Question of Palestine home || Permalink || About UNISPAL || Search

English (pdf) ||Arabic||Chinese||Français||Русский||Español||



Follow UNISPAL Twitter RSS

UNITED
NATIONS

Distr.
GENERAL
CRC/C/8/Add.44
27 February 2002

Original: ENGLISH

COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES

UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION

Periodic reports of States parties due in 1993

ISRAEL

[20 February 2001]

CONTENTS

Paragraphs
Page
I.GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1 - 17
26
A.Immigration and the social and cultural variety of the Jewish population
5 - 10
26
B.
C.
D.
The Arab population of Israel
The Arab-Israeli conflict and the peace process
Trends and future direction in Israeli society
11 - 14
15 - 16
17
27
29
29
II.INTRODUCTION: THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN IN ISRAEL
AT THE START OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM
18 - 58
30
A.Legislation
25 - 33
31
1. Rationale
2. Defining childhood
25 - 30
31 - 33
31
33
B.
C.
D.
E.
Adjudication
The dignity of children
The rights of children
Summary
34 - 41
42 - 46
47 - 51
52 - 58
34
36
38
39
III.GENERAL MEASURES OF IMPLEMENTATION
59 - 143
41
Articles 4, 42 and 44 (6) of the Convention
60 - 143
41
1.The status of the Convention in Israeli law
60 - 72
41
(a) The Convention’s ratification and legal status
(b) The Committee to Examine Fundamental Principles Concerning Children and the Law, and Their Implementation in Legislation
60 - 62
63 - 65
41
44
(c) Parliamentary activity
66 - 72
44
2.Implementation of the Convention by national and local government
73 - 101
49
(a) Initiatives of government ministries
(b) Data collection and research as a basis of children’s rights
(c) Mechanisms regulating implementation of the Convention
(d) The efforts of public agencies to implement the Convention
74
75 - 95
96
97 - 101
49
49
52
52
3.Allocation of resources to protect the economic, social and cultural rights of children
102- 105
53
(a) Mechanisms for ensuring government and public allocation of resources to children
103
53
(b) Government expenditures on services for children
(c) Reducing discrepancies among groups and geographic areas
104
105
53
54
4.Voluntary organizations that implement and disseminate the Convention
106 - 129
54
(a) Children’s rights organizations
(b) Non-government organizations’ interaction with the Government
107 - 128
129
54
61
5.Disseminating the Convention
130
61
(a) Translating and publishing the Convention
(b) Including the Convention in curricula
(c) Disseminating the Convention among professionals
(d) Disseminating the Convention in the mass media
(e) Preparation of this report
131
132 - 133
134 - 140
141 - 142
143
61
61
61
62
63
IV.DEFINITION OF THE CHILD
144 - 223
63
Article 1 of the Convention
145 - 223
63
1.Defining childhood and legal minority
145 - 147
63
(a) Definition of childhood versus adulthood
(b) Fetuse
145
146 - 147
63
63
2.The right to participate in civil activities
148 - 149
64
(a) The right to vote and to be elected
(b) Identity card
148
149
64
64
3.
4.
Taking legal action: the legal capacity of minors
Receiving medical care
150 - 151
152 - 155
64
65
(a) Consent to medical treatment
(b) Refusal to receive medical treatment
152 - 153
154 - 155
65
65
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Completion of compulsory education
Permission to employ children
Marriage
Consent to sexual relations
The compulsory draft, volunteering for military service, and participation in acts of war
155
157 - 158
159 - 162
163
164
66
66
66
67
68
10.Criminal and tortious liability
165 - 168
68
(a) Criminal liability
(b) Tortious liability
(c) Statute of limitations
165
166
167 - 169
68
68
68
11.Revocation of liberty
170 - 176
69
(a) Detention
(b) Detention for protective purposes
(c) Imprisonment
(d) Closed residences
170 - 172
173
174 - 175
176
69
69
70
70
12.
13.
Capital punishment and life imprisonment
Giving testimony in criminal and civil court
177 - 180
181 - 185
70
71
(a) Capacity to testify
(b) Admissible testimony
(c) Limitations on the testimony of minors
181
182 - 183
184 - 185
71
71
71
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Legal representation without parental consent
Out-of-home placement
Placement in the custody of one parent
Adoption
Changing one’s name
Accessibility to information about one’s biological family
Legal capacity to inherit and transfer property
The right to organize
Choice of religion
Consumption of alcohol
Driving
Summary
186 - 192
193 - 194
195 - 196
197 - 198
199 - 200
201
202 - 203
204
205
206
207 - 210
211 - 223
72
73
73
73
74
74
75
75
75
75
76
76
V.GENERAL PRINCIPLES
224 - 314
82
A.Article 6 of the Convention - The right to life, survival and development
226 - 256
82
1. The right to life and physical development
2. The right to fulfillment of basic needs
3. Emotional, cognitive and social development, and the acquisition of skills
226 - 235
236 - 238
239 - 250
82
84
85
4. The right to life, survival and development of children with disabilities
251 - 256
88
B.Article 2 of the Convention - Non-discrimination and equal opportunity
257 - 270
90
1. Gaps among sub-groups of the Jewish population
2. Gaps between Jews and Arabs
3. Children of foreign workers
260 - 263
264 - 269
270
91
91
93
C.Article 3 of the Convention - The best interests of the child
271 - 297
93
1. The “best interests of the child” as a guiding principle
2. Preserving the best interests of the child in child welfare proceedings
271 - 275
276 - 284
93
94
3. Preserving the best interests of the child in out-of-home care
4. Preserving the best interests of the child in the criminal justice system
285 - 293
294 - 297
95
97
D.Article 12 of the Convention - Respect for the views of the child
298 - 313
99
1. The right of a minor to be heard, and respect for a minor’s views in matters affecting him
298 - 301
99
2. Legal representation of minors
3. Youth involvement in school and communities
302 - 309
310 - 313
100
102
E.Summary
314
103
VI.CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
315 - 416
105
A.Articles 7 and 8 of the Convention
316 - 348
105
1. Registration of children at birth and establishment of identity
2. The right to a name
3. The right to acquire nationality and protection of nationality
316 - 324
325 - 332
333 - 338
105
106
108
    (a) Nationality by birth
    (b) Nationality by birth and domicile in Israel
    (c) Nationality by naturalization
    (d) Nationality at the discretion of the Minister of the Interior
    (e) Nationality by return
    (f) Nationality by adoption
333
334
335
336
337
338
108
108
108
108
108
108
4. Protection of children’s nationality
5. The right to know parents’ identity
6. The right to parental care
339
340 - 346
347 - 348
109
109
111
B.
C.
Article 13 of the Convention - Freedom of expression
Article 14 of the Convention - Freedom of religion and conscience
349 - 352
353 - 360
111
112
1. Freedom to convert
2. Freedom of religion in the education system
357
358 - 360
113
113
D.Article 15 of the Convention - Freedom of association and peaceful assembly
361 - 368
114
1. Political assembly
2. Assembly in student and youth councils
3. Freedom of protest and demonstration
364
365 - 366
3637 - 368
115
115
115
E.Article 16 of the Convention - The right to dignity, privacy and reputation
369 - 389
115
1. The right to privacy in the narrow sense
2. Privacy in the narrow sense in the education system
3. The right to privacy in the broad sense
371- 377
378 - 385
386 - 389
116
117
119
F.Article 17 of the Convention - Access to appropriate information: regulating television, radio and film
390 - 399
119
1. Protection against publications about children in the media
2. The right to information from the education system
395 - 398
399
121
122
G.Article 37 (a) of the Convention
400 - 416
122
A. Prohibition against torture and cruel treatment
400 - 411
122
    1. Corporal punishment of children
    2. Remedies for parental cruelty
    3. The obligation to report
403 - 409
410
411
123
124
124
B. Minors in need of protection
C. Children suspected of a criminal offense
D. Capital punishment
E. Life imprisonment
412
413
414 - 415
416
124
125
125
125
VII.FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND ALTERNATIVE CARE417 - 651125
A.Introduction417 - 429125
1. Definition of the term “family” in Israeli law
2. Family structure
418
419
126
126
    (a) Family size
    (b) Family composition
    (c) Marriage and birth among minors
420 - 422
423
424 - 429
126
127
128
B.Articles 5, 9 and 18 (1)-(2) of the Convention430 - 489129
1. Parental guidance and responsibilities430 - 466129
    (a) Parents’ legal responsibilities
    (b) Income support for families
    (c) Guidance in the care and education of children
    (d) Support for families from social services
430 - 439
440 - 445
446 - 449
450 - 466
129
132
133
135
2. Separation of children from their parents467 - 489139
    (a) Divorced or separated parents
    (b) Separation by the authorities
467 - 473
474 - 489
139
141
C.Article 10 of the Convention - Family reunification490 - 493145
1. Entrance to Israel as a visitor
2. Permanent residence in Israel
3. Leaving Israel to emigrate or visit abroad
490
491
492 - 493
145
145
145
D.
E.
Article 11 of the Convention - Illicit transfer and non-return
