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UNITED
NATIONS
A

        General Assembly
A/37/485
20 October 1982

Thirty-seventh session
Agenda item 61

REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE ISRAELI
PRACTICES AFFECTING THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE POPULATION
OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES

Note by the Secretary-General


The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the attached report, which was submitted to him, in accordance with paragraph 12 of Assembly resolution 36/147 C of 16 December 1981, by the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories.





CONTENTS

Paragraphs Page

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL .................................................... 4

I. INTRODUCTION ......................................... 1 - 7 6

II. ORGANIZATION OF WORK ................................. 8 - 18 7

III. MANDATE .............................................. 19 - 23 13

IV. INFORMATION AND EVIDENCE BEFORE THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE 24 - 278 15

A. Oral evidence .................................... 28 - 49 16

1. General situation ............................ 28 - 39 16

2. Annexation and settlement .................... 40 - 43 22

3. Treatment of detainees ....................... 44 - 49 22

B. Other information and evidence ................... 50 - 278 23

1. "Civil administration" - Military
Order No. 947 ............................... 50 - 53 23

2. "Village leagues" ............................ 54 - 56 25

3. Situation in the occupied territories ........ 57 - 150 26

(a) General situation ....................... 57 - 78 26

(b) Fundamental freedoms .................... 79 - 101 31

(i) Freedom of movement ................ 79 - 86 31

(ii) Freedom of education ............... 87 - 99 33

(iii) Freedom of expression .............. 100 - 101 36

(c) Treatment of civilians .................. 102 - 148 37

(i) Settlers' activities ............... 132 - 145 46

(ii) Administrative detention ........... 146 - 148 49

(d) Incidents ............................... 149 - 150 49

4. Annexation and settlement .................... 151 - 215 50

(a) Policy .................................. 151 - 158 50

(b) Plans ................................... 159 - 177 89

(c) Measures, including budgetary
appropriations .......................... 178 - 215 93

5. Judicial remedies ............................ 216 - 243 102

(a) Remedies against measures affecting
the person .............................. 216 - 234 102

(b) Remedies against measures affecting
property ................................ 235 - 243 106

6. Treatment of detainees ....................... 244 - 278 108

(a) Prison conditions ....................... 244 - 261 108
(b) Individual cases ........................ 262 - 278 113

V. CONCLUSIONS .......................................... 279 - 297 116

VI. ADOPTION OF THE REPORT ............................... 298 121

ANNEXES

I. Map showing Israeli settlements established, planned or under
construction in the territories occupied in June 1967 ............... 122

II. Articles of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection
of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 referred
to in paragraph 297 ................................................. 123

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

27 August 1982

Sir,

The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories has the honour to transmit to you herewith its fourteenth report, prepared in accordance with General Assembly resolutions concerning the Special Committee and in particular, resolution 2443 (XXIII) of 19 December 1968, by which the Special Committee was established, and resolution 36/147 C of 16 December 1981, the latest resolution by which the General Assembly renewed its mandate.

This report covers the period from 4 September 1981, the date of the adoption by the Special Committee of its preceding report, to 20 August 1982. During this period, the Special Committee continued to follow closely the situation in the occupied territories. The Government of Israel has not changed its position with regard to the Special Committee, in spite of the efforts of the Special Committee, with which you are familiar. It is a matter of regret that the Special Committee finds itself in a position where, in addition to the withholding of its co-operation, the Government of Israel has seen fit to interfere with the proper conduct of its work; during the period covered by the report, three persons were prevented from appearing before the Special Commitee. This is a grave development which should not be allowed to perpetuate itself.

The situation of the human rights of civilians in the occupied territories during the period covered by this report has perhaps been at its worst in comparison with other years. Indeed, this report shows that the level of violence and brutality of repression is unprecedented. Twenty-one persons were shot dead during the first two months of 1982 in the West Bank and Gaza; in the Golan Heights a total blockade of the civilian population by the Israeli army continued for three months. This situation has caused and continues to be the cause of untold suffering of more innocent civilians.

Settlements continue to be established in the occupied territories and several of those already existing are being rapidly expanded; the number of Jewish settlers in these territories continues to increase. The greater portion of the land in the occupied territories has in one way or another been taken over by the occupation authorities. The economy of the occupied territories is totally subservient to that of the occupying Power. The law applicable in the occupied territories has been eclipsed by a plethora of "military orders", totalling over 950, that have established de facto a new legal régime in violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention.

In these circumstances it is to be expected that the reaction of the civilian population becomes stronger and this, in its turn, leads to more severe repression. Hence the continued deterioration in the human rights situation in the occupied territories. The Special Committee would hope that the international community will realize the danger of allowing such a situation to continue to deteriorate; in its view, the only solution that will safeguard the human rights of the civilian population of the occupied territories would be to grant the right of self-determination to the Palestinian people and to have Israel restitute the occupied Syrian territories in conformity with the numerous resolutions adopted by the General Assembly.

The Special Committee is fully aware when preparing this report that Lebanon has been invaded and that Israel, at the time of the adoption of this report, has extended its military occupation to the territory of Lebanon, giving rise to further hardship among innocent civilians in that territory. It is nevertheless the hope of the Special Committee that in spite of these negative developments, the international community will exercise its utmost efforts to bring an end to so much human suffering.

Please accept, Sir, on behalf of my colleagues and on my own behalf, the assurances of our highest consideration.

(Signed) I. B. FONSEKA
Chairman of the
Special Committee to Investigate Israeli
Practices Affecting the Human Rights of
the Population of the Occupied Territories
His Excellency
Mr. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
Secretary-General of the
United Nations
New York
I. INTRODUCTION

1. The Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories was established by the General Assembly in resolution 2443 (XXIII) of 19 December 1968. By that resolution, the Assembly decided to establish the Special Committee, composed of three Member States; requested the President of the Assembly to appoint the members of the Special Committee; requested the Government of Israel to receive the Special Committee, to co-operate with it and to facilitate its work; requested the Special Committee to report to the Secretary-General as soon as possible and whenever the need arose thereafter; and requested the Secretary-General to provide the Special Committee with all the necessary facilities for the performance of its task.

2. The following Member States were appointed on 12 September 1969 to serve on the Special Committee: Somalia, Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia. The Government of Sri Lanka appointed Mr. H. S. Amerasinghe, Permanent Representative to the United Nations, as its representative on the Special Committee. The Government of Yugoslavia appointed Mr. Borut Bohte, Professor of the Faculty of Law of Ljubljana University and Member of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia, as its representative on the Special Committee. The Government of Somalia appointed Mr. A. A. Farah, and subsequently Mr. H. Hur-Elmi, Permanent Representative to the United Nations, as its representative on the Special Committee. On 26 April 1974, the President of the General Assembly, at its twenty-eighth session, informed the Secretary-General that Somalia had decided to withdraw from the Special Committee and that, in conformity with paragraph 2 of General Assembly resolution 2443 (XXIII), he had
appointed Senegal a member of the Special Committee. On 30 April 1974, the Permanent Representative of Senegal to the United Nations informed the Secretary-General that his Government had appointed Mr. Keba Mbaye, Chief Justice of Senegal (Premier Président de la
Cour suprême du Sénégal), as its representative on the Special Committee. On 21 September 1976, the Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations informed the Secretary-General that Mr. H. S. Amerasinghe had resigned from the Special Committee upon his election as President of the General Assembly at its thirty-first session. On 18 February 1977, the Government of Sri Lanka informed the Secretary-General that Mr. V. L. B. Mendis, Sri Lanka High Commissioner to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, would serve on the Special Committee at the meetings at Geneva from 22 February to
1 March 1977.

3. On 26 April 1977, the Government of Sri Lank informed the Secretary-General that it had appointed Mr. I. B. Fonseka, Deputy Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations, as its representative on the Special Committee. On 8 July 1977, the Government of Senegal informed the Special Committee that Mr. Keba Mbaye had resigned from the Special Committee and nominated in his stead Mr. Ousmane Goundiam, Procureur général près la Cour
suprême, as its representative on the Special Committee. On 20 July 1978, the Government of Sri Lanka informed the Secretary-General that it had appointed Mr. B. J. Fernando, Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations, as its representative on the
Special Committee. By a note verbale dated 11 September 1979, the Government of Sri Lanka designated Mr. D. R. Perera to attend the meetings of the Special Committee from 10 to 21 September 1979.

4. By a note verbale dated 23 April 1980, the Government of Sri Lanka designated
Mr. Nadarajah Balasubramaniam, Ambassador and Chargé d'Affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the United Nations, to represent Sri Lanka at the meetings of the Special Committee from 19 to 30 May 1980. Mr. Balasubramaniam was named representative of Sri Lanka on the Special Committee by a note verbale dated 14 July 1980. At the meetings held from 21 to 25 July 1980, Sri Lanka was represented by Mr. K. K. Breckenridge, who had been designated by a note verbale dated 18 July 1980.

5. By a letter dated 16 January 1981, the Government of Yugoslavia notified the Secretariat that it had designated Mr. Becir Meholjic, Chairman of the City Commission for Foreign Affairs in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina), as representative of Yugoslavia on the Special Committee. By a note verbale dated 10 April 1981, the Government of Sri Lanka notified the Secretary-General that it had designated Mr. I. B. Fonseka, Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations, to represent Sri Lanka on the Special Committee at its meetings from 21 April to 1 May 1981. By a note verbale dated 12 June 1981, the Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka notified the Secretary-General of the nomination of Mr. Fonseka as Sri Lanka representative on the Special Committee. By a note verbale dated 31 August 1981, the Government of Senegal notified the Secretariat that it had designated Mr. Alioune Sene, Ambassador of Senegal in Bern and Permanent Representative of Senegal to the United Nations Office at Geneva, as
representative of Senegal on the Special Committee.

6. Since October 1970, the Special Committee has submitted 13 reports.1/ These reports were discussed in the Special Political Committee, which then reported to the General Assembly.2/ On the recommendation of the Special Political Committee, the Assembly adopted resolutions 2727 (XXV) of 15 December 1970, 2851 (XXVI) of 20 December 1971, 3005 (XXVII) of 15 December 1972, 3092 A and B (XXVIII) of 7 December 1973, 3240 A to C (XXIX) of 29 November 1974, 3525 A to D (XXX) of 15 December 1975, 31/106 A to D of 16 December 1976, 32/91 A to C of 13 December 1977, 33/113 A to C of 18 December 1978, 34/90 A to C of
12 December 1979, 35/122 A to F of 11 December 1980 and 36/147 A to G of 16 December 1981.

7. The present report has been prepared in accordance with General Assembly resolutions 2443 (XXIII), 2546 (XXIV), 2727 (XXV), 2851 (XXVI), 3005 (XXVII), 3092 B (XXVIII), 3240 A and C (XXIX), 3525 A and C (XXX), 31/106 C and D, 32/91 B and C, 33/113 C, 34/90 A to C, 35/122 C and 36/147 C.

