to this end, NEED, Inc. has agreed to provide funds for the purchase or construction and the equipment of a suitable building.

Vocational and technical education

121. Many trainees from the vocational training center for boys at Kalandia and from the girls' training center at Ramallah, both of which are on the West Bank, who were still in their first year at the time of the conflict, were unable to return to the center for their second year. Therefore, when these centers opened in the fall of 1967, a considerable number of second-year places were unfilled. At both centers, it was decided to increase the enrolment of first- year students and to re-arrange the program of instruction accordingly.

122. Arrangements were made for sixty-six displaced students from the Ramallah Women's Training Center to complete their vocational training courses in the YWCA training center in Beirut, Lebanon, NEED, Inc. has provided the funds to cover the cost of this training. The young men from the Kalandia Vocational Training Center, who found themselves in east Jordan and who wished to complete their courses, were enrolled for the second year of their training at UNRWA's Wadi Seer Vocational Training Center near Amman. At this latter Center, in order to accommodate its own second-year trainees, those from the Kalandia Center and the 200 teacher trainees (see paragraph 114), it was necessary to revise and reduce the vocational training programs for first-year students. However, long-standing plans for the expansion and improvement of the training center at Wadi Seer are about to be implemented as a result of a special contribution from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, part of Which will be used for the construction and equipment necessary to increase the Center's capacity.

123. When the Gaza Vocational Training Center re-opened in September 1967, in anticipation of the absence of a number of second-year trainees, additional training places were made available for first-year students. However, during the first months following the re-opening of the Center, more second-year students eventually returned and, as it was not possible to accommodate all of them on a residential basis, some were enrolled as day students. In paragraph 131 of last year's report (A/6713), the plan for the expansion of the Gaza Vocational Training Center was set out. The Agency is now proceeding with the construction work, which is being financed with funds provided by NEED, Inc.

124. At the Damascus Vocational Training Center in Syria, all of the trainees returned to the Center in September 1967 for their second year and, for the first-year courses, more than 1,000 qualified young men applied for the 200 places that were available.

125. At the two Siblin training centers in Lebanon, the situation has remained normal throughout the school year.

126. Details of enrolment by type of training for the school years 1966-1967 and 1967-1968 are given in the following table; further details of the courses of study and the centers attended are given in table 17 of annex I.


Type of training
1966-1967
1967-1968
Vocational training for girls
237
311 a/
Metal trades
699
711
Electrical trades
360
348
Building trades
356
349
Technical and commercial training
440
409
2,092
2,128
_____________

a/ Includes 100 girls following courses at the YWCA training center in Beirut.

127. Further expansion of the vocational training program is an important objective of the Agency, in its endeavor to give as many as possible of the refugee boys and girls an opportunity to acquire skills which will enable them to lead useful lives no matter where their future lies. In addition to the expansion projects mentioned above, plans are in train to increase vocational training facilities in Syria, and with funds provided by NEED, Inc., to expand the Ramallah Women's Training Center, and to establish vocational training courses at the new women's training center to be built near Amman.

128. Since the events of last year, the employment prospects of graduates from the Agency's vocational training centers in the occupied areas have suffered a reverse. Consequently, the placement of vocational graduates dropped considerably in 1967.

129. Only twenty-seven graduates out of a total of 950 could be given the opportunity of gaining further trade experience by working in modern industrial concerns in Europe. The number was lower than usual because the receiving countries were unable to absorb more this year, owing to the depressed economic situation in Europe. However, negotiations are in progress with interested countries and, on the basis of their goodwill and desire to assist the refugees, it is hoped that the program will be re-instated at its former level so that it will be possible to give more vocational graduates the opportunity to participate in this valuable training scheme after completion of their courses in August 1968. (The Federal Republic of Germany has recently agreed to accept a new group of 100.) At present, 170 refugee trainees are working in industry abroad, in the following countries: the Federal Republic of Germany (115); Sweden (32); Norway (12); Switzerland (8); Denmark (2); and Finland (1).

Adult training courses

130. The Agency continued its handicrafts training courses in all areas for the refugees who lack qualifications for admission to its vocational training centers. Thus forty-five trainees attended one-year carpentry courses at three centers on the West Bank, and 1,770 girls and young women completed six-month sewing courses at thirty-four centers. In addition, refugee women were instructed in cooking lessons on how best to use UNRWA's dry rations with vegetables in season. This year, 722 young women participated in the afternoon programs of women's activities in fifteen centers. Activities include literacy training and classes in handicrafts, needlework, child care, first aid and household skills. Products of the handicrafts and needlework classes were sold on a co-operative basis and the profits used to buy materials and to help meet the running costs of the centers. Libraries, cultural activities and recreational programs complemented the training aspects of the program, and attendance at centers was almost double that of last year. The operation of these centers is dependent on special donations.

Training of the handicapped

131. Considerable progress has been made in developing the attitude of the community towards this program and it is now accepted that, with proper education and training, the disabled can often lead reasonably normal lives and become useful and productive members of society. During the period under review, 288 disabled boys and girls were placed in institutions. This number is slightly lower than in previous years owing to difficulties resulting from the hostilities. The total assisted includes seventy trainees placed free of charge in various institutions in the Middle East and fifty-four blind children attending the Pontifical Mission Center for the Blind in the Gaza Strip. In addition, there are thirty-four workers producing goods for sale at the Home Service Sections of the Center in Gaza. A number of disabled trainees, who had completed their training when hostilities broke out, were unable immediately to return to their homes and their living expenses were met by the Agency. Some have since been reunited with their families and arrangements for the return of the balance are in progress.

132. Ten blind students, who completed their elementary education at the Pontifical Mission Center for the Blind in the Gaza Strip, have been admitted to UNRWA/UNESCO schools to continue their preparatory education with the sighted. There are ten blind students attending higher institutions of learning, seven boys at Damascus University, two girls at the Beirut College for Women in Lebanon, and one girl at Haigazian College, also in Lebanon. Six other blind students, four boys and two girls, are enrolled at private secondary schools in the host countries. It is encouraging to note that blind students are now accepted in schools to study side by side with the sighted. The Center for the Blind in Gaza continues to render a great service to the community. The students, in addition to completing their elementary education in a very happy atmosphere, also receive training and may continue their education either in Agency or Agency- sponsored schools and in the Agency's vocational training centers. Deaf students who have completed their secondary school education may also be accepted in UNRWA vocational training centers.

University education

133. UNRWA awarded a total of 718 scholarships for university study during the academic year 1967-1968. These scholarships are awarded only for one year at a time, but are renewable from year to year for the duration of the course of study undertaken by the individual student provided he successfully passes the end-of-year examination held by his faculty. Of the 718 scholarships awarded, 442 were continuing and 276 were new scholarships. The latter figure is considerably in excess of the 146 new awards made in 1966-1967. This increase was designed by the Agency as a means of helping academically meritorious refugee students from the occupied territories who were already enrolled in Arab universities and 'who found themselves cut off from other means of support.

134. The distribution of university-scholarships is shown in the following table:

University scholarship holders by course of study and country of study during the academic year 1967-1968

Course of study
United Arab Republic
Lebanon
Syria
East Jordan
West Bank
Iraq
Turkey
Total
Medicine
177
22
51
-
-
-2
-
252
Pharmacy
133
3
12
-
-
-
-
48
Dentistry
6
-
4
-
-
-
-
10
Public health
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
Engineering
118
24
43
-
-
3
1
189
Agriculture
17
-
2
-
-
-
-
19
Arts a/
20
16
14
11
9
-
-
70
Acience a/
36
21
8
19
22
2
-
108
Education
15
-
2
-
-
-
-
17
Commerce and economics
2
1
-
1
-
-
-
4
All courses
424
88
136
31
31
7
1
718

a/ Includes students who may later enter the medical or engineering schools of their university.

135. Although it is unlikely that the Agency will be able to increase its own expenditure on this highly important cycle of education, other possibilities are being considered of adding to the total number of university awards open to Palestine refugee students. In fact, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is making funds available which will enable the Agency to provide scholarships for an additional 550 students in the 1968-1969 academic year. Several Governments have granted scholarships directly to Palestine refugee students. These include Iraq, Turkey, Algeria, Libya, Pakistan, Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Germany. The Agency, with the assistance of UNESCO, is seeking to extend such opportunities by contacting other countries which are in a position to offer scholarships to foreign students, in the hope that they will make some of their scholarships available to Palestine refugees.

D. Common services and general administration

136. During the year under review, the Agency's administrative costs have risen and it is expected that this trend will continue for so long as increased demands are made on the Agency's services.

137. As one of the results of the occupation of the West Bank by Israel, the Agency's Field Office in Jerusalem, which, before the hostilities, had administered the Agency's programs for the whole of Jordan could no longer serve east Jordan. It was therefore necessary to set up a new Field Office in Amman in order to continue the Agency's services to the refugees already established in east Jordan, as well as to provide administration for the services to those newly displaced. The provision of extra rations and other services to the newly displaced refugees in east Jordan and Syria and to the refugees on the West Bank and in Gaza, who had lost their means of livelihood as a result of the hostilities, has also increased the Agency's administrative and staff costs. At the beginning of the 1967-1968 school year, in order to provide teaching staff in Gaza and the West Bank, it was necessary to recruit temporary replacement teachers while at the same time continuing to pay those who were stranded in the United Arab Republic, pending their return to their posts. Restrictions imposed on the movement of local staff into the occupied areas made it necessary to utilize the services of international staff and to provide special transportation. Costs of port operations and transportation of supplies within the occupied areas are met by the Government of Israel.