Article 27 (4) of the Convention - Recovery of maintenance for the child
494 - 500
501 - 502
145
147
F.Articles 20 and 25 of the Convention - Children deprived of a family environment 503 - 545148
1. The alternative care system in Israel
2. Foster families
3. Residential facilities
4. Children under age 14 in residential settings
5. Youth (ages 14-18) in residential settings
6. Protecting the rights of children in out-of-home placements
7. Periodic review of placement
8. Non-government involvement with children in out-of-home care
503 - 504
505 - 511
512 - 517
518 - 527
528 - 530
531 - 538
539 - 543
544 - 545
148
148
150
152
155
155
158
158
G.Article 21 of the Convention - Adoption546 - 577159
1. The Adoption of Children Law
2. Adoption in practice
3. Inter-country adoption
4. Support services for adoptive families
546 - 560
561 - 572
573 - 575
576 - 577
159
162
164
165
H.Articles 19 and 39 of the Convention - Abuse and neglect, recovery and reintegration 578 - 651166
1. Legislation regarding child abuse and neglect
2. The prevalence of abuse and neglect
3. Services for children subjected to abuse and neglect
4. Awareness and prevention of abuse and neglect of children
578 - 596
597 - 601
602 - 638
639 - 651
166
170
172
182
VIII.BASIC HEALTH AND WELFARE652 - 896184
A.Article 23 of the Convention - Children with disabilities 652 - 767184
1. Legislation
2. Rates of disability and handicap among children in Israel
3. The service system for disabled children in Israel
654 - 659
660 - 665
666 - 758
185
186
189
    (a) The health system
    (b) The social welfare system
    (c) The education system
    (d) Voluntary organizations
    (e) Discounts and tax breaks
    (f) Gaps in needs and services
    (g) Issues arising from the complexity of the service system: inter-service coordination and the availability of information about services
670 - 689
690 - 703
704 - 738
739 - 751
752
753
754- 758
190
194
197
204
206
207
207
4. The accessibility of public areas and services759 - 767208
B.Articles 6 and 24 of the Convention - Health and health services768 - 841210
1. Basic data on the health of children and youth in Israel769 - 798210
    (a) Mortality rates of women in childbirth, infant mortality and underweight births
770 - 774211
    (b) Child mortality
    (c) Infectious diseases
    (d) Accidents
    (e) Adolescent health behavior
    (f) Dental health
    (g) Traditional customs that may affect a child’s health
775
776 - 780
781 - 785
786 - 796
797
798
212
212
214
215
218
218
2. Health and preventive services for children799 - 833219
    (a) The legal and organizational status of the health system in Israel
800 - 807219
    (b) Preventive services
    (c) Psychiatric services
    (d) The accessibility of services
808 - 824
825 - 826
827 - 833
221
224
225
3. Environmental factors that affect health834 - 838227
    (a) Water quality
    (b) Air pollution
835 - 837
838
228
228
4. Considering the views of the child in the medical process 839 - 841228
C.Article 26 of the Convention - Social security842 - 869228
1. The National Insurance Institute
2. The system of benefits
844 - 846
847 - 861
229
230
    (a) Benefits directly related to children
    (b) Benefits for eligible persons and their dependents
    (c) International conventions
849 - 852
853 - 860
861
231
233
233
3. Recent changes in benefit payments 862 - 867233
    (a) Elimination of the means test for the children’s allowance
    (b) Equalizing the children’s allowance for people who did not serve in the army
863
864 - 865
233
233
    (c) Benefits to low income groups
866 - 867234
4. Additional mechanisms that ensure a minimum standard of living for the employed868 - 869234
(a) Minimum wage
(b) Tax breaks
868
869
234
235
D.Article 27 (1)-(3) of the Convention - Standard of living 870 - 896235
1. Recognition of the right to an adequate standard of living
2. Poverty
871
872 - 883
235
235
    (a) Measuring poverty
    (b) The extent of poverty among Israel’s children: changes over time
872 - 874
875
235
236
    (c) The extent of poverty among different groups
    (d) The effectiveness of mechanisms to reduce the extent of poverty
876 - 878
879 - 881
236
237
    (e) The national council for narrowing social gaps and reducing poverty
882 - 883239
3. Additional assistance with basic living conditions for families with children884239
4. The right to adequate housing885 - 896240
(a) Assistance for owners of inadequate housing
(b) Assistance to the homeless
(c) Population groups with special housing problems
888 - 892
893 - 894
895 - 896
240
241
241
IX.EDUCATION, RECREATION AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES 897 - 1263243
Articles 28 and 29 of the Convention897 - 1263243
1. The constitutional right to education
2. Legislation
900 - 903
904 - 919
243
244
    (a) Government education
    (b) Compulsory education
    (c) Free education
    (d) Extended school day and enrichment programs
    (e) Special education
904 - 906
907 - 908
909 - 912
913
914
244
245
245
246
246
3. The goals of education in Israel
4. Resources in education
920 - 922
923 - 928
247
248
    (a) National expenditures on education
    (b) Number of classes, number of students per class, and number of school hours
923
924 - 926
248
248
    (c) The quality and training of teaching staff
927 - 928249
5. The structure of the education system929 - 974250
    (a) Description of the system
    (b) Early childhood education (newborn-age 5)
    (c) Elementary schools (ages 6-12)
    (d) Secondary schools
    (e) Boarding schools
    (f) Scholastic outcomes of high school education
929 - 937
938 - 942
943 - 946
947 - 956
957 - 966
967 - 974
250
251
252
253
256
258
6. Equal opportunities in education, preventing dropping out, and programs for special populations 975 - 1024260
    (a) Equal opportunities in education
    (b) The extended school day
    (c) The disadvantage index
    (d) Preventing dropping out
    (e) Educational services and programs for students with adjustment or other difficulties
975 - 978
979 - 980
981
982 - 986
987 - 1021
1022 - 1024
260
261
262
262
264
270
7. Children’s rights in the education system 1025 - 1038271
    (a) The rights of students in schools
    (b) Dissemination and implementation of individual rights in the education system
    (c) Discipline and punishment in school
    (d) The school climate and violence in schools
1034 - 1055
1056 - 1065
1066 - 1070
1071 - 1083
1084 - 1183
272
276
278
279
281
8. The integration of immigrant children and youth into the education system 1084 - 1138281
    (a) The integration of immigrant children into the education system
    (b) Special efforts of the education system
    (c) Social integration
1088 - 1116
1117 - 1137
1138
281
286
290
9. The Arab education system1139 - 1181291
    (a) The structure of the education system
    (b) Scholastic achievements in the Arab and Druze sector
    (c) Resources in the Arab education system
    (d) Programs for weak students and drop outs in the Arab sector
    (e) The education system in the Bedouin sector
    (f) The status of Arabic language and culture
1144 - 1152
1153 - 1154
1155 - 1174
1175 - 1176
1177 - 1180
1181
292
294
295
300
300
301
10. Informal education 1182 - 1227301
    (a) Informal education in schools
    (b) Informal education outside of schools
    (c) Informal education in the Arab sector
1185 - 1207
1208 - 1220
1221 - 1227
301
307
309
11. Leisure, recreation and cultural activities 1228 - 1263310
    (a) The budget for culture, entertainment and sport
    (b) Cultural institutions that hold activities for children
    (c) Cultural institutions in education frameworks
    (d) The role of the media in promoting the participation of children in cultural life
1229 - 1232
1233 - 1245
1246 - 1248
1249 - 1250
310
311
313
313
    (e) Preserving cultural identity and traditions
    (f) Patterns of recreational and cultural activity among children and youth
1251 - 1253
1254 - 1263
314
314
X.SPECIAL PROTECTION MEASURES
1264 - 1462
318
A.Articles 37, 39 and 40 of the Convention - Children involved in the juvenile justice system
1265 - 1379
318
1. Age of criminal responsibility
2. Principles for dealing with children in the criminal justice system
1265 - 1266
1267 - 1270
318
318
    (a) Application of the Youth (Trial, Punishment and Modes of Treatment) Law
1268 - 1269
319
    (b) The framework of action and general principles
1270
319
3. Minors as suspects or defendants
1271 - 1308
320
    (a) Basic rights
    (b) Conducting the investigation
    (c) Special protection of minors in criminal proceedings
    (d) Special protection of minors in criminal proceedings: implementation
    (e) Representation of minors in criminal proceedings
    (f) Opening a criminal file and filing an indictment
    (g) The role of the Youth Probation Service during investigation and trial
1271 - 1275
1276 - 1279
1280
1281 - 1286
1287 - 1290
1291 - 1295
1296 - 1308
320
321
322
322
325
326
327
4. Sentencing, punishment and modes of treatment
1309 - 1335
330
    (a) General principles
    (b) Hearing procedures for juvenile court
    (c) Representation of minors in court
    (d) The right to an interpreter
    (e) Prohibition against the publication and transfer of information, and the statute of limitations