II. ORGANIZATION OF WORK

8. The Special Committee continued its work under the rules of procedure contained in its first report to the Secretary-General.3/ At its 331st meeting on 18 January 1982,
Mr. I. B. Fonseka (Sri Lanka) was elected Chairman.

9. The Special Committee held three series of meetings during 1982. Its first series of meetings took place from 18 to 22 January 1982 at Geneva. At those meetings the Committee reviewed its mandate consequent upon the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 36/147 C and decided on the organization of its work for the year. It reconfirmed its decision to continue its system of monitoring information on the occupied territories. The Committee decided, with reference to paragraph 13 of resolution 36/147 C, to continue to pay special attention to information on treatment of civilians in detention. At these meetings the Special Committee examined information on the situation in the occupied territories for the period commencing with the date of the adoption of its report to the General Assembly (A/36/579) on 4 September 1981. It had before it a number of communications addressed or referred to it relating to its mandate including letters addressed by Governments to the Secretary-General circulated as documents of the General Assembly and/or the Security Council under the agenda item of the thirty-seventh session of the Assembly relating to the report of the Special Committee.

10. On 1 April 1982, the Special Committee issued the following communiqué expressing concern at the situation prevailing in the occupied territories at that time:

11. The Special Committee held a series of meetings at Geneva, Amman and Damascus from 4 to 14 May 1982. At those meetings the Special Committee examined information on developments occuring in the occupied territories between January and May 1982; in particular, the Special Committee heard the testimony of persons living in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in regard to the situation in those territories. The Committee requested the presence of Mr. Salman Natour, whose testimony was requested by the Committee in connexion with a number of reports on the treatment of the civilian population in the Golan Heights and in particular the Druze community in that area. The Special Committee had also requested the presence of Mr. Joseph Algazy, Secretary of the Israel League for Human and Civil Rights and member of the Solidarity Committee with the Druze of the Golan Heights. At the meetings held between 4 and 14 May 1982, the Committee recorded testimony of the following persons: Mr. Mohammed Milhem, Mayor of Halhul, Mr. Fahd Kawasme, Mayor of Hebron, Dr. Hanna Nasr, President of Bir Zeit University, Dr. Walid Mustapha, economist at the University of Al Najah, Mr. Abdel Jawad Saleh, former Mayor of El Bireh, Mr. Ahmad Zuhdi Nashashibi and Mr. Jamal Sourani, members of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, and Mr. Joseph Algazy, Secretary of the Israel League for Human and Civil Rights. In addition, the Special Committee heard the evidence of 10 other persons in closed meetings. During the course of these meetings the Committee also conducted
consultations with His Highness Prince Hassan Ibn Talal of Jordan and members of the Government of Jordan, including the Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Minister for Occupied Territories and the Secretary-General of the Foreign Ministry.

12. In Damascus the Special Committee conducted consultations with His Excellency Mr. H. Kelani on behalf of the Ministry of Foreign Affiars of the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic in regard to the situation of the occupied Syrian territory.

13. The Special Committee visited the King Hussein Bridge, the crossing point between Jordanian territory and territory occupied by Israel in June 1967, and examined procedures and practices regarding civilians crossing to and from the occupied territories; the Special Committee also visited the camp operated by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) for refugees and displaced persons from the occupied territories at Baqa, accommodating approximately 61,000 persons, and inspected the situation of the civilians accommodated in this camp.

14. At these meetings the Special Committee also considered, in addition to the hearings of the persons listed above, the situation of the civilian population in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights; pursuant to reports examined at its January meetings of serious developments reflecting a deterioration in the situation of the civilians in the occupied Golan Heights, the Committee had extended invitations to leaders of the civilian population who were presumed to be in possession of information relevant to the situation of the Syrian civilians, mainly belonging to members of the Druze sect. Invitations were thus addressed to Mr. Kamal Kinj and Mr. Mahmoud Al Safadi on 14 January 1982 inviting them to appear before the Committee at its January meetings; subsequently the Committee was informed that travel restrictions had been imposed on Mr. Kinj and Mr Safadi, followed by reports that these two persons were the subject of administrative detention orders,
together with nine other persons considered to be leaders of the Druze community. These orders, issued for an original period of three months, were subsequently extended, thus preventing the persons concerned from appearing before the Special Committee. Subsequently, in connexion with its meetings scheduled for May 1982, the Special Committee, in the light of the foregoing, requested the presence of Mr. Salman Natour, considered to be a reliable source in regard to the situation of the Golan Druze which had by that time further deteriorated. Shortly after being informed of the Committee's invitation, he was issued with a travel restriction order, thus preventing him from appearing before the Committee. In the case of Mr. Kinj, Mr. Safadi and Mr. Natour, the Special Committee, in view of the physical impossibility of their participation at its meetings, was the recipient of duly
authenticated written statements informing the Committee of the essential elements of their experience. The Committee has taken account of these statements in this report.

15. The Special Committee convened again from 23 to 27 August 1982. In the course of its meetings it examined communications addressed to the Special Committee or referred to it concerning the situation in the occupied territories, including petitions addressed to the Secretary-General and to the Committee by civilians in the occupied territories concerning their plight resulting from certain measures taken by the occupation authorities. The Committee considered and adopted a draft report reflecting the situation of human rights in the occupied territories during the period since the date of the adoption of its last report on 4 September 1981 contained in the present document.

16. On 22 January 1982, letters were sent to the Governments of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic and to the Palestine Liberation Organization referring to General Assembly resolution 36/147 C and requesting information relative to the mandate of the Special Committee. At the same date, a letter was sent to the International Committee of the Red Cross, also referring to resolution 36/147 C. A number of reports were received from the Governments and from the Palestine Liberation Organization transmitting information on the situation in the occupied territories.

17. On 22 January 1982, the Chairman of the Special Committee addressed a letter to the Secretary-General which reads as follows:

18. On 23 February 1982, the Under-Secretary-General for Political and General Assembly Affairs addressed a letter to the Chairman of the Special Committee which reads as follows:

III. MANDATE

19. The General Assembly, in its resolution 2443 (XXIII) entitled "Respect for and implementation of human rights in occupied territories", decided to establish a Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices. Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories, composed of three Member States.

20. The mandate of the Special Committee, as set out in the above resolution, was to "investigate Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the population of the occupied territories".

21. In interpreting its mandate, the Special Committee determined that:

(a) The territories to be considereed as occupied territories referred to the areas under Israeli occupation, namely, the Golan Heights, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Following the implementation of the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement on Disengagement of Forces of 18 January 1974 and the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces of 31 May 1974, the demarcation of the areas under occupation was altered as indicated in the maps attached to those agreements. The areas of Egyptian territory under Israeli military occupation were further modified in accordance with the Treaty of Peace between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel which was signed on 26 March 1979 and which came into force on 25 April 1979. On
25 April 1982, the Egyptian territory remaining under Israeli military occupation was restituted to the Government of Egypt in accordance with the provisions of the aforementioned agreement. Thus, for the purposes of the present report, the territories to be considered as occupied territories are those remaining under Israeli occupation, namely, the Golan Heights, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), and the Gaza Strip;

(b) The persons covered by resolution 2443 (XXIII) and therefore the subject of the investigation of the Special Committee were the civilian population residing in the areas occupied as a result of the hostilities of June 1967 and those persons normally resident in the areas that were under occupation but who had left those areas because of the hostilities. However, the Committee noted that resolution 2443 (XXIII) referred to the "population" without any qualification as to any segment of the inhabitants of the occupied territories;

(c) The "human rights" of the population of the occupied territories consisted of two elements, namely, those rights which the Security Council referred to as "essential and inalienable human rights" in its resolution 237 (1967) of 14 June 1967 and, secondly, those rights which found their basis in the protection afforded by international law in particular circumstances such as military occupation and, in the case of prisoners of war, capture. In accordance with General Assembly resolution 3005 (XXVII), the Special Committee was also required to investigate allegations concerning the exploitation and the looting of the resources of the occupied territories; the pillaging of the archaeological and cultural heritage of the occupied territories; and interference in the freedom of worship in the Holy Places of the occupied territories;

(d) The "policies" and "practices" affecting human rights that came within the scope of investigation by the Special Committee referred, in the case of "policies", to any course of action consciously adopted and pursued by the Government of Israel as part of its declared or undeclared intent; while "practices" referred to those actions which, irrespective of whether or not they were in implementation of a policy, reflected a pattern of behaviour on the part of the Israeli authorities towards the Arab population of the occupied areas.

22. Since its inception the Special Committee has relied on the following international instruments in interpreting and carrying out its mandate:

(a) The Charter of the United Nations;

(b) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

(c) The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in
Time of War, of 12 August 1949;4/

(d) The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, of
12 August 1949;5/

(e) The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event
of Armed Conflict, of 14 May 1954;6/

(f) The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 respecting the Laws and Customs of
War on Land;7/

(g) The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.8/

23. The Special Committee has also relied on those resolutions relevant to the situation of civilains in the occupied territories adopted by United Nations organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organisation.

IV. INFORMATION AND EVIDENCE BEFORE THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE

24. In the course of carrying out its mandate, the Special Committee has taken note of information reaching it through a variety of sources, such as individuals, organizations and Governments. At its meetings, the Committee had before it several communications addressed to it, directly or referred to it by the Secretary-General, from sources inside the occupied territories, as well as from several parts of the world. Where necessary, the Committee has followed up information contained in these communications.

25. The Special Committee has taken particular care to rely on information that has not been contradicted by the Government of Israei or that is commonly considered as reliable by that Government.

26. The Special Committee has relied on the following sources:

(a) The testimony of persons with first-hand knowledge of the situation of
the population in the occupied territories;

(b) Reports in the Israeli press of pronouncements by responsible persons in
the Government of Israel;

(c) Reports appearing in other news media, including the Arab language press
published in the occupied territories in Israel and the international press;

(d) Reports submitted to it by Governments, non-governmental bodies and
individuals on the situation in the occupied territories.

27. The Special Committee undertook a series of hearings at Amman, Damascus, and Geneva during its meetings from 4 to 14 May 1982. At these hearings, the Committee heard the testimony of persons themselves living in the occupied territories having a first-hand knowledge of the human rights situation existing in those territories. The large majority of these persons were heard in closed meetings; others testified in public meeting. These testimonies are contained in documents A/AC.145/RT.338, 341, 342, 347 and 348. In view of the particular nature and importance of this testimony, the Special Committee decided that certain elements of this evidence should be reproduced in its report. In the following paragraphs the Committee gives a sample of these elements, subdivided by subject matter as follows: (a) evidence referring to the general situation; (b) evidence referring to
annexation and settlement; and (c) evidence referring to treatment of detainees.