138. Although, in the first six months of 1967 (prior to the hostilities) the staff complement had been reduced below that of 1966, by the end of June 1968 the number of locally recruited staff had risen to 11,500 including temporary staff. International staff numbered 102, making a total of 11,602.

139. Apart from the emergency measures which were implemented as required throughout the past year, the pattern of services remains unchanged. In addition to the Agency's Headquarters in Beirut and. the five Field Offices, it maintains the following services: public information services and liaison offices in New York, Geneva and Cairo; the transport of persons and goods within UNRWA's area of operations; market research, purchasing, control and warehousing of supplies and equipment; personnel administration, translation, legal, financial, statistical, recording and engineering services and the protection of the Agency's property.

E. Financial operations

140. The financial accounts of UNRWA are published separately, together with the related report of the Board of Auditors. This section, therefore, presents in summary form the Agency's actual financial operations in 1967 and its estimated financial operations in 1968. (UNRWA's fiscal period is the calendar year, whereas the present report covers the period 1 July 1967 to 30 June 1968.)

141. To show as clearly as possible the financial impact upon the Agency of the hostilities of June 1967 and their aftermath, the following summary of financial operations during 1967 reflects both the normal (i.e., pre-June level) program of the Agency and the "emergency" increase in that program:

Normal program
Emergency program
Total
Income received
(in millions of US dollars)
Pledges by Governments
34.5
5.8
40.3
Other contributions
1.1
1.3
2.4
Other income
1.2
.-
1.2
Exchange losses and devaluation of currencies
(0.8)
-
(0.8)
Total income
36.0
7.1
43.1
Expenditure and commitments
Releive services
17.6
2.0
19.6
Health services
4.9
0.1
5.0
Education services
15.1
0.2
15.3
Replacement or repairs of Agency property and other extraorinary costs resulting from the hostilities
-
0.7
0.7
Total expenditure and commitments
37.6
3.0
40.6
Net surplus (deficit)
(1.6)
4.1
2.5
Add working capital at 1 January 1967 (after adjustment of prior year's accounts)
14.2

-
14.2
Working capital at 31 December 1967
12.6
4.1
16.7
142. Perhaps the most significant point of the foregoing summary is that the Agency again - for the fifth consecutive year - incurred a massive deficit on its normal program amounting to $1.6 million. Although the exceedingly generous response of contributors - both governmental and non-governmental - to the appeal of the Agency for funds to meet the needs arising out of the hostilities more than covered those needs in 1967, the excess will be quickly absorbed in meeting the same needs in 1968. The Agency's basic and chronic financial difficulties remained unabated at the close of 1967 and persisted in 1968 (see paragraphs 147-150).

143. The foregoing figures do not include those related to the receipt and. expenditure of funds made available by NEED (Near East Emergency Donations, Inc.) mentioned elsewhere in this report. For technical reasons these funds are not regarded as part of the Agency's funds. During 1967, the Agency received a total of $3.5 million of NEED funds and by 31 December 1967 had expended or committed 4.3 million, principally for the provision of emergency shelter and sanitary arrangements for refugees and other displaced persons in east Jordan and for the displaced refugees in Syria. Had NEED funds not been available for these purposes, Agency funds would have had to have been used.

144. Although the Agency's total working I capital at the close of 1967 stood at $16.7 million, this by no means represented any real improvement in the Agency's financial position, since $4.1 million of this resulted from contributions for the emergency not expected to be repeated in the future. The dual basic financial problems of the Agency therefore remained largely unresolved at the close of 1967, i.e., the chronic shortfall of income and the inadequacy of working capital.

145. Unliquidated commitments carried forward from 1967 (or prior years) to 1968 totaled approximately $0.9 million, compared with $0.8 million of such commitments which had been carried forward from 1966 to 1967. During 1967, savings on liquidation of commitments from prior years totaled some $0.2 million, compared with $0.1 million in 1966.

146. At the end of 1967, unpaid pledges from Governments totaled $7.6 million, compared with $7.2 million at the end of 1966, reflecting a minor slow-down in the rate of payment of contributions in 1967 by certain Governments. The free cash position at the end of 1967 shoved cash resources in excess of current liabilities and provisions for future liabilities amounting to $0.5 million, compared with $1.6 million at the end of 1966 and $2.9 million at the end of 1965. Inventories of supplies and advances to suppliers at $7.0 million were higher than at the close of 1966 ($5.0 million). There was no significant change in other assets.

147. The financial prospects for the Agency in 1968 are far from encouraging, as the following summary table clearly shows:

Estimated income
Millions of US dollars
Pledges by Governments
37.5
Other contributions
2.3
other income
0.7
Total income
40.7
Estimated expenditure and commitments
Millions of US dollars
Relief services
0.0
Health services
5.7
Education services
18.5
Total expenditure and commitements
44.2
Estimated surplus (deficit)
(3.7)
Add working capital at 1 January 1968
16.7
Estimated working capital at 31 December 1968
13.0

148. As noted in paragraph 143, for 1968 the preceding figures do not include the expected receipt and expenditure of NEED funds. Needless to say, however, these funds will relieve the-Agency's budget of a very substantial burden, particularly in the provision of additional and replacement school facilities and training centers. As of 30 June 1968, the Agency had received a total of $4.5 million in NEED funds and had expended or committed $1-5 million, principally on emergency shelter facilities for refugees and other displaced persons and for improvement and expansion in the Agency's facilities for education and training of the refugees.

149. As the preceding table shows, the Agency expects to incur a deficit of some $3.7 million in 1968, an amount considerably in excess of the net surplus of emergency contributions in 1967. However, this estimate is subject to a number of assumptions, the more important of which are (a) that unit costs will not increase, (b) that the Agency will not be called upon to provide assistance to additional numbers of displaced persons, (c) that some $11.8 million of expected pledges by Governments will be forthcoming and. (d) that contributions from non-governmental sources will continue at the same very high rate as in 1967. While the latter two of these seem reasonably safe assumptions, the first may well prove to be seriously wrong. As for assumption (b), this depends very largely upon the amount of assistance received by the Governments in the area for their programs of assistance to displaced persons not registered with UNRWA.

150. The prospective deficit of $3.7 million for 1968 results primarily from the high level of recurrent expenditure which occurred in 1967 over that of 1966. The aftermath of the hostilities of June 1967 has led to a markedly higher level of recurrent expenditure for the Agency, and while contributions have also increased somewhat, they have not increased sufficiently to cover both the gap already existing between income and expenditure before June 1967 and the subsequent increase in expenditure.
CHAPTER II

BUDGET FOR 1969

A. Introduction

151. The budget proposed for 1969 amounts to $42,469,000 compared with 1968 estimated expenditure at $44,239,000 and 1967 actual expenditure and commitments $40,540,000.

152. To some extent, the estimates for both 1968 and 1969 must be considered provisional, since expenditure accruing as the aftermath of the mid-year hostilities in 1967 and the subsequent mass exodus in early 1968 from the Jordan Valley camps to six new tented camps in the uplands have posed problems, particularly of "winterization" of tented accommodation before the onset of the 1968/1969 winter, the costs of which can be funded only from special contributions made for this purpose.

153. The budget for 1969 reflects the estimated costs of maintaining relief, health and education services at the same levels of normal programs as in former years, but continuing the emergency supplements to vulnerable categories among the displaced and re-displaced refugees, as found essential in late 1967 and throughout 1968.

154. The marked rise in the cost of living, throughout the Agency's areas of operations, but most particularly in Gaza, has made it imperative to provide some relief to local staff, effective from mid-year 1968. In the event that there are further revisions in staff salaries in 1969, this will require adjustment of the budget now presented. The unit prices of our other ordinary supplies also continue to increase, as well as hospital bed rates and construction costs wherever the Agency is obliged to construct or replace premises.

155. Further, in educational services, especially in Jordan, where the Agency now operates tented schools in six new camps and in Syria, where the Agency has had to rent at inflated rates such premises as are available for schools, the average class occupancy, perforce, is much lower than the average of fifty pupils aimed at in Agency-built schools. Of the latter, at the date of this report there were 388 classrooms idle on the West Bank and in Gaza owing to the hostilities. Since approximately 80 per cent of the costs of operating UNRWA schools are related directly to teachers' salaries, the lower rate of occupancy obliges the Agency to employ many more teachers. This untoward situation will ameliorate by the scholastic year 1969/1970, by which time extensive school construction will have been completed with funds provided by special contributions for this purpose. Disruptions to school services in both banks of Jordan, in Gaza and in Syria during the second half of 1967 reduced educational expenditure for that calendar year. However, the prolongation of the 1967/1968 school year, in partial compensation for lost time, the deferment of all in-service summer courses in 1967, but operation of many of them as winter courses in 1968, problems with textbooks, especially in Israeli-occupied territory, and other measures related to the emergency have invalidated direct comparisons of educational costs between operating years.

156. Costs of administration, as well as related operational costs, have risen directly as the result of the establishment of an additional Field Office in Amman to serve East Jordan. The former Field Office in Jerusalem is maintained, but on a reduced level, to serve the refugee population still resident in the occupied West Bank. The economies attained in administrative costs over the three prior years have been much more than offset by the cost of the establishment of a fifth Field Office.

157. Provision of essential temporary environmental sanitation facilities in the nine new tented camps is significantly more expensive than in permanently constructed camps with cement block shelters, with public latrines of the septic tank type and with a high ratio of private latrines. Provision and operation of public bath houses, installation and maintenance of extensive water supply systems and of slaughter-houses have further inflated the costs under this heading.

158. Cases requiring special hardship assistance are manifold more numerous than in years prior to the June 1967 hostilities and certainly much more desperate. It is beyond the Agency's resources to cope adequately with this problem. The budget provisions are little more than a token gesture of admission of the need. The Agency is greatly indebted to the many voluntary societies who share part of this burden as far as their own limited funds will permit.