1309 - 1311
1312
1313 - 1316
1317
1318 - 1322
330
331
331
332
332
    (f) Rehabilitation versus punishment
    (g) Modes of punishment
    (h) Modes of treatment
    (i) Court considerations and verdicts
    (j) Appeal of judgments
1323 - 1327
1328
1329 - 1331
1332 - 1334
1335
333
334
334
335
336
5. Children deprived of their liberty, including arrest, imprisonment and placement in a residence
1336 - 1371
337
    (a) Considerations in court decisions to deprive a minor of his liberty
    (b) Arrest
    (c) Open and closed residences
    (d) Imprisonment
1336 - 1337
1338 - 1354
1355 - 1369
1370 - 1371
337
337
341
345
6. Sentencing of children, capital punishment, and life imprisonment
7. The rehabilitation and reintegration into society of youth offenders and youth at risk of becoming offenders
1372
1373
345
346
8. The proposed reform of the Youth (Trial, Punishment and Modes of Treatment) Law
9. Summary
1374 - 1378
1379
350
351
B.Articles 32-36 of the Convention - Children in situations of exploitation, including physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society
1380 - 1454
351
1. Economic exploitation of children, including child labor
2. Sexual exploitation and sexual abuse
1380 - 1403
1404 - 1448
351
356
    (a) The legal situation: definition of offenses
    (b) Treatment and rehabilitation
    (c) The committee to examine the commercial sexual exploitation of minors
1404 - 1410
1411 - 1413
1414 - 1421
356
358
359
    (d) Protection of minor victims of sexual offenses in criminal proceedings
1422 - 1448
360
3. Trafficking in children
4. Drug abuse
5. Other forms of exploitation
1449
1450 -1453
1454
366
367
368
C.Articles 22, 38 and 39 of the Convention - Children in emergency situations
1455 - 1460
368
1. Children in armed conflict
1455 - 1458
368
    (a) The age of military draft
    (b) Defense and rehabilitation
1456
1458
368
368
2. Child refugees
1459 - 1460
369
D.Article 30 of the Convention - Children belonging to minority groups
1461 - 1462
369
Bibliography
370
List of tables
Page
Table 1:
Table 2:
Table 3:
Table 4:
Table 5:
Table 6:
Table 7:
Table 8:
Basic socio-demographic characteristics of the Arab population, compared to the Jewish population
Court rulings based on articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Laws enacted during the past 10 years
Amendments to laws enacted during the past 10 years
Proposed bills in advanced stages of ratification
Referrals to the Ombudsman for Children and Youth, by subject and sector, 1996
Definition of the child: summary of the rights and obligations of minors
Number of children per family, by subpopulation (average and percentage)
28
42
46
47
49
67
76
127
Table 9:
Table 10:
Table 11:
Table 12:
Percentage of children in single-parent families, by subpopulation, 1998
Percentage of minors (age 16-17 or less) marrying, by gender and religion
Children receiving services through a social welfare department, 1995
Cases of abduction handled by the Attorney General under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspect of International Child Abduction, 1993-1996 (in absolute numbers)
127
128
137
147
Table 13: Children placed in foster families by the Ministry of Labor and
Social Affairs in 1996, by age (in absolute numbers and percentage)
149
Table 14:
Table 15:
Table 16:
Number of residential settings and residents, by residents’ age and type of education, 1996-1997
Major problems of children under age 14 in residential settings
Children adopted within Israel, 1995-1997 (in absolute numbers)
151
153
164
Table 17:
Table 18:
Characteristics of older children adopted between 1985 and 1995
Estimated children at risk known to social welfare departments and children at risk identified by universal services
164
171
Table 19:
Table 20:
Table 21:
Table 22:
Table 23:
Table 24:
Table 25:
Table 26:
Table 27:
Characteristics of sub-groups of children at risk
Children referred or reported to a child protection officer in 1996, by primary type of maltreatment
Characteristics of children in the care of child protection officers in four cities, 1992-1993
Children in the care of a child protection officer, by type of abuse and neglect and by age group
Services provided to children in the care of a child protection officer, by age
Services provided to the families of children in the care of a child protection officer
Components of care at three emergency centers, 1993-1996
Rates of disability among children living in the community in Israel, by type of disability
Disabilities among children living in the community in the Jewish and Arab sectors, by type of disability and age
172
175
177
178
178
178
180
188
189
Table 28:Children receiving National Insurance Institute Disability Benefits in June 1997, by age (in absolute numbers)
195
Table 29:
Table 30:
Students in special education frameworks, by type of framework, 1996
Children in special education frameworks (special education schools or special classes in regular schools), by main disability
199
200
Table 31:
Table 32:
Infant mortality per 1,000 live births, by population group, 1979-1996
Causes of death among children ages 1-14 in 1996, by population group
211
212
Table 33:Contagious and infectious diseases among children newborn to age 14
in 1996, by age and population group (per 100,000 in each age group)
213
Table 34:
Table 35:
Table 36:
New cases of AIDS among children newborn to age 14 (per 100,000 children) in Israel, by year
Live births among minors in 1998, by age, population group and marital status
Distribution of physicians and number of physician visits by children newborn-age 4 in 1993, by area of residence
214
217
225
Table 37:
Table 38:
Table 39:
The incidence of poverty among children in different groups in 1998
The incidence of poverty among children, 1980-1998
The percentage of children in different groups living below the poverty line or removed from poverty by transfer payments and taxes in 1998
237
238
239
Table 40:
Table 41:
Table 42:
Table 43:
Number of immigrant families residing in temporary housing, by year
Average number of students per class, by sector
Level of education among teachers, by sector
The structure of the education system: the number of students in the education system, by type of framework, 1998/99
242
248
249
250
Table 44:
Table 45:
Table 46:
Preschool attendance, by sector, 1997/98 252
Elementary school attendance rates (ages 6-12), by sector 253
Attendance rates of students ages 14-17 at high schools under the surveillance of the Ministry of Education, by sector
252
253
255
Table 47:Attendance rates at high schools under the surveillance of the Ministry of Education, by age and sector
255
Table 48:Attendance rates of students ages 15-18, by sector and socio-economic level of town of residence, 1993
256
Table 49:Percentage of students age 17 eligible for a matriculation certificate, by sector and selected demographic characteristics, 1987-1997
259
Table 50:Guidance and psychological counseling in schools: the percentage of schools in which counseling was provided in 1994/95
265
Table 51:
Table 52:
Preschool attendance rates among different age groups, by sector
Attendance rates of youth ages 14-17 in schools under the surveillance of the Ministry of Education, by sector
292
293
Table 53:
Table 54:
Table 55:
Table 56:
Table 57:
Table 58:
Table 59:
Table 60:
Table 61:
Table 62:
Attendance rates, by age and sector, 1997/98
Average attendance rates of Arab students in grades 9-12, by gender
12th-grade attendance rates, by sector, 1997/98
Average number of students per class, by sector (1980-1998)
Allocation of resources to different sectors, 1992-1996
Percentage of schools having different support services, by sector (1994/95)
Frequency of attendance at cultural performances and exhibitions, 1997
Exposure to the media among Jewish youth
Types of recreational activity of 9th-12th grade students in 1997, by sector
Youth participation in recreational activities outside the home during the past month, by sector, 1990/91 Investigation department heads reporting violations of the instructions for handling minors at their police station, by frequency of non-compliance
293
294
294
296
297
297
315
315
316
317
Table 63:Investigation department heads reporting violations of the instructions for handling minors at their police station, by frequency of non-compliance
323
Table 64:Police officers responding “agree” or “definitely agree” with statements concerning the rights of a minor in criminal proceedings, by respondents’ position
324
Table 65:
Table 66:
Table 67:
Juvenile files in 1998, by type of offense
Principal demographic characteristics of minors with a criminal file, 1996
Family characteristics of minors with a criminal file who were referred to the Youth Probation Service in 1996, compared to all children in Israel
329
329
330
Table 68:
Table 69:
Table 70:
Table 71:
Table 72:
1996 court verdicts in cases involving minors, by minor’s age
Arrest of minors and duration of arrest in 1998, by age (in numbers)
Principal agencies treating minors suspected of having committed an offense
Work and study among youth ages 15-17 in 1998, by population group
Police files on offenses against minors opened in 1998
336
341
347
355
363