A. Oral evidence

1. General situation

28. A number of witnesses appeared in closed meeting. An El Bireh inhabitant testified before the Special Committee on the events concerning the dismissal of the Mayor of El Bireh, Ibrahim A-Tawil, and its municipal council on 18 March 1982. The witness described the ill-treatment of protestors by Israeli soldiers and settlers when the dismissals were announced. The witness also described the brutality with which protests against measures taken by the Israeli authorities were suppressed; Israeli soldiers and settlers used dogs, tear-gas and bullets to disperse rioters.

29. Another witness testified about the harassment of civilians and municipal employees, who refused to co-operate with the Israeli civilain administration. He mentioned in particular the situation in Nablus. He noted a general shortage in the health service; he acknowledged there was a social security system in the West Bank, but the fees were excessive compared to the service rendered.

30. In reference to the situation of education in the occupied territories, a witness referred to the problems encountered in applying Jordanian curricula, and the Israeli interference with the educational system exemplified in problems in obtaining licences to build schools or to run certain courses at university. He stated that teachers were forcibly transferred to other schools and downgraded; others were dismissed. Local educational officials were also dismissed if they opposed the Israeli education policy.

31. Two witnesses, who were in the vicinity at the time, gave a detailed account of the Al Aqsa Mosque incident. They also mentioned that threatening letters signed by "Kahane and the village league staff" were sent to several Palestinians from Jerusalem inducing them to stop praying at the Holy Shrine.

32. Another witness gave a personal account of the demolition of his house in Maghraba Quarter in the old city of Jerusalem. He had received an eviction order by the Israeli authorities and a request to rebuild his house elsewhere.

33. One witness informed the Special Committee about the difficulties being experienced by farmers (whose number constitutes the vast majority of the civilian population in the occupied territories) in making a living, owing mainly to the interference of the Government of Israel in the organization and planning of agriculture in the occupied territories. In a sense, the agriculture in these territories was subjected to measures to ensure that it provided no competition to Israeli agriculture; Israeli agricultural products, which were heavily subsidized, had to compete with Palestinian farmers who not only did not enjoy subsidies but, in addition, had to cope with harassment and limitations by the occupation authorities. This resulted to a large extent from the establishment of the large number of Israeli settlements who were given cultivable lands to the detriment of
Palestinian farmers. They also received electricity and water and other facilities when such facilities were being systematically denied to the local farmers. The occupation authorities made attempts to undermine the formation of agricultural co-operative societies through a variety of measures including the harassment of its leaders and the denial of such societies' participation in the appropriate plans for the production and marketing of agricultural products; similarly, due to the deprivation of appropriate storage facilities, agricultural production of the occupied territories dissipated rapidly to the advantage of Israeli products which benefited from highly sophisticated technology. Agricultural co-operatives in the occupied territories were the subject of increased pressures since the
establishment of the "civilian administration" and the subsequent formation of "village leagues" who were given discretionary powers tantamount to outright control of Palestinian agriculture.

34. In the course of the hearings conducted by the Special Committee at Damascus on
12 May 1982, the Special Committee was addressed by Mr. A. Z. Nashashibi, Secretary-General of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and head of the Economic Department, and by Mr. J. Sourani, member of the Executive Committee of the PLO. Mr. Nashashibi described to the Committee the manner in which the Government of Israel was carrying out its policy of annexation, principally through the promulgation of several orders that brought about, in their totality, radical alteration of the existing law in virtually all areas of the life of the individual. This legislation extended to property,
including various ways in which property could be taken over by the Government of Israel, the strict control of access to the water resources of the occupied territories, restrictions on foreign trade, limitations on exports, and a general paralysis of economic activity. As a consequence, Israeli products which were subsidized and properly planned flooded the market which would normally be available to the economy of the occupied territories. Mr. Nashashibi stated that the economic future of the occupied territories was linked with the political future; so long as the Palestinian people were not allowed to exercise their right to self-determination, their economy would remain inextricably linked and subjected to the economy of the occupying Power. On the other hand, there was an interest on the part of the occupying Power to maintain this economic subservience in order to perpetuate its supremacy. Mr. Sourani explained to the Special Committee the international political considerations that continue to dominate the plight of the Palestinian people, traced the history of Zionism as it manifested itself in Palestine and expressed grave doubts that any change in the situation of the Palestinian people would come about unless and until the international political spectrum altered, either through international action or Palestinian reaction to the continued indifference of the international community to their cause.

35. In their testimony before the Special Committee, Mr. Fahd Kawasme, Mayor of Hebron, and Mr. Mohammed Milhem, Mayor of Halhul, described in detail the situation prevailing in the occupied territories; they noted an increase in violence and an escalation of terrorist activities, such as kidnapping of Arab youths by armed settlers. This led to a great number of casualties among the civilian population of the occupied territories. They referred to the policy pursued by the Israeli Government exemplified by the introduction of the civilian administration system and its implementation since November 1981. The dismissal of
mayors and the dissolution of elected municipal councils was perceived as interference in the running of local municipal affairs, but a logical consequence of the Israeli policy. In addition, the village league system and the Israeli attempts to induce people to join it, served the cause of the Israeli Military Government and Israeli settlers. They referred to the harassment to which people who opposed the new administration were subjected, including the deposed Mayors and councillors.

36. Dr. Hanna Nasr, President of Bir Zeit University, himself an expelled person, testified before the Special Committee on the changes that had taken place in the educational system in the occupied territories. He stated that infringements on freedom of education is accompanied by infringements on freedom of the press. University students do not have access to literature which is available in the Arab world. A panel composed of professors of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem who published their investigation stated that university students should be allowed to obtain and consult any book for use restricted to the libraries. He also stated that severe taxes were levied on equipment used for educational purposes that had to be imported from abroad; in addition, changes have been made in textbooks, a measure condemned by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Dr. Nasr stated that all four universities in the occupied
territories (Bir Zeit, Al Najah, Bethlehem and Gaza) had been closed down intermittently, but certainly not for security purposes. A severe infringement on freedom of education, in his opinion, was Military Order No. 854. He considered this order to be contradictory to the basic principles of academic freedom as exemplified by the requirement of permits needed by professors as well as students before they can teach and enrol in university. He acknowledged that there had been no universities in the occupied territories before the occupation but stated that they were built despite the occupation. Bir Zeit University, for example, started to operate in 1973-1974 with 200 students; at present 2,000 students are enrolled in this university. In addition to the four universities at present, there are
seven institutions of higher learning. Abu Dis College in Jerusalem operates with 60 students but is subject to the same permit requirements as the universities. Dr. Nasr, giving the example that an average student costs the university $2,000 a month, stated that the real problem was the Israeli threat to put restrictions on funds coming from abroad. He stated that already the restriction exists that nobody can enter the occupied territories with more than 1,000 Jordanian dinars ($3,000). In the framework of the recently-introduced system of civilian administration, refusal to co-operate with this administration implies refusal of permits for education purposes. He stated that the introduction of the new administration was used as an excuse to prevent teachers and faculty members from entering the territories, although this policy had been pursued before its introduction. A result of this education policy, according to Dr. Nasr, puts a heavy burden on students who are faced with the dilemma of either co-operating with the authorities to obtain privileges (for example the permission to study in a university abroad), or refusal to co-operate with the risk of being heavily fined or imprisoned.

37. Dr. Walid Mustapha, a professor of economics in Al Najah University, testified before the Special Committee on the counter-productive effects of the Israeli policy on the West Bank economy. The Israeli authorities reduced economic activity in the West Bank with Arab countries by restricting imports and levying additional taxes. He stated that in the period 1971-1979 the price of goods imported from Israel into the occupied territories was 26 times the price of goods exported from the occupied territories through Israel, 32 per cent of which goes to Jordan. Dr. Mustapha stated that the West Bank and Gaza markets are currently second to the American markets, as far as imports from Israel are concerned. Despite official Israeli reports indicating that Israel does not support agriculture and industry in the West Bank, they impose 12-15 per cent extra taxes on goods. This policy
includes harassment of shopkeepers by tax officials; in case of non-payment, shopkeepers are fined or imprisoned. Another way in which the authorities collected sizeable amounts of money from the local Arab population was by the imposition of heavy fines on persons found guilty of throwing stones; in several cases, these fines amounted to 15,000 shekels ($555). The witness stated that another means of controlling the West Bank economy was to limit to 1,000 Jordanian dinars the amount Arabs could bring in with them from trips abroad, while Israelis go on fund-raising tours in America, boosting the Israeli economy. Dr. Mustapha
stated that Arab labourers from the occupied territories who work in Israel are exploited in comparison with their Jewish counterparts, as exemplified in lack of health insurance, social security, unemployment compensation and wages. He gave the example of the use of child labour (children less than 14 years of age). While the cost of living of a five-member family in the occupied territories is 7,500 shekels a month and the average wage is 3,000 shekels a month, an Israeli family of the same size needs 9,700 shekels while the income was over 6,000 shekels. He furthermore stated that the Israeli settlement policies had a negative bearing upon the situation in the West Bank. Israeli control of water resources affected severely the fruit market in Gaza. As a result of the meager
economic situation in the West Bank, local Arabs are foced to look for employment elsewhere in the Arab world.

38. In his testimony, Mr. Abdel Jawad Saleh, former mayor of El Bireh, testified on the policy followed by the Israeli authorities in the occupied territories in the recent months. He referred to "village leagues" which were established, according to Mr. Saleh, as part of an attempt to consolidate annexation which had de facto already taken place. The annexation of the occupied territories remained "unofficial" to avoid giving the Government of Israel the burden of having to provide for the Palestinian population existing therein at present and the expected increase in this population in the future, which, for the Government of Israel, would constitute a threat to the demographic balance of Israel as a Jewish state. The establishment of the "village leagues" was also part of the policy followed by the Government of Israel to divide the civilian population with a view to
alienating a considerable portion of this population from the occupied territories, thus facilitating eventual annexation of the territory and a considerably reduced Palestinian population. The imposition of "alternative leadership" was being carried out by the appointment of individuals whose reputation left much to be desired. Mr. Saleh gave examples of the criminal records of several of such members of the "village leagues". They did not enjoy any public support but in spite of this they were furnished with arms from the occupation authorities. Two of these members of the "village league" had, indeed, been assassinated in late 1981. These "village leagues" were formed in some five areas; attempts to set them up in certain areas had failed but it was anticipated that the Israeli authorities would increase efforts to establish more of them. The establishment of the
"village leagues" reflected part of the policy followed by the Government of Israel as from September 1981 aimed at destituting or otherwise weakening municipalities that had been elected by popular vote and which consisted of persons who supported the Palestine Liberation Organization. The municipal leaders had on several occasions openly stated that the sole representative of the Palestinian people was the PLO. In response to questions by the Special Committee, Mr. Saleh affirmed that the "village leagues" which were formed only in the last quarter of 1981 upon the implementation of a Jordanian law that had fallen into desuetude, had originally been founded as a charitable association having no fund-raising power. However, there were generous financial donations given by the Israeli authorities
and they were also given the provision denied to other organizations to receive donations; this, in particular was to be compared with the denials of permission to municipalities of access to funds donated to them by Arab Governments and the PLO. In addition to being a "charitable society", Mr. Saleh said that the "village leagues" obtained their money through bribes received for the granting of certain permits for which they were empowered by the Israeli authorities as, for instance, summer visitors' permits, and in some cases, building permits. Requests for permits by the civilian population to receive visits from family members living outside the occupied territories in the context of the summer visitors' scheme had to be addressed to the "village leagues". Such permits were only granted by the "village leagues" upon the payment of bribes.