159. Although strenuous measures have been taken to rectify the ration rolls, the numbers of technically eligible persons continue to increase and, almost without exception, the needy are more needy then ever.

160. For commodity Prices for basic rations, which comprise nearly 30 per cent of the budget, it has been assumed that world prices during 1969 will not exceed those prevailing during 1968, although there are certain trends to the contrary. If significant variations occur in food commodity prices, it may be necessary to revise estimates in other sections of the budget.

B. Budget estimates

General

161. The following table is a summary of the budget estimates for 1969 together with comparative data for the years 1968 and 1967. These estimates are described in some detail in. the paragraphs which follow the table:

1969 Budget estimates
1968 Estimated expenditure
1967 Actual expenditure
Part I Relief services
(in 1,000s of US dollars)
Basic rations
13,131
13,081
13,107
Supplementary feeding
2,222
2,270
1,804
Shelter
406
594
732
Spaeical hardship assistance
593
576
723
Share of common costs from Part IV
3,366
3,466
3,256
Total Part I
19,718
19,987
19,622
Part II Health services
Medical services
3,690
3,623
3,082
Environmental sanitation
1,044
1,007
917
Sharing of common costs from part IV
1,059
1,093
1,026
Total Part II
5,793
5,723
5,025
Part III Education services
General education
11,216
11,823
10,119
Vocation and professional training
3,135
4,012
2,591
Share of common costs from part IV
2,607
2,694
2,525
Total Part III
16,958
18,529
15,233
Part IV Common costs
Supply and transport services
3,383
3,475
3,266
Other internal services
2,367
2,486
2,272
General administration
1,282
1,292
1,267
Total Part IV
7,032
7,253
6,805
Costs allocated to operations
(7,032)
(7,253)
(6,805)
Net Part IV
-
-
-
Part V
Replacement or repairs of Agency property lost or damaged and other extraordinary costs due to hostilities
-
-
660
Total all Parts
42,469
44,239
40,540

162. The presentation in three main parts follows the same pattern as that of recent years - relief, health and education services. The fourth part relates to the services common to the first three parts to which the costs have been allocated in the computed ratio by which they benefit. It should be specially noted that the estimated expenditure figure for 1968 includes $3,355,000 of non-recurrent capital cost items (mostly funded from contributions received for these particular purposes) whereas the 1969 estimates include only $549,000 for such works. For recurrent costs, the 1969 estimates exceed those of 1968 by approximately $1 million.
Relief services

Basic rations

1969 budget estimates
13,131,000
1968 estimated expenditure
13,081,000
1967 actual expenditure
13,107,000

163. The rations issued are described briefly in paragraph 52 above and in annex I, table 4. Costs included under this heading are for purchase and distribution of basic food items and soap. The costs of warehousing and transport within the UNRWA area, however, are treated under "supply and transport services" in paragraphs 188-190 below.

164. These estimates provide for ration issues to a total of 875,000 beneficiaries inclusive of approximately 11,000 half-rations to frontier villagers at an estimated cost not exceeding commodity prices prevailing in 1968.

165. As stated for a number of years past, many of the premises used as distribution centers are old and unsuitable or improvised. Some are in pressing need of replacement. Nevertheless, in view of general financial stringency's, no construction items have been proposed.

Supplementary feeding

1969 budget estimates
$2,222,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$2,270,000
1967 actual expenditure
$1,804,000

167. The nutritional value of the supplemental hot meals served remains the same, but the authorized numbers of beneficiaries have been continued in 1969 at the higher level found necessary during 1968. Other supplemental items of diet including milk, CSM and tinned meat have been continued for specified vulnerable categories. Additionally, a special contribution of milk from the Canadian Government will be issued during the autumn/winter 1968/1969. Whereas the imported commodities are estimated at the same price levels as for the basic ration program, i.e., 1969 estimates at the 1968 actual prices, fresh food items in all areas are progressively more costly.

168. As with distribution centers, many of the premises used for supplementary feeding centers are old and unsuitable and some so dilapidated that action may no longer be deferred. A provision of $47,000 has been made for extraordinary maintenance, such as replacement of roofs, for enlargement of inadequate buildings and for replacement of four centers.

Shelter

1969 budget estimates
$406,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$594,000
1967 actual expenditure
$731,000

169. This program is described in paragraphs 59-62 above and in annex 1, table 7. Estimates include the rental value of camp sites (most of which are made available by the host Governments) and for the administrative control of existing shelters, for certain limited maintenance and for roads and paths within camps.

170. A minimal provision has been included of $75,000 for shelter construction in established camps to take care of social cases and other hardship cases and of $25,000 for essential road construction.

171. On the other hand, an urgent problem is that of shelter in the tented camps, where many hundreds of the tents now in use will require replacement before the onset of the 1968/1969 winter. To the extent possible, tents will be replaced by framework shelters of a more solid type before the end of 1968. However, there is a distinct possibility that it will be necessary to augment the provision of shelter in 1969, in which case every effort will be made to secure contributions to meet these needs.

Special hardship assistance

1969 budget estimates
$593,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$576,000
1967 actual expenditure
$723,000

172. This budget heading includes all provisions, other than those for food, shelter and health and education services, for assistance to refugee families suffering special hardships. This assistance is limited to welfare casework and to the distribution of donated used clothing, donated layettes, blankets and winter fuel. The program is described in paragraphs 63 to 67 above.

173. Significant progressive reductions have been made during recent years in the quantities of imported used clothing. Further, arrangements have been made to relieve the Agency of the freight costs on such shipments from the United States.

174. Stocks on hand of blankets for the displaced persons and refugees in the tented camps are believed to be adequate f or the winter of 1968/1969. However, if the tented camps continue in operation, it will be necessary to purchase further supplies (unless donations are received) during 1969 for the following winter.

Health services

Medical services

1969 budget estimates
$3,640,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$3,623,000
1967 actual expenditure
$3,082,000

175. The programs of preventive and curative medical services are described in paragraphs 68 to 87 above and in annex I, tables 9-12.

176. No improvements in the standard of care or other changes have been provided for in the estimates for 1969 other than the provision of seven more clinical laboratories at established health centers where local facilities, immediately available, will improve the service without increasing the eventual operating costs. (The small capital outlay will be amortized by subsequent savings in fees presently paid for these services.) A limited number of additional staff posts is necessary to cope with both the natural increase in population and the additional demands for medical attention from the thousands of displaced refugees, especially in the tented camps. Further, hospital bed rates continue to rise, together with unit costs of medical supplies, for which an essential provision has been included.

177. Although certain sub-standard health centers have recently been replaced with funds contributed for the purpose, there remain five other centers where replacement of unsatisfactory premises is long overdue. However, no provisions for them have been made in the budget; it is hoped that some further contributions for this purpose may be received in 1968 or 1969. Similarly, in the maternal and child health program, inclusive of the rehydration/nutrition program for infant cases of gastroenteritis or malnutrition, no provision is included for extension or improvement of premises, highly desirable though this is.

178. For replacement of essential equipment and ambulance vehicles, a minimal provision has been made of $50,000.

Environmental sanitation

1969 budget estimates
$1,044,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$1,007,000
1967 actual expenditure
$917,000
179. The program is described in paragraphs 88 and 89. Although recurrent costs have been reduced in recent years by more proficient techniques and by expansion of the private latrine program (which reduces the costs of provision and maintenance of public latrines), these economies have been virtually offset by increased unit prices of supplies (inclusive of effective insecticides where resistance has developed to cheaper treatments) and by the higher ratio of sanitation staff required in the nine new tented camps.

180. Although a great deal of construction work is required in more permanent drainage for disposal of storm water in camps, conversion of pit latrines to septic tank type, construction of more efficient incinerators and extension of water supply systems (all of which would engender long-term economies), the present budget provisions are limited to essential works in repair and extension of existing drainage, to construction of new percolation pits in localities where the saturation point is reached, replacement of corroded water pipes and provision for replacement of worn out pumps, engines and other equipment to an aggregate of $50,000.

Education services

General education

1969 budget estimates
$11,216,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$11,823,000
1967 actual expenditure
$10,119,000

181. For a description of the Agency's general education program, see paragraphs 94 to 106 above and annex I, tables 13 to 16. Several minor activities conducted outside UNRWA/UNESCO schools are also included under this heading: youth activities (paragraphs 107 and 108), women's activities (paragraph 130) and pre-school play centers (paragraph 109). Although women's activities and pre-school play centers are considered as Agency programs, they are normally operated only when funds are specially contributed for these purposes.

182. Of all Agency services provided for refugees, general education is among the most pressing. It is on this that families pin their hopes of future prospects; this is most noticeable in the tendency for boys to remain throughout the preparatory cycle, for girls both to attend in larger numbers and to continue longer, as well as for greater numbers to press for admission to the secondary cycle.

183. Standards are maintained at modest levels generally not lower than those observed in government schools. Extensive school construction programs financed with special contributions, however, include certain amelioration's in floor space per pupil and in sanitation facilities at marginal costs. Average class occupancies will be lower in the scholastic year 1968/1969. Capital costs in 1968, at $1,208,000 (mostly funded from special contributions) are expected to decline to $40,000 in 1969.

184. The UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education (see paragraphs 117-120) continues to operate, with conspicuous success, in-service training programs to improve the qualifications of teachers already on the staff. This particular activity is expected to cost $377,500 in 1969 (inclusive of all educational in-service training projects).