I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION

A. Immigration and the social and cultural variety of the Jewish population
B. The Arab population of Israel

Table 1


Basic socio-demographic characteristics of the Arab population,
compared to the Jewish population (in %)


Arab population
Jewish population
Education
Women
Fewer than eight years
38.5
14.8
11-12 years
26.5
35.4
Post-secondary
18.6
39.3
Men
Fewer than eight years
28.7
11.1
11-12 years
30.0
37.9
Post-secondary
20.7
38.8
Average number of children per household
3.04
2.2
Families below the poverty line
37.6
16.6*
Children below the poverty line
42.7
22.9
Employment (in the civilian labor force)
Women
19.5
51.0
Men
66.4
60.6
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 1999.

* Percentage of the total population.

C. The Arab-Israeli conflict and the peace process
D. Trends and future directions in Israeli society

II. INTRODUCTION: THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN IN ISRAEL
AT THE START OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM
A. Legislation

1. Rationale

2. Defining childhood
B. Adjudication

1. The best interests of the child

C. The dignity of children


D. The rights of children
E. Summary
III. GENERAL MEASURES OF IMPLEMENTATION
Articles 4, 42 and 44 (6) of the Convention

1. The status of the Convention in Israeli law

Table 2

Court rulings based on articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child


Ruling
Article of theConvention
Supreme Court Cases
Criminal Appeal. 4596/98 Anonymous Plaintiff v. State of Israel, P.D. 54(1) 145
9(1)
Civil Appeal 93/2266 Anonymous Plaintiff v. Anonymous Defendant , P.D. 49 (1) 2213, 14
Criminal Appeal 3112/94 Abu Hassan v. State of Israel, P.D. 53(1) 42737(a)
(Petition to the) High Court of Justice 1554/95 “SHOHAREY G.I.L.A.T.” v. Minister of Education, P.D. 50(3) 2 28
Additional Civil Appeal 7015/94 Attorney General v. Anonymous Defendant , P.D. 50(1) 4813(1)
Civil Appeal 3077/90 Anonymous Plaintiff v. Anonymous Defendant, P.D. 49(2) 5787
Ruling
Article of the
Convention