39. Mr. Joseph Algazy, Secretary of the Israeli League for Civil and Human Rights, gave a detailed description of the situation in the occupied territory based largely on direct experience and eye-witness accounts. He stated that the use of arms in order to suppress protests by youths and university students had become a regular pattern, resulting in the death of more than 20 persons. In the past a commission of inquiry to look into the circumstances of the deaths had been established. According to the witness this practice had been abandoned. Soldiers pretended to shoot in the air and at legs, but in fact had fatally wounded several civilians. Some Israeli leaders, according to Mr. Algazy, justified the use of tear-gas, sticks and bullets as self-defence, but the fact remained that armed
soldiers opposed unarmed civilians. The witness gave some examples of protests that took place in villages in the West Bank not endangering public peace; but yet the Israeli army responded with violence. It had become a recurrent phenomenon that settlers join with soldiers to suppress demonstrations. Mr. Algazy stated that villagers complained that settlers had kidnapped children, on the pretext of stone-throwing, then had taken them to settlements and maltreated them. The Israeli authorities took away bodies from hospitals, on the pretext of holding an autopsy, but in fact buried them secretly at night, allowing only the next of kin to be present. He also stated that heavy fines, up to 20,000 shekels, were imposed on youths of 12 to 13 years of age for stone-throwing incidents, while youths of 16 to 18 years of age were sentenced to periods of imprisonment. In reply to questions posed by the Special Committee, Mr. Algazy stressed that, where fines were not paid, members of the accused's family were imprisoned. Mr. Algazy stated that a number of soldiers, in private or in public, testified about the cruelties they had to inflict upon the local population. A soldier related to an Israeli journalist an event in which he had participated in Hebron: 30 children of 12 to 13 years of age were forced to stand against a wall with their hands up and anyone who moved was kicked. The soldier was quoted as having stated "I do not know how I could do this to them. Sometimes, you did so, acting like a machine, exactly as you were taught to act while in training". Another soldier related an event in Rafah, Gaza in which he participated: "A car with Arab workers was stopped at a
road block, the passengers thought the soldiers were seeking identification but immediately upon opening the car doors, a number of soldiers with their commanders attacked the workers and beat them in a cruel way, using the butts of their rifles and their steel helmets as well as their hands. While soldiers beat the workers, others smashed the lights of the car". Mr. Algazy stated that the reason for recurring protests was that the local population opposed the civilian administration and "autonomy". In a similar context he quoted the remark of a reserve officer as saying "We are gradually losing our humanity". The witness informed the Special Committee of the manner in which the dismissal orders were
given. He stated that he was present when Mr. Bassam Shaka'a, Mayor of Nablus, received the order dismissing him from his elected office. Upon the request of Mr. Shaka'a to confirm the dismissal in writing, the soldier delivering the order told him that it was an oral order. Members of dissolved municipal councils have been subjected to harassment in the form of being repeatedly summoned to the office of the local Military Governor, where they are kept waiting for an entire day, after which they are instructed to report again on the following day. Another form of interference with municipal developments is the freezing of local projects by the military authorities. He stated that mayors, journalists, trade unionists and members of student unions were constantly subjected to infringements pertaining to their basic human rights, for example, freedom of expression and freedom of
movement. Mr. Algazy stated that the freedom of education is severely hampered by the Israeli authorities' interference in the university administration; they decide to whom they give, or withhold, teaching permits. He referred to a report written by a group of Hebrew University professors in which they condemned the measures taken against the Universities of Bir Zeit, Al Najah and Bethlehem, and other institutions of higher learning in Gaza and Hebron. The Israeli authorities also interfered with the choice of books, several of which appear on a black list and are confiscated. Paintings bearing the three colours of the Palestinian flag are similarly confiscated.

2. Annexation and settlement

40. A witness testified about the Israeli discriminatory treatment among Arabs and Jews, in particular with respect to the health situation. He stated that the Israeli authorities had closed down an anti-tuberculosis centre and a blood bank that served all the Arab hospitals. He referred to the difficulties in obtaining licences to build hospitals and nursing schools; since there is no medical school in the West Bank, graduates who want to do their specialization have to go abroad.

41. A farmer testified about the difficulties the local population encounters in agriculture, because of the Israeli settlement policy. He referred to the confiscation of water wells for new settlements, which dried out the resources of the Arab population. He stated that children under 14 years of age were forced to work on Israeli settlements against extremely low salaries (half a Jordanian dinar a day).

42. Another witness stated that although he had obtained a licence to build a number of shops close to the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron, Israeli authorities nevertheless destroyed the foundations that he had built. In another case a housing plan for teachers could not be carried out because the High Court of Israel rejected an appeal to grant a building permit.

43. Mr. Algazy stated that approximately half of the territory in the West Bank had been confiscated. He also informed the Special Committee, however, that no official figures were available. Mr. Algazy quoted the former Supreme Court Judge, Mr. Haim Cohen, as saying that the declaration as "state land" of land, where the title deeds could not be produced "is stealing". Mr. Algazy also referred to related events that took place in the Golan Heights immediately after the June war in 1967. After the majority of the population had fled, Israel gradually expropriated land, established up to 30 settlements and took over water control, culminating in the law passed in the Knesset on 14 December 1981 annexing the
territory of the Golan Heights to the State of Israel. As a result of this measure, the population of the Golan Heights declared a general strike. The Israeli authorities reacted by forcing the population to accept Israeli identity cards, thereby making the population dependent upon the Israeli administration. The continued protests led to a wave of arrests, dismissals and a rupture in communications and, on 25 February 1982, a blockade was imposed on the villages of Majdel Shams, Ma'asada, Buqata and Ein Kinya which lasted for 45 days. The severe restrictions put on the population led to major inconveniences; the population was even prevented from obtaining medical aid outside the area. Mr. Algazy quoted the former Supreme Court Judge, Mr. Haim Cohen, as saying at a press conference in Jerusalem on 15 April 1982 that "This is not Israeli law or administration, this is the law of barbarians".

3. Treatment of detainees

44. A witness, in closed meeting, who had been imprisoned for expressing his feelings as a teacher, stated that he had been imprisoned for four years in different prisons (Nablus, Beit Lid, Ashkelon, Ramle, Beersheba and Hebron). He referred to the abhorrent conditions in Beersheba prison (45 prisoners in a cell of 5 m x 6 m).

45. Two witnesses, each of whom had spent considerable periods in detention in several prisons, referred to the efforts of ICRC and expressed their recognition of the efforts undertaken by ICRC delegates in a very difficult situation. In their testimony these two former detainees emphasized the extremely hard conditions and referred to the fact that, in their view, the improvements, however slight, that they witnessed during their detention were due to the efforts of ICRC delegates.

46. Another witness described the conditions of his interrogation during which he was subjected systematically to beatings and other forms of physical ill-treatment. He was sentenced to 14 years' imprisonment after a pre-trial detention of nine months and spent most of his imprisonment in Beersheba prison. Having developed what he described as a serious medical condition, this detainee spent over one year in clinics and was eventually released after serving just over three years of his sentence.

47. A witness who was arrested in 1970 and sentenced seven months later to life imprisonment informed the Special Committee of the treatment to which he had been subjected in several prisons in the occupied territories. These included the Sarafand interrogation centre and the Nablus and Ashkelon prisons. In the course of the long hunger-strikes in which he participated in 1976, his treatment was particularly severe.

48. One witness had spent 12 years in detention the greater part of which in Ashkelon prison. The witness informed the Special Committee of the severe conditions of detention in Ashkelon prison which gave rise to a series of hunger-strikes principally aimed at ending habitual ill-treatment and poor conditions including overcrowding, poor food and health care and lack of exercise. The witness testified that his treatment was most severe in the early stages of his imprisonment.

49. Mr. Algazy recalled a visit to relatives of Palestinian prisoners who were at that time serving long prison sentences in Nablus. The relatives informed him that the prisoners suffered from poor prison conditions; small, overcrowded prison cells, lack of sanitary facilities, maltreatment and undernourishment, all of which contribute to outbreaks of disease and illnesses within the prisons. Mr. Algazy informed the Special Committee that, in his opinion, there was obvious discrimination in the treatment accorded as between political and criminal detainees.

B. Other information and evidence

1. "Civil administration" - Military Order No. 947

50. In September 1981, the Minister of Defence, Mr. Sharon, proposed a new scheme for the government of the occupied territories according to which the civilian and military administration would be separated. Civilians would replace military personnel in the various administrative offices. Security and military duties would remain the responsibility of specifically designated military units. The plan, which was to be implemented as of 1 November 1981, was reportedly rejected by the civilian population on the grounds that it would tend to perpetuate the occupation. On 1 November 1981, Professor Menachem Milson was appointed Civilian Governor of the West Bank; the post of Regional Commander was abolished and security matters were placed under the central Regional Commander. The Civilian Governor was directly responsible to the Prime Minister. A number of other plans were made in the following weeks, including the redesignation of the Military Governor of the Gaza Strip, Yusef Lunz, as Civilian Administrator. (Jerusalem
Post, 21, 23, 25 September; Ha'aretz, 21, 22, 23 September; The Times Guardian,
24 September; International Herald Tribune, 24, 28 September 1981; Ha'aretz, 4, 5, 14, 21, 23, 24, 28, 29 October; Jerusalem Post, 5, 9, 21, 22 October; Ma'ariv, 28 October; Al Fajr
Weekly, 4-10, 11-17 October; International Herald Tribune, 5, 6, 20 October; Times, 6, 21 October; Le Monde, 6 October; Time Magazine, 5 October 1981; Jerusalem Post, 1, 20, 27 November; Ha'aretz, 3, 19, 20, 27 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November 1981)

51. On 8 November 1981, Military Order No. 947 was issued entitled "Order for the
Establishment of the Civilian Administration, Judea and Samaria". Until then the West Bank had been administered by a Military Government which had assumed under Military Order No. 2, dated 7 June 1967, "all legislative, executive and administrative powers previously held by the Jordanian Government". Order No. 2, section 2, states that "all laws which were in force in the area on 7 June 1967 shall continue to be in force as long as they do not contradict this or any proclamation or order made by (the West Bank area commander) or conflict with the changes arising by virtue of the occupation by the Israeli Defence Forces of the area".9/ According to several sources, subsequent military orders and regulations
have virtually altered the Jordanian law in force in the area to the effect that Israel has in fact been acting within this territory as a fully sovereign government exercising complete legislative, administrative and judicial authority over the area and its inhabitants. The Israeli policy embodied in the numerous military orders is consistent with Prime Minister Begin's statement in August 1981 that Israel "will raise its claim to sovereignty over the West Bank". International law, and particularly article 64 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, restricts the power of a belligerent occupant to carry out legislative enactments altering local laws except in the areas of security and public order.