Vocational and professional education

1969 budget estimates
$3,135,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$4,012,000
1967 actual expenditure
$2,591,000

185. Details of these programs are given in paragraphs 110 to 132. They include teacher, trade and commercial courses conducted in the Agency's residential training centers, as well as similar training subsidized by the Agency in centers operated by Governments and other organizations. Also included is the cost, at about $350,000 per annum, for scholarships awarded at universities in the Agency's area, more particularly described in paragraphs 133-135 above, for candidates selected on the dual bases of outstanding academic qualifications and economic need. This heading also includes several special categories of training activities such as adult craft training in woodwork and sewing, training of physically handicapped children and some additional assistance to graduates from Agency centers to obtain on-the-job training in their industrial specialties in factories abroad (which is usually limited to defraying transport expenses).

186. Operational costs rose by some $200,000 in 1968 and are expected to entail a further increase of some $300,000 in 1969. This is due first, to the expansion of training capacity at the eleven centers from 3,247 actual attendance's in 1967/1968 to 3,764 training capacity in 1968/1969, secondly to staffing requirements and thirdly to the general rise in costs of supplies. Although the over-all costs increased, the unit costs for each trainee reflect a significant decrease.

187. Capital costs estimated at $1,214,000 in 1968 (all from special contributions) will decline in 1969 to an estimated $86,000 related almost entirely to replacement and updating of equipment with a minor provision for adult craft training in the new tented camps.

Common costs

Supply and transport services

1969 budget estimates
$3,383,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$3,475,000
1967 actual expenditure
$3,265,000

188. This budget heading comprises the procurement of all supplies, commodities and equipment, their control and warehousing, and the operating of freight and passenger transport within the UNRWA area of operations for all Agency activities.

189. Economies attained are expected to enable the recurrent costs to be held in 1969 to about the same level as in 1968.

190. The replacement of old vehicles has been severely restricted for several years and this austerity measure will be continued again in 1969 at even less cost than in 1968. For the replacement of passenger vehicles $40,000 is proposed, $60,000 for freight vehicles and $10,000 for equipment and modifications to warehouse premises, compared with an aggregate of $181,000 for these purposes in 1968.

Other internal services

1969 budget estimates
$2,367,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$2,486,000
1967 actual expenditure
$2,272,000

191. These services, other than Supply and transport treated in paragraphs 188-190 above, include the registration and determination of eligibility of refugees, internal administration services, translation, legal financial, technical (engineering), data processing services and the protection of the Agency's installations and property.

192. The significant rise in costs reflected in 1968, due largely to the necessity to establish an additional Field Office in Amman (see paragraph 156 above), will be contained in 1969 by the imposition of all feasible administrative economies, but it is believed that no further significant reduction could be implemented except at grave risk of endangering the Agency's ability to control its operations.

General administration

1969 budget estimates
$1,282,000
1968 estimated expenditure
$1,292,000
1967 actual expenditure
$1,267,000

193. Included under this budget heading is all general administration required for the Agency's headquarters, for the. five field offices and their subordinate area and camp operations; also maintenance of the liaison offices in New York, Geneva and Cairo and the operation of public information services.

194. Only marginal increases have occurred in costs over the current three-year period and the observation made in the concluding sentence of paragraph 192 above is equally valid -with respect to these services.

Allocation of common costs

195. The summary table in paragraph 161 above reflects the allocation of common costs to the three main categories of Agency services - relief, health and education. Any such allocation involves a degree of judgement; the percentages allocated were deduced from a detailed analysis by field offices and applied as weighted averages. They are believed to be an accurate assessment.

C. Financing the budget

196. The problem of financing the 1969 budget is summarized as follows (in millions of US dollars):

Budget 1969
42.5
Estimated funds available from:
xxxNon-governmental contributions
1.0
xxxMiscellaneous income
0.7
1.7
Balance to be covered by contributions from Governments
40.8

197. As shown in paragraph 147 above, it is likely that the working capital will have been reduced on 1 January 1969 to $13.0 million, which the Agency considers below the minimum of working capital to finance the "pipeline" of supplies and to ensure continuation of normal activities in the first months of the year, pending actual receipt of annual contributions. Operations in 1969 may thus depend upon early if not advance payment of Government contributions (on which past experience does not lead the Agency to be optimistic).

198. As indicated in paragraph 196, the financing of the 19069 budget will require contributions from Governments of $40.8 million. On the basis of such information as is presently available, the Agency would estimate that govern-mental contributions would not exceed $35.9 million. This estimate compares with prior years:

1968
37.5
million
1967
34.5
"
plus 5.8 million special contributions
1966
35.0
"
1965
34.0
"
The vital necessity of ensuring increased contributions has been emphasized in paragraph 41.

199. The estimate of non-governmental contributions at $1 million is based on the high level of such contributions received in the twelve months ending 30 June 1968. In view of other pressing causes to be supported in other parts of the world, it is difficult to predict whether this level of contributions from non-governmental sources will in fact be attained by UNRWA in 1969. Nevertheless, active steps will continue to be taken to attract funds.

200. Finally, it is no longer feasible for the Agency to cover a shortfall in income by drawing on the working capital; this is already at a precarious level.




a/ The above statistics are based on the Agency's registration records, which do not necessarily reflect the actual refugee population owing to factors such as unreported deaths and undetected false registration.

b/ Before 1954, half rations were issued to babies and bedouins, as well as to frontier villagers in Jordan. Since then, babies have been eligible for full rations after their first anniversary if the ration ceiling permits. Bedouins are eligible to receive full rations. Half rations are issued only to frontier villagers on the West Bank. Frontier villagers displaced to east Jordan after the hostilities of June 1967 are issued with full rations.

c/ Includes babies below one year of age and children who, because of ration ceilings, are not issued rations. (These children without rations number 154,372 in east Jordan, 71,722 in the West Bank, 37,173 in Gaza, 28,300 in Syria and 7,665 in Lebanon.) No births have been documented in east Jordan since the hostilities of June 1967.

d/ Columns 55 6 and 7 show the number of persons whose registration for assistance by the Agency has been reduced or cancelled according to their family income as known to the Agency and the income scale in force in their country of residence.

The members of "R" families receiving no rations (column 5) shown for 1957 to 1968 correspond to a level of income insufficient to cancel the whole family's entitlement to rations. The increase in 1968 represents mainly refugees who were absent from Gaza after the hostilities of June 1967, many of whom are now being issued with rations in east Jordan on a temporary basis, pending documentation of their transfer. Up to 1956, such persons were reported together with families of the "N" Category (column 7). In 1966, a new sub-category of registration was introduced for persons registered for rations, but whose entitlement has been temporarily suspended (e.g., by reason of their employment by the Agency or acceptance in institutions). At the end of June 1968, persons registered in this sub-category numbered 12,699.

The "S" Category of registration (column 6) was created in January 1965 in place of the previous "E" and "M" Categories and is being extended to all areas in accordance with appropriate income scales.

"N" Category (column 7) includes refugees whose income is such as to disqualify them for rations or normal services, or who have received assistance to enable them to become self-supporting.

In general, it must be pointed out that the distribution of refugees by category of registration gives only a partial picture of the number of self-supporting refugees owing to the limitations faced by the Agency in determining their actual income or degree of need.

e/ The total population as at 30 June 1952 included 19,6l6 refugees receiving relief in Israel who were UNRWA's responsibility to that date.

f/ Details not available.

g/ Does not include refugees receiving rations since the hostilities of June 1967 on a temporary basis.

h/ See foot-note 8 in chapter I of the report (p. 18).





Foot-notes to table 2

a/ This table recapitulates changes over eighteen years affecting the total number of ration recipients, their babies and children registered for services (column 4 of table 1). Births, new registrations, deaths, false registrations and duplications result in additions to or deletions from the registration records. Self-support and absence reflect transfers to or from the lower categories of registration (shown in columns 5, 6 and 7 of table 1).
Transfers within or between areas, as well as issue of rations (when available) to children registered for services, are not shown in this table.
b/ Includes changes effected during the 1950-1951 census operation.
c/ Wo births and virtually no other changes have been documented for east Jordan since the hostilities of June
d/ Covers income, employment with the Agency, assistance towards self-support etc., or the cessation thereof.
e/ Miscellaneous changes include up to June 1953, a number of additions to or deletions from the registration records, as well as certain changes in category of registration. The deletion of refugees in Israel from the Agency's records is also reported mainly under this heading (40,930 persons over the period July 1950-June 1953).
f/ This figure represents mainly refugees who were absent from Gaza after the hostilities of June 1967, many of whom are now in east Jordan.

RELIEF SERVICES

Table 4

Basic rations and other supplies distributed by UNRWA

1. Basic dry rations

A monthly ration for one person consists of:

10,000 grams of flour

600 grams of pulses

600 grams of sugar

500 grams of rice

375 grams of oils and fats

This ration provides about 1,500 calories per day per person.

In winter, the monthly ration is increased by:

300 grams of pulses

400 grams of flour

It then provides about 1,6000 calories per day per person.

2. Other supplies distributed

1 piece of soap (150 grams) per month to each ration
beneficiary.

1 1/2 liters of kerosene were allocated to ration beneficiaries and to babies and children registered for services, in camps in east Jordan, West Bank, Lebanon, and Syria during five winter months. In Gaza, 1 liter was allocated to these beneficiaries, whether or not they lived in camps, during five winter months.


Table 10

Hospital facilities available to Palestine refugees, 1967-1967
(Statistics refer to the actual situation as at 30 June 1968)

Hospitals

Government and local authorities 34
Voluntary societies or private 39
UNRWA 2 a/

Total 75

In addition there are nine maternity centers; one in Syria, two in West Bank and six in Gaza.
_________

a/ Including the Tuberculosis Hospital, Nablus, which was closed in March 1968.