Criminal Appeal 5224/97 State of Israel v. Sde Or (not yet published)19(1)
(Petition to the) High Court of Justice 5227/97 David v. Rabbinic
High Court Jerusalem (not yet published)
3
District Court Cases
Criminal Case (Tel Aviv) 40069/00 State of Israel v. Anonymous Defendant (not yet published)12
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 3/98 Biton v. Biton, 500-48 98(3) 2509 12
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 90/97 Moran v. Moran (not yet published)12
Civil Appeal 3275/98 Child Protection Officer v. Anonymous Defendant (not yet published) 6, 12
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 1009/00 Anonymous Plaintiff v. Anonymous Defendant (not yet published) 12
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 3/99, 4/99 Anonymous Defendants v. Attorney General (not yet published)3
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 36/96 Anonymous Defendants v. Attorney General (not yet published)16
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 1010/98 Keshet v. Keshet (not yet published)3
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 33/96 Deutsch v. Deutsch
500-48 97(2) 1567
9, 7(2), 10(2), 18
Family Court Appeal (Tel Aviv) 1125/99 Anonymous Plaintiff v. Anonymous Defendant (not yet published) 9, 7(2), 10(2), 18
Criminal Case (Tel Aviv) 40006/00 (not yet published)37b
Family Court
Family Court Case 94300/90 (not yet published)12
Family Court Case (Tel Aviv) 23860/96 Anonymous Plaintiff v. Anonymous Defendant 500-48 96(2)12
Family Court Case (Jerusalem) 2030/97 Anonymous Plaintiff v. Anonymous Defendant 500-48 98(2), 8112
Family Court Case (Tel Aviv) 23200/96 Anonymous Plaintiff v. Anonymous Defendant 500-48 96(2)Preamble
Family Court Case (Beer Sheva) 10101/98 Judicial Review 251, p. 15 7(11), 7(2)
Table 3

Laws enacted during the past 10 years

Law
Year
Relevant article of the Convention
Special Education
1988
23: the right of the disabled child to special education
Prevention of Family Violence
1991
19: protection against abuse
Hague Convention
1991
3: the best interests of the child 11: prevention of illegal transfer
12: respect for the child’s opinion
Consumer Protection (Advertisements to Minors)
1991
36: protection against undue advantage
17: protection against exposure to harmful information
Single Parent Families
1992
27: the right to a reasonable standard of living
Children’s Sick Days
1993
18: both parents have responsibility for raising the child, and the Sate will provide appropriate assistance; children of working parents will have the right to benefit from child care services
Court for Family Matters
1995
3: the best interests of the child
5: guidance and instruction of parents
Law
Year
Relevant article of the Convention
Detection of the AIDS Virus in Minors
1996
16: protection of privacy
23: recognition of the right to live with dignity of children with impaired health
24: the right to a high level of health and health services
Public Defense
1995
37(d): the right to representation at incarceration and
trial/legal proceedings
Treatment of Mentally Ill
1991
12: the right to be heard
23: treatment for mentally ill children
Extended School Day and Educational Enrichment
1997
28: the right to equal opportunities in education
Rehabilitative Day-care Centers
2000
6: the right to development
23: treatment for disabled children
2: non-discrimination
Students’ Rights
2000
12: the right to be heard
16: protection of privacy

Table 4

Amendments to laws enacted during the past 10 years


Amendment to the LawYearRelevant article of the Convention
Amendment to the Penal Law: Increased Severity of Punishment of Relatives Who Harm Children; Obligatory Reporting198919: protection against abuse and neglect
Amendment to the Law: Evidence Ordinance Revision (Protection of Children) Expansion to Crimes of Assault and Abuse199136: prevention of undue advantage
Amendment to the Law Year Relevant article of the Convention
Amendment to the Youth Law: Obligation to Hear Minors, Parents and Guardians 1995 5: guidance to parents
12: respect for the child’s view
Amendment to the Penal Law: Taking Evidence Immediately 199540: protection of children in the juvenile court
system
Amendment to the Penal Law: Statute of Limitations on Sexual Crimes against Children1996 19 and 34: protection against sexual assault and
abuse
Amendment to the National Insurance Law: Cancellation of the Reduction in Children’s Benefits199726: the right to social security
27: the right to a reasonable standard of living
Amendment to the Single Parent Families Law: Children’s Benefits up to Age 211997 26: the right to social security
27: the right to a reasonable standard of living
Amendment to the Adoption of Children Law: International Adoption Agreement Permit for Adoption of Children by Parents of a Different Religion 199711: prevention of illegal transfer
21: adoption for the best interests of the child
with permission of the authorities
Amendment to the Youth Employment Law199832: protection of working children
12: participation
36: protection against undue advantage
Amendment to the Youth (Care and Supervision) Law: Sanction against the Publication of Information about Crime Victims199816: the right to privacy
Amendment to the Municipalities Ordinance20002: equal fulfillment of rights stipulated by the
Convention
3: the best interests of the child
12: the right to be heard
13: freedom of expression


Table 5
Proposed bills in advanced stages of ratification
Proposed Bill
Year
Relevant article of
the Convention
Youth Employment Law (Amendment No. 11) - Head of Public Agency Obligation
2000
32
Penal Law (Amendment No. 55) - Imposition of Minimum Punishment on Relative for Injury with Serious Intent
2000
19
Protection of Genetic Information Law
1998
16

2. Implementation of the Convention by national and local government
3. Allocation of resources to protect the economic, social and cultural rights of children
4. Voluntary organizations that implement and disseminate the Convention


Table 6

Referrals to the Ombudsman for Children and Youth, by subject and sector, 1996


Subject
Total
Jewish sector - Native Israelis
Immigrants from the former Soviet Union
Immigrants from Ethiopia
Arab
sector
Total
7 271
3 780
1 963
887
641
Children at risk
1 423
1 023
226
101
46
Education
2 084
906
682
310
186
Information and counseling
1 737
1 008
418
179
132
Divorce
411
246
70
77
18
Police
227
135
34
13
45
Health
315
144
110
21
40
Employment
322
165
65
57
35
Other
752
153
359
129
111
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999

5. Disseminating the Convention
IV. DEFINITION OF THE CHILD
Article 1 of the Convention

1. Defining childhood and legal minority

2. The right to participate in civil activities
3. Taking legal action: the legal capacity of minors
4. Receiving medical care


5. Completion of compulsory education
6. Permission to employ children
7. Marriage
8. Consent to sexual relations
9. The compulsory draft, volunteering for military service, and participation in acts of war
10. Criminal and tortious liability
11. Revocation of liberty
12. Capital punishment and life imprisonment
13. Giving testimony in criminal and civil court
14. Legal representation without parental consent
15. Out-of-home placement
16. Placement in the custody of one parent
17. Adoption
18. Changing one’s name
19. Accessibility to information about one’s biological family


20. Legal capacity to inherit and transfer property
21. The right to organize
22. Choice of religion
23. Consumption of alcohol
24. Driving
25. Summary
Table 7