52. Unlike Military Order No. 946, Order No. 947 established a governing body, the civilian administration, to which certain powers were delegated. According to article 3 (a) of the Order, the head of the civilian administration, as appointed by the Area Commander, has the following powers:

(a) All powers determined by the law except those specified by the laws listed in schedule 1 attached to the Order;

(b) All powers determined by the security, also called military, orders listed in schedule 2 attached to the Order.

Article 3 (b) states that "with respect to this article, acts of legislation that were issued by virtue of the law, after the determining date (6 June 1967) shall be regarded as part of the law and not as security legislation". Article 4 of the Order entitles the head of the civilian administration to proclaim subsidiary legislation based upon the laws and security orders according to which he is empowered to act. Article 5 gives the power to delegate authority in order to execute the laws and security order.

53. The avowed purpose of Order No. 947 is to institutionalize the already existing separation of the civilian from the military functions in the military Government. Article 3 of the Order, therefore, distinguishes between the powers retained by the Military Commander and the powers conferred upon the civilian administration. By virtue of article 3 (a), the Area Commander retains all powers not specifically transferred to the civilian administration. These residual powers include:

(a) Powers acquired by virtue of laws and regulations listed in schedule 1 of the Order, including the extensive powers granted under the Jordanian and British Defence Emergency Regulations (1935) and (1945);

(b) The powers in all the military orders not listed in schedule 1 and not amending Jordanian law; and

(c) The legislative power to issue new military orders.

The head of the civilian administration is empowered to administer a corpus of laws and military orders, including Order No. 172, that established the Military Appeals Board and Order No. 783, establishing the Regional Councils for Jewish settlements, through the making of appointments and the issuing of licences and permits; the requirement to obtain some licences existed in Jordanian law. By specifying the limits of the power delegated to the head of the civilian administration, the Order implies that all powers not transferred to the civilian administration are non-civilian and are therefore military and security-related.

2. "Village leagues"

54. In September 1981, the Military Government undertook a campaign to revitalize "village leagues". According to reports, the village league system was originally established at the time of the British mandate when the Jewish Agency, through the Arab Affairs Section, attempted to foster opposition to the Supreme Muslim Council. Subsequent to the signing of the Camp David Accords the village league system was restored but it only became noteworthy upon the establishment of the civilian administration in the occupied territories. A number of reports reflected the activities of civilians, members of these "village leagues", mainly identified with the occupation authorities. The establishment of the "village leagues" provoked protests among the civilian population, and two persons identified with this system were assassinated in November 1981. The Ministry of Defence subsequently authorized members of the leagues to carry arms. In a related development, a
committee under the name "Committee for the Defence of the Palestinian Villages" was established in the West Bank to counteract the village league system. (Jerusalem Post, 16, 28 September 1981, 1 December 1981, 10, 11, 14, 16, 18, 19 March 1982; Al Fajr Weekly, 13-19, 20-26 September 1981, 12-18 March 1982; Ha'aretz, 16 September 1981, 1 December 1981, 4, 17 March 1982; Asha'b, 4, 10, 18 September 1981; Al Ittihad, 18, 21 September 1981; Yediot Aharonot, 20 December 1981)

55. The Israeli authorities established a "village league" in the Qalqilya area (northern West Bank) headed by Mr. Ismail Marzouk Odeh, head of the village council of Hilet El Mahlit. The Qalqilya "village league" was the fifth to be established in the West Bank after those established in the Hebron, Ramallah, Bethlehem and Jenin areas. It was reported that the Israeli authorities put pressure on the mukhtars of local villages to join the village league system. (Ha'aretz, 9, 10, 12 February; Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January, 12-18 February 1982)

56. An additional "village league" in the Nablus district, grouping 40 village mukhtars, were being established. "Village leagues" already operated in the districts of Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Tulkarem and Jenin. (Ha'aretz, 17, 23 June, 7 July; Jerusalem Post,
17 June, 7, 11 July; Asha'b, 6, 17, 18 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 18-24 June, 9-15 July;
Al Ittihad, 18 June, 9 July)

3. Situation in the occupied territories

(a) General situation

57. Several reports indicated the problems faced by West Bank towns and West Bank and Gaza societies owing to the ban imposed by the military authorities on funds coming from abroad. Inter alia, the Nablus Municipality received a letter from the Military Government stating that the Council had brought into the country 15 million Israel shekels, a matter "which contradicts existing laws". The Military Government issued an order prohibiting the expansion or construction of buildings inside the refugee camps in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The new order constituted a novelty in that hitherto the Military Government had not interfered directly with refugee camp affairs. (Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17, 16-22, 23-29 October, 30 October-5 November; Ha'aretz, 12 October)

58. The Military Government issued a military order, amending Order No. 517 which prevents "any kind of identification with a hostile organization". The Order stated that "any kind of identification by means of written or verbal statements with any hostile organization or any support to its goals and aims by means of hoisting its flag, singing its anthems, exhibiting its marks or raising its slogans will be outlawed and punishable". (Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November 1981)

59. The Movement for Civil Rights and Peace established a team composed of "public figures, jurists and activists" to look into irregular acts in the territories, consisting of cases on maltreatment or distortion of justice involving Arab inhabitants of the territories. In another development, the Prime Minister, Mr. Begin, stated that the Government would give the law-abiding inhabitants of the "administered territories `the maximum concession'", but that it would not tolerate attacks on Jewish or Arab civilians and on Israeli soldiers. Mr. Begin affirmed that "we consider the throwing of stones, molotov cocktails or hand-grenades a threat to the lives of soldiers and civilians alike". (Ha'aretz, 25 November; Jerusalem Post, 26 November 1981)

60. The Minister of Defence, Mr. Sharon, stated that his "new punitive policies were balanced", and he warned that "not a single stone will be thrown in Judea and Samaria". In addition, he stated that he did not advocate demolishing houses as a punishment for throwing stones, but only for throwing fire-bombs or carrying out other "sabotage and terror" actions against Israeli troops or civilians. The Chief of Staff, Mr. Raphael Eitan, during a visit to a high school in Israel stated, concerning the policy of blowing up houses, that "we are looking for the culprit and we shall harm only him"; he added "if a youth your age throws an incendiary bottle, and in another case it can be a grenade, we have to punish him and deter him". (Jerusalem Post, 23, 29, 30 November; Ha'aretz,
30 November 1981)

61. The Israeli Minister of Defence, Mr. Sharon, by virtue of his authority as commander of the Zahal forces in the region and in accordance with the provisions of regulation (1) B of the Defence (Emergency) Regulations of 1945, has outlawed the National Guidance Committee, the "supreme body of PLO supporters in the territories". From a legal point of view, it is now possible to court-martial any committee member for political purposes and sentence him to prison without recourse to appeal. The idea behind the move was to dismiss a number of mayors in the territories (most of them are members of the National Guidance Committee) from their posts and to replace them by others who are considered moderate. Under Jordanian law applied in the West Bank, the Minister of the Interior may appoint
another mayor replacing the incumbent. (Jerusalem Post, Ha'aretz, 12 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 19-25 March 1982)

62. On 18 March 1982, the Civilian Administrator of Ramallah, on the instruction of Professor Milson, handed Mr. Ibrahim A-Tawil, Mayor of El Bireh, an order dismissing him and dissolving the Municipal Council. This measure sparked off the most serious wave of disturbances in the territories since June 1967. According to the order, the dismissal was "necessary for maintaining the orderly government and the public". In his order, Professor Milson invoked his powers under Jordanian municipal laws promulgated in 1955 and Military Order No. 830 issued in 1980, as well as "the rest of the authority vested in me by law or security order". The Israeli Ministry of Defence stated that the El Bireh Municipal Council had persisted in its refusal to discuss municipal matters with the civilian administration and had adopted resolutions expressing its non-recognition of the civilian administration, and that the situation "seriously harmed the interests of the town and its residents". Professor Milson subsequently issued an order designating an appointed committee to administer the municipal affairs on behalf of the civilian administration in order to ensure dispensing of municipal services to the population. It was also reported that Mr. Yosef Bar-Koehba, who served in the Ramallah Military Government, had been appointed to replace the Mayor of Ramallah. (Jerusalem Post, 19 March; Ha'aretz, 16, 19 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 19-25 March 1982)

63. In the events following the dismissal, Jewish settlers joined in with Israeli troops to quell the violent disturbances, firing at demonstrators and killing two Arab youths and wounding others. The head of the "Mateh-Benjamin" council (grouping several settlements in Samaria) acknowledged that settlers "had indeed used fire arms in a number of incidents and had fired in the direction of the rioters' legs", but "this was in compliance with the Zahal directives which authorized such shooting in case of danger of life". Security officials subsequently reported that "an inquiry and a clarification would be held with
regard to active participation of Israeli settlers in the West Bank in the dispersing of demonstrators by means of shooting". It appeared to security officials that several groups of settlers "grossly overstepped their instructions and procedures and fired even when there was no imminent danger for their life". A 37-year-old Jewish settler of Shilo in "Samaria" was remanded in custody for 15 days by a Jerusalem magistrate's court for having fatally shot Muhammad Abdullah Yussuf Suhwain (18), and in an ensuing clash between settlers and local Arabs in Bani Naim (Hebron) Farhan Ali Issal Al Mansara (17) from Sinjil was killed. (Ha'aretz, 21, 22 March; Jerusalem Post, 22, 24, 25 March; Al Fajr Weekly,
26 March-1 April 1982)

64. Reports reflected severe measures adopted in dispersing demonstrations. At the funeral procession for Ibrahim Aly Darwish (18) from El Bireh, fatally shot in the abdomen on 20 March 1982 during riots in which two others were injured by Israeli troops, soldiers threw dozens of tear-gas grenades at the demonstrators, resulting in the wounding of a 55-year-old woman. According to the initial findings of the commission of inquiry which was set up to look into the circumstances of the killing of the youth from El Bireh, it emerged that the shooting soldiers had acted "in keeping with all the instructions and had not
overstepped them". During a clash with demonstrators at the Deir-Ammar refugee camp north-west of Ramallah, Muhammed Hamad Dib (17) was killed and two others seriously wounded. A 13-year-old boy, Bassam Mazoul Al Najar, was shot in the head during a demonstration in northern Sinai, while in Jenin, Fadhi Kanouh (21), who stabbed a border policeman, was shot at close range by another. Security sources reported that at first security personnel had asked the demonstrators to disperse, and when they failed to do so the security personnel used tear-gas grenades. According to these sources the throwing of tear-gas grenades did not help to disperse the demonstration. "Only then did the soldiers fire in the air and then in the direction of the demonstrators' legs." At the end of one week of violence the balance was seven people killed, including an Israeli soldier, 31 injured and hundreds of people reportedly arrested. (Ha'aretz, Jerusalem Post, 21, 23, 24,
25 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 26 March-1 April 1982)