Number of beds available
East Jordan
West Bank
Gaza
lebanon
Syria
total
General
221
325
370
149
79
1,144
Tuberculosis
20
35
150
28
20
253
Maternity
25
33.5
68
7
7
140.5
Pediatrics
40
62
66
32
-
200
Mental
40
85
0
54
2
183
Total
353
540.5a/
654
270
108
1,925.5
_________________________________________________________________

a/ Awaiting review.

Rehydration/Nutrition Centers

East Jordan
West Bank
Gaza
Lebanon
Syria
total
Number of centers
4
1
6
3
3
17
Number of cots
38
20
98
30
21
207
_________________________________________________________________


Table 11

Infectious diseases recorded among Palestine refugee population
1 July 1967 - 30 June 1968


East Jordan
West Bank
Gaza
Lebanon
Syria
total
Cholera
0
0
0
0
0
0
Plague
0
0
0
0
0
0
Yellow fever
0
0
0
0
0
0
Smallpox
0
0
0
0
0
0
Typhus (louse-borne)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Relapsing fever (louse-borne)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Ankylostomiasis
0
0
0
0
76
76
Bilharziasis
0
0
0
0
15
15
Brucellosis
0
0
0
0
0
0
Chicken-pox
1412
897
2220
1589
1116
7234
Conjunctivities
16,247
5,874
8,713
4,406
7,700
42,940
Diphtheria
5
0
0
0
0
5
Dysentery
2,645
665
1,888
825
110
6,133
Enteric group fevers
23
0
52
2
175
252
Gonorrhea
1
0
7
0
9
17
Infectious hepatitis
138
25
373
73
66
675
Leishmaniasis coetaneous
0
0
0
0
17
17
Malaria
0
0
1
0
0
1
Measles
2,587
1,221
1,807
687
571
6,873
Meningitis (cerebrospinal)
3
0
1
5
5
14
Mumps
847
177
322
395
673
2,414
Pertussis
20
87
77
304
32
520
Poliomyelitis
8
1
25
26
21
82
Rabies
0
0
0
0
0
0
Relapsing fever (endemic)
0
2
0
0
0
2
Scarlet fever
1
0
0
0
1
2
Syphilis
0
0
25
35
9
70
Tetanus
1
0
2
1
0
4
Tetanus neonatorum
2
0
26
0
0
30
Trachoma
356
67
361
79
83
946
Tuberculosis (pulmonary)
65
10
123
134
28
360
Typhus (endemic)
0
0
0
0
0
0


Table 12

Maternal and child health

1 July 1967-30 June 1968

Ante-natal services
East Jordan
West Bank
Gaza
Lebanon
Syria
Total
Number of ante-natal clinics
10
22
9
18
19
78
Number of pregnant women newly registered
4,026
3,169
11,995
4,158
2,727
26,075
Average monthly attendance
1,035
833
3,753
1,290
760
7,671
Number of STS performed
800
1,186
2,050
1,359
680
6,075
Number of cases positive serology
0
0
24
28
12
64
Number of home visits (pre-natal care)
217
163
112
955
982
2,429
Infant health care
Number of infant health centers
10
20
9
18
19
76
Number registered 0-1 year, monthly average
4,184
3,151
13,736
4,342
2,511
27,924
Number attended 0-1 year, monthly average
4,014
3,539
,9,199
4,036
2,654
23,442
Number attended 1-2 years, monthly average
1,449
1,050
1,322
1,411
1,093
6,325
Number of smallpox
vaccinations
1,986
618
11,071
3,785
3,046
21,506
Number of TAB immun- izations completed
2,507
2,232
4,740
3,178
2,239
14,921
Number of triple vaccine immunizations completed
3,344
2,523
9,222
3,957
2,239
21,285
Number of home visits (infant care)
5,631
9,897
7,957
11,362
10,032
44,879
School health services
Number of school teams
1
1
1
1
1
5
Number of children examined
14,895
12,894
6,311
4,784
16,154
55,038
Number of school inspections
70
404
415
125
181
1,195
Number of TAB boosters given
29,702
3,711
43,608
31,163
3,285
111,469
Number of diphtheria boosters given
7,703
5,225
5,552
5,499
3,362
27,341
Number of triple vaccine (one dose)
0
350
0
0
0
350
Number of triple vaccine (two doses
0
674
0
0
0
674
Number of triple vaccine (three doses)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Number of smallpox re-vaccinations
0
0
0
7,791
2,102
9,893
Number of cholera boosters given
0
0
0
9,034
0
9,034
Number of BCG given
0
4,803
4,744
0
0
9,547












OTHER ASSISTANCE TO REFUGEES


Table 18

Voluntary agencies in the area of UNRWA operations
giving active help to Palestine refugees, 1967-1968


Baptist Mission (United States)

Church Missionary Society

Commonwealth Save the Children Fund

Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE)

Lutheran World Federation

Mennonite Central Committee

Near East Council of Churches

Pontifical Mission for Palestine Refugees

UNRWA Women's Auxiliary

World Alliance of YMCA's

World Council of Churches

World Young Women's Christian Association

Young Men's Christian Association

Young Women's Christian Association





Table 21

Statement of income from non-Government sources

1 January 1967 to 30 June 1968 (In US dollars)



Name of contributor
year 1967
First six months of 1968
Australia
United Nations Association of Australia
19,328
69
United Nations Association of Australia -
Victorian Division
1,004
-
United Nations Junior Set - Sydney
735
-
Unilever
112
-
Austria
Caritas
3,873
-
Belgium
Comite belge pour les Refugies
-
70,000
Entraide Socialiste Belge
1,508
-
Entraide Socialiste Belge and Caritas Catholica
14,930
-
Manta S.A. Belgium
-
3,480
Canada
Ambassador Maybee
92
-
Arab Refugee Emergency Appeal of Windsor
124
122
Baird, Dr. R.P.
-
460
Canadian Embassy
75
Quebec Division
464
-
Ontario Division
925
-
Saskatchewan Division
460
-
Canadian Save the Children Fund
4,378
-
Finnemore, Mrs. C.
-
Henderson, Mrs. Dorothy
460
-
Peel County Secondary School
926
-
Point Grey Secondary School, Vancouver, B.C.
-
170
Unitarian Service Committee
1.811
-
United Church of Canada
-
6,371
United Nations Association of Canada
1,263
-
Sundry donors
206
21
Denmark
Danish Refugee Council
58,839
4,670
Federal Republic of Germany
Berliner Bank
1,000
-
Bosch, Robert, GmbH
500
-
Caritas and Chevaliers St. Sepulcre
53,875
-
Daimler Benz Co., Stuttgart
1,000
1,000
Deutsche Bank AG
-
500
Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchentag
6,500
-
Diakonisches Werk
111,500
335,842
Frankfurter Bank
500
-
Freimaurerisches Hilfswerk, Hanover
1,250
-
Index - Werk (KG) Esslingen
500
-
Innere Mission und Hilfmierk (through
World Council of Churches)
8,630
-
MISEREOR
25,000
-
Refugee Campaign - Bonn
21,000
-
Solms, Johann Georg Graf
1,250
-
The Near East Representative of German
Banks, Beirut
1,000
-
Sundry donors
101
14
Finland
Finnish Association of Folk High Schools
and Folk Academies Finnish Refugee Council
48,900
13,800
Hufvudstadadsbladet, Helsinki,
1,000
-
Paraisten Kalkkivuor, OY
500
-
Stockmann Department Store, Helsinki
1,000
-
Sevenska Osterbottons Folkshogskola Folkakademi Yttermark
500
-
Sipila, Mrs. Helvi
500
-
Tehtaanpuiston Yhteiskoulon Teinikunta
500
-
Union of Finnish Girl Guides
500
-

France
Alamichel, Claude
210
-
Cimade
1,020
-
Communaute de L'Arche
612
-
El Mallawany, I.
1
206
Lycee Jeanne d'Arc - Nancy
163
-
Meyer, Georges
102
-
Secours Catholique de France
898
-
Sundry donors
41
240

Gaza

Abu Abdallah Family
101
34
Abu Ayyad Family
37
12
Abu Ayyad and Awada Families
72
24
Abu Khusa Family
32
11
Abu Middain Family
1,997
666
Abu Ommar Family and Khalil Khalil
37
12
Abu Salim Family
490
163
Abu Salah Naser
28
9
Abu Sha'b Family
442
147
Abu Uriban Family
94
31
Abu Uriban and Abu Middain Families
48
16
Awada Family
1,566
522
Awada and Abu Middain Families
321
107
Daghma Family
110
37
El Mussaddar Family
281
94
Gaza Municipality
55
18
Mussaddar and Qur'an Families
374
125
Saleh Ali Barbakh
46
15
Tarazi Family
115
38
Waqf Department
6,587
2,196
Ireland

Irish National Committee for UNICEF
560
-
Italy
Immaculata, Mrs. Salviaki
-
480
Jamaica
Manchester High School
264
-
Japan
Sundry donors
52
-
Jordan
Municipal Council - Qalqilia
616
308
The Jordan Red Crescent
-
281
Voluntary Agencies Joint Venture American Friends Service Committee
-
1,039
Friends Service Council (London)
-
1,245
Lutheran World Federation
-
15,557
Mennonite Central Committee
-
15,557
WCC/NECC
-
15,557
Anonymous
2,769
730
Sundry donors
18
-