Definition of the child: summary of the rights and obligations of minors


IssueLawAgeFull/partial right; restrictions
Age of legal capacityGuardianship and Legal Capacity Law, section 418earlier age of legal capacity if act is “in the manner of minors to undertake” (section 6)
Completion of compulsory education Compulsory Education Law 1949
Special Education
Law 1988
16 (21 for those with special needs)provided free to age 18
Legal age of employmentYouth Employment Law 1953, section 2 15 or completion of compulsory education
Vacation
employment
Youth Employment Law 1953, section 2A 14
Participation in artistic productions Youth Employment Law 1953, section 4under age 15 or during compulsory
education
with consent
Civil and criminal liabilityPenal Law, section 34F Civil Wrongs Ordinance [New Version] section 9(a) from age 12
ImprisonmentYouth (Trial, Punishment and Modes of Treatment)
Law 1971 section 25
from age 14to age 18, minors must be held separate from adults
Mandatory life imprisonment/
death penalty
Youth (Trial, Punishment and Modes of Treatment)
Law 1971 section 25
from age 18
Detention without a court order Youth (Trial, Punishment and Modes of Treatment)
Law 1971 section 10
from age 12
12-13: 12 hours
14-18: 24 hours
includes detention as means of protection
Institutional placement instead of imprisonmentYouth (Trial, Punishment and Modes of Treatment) Law 1971 sections 31-33 12-18
Testimony in courtEvidence Ordinance
[New Version] 1971
any agelimited weight ascribed to testimony
Appointment of lawyer Guardianship and Legal Capacity Law
1962, section 4
from age 18
Consensual sexual relationsPenal Law, section 345(3) 14-15 in marriage
16-17 under certain
conditions
Medical care or consultation from age 18except abortion and AIDS testing (Discovery of AIDS in
Minors Law 1996, section 1(a))
Psychiatric hospitalizationTreatment of Mentally Ill Law 1991, section 4Afrom age 15consent of parents and child required, or court order
AIDS test without parental consentDetection of AIDS Virus in Minors Law 1996from age 14conditional on restrictions of medical condition and physician’s judgment; test may be done under age 14 with approval of committee comprising social worker and
physician
AbortionPenal Law 1977, section 316any ageconditional on approval of
abortion committee
Mandatory identity cardPopulation Registry Law 1965, section 25 from age 16 may receive identity card earlier with consent of representative or
chief registration clerk
Driver’s licenseby type of vehicle 16: tractor, motorcycle up to 50 cc
17½: most private vehicles
21: heavy and public vehicles
MarriageMarriage Age Law 1950from age 17or 16 in case of pregnancy, or special circumstances with
court approval
Sale of alcoholPenal Law, section 193aforbidden to minors under age 18no restriction on consumption
Right to voteBasic Law: Knessetfrom age 18for local authorities from age 17
Right to be elected to KnessetBasic Law: Knessetfrom age 21
Child support from
estate
Succession Law 1965to age 18
Writing a willSuccession Law 1965 from age 18
Capacity to inheritSuccession Law 1965 any age including prior to birth
Transfer of propertyGuardianship and Legal Capacity Law 1962, section 6Aunder age 18 only with consent of
representative
Military draftDefense Service Law
1986
age 18from age 17 and up with parents’ written consent
ConversionGuardianship and Legal Capacity Law 1962, section 13A(b)from age 10, with minor’s consent in
writing
minor cannot convert himself until age 18
AdoptionAdoption of Children
Law 1981, section 30
birth to age 18
Hearing minor’s opinion regarding
adoption
Adoption of Children Law 1981, section 7from age 9or earlier if child understands meaning of adoption
Adoptee’s access to information about biological familyAdoption of Children Law 1981, section 30bfrom age 18


V. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
A. Article 6 of the Convention - The right to life, survival and development
1. The right to life and physical development
2. The right to fulfillment of basic needs
3. Emotional, cognitive and social development, and the acquisition of skills
4. The right to life, survival and development of children with disabilities
B. Article 2 of the Convention - Non-discrimination and equal opportunity
1. Gaps among sub-groups of the Jewish population
2. Gaps between Jews and Arabs
3. Children of foreign workers
C. Article 3 of the Convention - The best interests of the child

1. The “best interests of the child” as a guiding principle

2. Preserving the best interests of the child in child welfare proceedings


3. Preserving the best interests of the child in out-of-home care
4. Preserving the best interests of the child in the criminal justice system
D. Article 12 of the Convention - Respect for the views of the child

1. The right of a minor to be heard, and respect for a minor’s views in matters affecting him

2. Legal representation of minors


3. Youth involvement in school and communities
E. Summary
IV. CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
A. Articles 7 and 8 of the Convention

1. Registration of children at birth and establishment of identity

2. The right to a name
3. The right to acquire nationality and protection of nationality
4. Protection of children’s nationality
5. The right to know parents’ identity


6. The right to parental care
B. Article 13 of the Convention - freedom of expression
C. Article 14 of the Convention - Freedom of religion and conscience
1. Freedom to convert
2. Freedom of religion in the education system
D. Article 15 of the Convention - Freedom of association and peaceful assembly
1. Political assembly
2. Assembly in student and youth councils
3. Freedom of protest and demonstration
E. Article 16 of the Convention - The right to dignity, privacy and reputation
1. The right to privacy in the narrow sense
2. Privacy in the narrow sense in the education system
3. The right to privacy in the broad sense
F. Article 17 of the Convention - Access to appropriate information:
regulating television, radio, and film


1. Protection against publications about children in the media
2. The right to information from the education system
G. Article 37 (a) of the Convention

A. Prohibition against torture and cruel treatment



1. Corporal punishment of children
2. Remedies for parental cruelty
3. The obligation to report
B. Minors in need of protection
C. Children suspected of a criminal offense
D. Capital punishment
E. Life imprisonment
VII. FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND ALTERNATIVE CARE

A. Introduction

1. Definition of the term “family” in Israeli law
2. Family structure
Table 8

Number of children per family, by sub-population (average and percentage)


1980
1998
Number of children
Total population
Total population
Jews
Arabs
Immigrants
Average 2.72.32.172.871.78
Percentage
1 child27.334.535.725.656.6
2 children31.330.533.924.731.2
3 children20.518.518.118.57.1
4 or more children21.016.512.331.25.3
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.
Table 9

Percentage of children in single-parent families,
by sub-population, 1998 (in %)

Sub-populationChildren in Single-parent Families
Total Population7.4 (14)*
Jews
Immigrants-- (22)
Ultra-orthodox 2.9**
Arabs2***
Source: Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.

* The figure in parenthesis is the percentage of households headed by a single parent.

** Estimate based on data from the city of Bnei-Brak.

*** Estimate based on data from several Arab towns and villages.

Table 10

Percentage of minors (age 16-17 or less) marrying, by gender and religion


Girls
Boys
Jews
Moslems
Jews
Moslems
Age161716171717
1975-1979 (average) 0.124.841.9613.30.120.22
1985-1989 (average)0.241.741.5414.00.030.17
1996 0.06 0.72 0.0714.60.030.03
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.
B. Articles 5, 9 and 18 (1)-(2) of the Convention

1. Parental guidance and responsibilities

Table 11

Children receiving services through a social welfare department, 1995


Type of service
Number of children
Total (assuming each child receives one service)
26 555
Day-care (social service referral)
12 455
After-school framework
10 000
Home start
400
Video home training
400
Together
1 800
Multi-purpose day care
700
Big brother/sister
800
Source : Korazim, 1996, and information from the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
2. Separation of children from their parents
C. Article 10 of the Convention - Family reunification

1. Entrance to Israel as a visitor

2. Permanent residence in Israel
3. Leaving Israel to emigrate or visit abroad
D. Article 11 of the Convention - Illicit transfer and non-return


Table 12
Cases* of abduction handled by the Attorney General under the Hague Convention
on the civil aspect of international child abduction, 1993-1996 (in absolute numbers)

Case resolution
Children brought to Israel
Children abducted
from Israel
Total
99
78
Returned, following court ruling
21
10
Not returned, following court ruling
9
4
Waiting for appeal
14
22
Petition withdrawn **
20
23
Re-abducted to State of origin
1
2
Refusal by State authorities
1
1
State not party to Convention***
3
5
Case not active
19
10
Child not located
5
1
Visitation arrangement
6
0
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.