65. In the crackdown on the population of the territories the Israeli authorities resorted to a number of measures; curfew was declared on a number of areas; El Bireh, Ramallah and Nablus were put under a partial blockade. The Central Region Commander,
Mr. Or, acknowledged that "blocking towns with road blocks was a collective punishment, but riots were also a collective act and people who threw stones now realized that this caused them discomfort". A number of prominent West Bank mayors were detained and subsequently released on bail (Mr. Wahid Hamdallah, Anabta, and Mr. Amin Nasser, Qalqilya) and restricted in their movements. Newspapers were confiscated for infringing censorship instructions. The violence that started in the West Bank spread over to the Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem, where in one day 30 arrests were reported. In Halhul, the Military Government closed the only pharmacy in the town, belonging to the expelled Mayor,
Mr. Milhem, for a period of one month. (Ha'aretz, 21, 22, 23 March; Jerusalem Post, 21, 22,
23, 25, 26 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 26 March-1 April 1982)

66. The Government reiterated its determination "to maintain law and order in the administered territories" and never to agree to "the partition of Eretz Yisrael or the creation of a Palestinian State". The Israeli civilian administrator, Mr. Milson, subsequently dismissed from office the Mayor of Nablus, Mr. Bassam Shaka'a and the Mayor of Ramallah, Mr. Karim Khalaf, on 25 March 1982, for refusal to co-operate with the civilian administration and restricted their freedom of movement. Mr. Ibrahim A-Tawil, who was ousted on 18 March 1982, was put under town arrest; deposed Mayor Khalaf was confined to Jericho. According to the Minister of Justice, Mr. Nissim, the civilian administration in "Judea and Samaria" had its legal basis in the Military Government and therefore the Palestinian Mayors had no legal grounds to refuse to co-operate with it. (Jerusalem Post, 22, 26, 28 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 26 March-1 April 1982)

67. The Military Government put forward a law of "Land and Building Planning" for the West Bank region, enabling the Government to take control of most of the region's land. The Higher Planning Committee decided to approve the project and to leave 60 days for objections. The project envisages the division of the area into specific zones. A yellow zone was designated as "special sites", the land of which has been allocated to Israeli settlements. (Asha'b, 2, 16 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May)

68. A red zone encompassing Ein Sinai (Ramallah province) in the north, Beit Fajjar (Bethlehem province) in the south, Abu Diss and Azzariyya in the east and Beit Awwa al Tahta in the west allows construction on the villages' own land. Within the framework of the plan, no land has been allocated to the municipalities of Ramallah, El Bireh, Bethlehem, Beit Jala and Beit Sahur, stifling the growth of the municipalities. The remaining land was designated for agricultural purposes, after the Agricultural Areas Law had been modified, excluding the possibility of dividing these agricultural lands to protect their use for construction purposes. A road network, dividing the area into "district", "regional" and "local roads", links the "special site", i.e., the settlements, but it does not serve Arab cities and villages. One hundred and six citizens of the village of Al Qabiba, north-east of Jerusalem, filed a petition with the Israeli Officer of Internal Affairs in the Military Command at Bethel against the new reform project. (Asha'b, 2, 16 May, 17 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May)

69. According to information, the military authorities are currently paving the way to take control of ground water sources in the occupied territories by the Israeli Water Company, Mekarot. The take-over involves seven water schemes in Kabateya-Araba (near Araba); Beit Ayba (Nablus area); Al Zaweya (Nablus area); Abud-Shabetin (Ramallah area); Al Ghol (Bethlehem area); Dier Sha'ar (Hebron area); and Al Samu (Hebron area). Digging permits for new water wells were suspended, the quantity of water of each well was controlled and, according to the source, those who pumped up water in excess of the quantity were punished. According to the Israelis, the take-over by Mekarot will improve the drawing up of projects by the Water Department in the West Bank. (Asha'b, 23 June)

70. Private Frank Gampel and Lieutenant Ramy Heled were sentenced to 28 days' imprisonment each by an Israeli disciplinary court for refusing to do their reserve service beyond the Green Line. The accused explained their refusal stating that they were not ready to participate in actions against the civilian population in the territories. (Ha'aretz, 5 May; Jerusalem Post, 5 May).

71. The International Labour Organisation criticized Israel for the expropriation of Arab land and the regulation of local water rights in the territories carried out in "the name of promoting Jewish settlement". (Report of the Director-General of the International Labour Organisation, 68th session (1982), para. 16; Jerusalem Post, 9 May)

72. A military prison will start operating shortly designated for detainees accused of participation in demonstrations and who are awaiting trial. The military prison will be established at Al Far'a police station, near Tubas, and will be under the control of the military police. (Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May)

73. The total population of the Gaza Strip was 470,535, of whom 278,708 were refugees, according to a census taken at the end of 1981. The surface area is 464,000 dunams, making the population density the highest in the world. (Asha'b, 13 May)

74. The Minister of Justice, Mr. Nissim, stated that the security forces were studying methods of controlling crowds in the territories; all military governors in the territories had received a handbook called "Main Points of Policy and Means of Implementing Them". In this connexion, another source reported plans to set up a new paramilitary body in the occupied territories. The new patrol would be made up of civilian administration employees and West Bank settlers. He pointed out that the security forces' "mistake" in preventing free movement of Golan Druzes, who do not hold Israeli identity cards, was made "because the Golan is Israeli territory", and the security forces' actions there "are not meticulously planned and legally scrutinized in advance, as in the territories". (Jerusalem
Post, 16 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 28 May-3 June; Yediot Aharonot, 25 May)

75. The Minister denied that vigilant action by Jewish settlers in the West Bank is widespread. He also denied that police and judicial authorities are lenient towards Jewish settlers in the territories who commit crimes against Arabs. He added "we investigate each case and bring suspects to trial", and people are not always tried for demonstrating illegally. (Jerusalem Post, 16 May)

76. The Attorney-General, Mr. Zamir, stated that "settlers in Judea and Samaria are entitled to use firearms only when they have the clear-cut necessity to defend themselves, in accordance with the legal criteria accepted customarily in this sphere". Settlers, according to Zamir, "do not enjoy the same status as soldiers, with respect to the use of firearms; they are subjected to the same criteria as other residents". (Jerusalem Post, 27 May)

77. The operation of bus companies in Bani Naim and Hebron was made subject to permission by the Hebron Village League. In addition, the bus company had to pay a tax of 2,500 Jordanian dinars to the League. The same league started a newspaper called "Umm Al Kura" (mother of the villages) aiming at "ending the occupation and acquiring the right to determine our own future through direct negotiations between Israel and Palestinians".
(Asha'b, 3 June; Jerusalem Post, 17 June; Ha'aretz, 17 June)

78. The West Bank civilian administration dismissed by order the elected municipal councils of Nablus and Dura. The Mayor of Dura was given the order by Mr. Milson, who cited article 29 of the Municipal Regulations (1955). A committee of four "village league" members, headed by Abd Al Fatah Aissa Dudein. The civilian administration subsequently dismissed the Mayor of Jenin, Mr. Ahmed Shauki, and its municipal council, and the Mayor of Gaza, Mr. Shawwa, for reasons similar to those of all other dismissals: refusal to co-operate with the civilian administration. The Municipal Council of El Bireh protested against the practices of the appointed military authorities in the town; the manipulation of official records and the levying of exorbitant taxes; municipal taxes were allegedly increased without taking into consideration the existing laws and systems. (Ha'aretz, 17, 23 June, 7 July; Jerusalem Post, 17 June, 7, 11 July; Asha'b, 6, 17, 18 June; Al Fajr
Weekly, 18-24 June, 9-15 July; Al Ittihad, 18 June, 9 July)


(b) Fundamental freedoms

(i) Freedom of movement

79. The Military Governor in the Golan Heights decided to revoke the restriction orders imposed on four Druze inhabitants from the Golan Heights, who had made "defamatory statements" against the Military Government. The Co-ordinator of Activities in the Territories, Mr. Danny Matt, authorized the return of the former Mayor of Ramallah, Mr. Nadim Zarou, on the condition that he should not engage in any political activity. Mr. Zarou had been expelled from the West Bank in 1969. (Ha'aretz, 23, 25, 28, 29 October; Jerusalem Post, 25, 28 October; Yediot Aharonot, 25 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 October, 11-17 October, 23-29 October, 30 October-5 November 1981)

80. A number of reports reflected Mr. Sharon's "tough-line policy" against leading Palestinian academics and other public figures by restricting their movements or refusing travel permits. Mr. Haj Abed Abu Diab from the Jerusalem Arab Electricity Company was prevented from going to Amman. The Mayor of Nablus, Mr. Bassam Shaka'a was banned from travelling to the Netherlands because he had criticized the Israeli occupation during previous trips abroad. (Ha'aretz, 11, 13 November 1981; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November, 20-26 November 1981; International Herald Tribune, 13 November 1981; Times, 11 November 1981)

81. The Israeli military authorities restricted a number of local leaders from the occupied territories in their freedom of movement. Mr. Ibrahim Dakkak, Chairman of the West Bank Engineers' Union; Mr. Jiryis Khoury, Chairman of the West Bank Lawyers' Union and
Mr. Abd Abu Diab, head of the Jerusalem District Electricity Company's Employees' Committee, were confined to the Jerusalem municipal area and were prevented from leaving the area without prior authorization. The Mayor of Nablus, Mr. Bassam Shaka'a, was not allowed to travel to Jordan and ordered not to leave his town "under any circumstances".
(Jerusalem Post, 3 January; Ha'aretz, 3 January; Al Ittihad, 5 January; Asha'b, 6 January; Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January)

82. Seven students from Bir Zeit University, Mufid Abd Rabu from Tulkarem, Bassam Sulmy from Ramallah, Nazhat Shahin from Ain Arik (Ramallah area), Ghassan Jarar from Jenin, Essam and Ribhi Al Aroura and La'ila Muri from Jenin, were put under town arrest. The editors of the newspapers Al Fajr (Mr. A. Sayed), Asha'b (Mr. Hanya) and Attalia (Mr. Bargouthi), who have been under house arrest for the last 18 months, were not allowed to leave their towns of residence, Ramallah and El Bireh. In addition, four inhabitants of the West Bank and East Jerusalem were confined to their places of residence, after organizing food and financial contributions for the striking Golan Druzes. The town arrest of Mr. Ghassan Shaha'a, a lawyer, was extended for another six months. Mr. Hassan Bargouthi, General Secretary of the Restaurant and Cafe Workers' Union, was informed that his town-arrest order had been extended for the fourth time for a period of six months. (Ha'aretz, 11, 12 January, 26 February; Asha'b, 14 January; Al Fajr Weekly, 15-21 January, 29 January-4 February, 5-11 February, 26 February-4 March 1982)