Lebanon

Foreign airlines
6,154
160
Greek Orthodox Community
621
267
Heirs of Saadine Shatila
1,242
534
Merck, Sharp, Dohme and Grosst
-
101
Mneimneh and Bohsaly
1,398
601
Singer Company
-
450
Syrian Lebanese Mission
1,864
801
Anonymous
3,547
684
Sundry donors
20
-
Liechtenstein
General and Metal Holding Company
20,000
-
Luxembourg
-
500
Biermann, P.
-
500
Netherlands
Stichting Orphans Aid
500
-
Van Der Valk, P.C.
200
-
UNESCO Centrum Netherlands
10,00
-
Sundry donors
-
7
New Zealand
New Zealand Council of Organizations for
Relief Services Overseas (CORSO)
45,668
1,128
United Nations Association of New Zealand
South Canterbury Branch
375
130
Norway
Kroksnes, Arthur
141
141
Norwegian Red Cross
456
129
Norwegian Refugee Council
85,870
41,831
Save The Children Fund (Redd Barna)
490
420
Portugal
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation
62,000
5,000
Saudi Arabia
Baroody, Jamol M
1,000
-
College of Petroleum and Minerals
600
-
Sweden
Andersson, Malte
500
-
Eriksson, Bengt
-
500
Ericsson, Messrs. L.M.
583
-
Hilson Henning
99
-
Hult, A.
295
-
Swedish Committee for Palestine Refugees
610
69
Swedish Organization for Individual Relief
30,286
393
Swedish Save The Children Federation
185,587
11,892
The Swedish West Coast Post-War Relief
5,427
-
Sundry donors
4
10
Switzerland
Caritas
7,000
-
Club der Berufs and Geschaftsfrauen
56
-
Feller, E.
231
-
Hoffmann Ia Roche
1,623
2,000
Krbec, Miss Eva Marie
278
93
Swiss Association for International Civil Service
-
602
Waser, Professor Heinz
116
-
Mrs. Weeks and Miss Krbec
139
-
Sundry donors
114
7

Syria

Local authorities
2,019
1,010
Sundry donors
20
-
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
Anglo-Arab Association
24,000
-
British Bank of the Middle East
70,000
-
Cadbury Fry Export Department, Birmingham
277
-
Cambridge University, UNA Refugee Department
658
-
Camden Borough Council
129
-
Christian Aid
14,000
-
Collegiate School for Girls, Blackpool
-
499
Council for Education in World Citizenship
5,600
-
Freedom from Hunger (Tenby), Committee
504
-
Golcher, W.E.
-
72
Iraq Petroleum Company
13,846
-
Luthwaite, Miss Hilda
140
-
May, E.G.
63
-
Marrickville R.S.R. Club
71
-
Mulford, Mr. and Mrs. W.
280
-
New Milton Christian Aid Week Committee
504
-
Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (OXFAM)
124,761
282,523
Oxford Committee for Famine Relief, through World Council of Churches
10,000
-
Petts Wood Methodist Church
504
216
Rogers, Miss M.
504
432
Save The Children Fund
266
-
St. Helen's School
504
-
Standing Conference for British
Organizations for Aid to Refugees:
From Astor Bursary Fund
41,020
912
From Menuhin Concert Proceeds
1,473
-
From Middle East Relief Fund
33,600
1,865
From other sources
207,473
-
Tomlinson, Miss Ruth
140
-
United Nations Association of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland
7,084
543
Veitahl G.
300
-
War on Want
68,800
15,600
Wings of Friendship
1,893
-
Anonymous
278
-
Sundry donors
77
75
United States of America
American Council for Judaism Philanthropic Fund
5,000
-
American Middle East Rehabilitation Inc. (AMER)
78,874
15,548
American Mission, Beirut
988
425
American Women's Club of Lebanon
475
481
Arab American Community of Ann Arbor, Michigan
1,454
-
Arab American Community of Michigan
1,375
-
Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO)
60,000
60,300
Arab Club, Monterey
-
169
Arab Refugee Emergency Appeal
3,252
-
Astor Bursary Fund
5,981
-
The Hanes Foundation
500
-
Trustees of the Charles E. Merill Trust
15,000
-
Baird Foundation
114
-
Beltran, Dr. Frank A.
50
-
Boucher, Emile P.
61
-
Buehrig, Dr. Edward E.
100
-
Cafarelli, John
75
-
Cline, Miss Pearl
100
-
Committee of Concern for Hong Kong Refugees
118
-
Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE)
-
11,740
Dahran Women's Group (AMICO)
380
-
Decter, Mr. and Mrs. Avi
50
-
Dutton, Miss Patricia A.
-
15
Ellis, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
100
-
Fallers, A. Lloyd
100
-
Fellowship Club
50
-
First Congregational Church
50
-
Ford Motor Company
26,826
-
Friends Service Council
-
1,204
Gardner, Dr. and Mrs. Cary
100
-
Garisson, Roy
100
-
Garth, William le Roy Estate
2,958
283
Goldburg, Rabbi Robert E.
100
-
Graduate Students for Refugee Relief
-
1,400
Graef, Mrs. Gretchen
50
-
Greater Seattle Committee to Aid Arab Refugees
-
100
Group of families from Rome
75
-
Habib, Dr. Roshdy
50
-
Hanson, Mrs. Richard L.
50
-
Hauser, Ernest
100
-
Hess, Mrs. Gertrude C.
-
50
Hibner, Mrs, Don T. Jr.
50
-
Holbrook, Dwight
100
-
Holy Land Center Inc.
2,400
2,203
Hoppe, Denis and Family
100
-
Howard, A. and Martha R. Wolf Fund
500
-
Howe, Miss Letitia T.
500
-
Hurburt, G.W.
50
-
International Rescue Committee
2,500
-
Islamic Center of New York
4,755
-
Islamic Club of Western Michigan
2,375
-
Kellner, Mrs. Mary
50
-
Kirkpatrick, Virginia
50
-
Kirkpatrick, Mr. and Mrs. W.C.
50
-
La Buhn, Edmund
50
-
Lawyer, Mrs. Margretta Scott
100
-
Lawyer, Capt. John E. Jr.
130
-
Lombardi, Miss Helen Brown
100
-
Manasse, Mrs. Anne Marie
100
-
McEachern, Miss Janet
100
-
Mclaughlin, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald C.
50
-
Members of the Faculty Committee for Peace and Reconciliation in the Middle East
77
-
Mennonite Central Committee
12,000
13,234
Miami University, Oxford, Ohio
-
500
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
-
180
Mukwonago Union High School
108
274
NAJDA - American Women for the Middle East
1,500
500
Near East Christian Committee
154
-
Nicely, Mrs. Katharine T.
100
-
NOTS Hebrew Congregation
67
-
Ottinger Foundation
-
1,000
Pal - Aid International Inc.
1,060
185
Post, Miss Elizabeth M.
150
-
Rollform Corporation
50
-
Sady, Emile J.
50
-
Scarsdale - Hartsdale Chapter of the United Nations Association of the U.S.A. Inc.
-
100
Scheffler, Julius L.
50
-
Schuller, Mrs. Thomas
62
-
Seeger, Mr, and Mrs. Peter
300
-
Selby, Peter Spengler
102
-
Shanzer, Dr. Hilda
60
-
Smith, Richard T. Jr.
74
-
Sochocki, Mrs. Waltraud
100
-
Stephens College of Columbia, Missouri
-
750
Stewart, Mrs. Dunlop
92
-
The Academy of Islam International
1,000
-
The Arab Student's Club
64
-
The Walkathon Committee
351
-
Union Theological Seminary, New York
-
450
United Nations Council of Greenwich, Connecticut
-
300
United Nations Women's Guild
1,100
-
United States Committee for Refugees
510
300
U.S. Omen
4,500
231
Westchester Group of the United Nations Women's Guild
300
-
Yusuf, Dr. S.
2,515
407
Sundry donors
2,515
407
International Organizations
Caritas international
-
1,051
Caritas Jordan
-
3,390
International Christian Committee
357
-
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
-
1,500
International Federation of Business and Professional Women Central Committee
-
5,537
Australia
1,020
1,008
Canada
-
6,027
Japan
-
200
New Zealand
-
199
Sweden
-
199
Switzerland
499
502
United Kingdom
2,016
1,498
Lutheran World Federation
37,083
14,582
Near East Council of Churches
-
25,440
The Staff of the International Atomic Energy Agency
255
-
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
242,221
169,633
United Nations Emergency Force (Canadian Army Contingent)
2,916
-
United Nations Emergency Force (Danor Battalion)
239
-
United Nations Emergency Force (XXV Swedish Battalion)
1,163
-
Women's Auxiliary of UNRWA
2,733
-
World Council of Churches/Catholic Relief Services
-
5,649
World Council of Churches/The Near East Council of Churches
104,890
43,550
World Health Organization (WHO)
60,878
30,582
Zonta Helsinki Congress
1,535
-
Zonta International
16,842
13,000
Sundry donors
275
225
2,348,808
1,300,815




UNRWA PERSONNEL


Table 23

Staff employed by UNRWA at 31 December 1966 and at 31 December l967
International Staff

Locally
recruited staff
UNRWA
Seconded and loaned from other United Nations organs
Total
GRAND TOTAL
31 December 1966
11,404
85
27
112
11,516
31 December 1967
10,908
68
27
95
11,003


Note: Virtually all locally recruited staff are refugees.



ANNEX II

LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE WORK OF THE AGENCY

A. General legal activities and problems

1. Last year's report afforded an opportunity to review generally the nature and scope of the legal problems arising in the course of the Agency's operations and, since some years had elapsed since a similar review was undertaken, this was done in a fairly comprehensive manner (see A/6713). It is not necessary to repeat that kind of general review in this year's report: suffice it to say that the legal- problems remain unchanged in their scope and variety.