* The figures refer to cases, as in some instances more than one child was involved.

** In 18 cases, the child was returned by consent.

*** States that were not parties to the Convention during this period.


E. Article 27 (4) of the Convention - Recovery of maintenance for the child

F. Articles 20 and 25 of the Convention - Children deprived of a family environment

1. The alternative care system in Israel

2. Foster families
Table 13

Children placed in foster families by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs
in 1996, by age (in absolute numbers and %)

Age group
Number of children
Percentage
Total
1 523
100
0-6
346
22.7
7-14
853
56.0
15-17
324
21.3
Source: Data from the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.

3. Residential facilities
Table 14


Number of residential settings and residents, by residents’ age
and type of education 1996-1997*


Age
Total
Regular education**
Special education
Total
491
(67 633)
431
(62 609)
60
(5 024)
Children under 14
53
53
(3 117)
---
Youth (15-18)
155
(22 788)
148
(22 417)
7***
(371)
Children and youth (up to 18)
283
(41 728)
230
(37 075)
53
(4 653)
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1997.

* The numbers in parentheses refer to the total number of residents.

** No data are available on an additional 40 religious institutions.

*** Children under age 14 and youth up to age 18.

4. Children under age 14 in residential settings


(b) The purpose of placement, placement procedures, and lengths of stay
Table 15

Major problems of children under age 14 in residential settings (in %)


Problem
Percentage*
Parents’ problems
Physical abuse
25
Emotional abuse
25
Physical neglect
50
Children’s problems
Emotional problems**
33
Two-year gap in school achievement
33
Over three-year gap in school achievement
40
Source : Dolev and Barnea, 1996.

* The percentage of children to whom this applies. The percentage does not total 100%, as children may fit into several categories.

** In the clinical range, as measured by the Child Behavior Check List (Achenbach, 1990).

5. Youth (ages 14-18) in residential settings
6. Protecting the rights of children in out-of-home placements

(a) Laws protecting children in out-of-home placements

7. Periodic review of placement
8. Non-government involvement with children in out-of-home care
G. Article 21 of the Convention - Adoption

1. The Adoption of Children Law

2. Adoption in practice

(b) Information about adopted children

Table 16

Children adopted within Israel, 1995-1997 (in absolute numbers)


1995
1996
1997
Total
215
182
149
Infants (0-2)*
96
102
71
Children (2+)
119
80
78
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1995.

* Including two-five children with Down’s Syndrome per year.

Table 17

Characteristics of older children adopted between 1985 and 1995


Number
Percent
Total
343
100
Age of children
2 - 3
92
27
4 - 5
92
27
6 and over
156
46
Siblings
Adopted with siblings
119
35
Adopted alone
224
65
Adoptive parents
Have other children
183
54
Do not have children
160
46
Source : Rivkin et al., forthcoming.

3. Inter-country adoption
4. Support services for adoptive families


H. Articles 19 and 39 of the Convention - Abuse and neglect,
recovery and reintegration

1. Legislation regarding child abuse and neglect

2. The prevalence of abuse and neglect


Table 18


Estimated children at risk known to social welfare departments and
children at risk identified by universal services (in %)


Estimated children at risk
Percentage
Known to social welfare department
Total
14
Direct risk
7.1
Family risk
3.5
Environmental risk
3.4
Recipients of universal services (direct and family risk)*
Total
6.3
Not known to social welfare department
4.4
Overall estimate (direct and family risk)
15
Source : Dolev, Ben-Rabi and Yoel, forthcoming.

* Based on estimates.

Table 19

Characteristics of sub-groups of children at risk (in %)


Characteristic
Sub-groups of children at risk
Under the Care of a Child Protection OfficerKnown to a Social Welfare Department Referred to a Decision CommitteeVisit a Family Health Center Live in a Residential Facility
Single-parent family
36
21
38
22
34
Large family (4+ children)
48
42
37
36
62
Dysfunctional parent(s)
52
12
46
39
51
Abuse
16
1
16
5
23
Neglect
50
26
31
45
49
Educational gaps
54
No data
56
Not relevant
71
Behavioral/ emotional problems
75
31
53
34
36
Source: Primak, 1998.

3. Services for children subjected to abuse and neglect

Table 20


Children referred or reported to a child protection officer in 1996,
by primary type of maltreatment


Type of maltreatment
Number
Percentage
Total
21 503
100
Neglect
9 550
44.5
Physical abuse
6 903
32
Emotional abuse
3 513
16
Sexual abuse
1 537
7
Other or unknown
199
0.5
Source: Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1997.
Table 21


Characteristics of children in the care of child protection officers
in four cities, 1992-1993


Characteristics
Percentage
Number
Total
167*
849
Single-parent families
36
306
Families with four or more children
42
356
Head of household unemployed
37
314
Parent has impaired functioning (due to substance abuse, mental illness)
52
441
Source: Dolev and Rivkin, 1997 (unpublished).

* More than one characteristic may apply.

Table 22

Children in the care of a child protection officer, by type of abuse and neglect*
and by age group (in %)


Age
Total
0-3
4-6
7-11
12-14
Total
849
170
207
330
141
Proven physical abuse
16
8
13
15
34
Suspected physical abuse
16
16
17
18
9
Proven sexual abuse
1
0
2
1
2
Suspected sexual abuse
12
2
9
16
17
Inappropriate discipline
66
48
67
68
79
Physical neglect
50
56
48
51
41
Inadequate supervision
74
67
75
78
74
Educational neglect
44
7
37
61
61
Emotional neglect
79
67
84
83
79

Source : Dolev and Rivkin, 1997 (unpublished).

* A child may be subjected to more than one type of abuse or neglect.
Table 23

Services provided to children in the care of a child protection officer, by age (in %)
Type of service
Age
0-3
4-6
7-14
Total in numbers
170
207
471
Day care
52
-
-
After-school care
9
36
21
Enrichment and extracurricular programs
2
7
8
Big brother/sister
-
-
12
Tutor
-
-
5
Individual or group therapy
-
16
19
Source: Dolev and Rivkin, 1997 (unpublished).
Table 24


Services provided to the families of children in the care
of a child protection officer (in %) (N=849)


Type of service
Percentage
Home-care worker
15
Sessions with a social worker or child protection officer
59
Family counseling
13
Psychotherapy
7
Drug detoxification
4
Group therapy
4
Psychiatric care
9
Legal aid
7
Vocational rehabilitation
2
Source : Dolev and Rivkin, 1997 (unpublished).

Table 25

Components of care at three emergency centers, 1993-1996 (N=205)


Component of emergency care
Percentage
Reason for referral*
Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse (suspected or proven)
46
Severe neglect
41
Parent crisis
35
Length of Stay
One month or less
26
Two-three months
31
More than three months
32
Destination on departure
Parents’ home
56
Out-of-home placement
38
Adoption
6
Treatment plan**
Out-of-home placement
47
Services for children
33
Services for family
40
Source : Dolev et al., assessment of emergency centers for children at risk, various reports, 1994-1997.