83. The Military Governor of Hebron renewed for the fourth time the town-arrest order against Mr. Ahmad Ibrahim Bakr Al Natshe (70) and Mr. Badran Jabr (35). The first order was issued against them on 10 January 1980. The Israeli Military Government lifted the ban on travel imposed on residents of Askar and Balata refugee camps (Nablus) and the village of Kufr Khalil after two months. Residents of Anabta were also allowed to travel to Amman, after their ban was lifted. The Israeli military authorities issued orders restricting the following personalities to their towns of residence for a period of six months: Dr. Amin Al Khatib, chairman of the Charitable Societies (East Jerusalem); Mr. Faisal Husseini, Director of the Arab Studies Centre in Jerusalem; Mr. Khalil Abu Zayyad (Hebron); Mr. Samih Abu Aisheh, member of the Red Crescent Society in Hebron; Mr. Ali Abu Hilal (Abu Dis) and Mr. Riyad Agha, President of the Islamic Institute in Gaza. (Al Fajr Weekly, 29 January-
4 February, 19-25 February, 5-11 March)

84. In March 1982, the Israeli authorities imposed restrictions of movement on a number of public figures. The authorities renewed the six-month town-restriction order imposed on Sheilah Jamil Mahmoud Ibrahim Shitayyeh from Salem, near Nablus. Mr. Mohammed Kamel Jarar from Nablus was served with a six-month restriction order; the student Aman Ateireh, a Bir Zeit University student, was confined by an order running retroactively from 24 February until 9 May 1982. (Al Fajr Weekly, 19-25 March, 26 March-1 April 1982)

85. The military authorities continue to interfere with the freedom of movement of personalities from the territories. The restrictions imposed affected private individuals who were restricted to their town of residence (Mr. Shaka'a is consistently being followed by an Israeli guard and has been put under house arrest on more than one occasion), or who were prevented from going abroad, as well as West Bank and Gaza cities and refugee camps as a whole. The most affected cities in the West Bank were Ramallah, El Bireh, Halhul and the refugee camps of A-Dahaysha (Bethlehem) and Askar and Balata (Nablus). The Israeli authorities subsequently issued new regulations, making the crossing into Jordan more
difficult. As of 1 June 1982, West Bank villagers were no longer able to fill in the required forms themselves, attach a revenue stamp and travel to the bridge. According to the new instructions, the forms now have to be submitted to the local civil administration officer. Once they have been approved, the forms will be returned either via the civil administration, the village league or local village leaders (mukhtars). A spokesman for the civil administration was quoted as saying that "there is no change in the policy of the administration". (Jerusalem Post, 4 May, 2 June; Ha'aretz, 3, 4, 17 May; Ma'ariv, 31 May; Asha'b, 12, 16, 19, 23, 31 May, 1, 2, 20 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 28 May-3 June, 4-10, 11-17, 18-24 June, 25 June-1 July, 9-15 July)

86. With regard to some individual cases, Laila Marei and Selim Rizkallah, members of the Bir Zeit Students' Association, were still under house arrest and prevented from sitting for the examinations. The military authorities extended the house arrest of Marei and Enam Al Tayra, members of the same student association by three months. Miss Isheyra Komel was informed that her house arrest had been extended by a period of six months. In addition, the town restriction order imposed on Jiryis Khoury, head of the West Bank Lawyers' Syndicate, and Ibrahim Dakkak, head of the West Bank Engineers' Syndicate, were renewed for a period of six months. (Asha'b, 11, 13 May, 2, 3 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 9-15 July)

(ii) Freedom of education

87. The number of pupils in schools in "Judea and Samaria" was approximately 280,000 compared with 260,000 in 1980-1981 and 137,000 in 1967. Most of the pupils studied in 797 government and UNRWA schools. The number of teachers increased from 8,020 in 1980 to 9,271 in 1981. The Military Government advocated the creation of secondary classes in villages at the request of the local population in order to alleviate transportation difficulties. Another source reported that the Israeli authorities decided to proceed with the order, issued in August, to transfer over 150 teachers within the West Bank school system; 40 teachers were to be transferred before 1 September 1981. Members of the Teachers' General Committee in the West Bank considered the transfers as punitive measures against the teachers whom the authorities suspected to be activists in the teachers' strike from end-1980 to early 1981) and in the Teachers' General Committee. (Ma'ariv, 31 August;
Asha'b, 6 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 13-19 September 1981)

88. A committee of five Hebrew University teachers published an "unofficial report" on "The Condition of the Universities in the Occupied Territories", in which they rejected the charge by "senior Military Government sources" that the academic activities of the West Bank universities "are at best a cover-up for political activity and at worst, for subversive activity". Military Order No. 854, promulgated by the Military Government in July 1980, subjected the running of universities to the granting of an annual licence by the Government; it imposed similar controls on the appointment of academic staff and the selection of students and the drawing up of curricula and textbooks. The report stated that the Order "allows for infringement of academic freedom" and, furthermore, "the fact that the Order has not been invoked since its promulgation strengthens our conclusion that it was unneeded". The Committee's investigations covered the condition of Bir Zeit University, Bethlehem University, Al Najah University, the Islamic College in Hebron and the Religious College in Gaza. The report found no evidence to support the charges that teaching at the universities, primarily at Bir Zeit, "perverts reality and has little regard for the truth", and "that the study of geography at Bir Zeit is based on denying facts". The Committee also investigated the charge that the dismissal of the President of Bethlehem University, Mr. Joseph Lowenstein, was detrimental to academic freedom. The report pointed out that Mr. Lowenstein had been fired because "the Jordanian Government refused to grant the university academic recognition, one condition for which was acceptance of the university by the Association of Arab Universities". The report criticizes the Military
Government's refusal to allow the "creation of additional departments" in Bethlehem
University and the refusal to allow Al Najah University to build a new campus. It also condemned the Government's censorship of books in the West Bank, from which 658 books have been banned officially. The report pointed out that the Military Government had over the years closed down universities five times: the committee defined closing a university as "an act of collective punishment and as such unacceptable". On the other hand, the report pointed out that in 1967 there were no universities in the "administered areas" whereas there were now five, and that "there has been no real friction between the Military Government and the universities with regard to student admissions, setting curricula and budgeting". (Jerusalem Post, 21 October 1981)

89. A Druze regional secondary school in Ma'asada (Golan Heights) was closed down by order of the Military Government following the students' refusal to participate in Hebrew classes. The school was allowed to reopen after three weeks; students responsible for the disturbances were reportedly being tried in a military court. (Jerusalem Post, 6, 27 November; Ha'aretz, 6, 24, 27 November; Asha'b, 6 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 November 1981)

90. Bir Zeit University reopened on 4 January 1981 after it had been closed for a period of two months by the Israeli military authorities. Several Bir Zeit personalities, i.e., Dr. Gabi Baramki, were placed under temporary town arrest during that period. The reasons for the first closure given by the military authorities were that despite recurring warnings given to the President of the university, disturbances had continued. The same authorities warned that Bethlehem University and Al Najah University in Nablus would face a closure if they failed to have control over students and teachers. After an incident in which an employee of the civilian administration was attacked by students inside the premises of the university on 16 February 1982, the university was closed down again for a period of two months by order of the Military Government; according to some sources the
closure was due to the fact that the university authorities were unable to guarantee the safety of the education employees inside the campus and in view of previous warnings given to the university by the Central Region Commander. (Jerusalem Post, 5 November 1981,
5 January, 17, 18 February 1982; Ha'aretz, 5, 13 November 1981, 5 January, 16, 17, 19, 23 February 1982; Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January, 19-25 February 1982)

91. The Board of Governors of Al Najah University in Nablus decided to close the institution for an unlimited period of time following disturbances between student factions. It also decided to suspend from studies, until further notice, 51 students from the faction who were pro-PLO and supporting the Muslim Brotherhood. The university subsequently reopened after a closure of 37 days on 16 February 1982. The Chairman of the university's Board of Governors, Mr. Hikmet El Masry, was prevented from leaving for Jordan to hold consultations on the disturbance, but was subsequently allowed to leave. The technical college in Hebron was closed down for a short period of time after similar disturbances. (Ha'aretz, 12, 14, 20, 21 January; Jerusalem Post, 15 February; Al Fajr Weekly, 15-21 January, 19-25 February)

92. A $US 5-million contract for the construction of educational institutions in the West Bank and East Jerusalem has recently been confiscated from Mr. Anwar Nusseibeh by the security forces. Security sources said that the contract had been confiscated because the money came from PLO sources. According to the report, Mr. Nusseibeh had been bringing in money from Jordan to the West Bank since 1967 with the authorities' knowledge. (Ha'aretz, 30 April)

93. The military authorities continued to close down secondary schools as a punishment for "alleged demonstrations" and stone-throwing by students. The most affected were schools in Jabaleya refugee camp, the Kadri Tukan and Mazour Al Masri schools in Nablus and those in Bir Zeit and Hebron. Some schools are closed for a period of two or three weeks and allowed to reopen; others are subject to constant harassment including arrests of students by the Israeli authorities. (Asha'b, 30 April, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18 May, 2 June; Jerusalem Post, 12, 17 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May, 4-10 June, 11-17 June, 10-24 June)

94. The military authorities, in addition, decided to close down three institutes of higher studies in Ramallah and Qalandiya. The interference with the education at the universities continued. The President of Bir Zeit University, Gafi Baramki, complained that since the reopening of the university in May "we have not had a moment of peace". The military authorities continued to put up road-blocks at the entrance to the university; Israeli troops searched student dormitories, confiscating books, reviews and posters; on different occasions a large number of students were arrested. At the beginning of July 1982, Bir Zeit was closed down for the third time for a period of three months and scores of students arrested. (Jerusalem Post 12, 13 May, 8, 9 July; Ha'aretz, 13 May, 9 July; Yediot Aharonot, 16 May; Asha'b, 12, 13, 23 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 28 May-3 June;
Al Ittihad, 9 July)

95. Al Najah University in Nablus faced similar problems. Over a period of two months road-blocks were erected, removed and re-erected, suspending studies. Scores of students were arrested on different occasions. On 28 June, the university was allowed to reopen for the first time in three weeks. Bethlehem University was also closed down because disturbances had taken place there. (Jerusalem Post, 13 May, 17 June; Asha'b, 3, 12, 13, 16, 17 May, 17, 20, 22, 23, 28 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 11-17, 18-24 June,
25 June-1 July, 2-8 July)

96. The Ministry of Education turned down a request by high school students from Majdal Shams (Golan Heights) to allow them to take the matriculation examinations without producing identity cards; 10 out of the 56 candidates accepted identity cards for that purpose. The Minister of Education, in a similar development, fired 200 out of 235 Druze teachers from the Golan Heights, who have refused to reopen local schools since 15 February, the date on which the Druze community started a strike against the Israeli annexation of the Golan Heights. (Jerusalem Post, 20 May, 21 June)