2. There are, however, a number of specific problems which are worthy of note. Reference was made in paragraphs 6 and 8 of annex II to last year's report to the difference of opinion which had arisen between the Agency and Syria over the question whether locally recruited staff of Syrian nationality, employed by the Agency within Syria, enjoyed the full measure of privileges and immunities conferred on United Nations officials under article V of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations of 1946. By a decree of 1 August 1967, Syria had excluded all such staff from the privileges and immunities of this convention, with the exception of exemption from taxation on salaries. In furtherance of an undertaking given by the Agency in the course of negotiations with the Government, the Agency submitted a, memorandum to the Government on 15 May 1968, explaining the precise scope and effect of these privileges and immunities. This memorandum is now believed to be under study the Government and meetings are expected shortly which will, hopefully, clarify the issues involved and arrive at a solution which is consistent with the 1946 Convention, and Syria's adherence to that Convention.

3. Another problem affecting tee Agency and its authority over its staff arises from the participation of representatives of the Government of Syria in the selection of candidates for area posts at grade 5 and above. A Selection Board, acting in an advisory capacity, has operated since 1954 and has included a representative of the Government. Correspondence between the Agency and the Government has sought to clarify the extent to which transfers initiated by the Agency and promotions of existing staff, or appointments to vacant posts from among existing staff members, should fall within or outside this established procedure. The Agency has requested specific proposals from the Government and, on receipt of these, will consult with the Government with a view to establishing a modus operandi which will not derogate from the Commissioner-General's exclusive authority over his staff. Requests by the Government for outright termination or transfer of staff pose a quite different problem. These have occurred and, in the course of discussions in August 1967, it had been agreed that there would be consultation over particular cases with a view to demonstrating the justification for such requests. No such consultation has yet taken place, but it remains the view of the Agency that this would be desirable in the interests of both the Government and the Agency. As far as the Agency is concerned, action against staff members must be well-motivated, and must be demonstrated to be so, if the Agency is to conform to the standards demanded of a United Nations agency in its treatment of staff.

4. A further problem, also affecting locally recruited staff, has arisen in the territories occupied by Israel after the June 1967 hostilities. This problem results from the detention of staff, sometimes for periods of many months, on the ground that their activities have created a situation in which the occupying authorities must exercise powers of detention, interrogation and, in some cases, trial. It must be emphasized that in no case to date has it been alleged that the acts giving rise to their detention have been "official acts", performed as part of their duties for the Agency. However, long periods of detention deprive the Agency of the services of these staff members and, quite apart from this, the Agency has an interest in the well-being of its own officials. The problem of the detention of staff members is not, in itself, new to the Agency. However, consistently with past practice, the Agency has requested and the Government of Israel has agreed to accord priority of investigation to the cases of detained UNRWA staff and also to enable visits to such staff by Agency Field Directors.

5. A most important requirement for certain Agency staff is freedom of movement throughout the different areas of the Agency's operations. Obviously, this does not apply to all staff, but it is essential for those international staff and the key area (or locally recruited) staff upon whom Agency-wide duties of supervision and control rest. As explained in paragraph 9 of annex II to last year's report (A/6713), certain nationalities among the internationally recruited staff face difficulties within Syria: they cannot be stationed there and can transit through the territory or pay special visits on official business only by virtue of special arrangements. These arrangements have been made by the Government, and they have on the whole worked well. The Agency had hoped, however, that, as they were of a restrictive nature, they would be of a purely temporary character, and it would hope to see the restrictions lifted in the near future.

6. A somewhat comparable problem existed prior to August 1968 in relation to certain international and key area staff of Arab nationality, who were denied freedom of movement into the occupied territories on official business of the Agency. The Agency's request for this freedom of movement, however, was acceded to by the Government of Israel in August 1968 in the sense that such freedom of movement was granted in principle; the Agency has since provided full details of these staff and, subject to security clearance by the Government, these staff will now be permitted to make visits on official business. It must also be noted that, following the Agency's requests, early in 1968 some 146 UNRWA staff, who had been stranded in the United Arab Republic as a result of hostilities, were allowed to return to their posts in Gaza.

7. The installations and premises of the Agency benefit from the inviolability which attaches to all United Nations premises and which is further specified in section 3 of the 1946 Convention. In general, this inviolability is respected. The Agency was obliged to protest, however, by a note verbal dated 15 May 1968, against a violation of the Agency's vocational training center in Damascus by personnel undergoing military training.

8. Moreover, in relation to the occupied territories., the Agency has, on various occasions, protested to the authorities against incursions into Agency premises by military or police personnel engaged in searches or military training. More serious instances have occurred in the course of the military activities taking place in the Jordan Valley: Agency installations were damaged in the shelling or raids by Israeli forces on Karameh on 20 November 1967, on 8 and 15 February and 21 March 1968. Claims relating to these incidents are in the course of preparation.

9. The Agency has undertaken revision of a number of international staff rules so as to produce greater conformity with the common system applied elsewhere in the United Nations. Similar revision of the rules and conditions of employment of area and other locally recruited staff has been undertaken. The Agency has also reviewed its internal procedures, such as, for example, Organization Directive No. 13, which deals with claims examination. Certain standardization of contractual forms has also been achieved in order to facilitate operations and strengthen Agency control.

B. Claims

General

10. In last year's report, the Agency summarized the principal pecuniary claims against Governments and undertook to report to the General Assembly on the progress made in presenting, prosecuting and settling these claims. Some progress has been made within the past year, as will be evident from the following paragraphs.

11. A heavy burden of legal work has arisen from the damage or loss caused to Agency installations and the property of staff members during the hostilities of June 1967 and, to a lesser extent, during the military activities which have occurred both within and outside the occupied territories since that time. Many months of careful examination and scrutiny of a great deal of documentary and other evidence have preceded the formulation of claims which are shortly to be presented to Governments. In relation to the property losses of staff members, these claims have already been examined, and recommendations made, within the Agency's own Claims Board, established to give effect to the Agency's liability for service-incurred losses.

Lebanon

12. Following the presentation to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of a comprehensive note verbal on 2 May 1967,recapitulating the Agency's claims, the Agency and the Government agreed on the establishment of a Mixed Commission which held a series of four meetings in October and November 1967. At the conclusion of these meetings, the Government members of this Mixed Commission (representing the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Justice and Finance) prepared a report which was ultimately placed before the Council of Ministers in May 1968.

13. While the Agency has not seen the text of the report presented to the Council of Ministers, it is understood that the Agency's interpretation of the concept of a "direct" tax (section 7 of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations of 1946), its conception of charges for "public utility services" as being charges for specific services rendered which can be identified as such and justified, as proportionate to those services (section 7) and its view on the non-applicability to international claims of periods of prescription provided in local law were all, in principle, accepted by the Government.

14. Certainly the actual decision of the Council of Ministers on 22 May 1968, as communicated to the Agency by a note from the Ministry of Foreign. Affairs dated 12 July 1968, is "to approve in principle" UNRWA's claims. The Ministers of Finance and Foreign Affairs have been charged with ensuring the completion of the formalities necessary for the refund of the various taxes paid by the Agency and dealt with in the report - totaling over half-a-million Lebanese pounds - and with the initiation of such measures as tray be necessary to give effect to exemption for the future. The Ministry of Finance has been instructed to establish a committee of experts for the purpose of verifying the precise amounts owed on these claims. This action will presumably be limited to a. verification of accounts and will not extend to a reopening of the general questions of liability.

15. The Agency believes that, with the implementation of this decision by the Council of Ministers, those claims forming the subject-matter of its note verbal of 2 May 1967 will be fully and finally settled.

Syria

16. The claims referred to in paragraph 14 of annex II to last year's report were all re-presented to the Government in a comprehensive note verbal of 1 October 1967; as with the re-presentation of claims against Lebanon, the Agency had proposed a meeting between its representatives and those of the Government in the belief that, via some form of Mixed Commission, real progress might be made.

17. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in a reply dated 26 June 1968, has not felt able to agree to this proposal. In relation to certain claims for the refund of customs duties on fuel and emergency taxes on benzene and gas-oil - totaling some IS 42,399 out of a total claim of IS 272,577 - the Ministry has proposed, in certain cases the nomination of an Agency representative to explore these claims with the Customs Administration and, in others, a more detailed breakdown of these claims for submission to the appropriate government departments. The Agency is, of course, fully prepared to take such action if it will lead to a settlement of the claims. However, the majority of its claims have been rejected on basically the same arguments used in previous notes from the Ministry.

18. It thus appears that the most promising avenue of further progress lies in the isolation of the issues which ground the rejection of these claims and selection of an appropriate mode of settlement of these issues, bearing in mind section 30 of the 1946 Convention. The issues appear to be the following:

(a) Whether the Agency's claims are subject to periods of prescription provided for in Syrian law;

(b) Whether the Agency's claim to exemption from certain taxes on fuel for periods prior to 1 October 1953 is barred by the fact that the Government's accession to the 1946 Convention was, by Syrian law, effective only on that date;

(c) The question of what constitutes a "direct" tax for the purpose of section 7 of the 1946 Convention and whether the Agency is subject to "indirect" taxation;

(d) The meaning of the words "whenever possible" in section 8 of the 1946 Convention as applied to refund of taxes on cement purchased locally;

(e) Whether portage fees are chargeable to the Agency on trucks carrying exclusively Agency supplies entering the Damascus Customs Zone.

The Agency will, accordingly, propose an appropriate mode of settlement of these issues to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and will report to the General Assembly on progress made with these claims.

Jordan

19. These claims were all represented to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a note verbal dated 18 April 1968. No formal reply has been received to this note, but, in a meeting with the Supreme Ministerial Committee in June 1968, three representatives of the Government were delegated to meet with representatives of the Agency to discuss these claims. It is hoped that meetings can take place at an early date.