* There may be more than one reason for referral per child.

** Each treatment plan may contain more than one component.

4. Awareness and prevention of abuse and neglect of children

(a) Government activities
VIII. BASIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

A. Article 23 of the Convention - Children with disabilities

1. Legislation
2. Rates of disability and handicap among children in Israel

Table 26


Rates of disability among children living in the community in Israel,
by type of disability (in %)*


Type of disability
Percentage of all children
Percentage of children with disabilities
Total
8.7
100
Personal Care (ADL)
1.1
13
Motor control and mobility
2.5
29
Communication
3.1
36
Hearing
0.7
8
Vision
0.6
7
Speech
2.1
24
Behavior
5.6
64
Learning disabilities
4.8
55
Behavioral disabilities
1.9
22
Emotional disabilities
0.5
6
Mental retardation
0.4
5
Source : Naon, Ifrah and Baich-Moray, 1998.

* The percentages do not add up to 100% , as some children suffer from more than one type of disability.

Table 27


Disabilities among children living in the community in the Jewish
and Arab sectors, by type of disability and age (in %)*


Jewish sector
Arab sector
Age
Age
0-5
6-11
12-17
0-5
6-11
12-17
All children with disabilities
4.9
11.8
9.5
4.0
9.2
12.2
Personal Care (ADL)
0.0
1.3
0.5
0.6
1.4
3.4
Motor control and mobility
1.7
2.8
2.6
2.0
2.4
4.3
Communication
Hearing
0.6
1.0
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.6
Vision
0.3
0.5
0.6
-
2.0
1.3
Speech
2.6
2.8
1.4
1.9
0.9
1.9
Behavior
Learning disabilities
1.2
7.8
5.6
0.2
5.3
7.6
Behavioral disabilities
0.8
3.0
2.2
0.7
0.9
3.2
Emotional Disabilities
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.2
0.5
2.3
Mental Retardation
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.8
1.9
Source : Naon, Ifrah and Baich-Moray, 1998.

* The percentages do not add up to 100% , as some children suffer from more than one type of disability.


3. The service system for disabled children in Israel

Table 28


Children receiving National Insurance Institute Disability Benefits
in June 1997, by age (in absolute numbers)


Age
Children receiving National Insurance Institute Disability Benefits
Total
14 379
0-3
1 551
4-14
9 711
15+
3 117
Source: Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.
Table 29

Students in special education frameworks, by type of framework, 1996


Type of framework
Number of students
Total
35 492
Special education schools
15 106
Special education classes in regular schools
16 163
Special education and integrated preschools
4 223
Source: Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.
Table 30


Children in special education frameworks (special education schools
or special classes in regular schools), by main disability


Type of disability*
Total students
Percentage
Total
35 492
100
Learning disabilities, behavior or emotional problems, mild retardation, developmental or speech delay
23 915
67.5
Moderate retardation
3 952
11.0
Severe retardation
2 707
8.0
Deafness, hearing impairment
1 078
3.0
Blindness, visual impairment
114
0.5
Autism, mental illness
1 770
5.0
Cerebral palsy, physical handicap
1 123
3.0
Hospitalized
883
2.0
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999

* Disabilities are defined according to accepted classifications of the Ministry of Education.


(e) Discounts and tax breaks (f) Gaps in needs and services
4. The accessibility of public areas and services
D. Articles 6 and 24 of the Convention -

Health and health services

1. Basic data on the health of children and youth in Israel


Table 31

Infant mortality per 1,000 live births, by population group, 1979-1996


Year
Total
Moslems
Druze*
Christians*
Jews
1979
18.7
24.6
24.8
16.8
12.9
1983
15.1
21.2
20.1
15.0
10.9
1987
11.1
18.4
18.1
11.8
8.9
1991
9.2
14.5
13.9
11.1
7.2
1996
6.3
10.0
8.9
4.1
5.0
1998
5.8
8.7
9.3
3.6
4.2
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.

* It should be noted that the Druze and Christian Arab populations in Israel are small, and that there are significant fluctuations in infant mortality among these populations annually.

Table 32

Causes of death among children ages 1-14 in 1996, by population group (in %)


Cause of death
Total
Jews
Arabs
Age
Age
Age
1-4
5-14
1-4
5-14
1-4
5-14
Total
100
100
100
100
100
100
Accident
19.6
21.3
18.8
23.1
20.0
19.0
Suicide
-
1.4
-
2.5
-
-
Other external causes
8.2
11.8
5.8
13.2
9.6
10.0
Birth defect
16.3
6.3
14.5
8.3
17.4
4.0
Infectious disease
1.6
3.2
2.9
3.3
0.9
3.0
Cancer
9.2
15.8
18.8
17.4
3.5
14.0
Illness or other cause
45.1
40.3
39.9
32.2
48.7
50.0
Source: Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.

Table 33


Contagious and infectious diseases among children newborn to age 14 in 1996,
by age and population group (per 100,000 in each age group)


Disease
Population group
Age
Newborn
1-4
5-9
10-14
RubellaJews
0.0
0.9
0.2
0.2
Arabs
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
MeaslesJews
0.0
2.1
0.0
0.5
Arabs
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
SalmonellaJews
273.5
398.0
88.8
39.9
Arabs
80.3
90.4
9.8
4.9
Campillo-bactereosisJews
32.5
74.8
18.3
10.8
Arabs
8.4
9.0
0.0
0.0
TuberculosisJews
1.2
1.5
1.0
1.0
Arabs
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.8
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.

Table 34


New cases of AIDS among children newborn to age 14
(per 100,000 children) in Israel, by year


Year
Number of cases
1990
0.7
1991
0.6
1992
0.7
1993
0.9
1994
0.6
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 1998.
Table 35

Live births among minors in 1998, by age, population group and marital status


Total*
Age
15
16
17
Total
725
36
164
525
Population Group
Jewish
181
10
41
130
Arab
540
26
123
395
Marital Status
Unmarried
272
23
90
159
Married
424
13
70
341
Source : Ben-Arie and Zionit, 1999.

* Includes cases where religion or marital status are not known.

2. Health and preventive services for children
Table 36

Distribution of physicians and number of physician visits by children
newborn-age 4 in 1993, by area of residence


Area of residenceChildren’s visits to a physician during a three-month period, per 100 000 populationNumber of physicians per 100 000 population
Jerusalem
290
485.4
North
378
266.0
Haifa
436
482.7
Central Israel
531
475.0
Tel Aviv
543
517.3
South
379
323.9
Source: Kop, 1997.
3. Environmental factors that affect health
4. Considering the views of the child in the medical process
C. Article 26 of the Convention - Social security

we will describe the social security and other mechanisms that secure a reasonable standard of living for children. (See Chapters VII and IX for further information about services and institutions that help working parents care for their children (article 18(3) of the Convention).)

1. The National Insurance Institute


2. The system of benefits
3. Recent changes in benefit payments
4. Additional mechanisms that ensure a minimum standard of living for the employed
D. Article 27(1)-(3) of the Convention - Standard of living
1. Recognition of the right to an adequate standard of living
2. Poverty