20. It may also be noted that, in a letter dated 11 April 1968, the Government has resubmitted to the Agency a claim which had last been submitted to the Agency in 1959.a/ The claim arises from a dispute regarding the Agency's action in 1955 in withholding $154,706 as compensation for the breach by the Government of a contract for the sale to the Agency of flour. The Agency has, since 1959, indicated its willingness to accept international arbitration and has reiterated its offer to arbitrate by a letter dated 18 May 1968. The Government's reply, dated 11 June 1968, has indicated a willingness to undertake local arbitration, so that the issue between the Agency and the Government remains exactly the same as in 1959.

21. Late in 1967, the Agency entered into a number of substantial construction contracts for the purpose of undertaking
__________

a/ See Official Records of the General Assembly, Fourteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/4213), annex H.

"winterization" programs in the temporary camps established by the Agency in the Jordan Valley. In December 1967, the Jordanian Government instructed both the contractors involved and the Agency to cease this work and the Agency accordingly notified the contractors of this decision. At the same time, the Agency also informed the Jordanian Government that it would expect the Government to bear any loss arising from the abandonment of this work and the cancellation of the contracts involved. The Agency has since received claims from four contractors and, on the basis of the fact that the decision to cease work was the Government's decision and not the Agency's, the Agency is presently attempting to persuade the Government to assume liability for the compensation of these contractors. In the event that the Government should refuse to do so, the Agency will be forced to accept arbitration, since all its contracts provide for arbitration of disputes arising from the contracts. Unless the Government agrees to be a party to such arbitration, however, the arbitration would involve only the Agency and the contractor. Nevertheless, should such an arbitration go against the Agency, the Agency would then be compelled to seek a new and separate arbitration with the Government.

The claim against Lebanon, Syria and Jordan Jointly in respect of excess rail charges

22. No progress has been made on this, the largest of the Agency's claims with a value of approximately $1.5 million.

23. The Agency's identical notes verbals of 15 March 1967 to all three Governments had proposed a joint meeting of representatives of the Agency and of all three Governments. To date, apart from an expression of willingness to meet by the Lebanese Government (conditional on the willingness of the other two Governments to meet), no reply has been received to these notes. In presenting its otter claims to the Governments individually, the Agency has reminded these three Governments of the proposal made in March 1967, but this has not had the effect of stimulating a response. It will be apparent that, so long as the Governments evince no interest in a meeting with the Agency, progress on this claim is impossible.

24. It may also be noted that, consequent upon the closure of the Suez Canal, the majority of the Agency's supplies to Jordan have had to be imported via Beirut rather than Aqaba. Thus, during 1967/1968, the annual rate at which this claim has grown has been much higher than in recent years. In 1967, the Agency proposed that its bulk supplies of flour and sugar should be transported directly by truck from Beirut to Araman, as this was cheapest and most expeditious route. It had been the Agency's hope that, at least during this period when the large numbers of refugees and other displaced persons in east Jordan posed unprecedented supply problems for the Agency, some relaxation of the restrictions of the Tripartite Agreement of 1950 might have been made. However, the solution which emerged was that tonnage in excess of the railroad's capacity could be moved from Beirut to Damascus by truck, but thereafter had to be transported by rail. While this was not the ideal solution for the Agency since it involved extra expense and "double-handling" it must nevertheless be recorded that, owing to the co-operation of the three Governments, a very large volume of supplies was moved and a breakdown in the supplies to Jordan was avoided.

United Arab Republic

25. These represent the least of the Agency's claims against Governments so that, during the past year, priority has been given to the preparation and re-presentation of other, more substantial claims. However, work on these claims is now in progress and their presentation can be expected shortly.

26. A problem of some novelty has arisen from the fact that, following the occupation of Gaza, the Israel authorities took custody of the cash assets found in the Gaza Branch of the Bank of Alexandria, at which time the Agency's account with the Branch had a balance of approximately IE 37,000. Correspondence with the Cairo Office of the Bank and with the Commissioner for Banks of Israel has revealed some considerable divergence of view over the amount of cash actually held at the Branch and taken over by Israel. In a note verbal to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the United Arab Republic of 15 January 1968, the Agency expressed its view that the Bank of Alexandria should honor the obligations of the Bank, irrespective of the circumstances affecting one particular Branch, and sought the assistance of the Ministry in persuading the Bank to make these funds available to the Agency. The Agency received a reply to this note, dated 1 April, indicating that Israel must be regarded as responsible for any obligations concerning these funds and, in further correspondence, the Agency has been informed that full liquidity was maintained by the Bank in respect of UNRWA's account in Gaza. The Agency, in a second note dated 15 May 1968, has sought further information on the question of the degree of liquidity maintained. The Agency will continue to explore this whole matter in consultation with the two Governments concerned and with the Bank.

Israel

27. Following discussions between a representative of the Agency and representatives of the Government on 19 January 1968, all the claims of the Agency arising out of the military occupation of Gaza in 1956 and referred to in last year's report (A/6713, paragraph 22), and also the counter-claim by Israel have been settled. The settlement was recorded in an exchange of letters dated 22 and 26 January 1968.


ANNEX III

77 EX/34
PARIS, 3 November 1967

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

Resolution


Item 6.8 - Co-operation with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency

The Executive Board,

1. Having examined the report of the Director-General on co-operation with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) (document 77 EX/34),

2. Conscious of the enhanced importance of this co-operation in present circumstances and of the educational work in question on humanitarian grounds and in the interests of peace,

3. Authorizes the Director-General to co-operate with UNRWA in educational matters wherever UNRWA educational establishments may be available with observance -of the principles of international law regarding occupied territories and in the spirit of the agreement signed between UNESCO and UNRWA on 26 January 1967 and on the basis of the following principles:

(a) The ethical ideals laid down in the UNESCO Constitution and in Article 26, dealing with education, of the Universal Declaration of Hum-an Rights, paragraph (2) of which provides that "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace", while paragraph (3) stipulates that "Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children";

(b) The directives adopted in resolution 7.81 by the General Conference at its ninth session (1956) which required in particular that the necessary measures be adopted to "ensure that everywhere education shall respect the national, religious and linguistic traditions of the inhabitants, and that its nature shall not be altered for political reasons";

(c) The demand for unity in any system of education which implies that students shall be able later to pursue their studies in establishments at a higher level of the system to which the establishment they are attending belong, or of a system having the same socio-cultural, and particularly linguistic, characteristics;

4. Invites the Director-General to submit a report to the Executive Board at its next session on the implementation of this resolution, with any specific proposals by which he may consider it necessary or desirable to obtain the approval or authorization of the Board.
Executive Board
Seventy- seventh session
October/November 1967


78 EX/16 and Add.I and II
PARIS, 20 June 1968

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

Resolution


Item 7.4 - Co-operation with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA)

The Executive Board,

1. Having examined the report of the Director-General on Co-operation with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) (document 78 Ex/16, Add.1 and 2),

2. Reaffirming the necessity to ensure that children in UNRWA/UNESCO educational establishments should receive education in accordance with the principles laid down in resolution 6.8, adopted by the Executive Board at its seventy-seventh session,

3. Approves the steps taken by the Director-General to implement this resolution both as regards co-operation with the Commissioner-General of UNRWA and negotiations with the Member States concerned,

4. Authorizes the Director-General to pursue his efforts in this respect notably by setting up a commission of outside experts designated by the Director-General with the agreement of the Member States concerned, with a view to:

(a) examining the textbooks used in UNRWA/UNESCO schools, in conformity with resolution 6.8 adopted by the Board at its seventy-seventh session, and keeping in mind the debates of the Board at its seventy-seventh and seventy-eight sessions, and

(b) making recommendations thereon which the Director-General would submit to the Member States concerned, for their assent and co-operation,

5. Notes the intention of the Director-General in response to the wish expressed by the Commissioner-General of UNRWA, to assign a UNESCO official to the post of UNRWA educational services in the West Bank of the Jordan and in the Gaza Strip.

6. Invites the Director-General to submit to the Executive Board at its spring session in 1969, or at an earlier session if he deems it appropriate, a report on the implementation of this resolution, with any proposals on which he may consider it necessary or desirable to obtain the approval or authorization of the Board.
Executive Board
Seventy-eight session
May/June 1968


ANNEX IV
WHA21.38
23 May 1968

Twenty-first World Health Assembly

Detailed review of the operating program


The Twenty-first World Health Assembly,

Having considered the annual report of the Director of Health of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (1967);

Considering that the World Health Organization should continue to exert all possible efforts in providing effective health assistance to refugees and displaced persons in order to ensure their over-all health protection and care;

Recalling that the Security Council in its resolution No. 237 (1967) of June 1967 has "called upon the Government of Israel to ensure the safety, welfare and security of the inhabitants of the areas where military operations had taken place and to facilitate the return of those inhabitants who had fled the areas since the outbreak of hostilities";

Recalling that the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 2252 (ES-V) endorsed "the efforts of the Commissioner-General of UNRWA to provide humanitarian assistance as far as practicable, on an emergency basis and as a temporary measure, to other persons in the area who are at present displaced and are in serious need of immediate assistance as a result of the recent hostilities",

1. CALLS upon Member States to do everything possible to facilitate the return of displaced persons in order to ameliorate their health conditions;

2. REQUESTS the Director-General of the World Health Organization to study the health conditions amongst displaced persons in the area and to report to the Twenty-second World Health Assembly; and

3. COMMENDS the Director of the Health Department of UNRWA and his staff for their valuable assistance provided to the refugees.
Seventeenth plenary meeting, 23 May 1968
A21/VR/17

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