97. The Al Najah University Board of Trustees (Nablus) dismissed four teachers: Mr. Naela Zu'eiter, Mr. Adnan Idris, Mr. Al Shaka'a and Mr. Hani Barakat; 11 other teachers were warned. It was reported that nine teachers were on the Israeli "black list", being former political prisoners, and forbidden to leave the country. Subsequently, classes were cancelled owing to a student strike. Mr. Khalil Yunis from Yatta was transferred to Surif (north-west of Hebron; 35 kilometres from Yatta). According to sources, the transfer was made for political reasons. The Israeli authorities arrested 14 students from Bethlehem
University. (Asha'b, 20 October; Ha'aretz, 30 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10, 11-17, 23-29, 30 October-5 November 1981)

98. Mr. Saleh Awad Henayyhen, a teacher of English at Tarqumiya village school (Hebron), was dismissed by the military authorities. No reason was given. The Military Government in addition expelled Mr. Suhaileh Ahmad Ghannam, a teacher at Beit Awwa school (Hebron).
Mr. Ibrahim Jebril Al Salibi, a teacher at Beit Omar school, received a dismissal order. Mr. Mohammed Jalammeh, a teacher from the Jenin area, was also dismissed. The West Bank Teachers' Association issued a statement which said that the civilian administration dismissed 11 teachers for membership in the Teachers' Association in 1981. (Al Fajr Weekly, 15-21 January, 5-11 February; Ha'aretz, 1 March 1982)

99. The Israeli authorities dismissed Lina Mohammed Hassan Milhem, daughter of the expelled Mayor of Halhul, Mr. Mohammed Milhem, from her post as English language teacher at a Hebron girls' school. No reason or notice was given in justification of her dismissal.
(Asha'b, 1 June 1982)

(iii) Freedom of expression

100. The Arab newspapers Al Fajr, Asha'b and Al Quds received a new order from the military censorship requesting them to submit to it all their articles and photographic materials before publication. The order was to remain in force until the end of 1982. The civilian administration in "Judea and Samaria" prevented a number of times the distribution in the West Bank of the three East Jerusalem daily papers Al Quds, Al Fajr and Asha'b. Asha'b has been confiscated from 19 to 31 March, from 1 to 26 April and from 8 to 21 June, totalling 42 days. The English edition of the newspaper Al Fajr continues to be heavily censored. An average of more than 50 per cent of the articles originally submitted are totally censored. The Military Government will not permit trade and labour unions in West Bank villages to open new branches. [Note: A number of applications were addressed to the Israeli High Court of Justice in efforts to have these orders lifted (see sect. IV B 5, "Judicial remedies", below).] (Al Ittihad, 8 January; Al Fajr Weekly, 26 February-4 March, 5-11 March, 21-27 May, 18-24 June, 25 June-1 July; Ha'aretz, 1 March, 9, 11, 22 June; Asha'b, 10 June)

101. A total of 1,100 books, 800 according to another source, almost exlusively in Arabic, have been banned from distribution to the territories by the Israeli authorities in order "to prevent the creation of hatred in the territories". The sources said that the legal underpinning for the book ban is the Defence (Emergency) Regulations of 1945 which empower the censor to ban "what he likes throughout Israel and the administered areas". The sources added, however, that "we use these powers only selectively, regarding the territories".
(Ha'aretz, 2, 22 December 1981; Jerusalem Post, 21 October 1981, 6 April 1982; Al Fajr
Weekly, 28 May-3 June 1982)


(c) Treatment of civilians

102. A special "examining magistrate for the causes of a death" was to investigate on the recommendation of a police commission of inquiry, the circumstances of death of Abdul Rahman Otman Mustafa Abu Hasnin (24) from Rafah. He died shortly after having been beaten by two border policemen on 7 April 1981. The commission of inquiry recommended that the policemen be put on a disciplinary trial since there was no justification for resorting to violence against Abdul Rahman. The commission decided to exonerate the policemen from the responsibility of causing Abdul Rahman's death, basing their decision on a report of the Institute of Forensic Medicine which determined that the man suffered from heart deformities which were the principal causes of the death. (Ma'ariv, 7 August 1981)

103. The State Tribunal of Labour of Israel criticized the "subhuman" working conditions of Arab workers from the territories, who work in Israel without a permit. It alleged that the Government did not give proper trade union protection to Arab workers. In a related development, a report of the economic situation in the occupied territories called on the United Nations "to open an investigation into the conditions of Arab workers in the territories". The report, inter alia, stated that the Arab labourer gets about 42 per cent of what his Israeli counterpart receives. (Ha'aretz, 25 September, 1, 5 October; Al Fajr
Weekly, 4-10 October; Jerusalem Post, 5 October 1981)

104. A villager from Yitma, near Nablus, Mr. Wahid Taher Shaib, complained that a civil administration officer called "Abu Issam" had beaten him with a whip because of his involvement in the supply of an electric generator to his village, which, according to the authorities, was unauthorized. Mr. Bassam Shaka'a, Mayor of Nablus, complained about the harassment inflicted upon him and his wife by Israeli soldiers; body guards are still protecting Mr. Shaka'a against his will. (Jerusalem Post, 25 September; Asha'b, 18 October; Ha'aretz, 19 October 1981)

105. Lawyers in Gaza complained about continuous raids of their offices and houses by tax officials, who confiscated all their documents and files concerning citizens' cases. The lawyers had been requested to pay an "additional" tax of IS 100.000 each. It was subsequently reported that the Gaza Chamber of Lawyers had decided to return the assessment notices covering the period 1976-1981 sent by the Customs Department. (Al Ittihad,
3 November; Ha'aretz, 15 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November 1981)

106. According to some reports, an Israeli "all-out assault" on unions, municipalities and public figures took place in the West Bank resulting in mass arrests for alleged incitement, strikes and demonstrations. The associate editor of Al Fajr in Gaza,
Mr. Mohammed Al Radwan, was detained and subsequently released on bail of IS 5,000.
Mr. Akram Haniya, editor of the newspaper Asha'b, was detained by a court order for a period of 16 days; Mr. Haniya had been under town arrest in Ramallah for the past 18 months. Mr. Ibrahim Dakkak, head of the Engineers Union, and Mr. Jiryis Khoury, head of the Lawyers Union, were arrested. Mr. Dakkak's detention was extended for five days; Mr. Khoury was released for lack of evidence; they had been charged with "incitement". (Ha'aretz, 11, 12 November; Jerusalem Post, 11 November; Asha'b, 12 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 November; Guardian, 12 November 1981)

107. Border police troops enterd the building of the A-Zahara girls' secondary school in Jenin. Muhammed Abd El Fatah Jarar (15), who allegedly had called on the schoolgirls to demonstrate, was slightly injured. In Beit Sahur, Israeli forces opened fire over the heads of demonstrators and arrested 17 persons, among them a 13-year-old boy and five other minors. Subsequently, security forces raided three buildings owned by Mr. Georges Mikhail Qameya, Mr. Matya Jabr Abu Attya and Mr. Abdel Wahod Moussa Al Assim. After the attack on Mr. Yussuf al Hkatib, chairman of the Ramallah District "Village League", suspected of collaboration with the Israeli authorities, a curfew was imposed on the villages of Ein Arik, Silwad, Kanya and Mazrat Kibliya. After a protest march against the closure of Bir Zeit University in Ramallah, scores of local residents were arrested and, according to
eye witnesses, severely beaten. (Ha'aretz, 13 November; Jerusalem Post, 19, 23, 29 November; Al Ittihad, 17 November; Asha'b, 19 November; Times, 16 November; International
Herald Tribune, 13, 30 November 1981)

108. Nasr Abu Aita (19), a student at the Bir Zeit University, who protested against the blowing up of his house in Beit Sahur by the Israeli military authorities, alleged that he had been ill-treated by an Israeli officer in his house prior to its demolition. The officer stated that Mr. Aita was in possession of bombs. Mr. Raphael Eitan, Israeli Chief of Staff, stated in this connexion that the Israeli authorities would continue to demolish houses of Arab families. "The relatives of every boy who throws incendiary bottles at Israelis should know that they will lose their house", according to Mr. Eitan. The Israeli military authorities subsequently authorized the owners of the four houses that were
dynamited in Bethlehem and Beit Sahur to rebuild them on the same site. Through their lawyer, Mrs. Felicia Langer, the four families claim 130,000, 58,000, 80,000 and 68,000 Jordanian dinars, respectively, from the Israeli authorities. (Ha'aretz, 6, 18 December; Jerusalem Post, 18 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 27 November-3 December, 4-10 December,
26 December-7 January)

109. Two Israeli army officers were to stand trial for an attack on an Arab from Beit Ur-Atahta under aggravating circumstances and for conduct "which is unbecoming to their rank". The incident, which took place in November 1981, had been reported to the Investigating Military Police and the results of its inquiry were submitted to the Central Region Command's judge advocate, who ordered a trial (Ma'ariv, 3 December; Jerusalem Post, 4 December 1981)

110. A 17-year-old Arab youth, Mr. Mahmoud Abu Nahleh from Rafah (Gaza Strip) was killed, and three others, aged 10, 14 and 16, were wounded when Israeli troops opened fire on a Palestinian demonstration. A curfew was imposed on the area. In Al Najah University, Israeli forces shot tear-gas bombs into the crowd. One source reported that the soldiers acted "according to standing orders". Israeli military forces broke into Betunia school and arrested several students; in Majdal Shams (Golan Heights) a large number of people who protested against the Israeli annexation of the Golan Heights have been arrested.
(Ha'aretz, 8, 9 December; Jerusalem Post, 8, 10 December; Asha'b, 8, 22 December;
Al Ittihad, 8 December 1981)

111. Israeli customs and excise personnel raided 15 clinics in Gaza and Khan Yunis in search of tax records. A strike by 400 physicians and pharmacists followed the imposition of excise-added tax by the Israeli authorities on residents in the territories. A Gaza physician, Dr. Aly Abu Afesh was arrested and refused to be released on bail of IS 4,000 after being fined IS 10,000 for failing to pay the tax. Dr. Mahmoud Al Zahur, President of the Arab Doctors' Association in the Gaza district, was dismissed from his post. (Ma'ariv, 3 December; Ha'aretz, 11 December; Jerusalem Post, 3, 10, 13 December; Asha'b, 4 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 26 December 1981-7 January 1982)

112. The security forces and the civilian administration in the territories are to adopt a different attitude regarding means of punishment, designed to reduce disturbances of the peace and the use of firearms by the Israeli army. Economic sanctions will be more frequently imposed on families of persons involved in disturbances of the peace. In this connexion, families of five students who had been tried for this offence charged that sentences passed on their sons had been prepared in advance and that the military court had ignored material losses sustained by the students' families following the destruction of their houses, amounting to 80,000 Jordanian dinars for each house. (Ha'aretz, 7 May;
Asha'b, 26 April)

113. According to statistics gathered by a Palestinian news bureau in Jerusalem, the number of people injured between 16 March and 6 May 1982 totalled 365. Among them, 251 were wounded by bullets; 31 citizens were killed and 12 others kidnapped. The Chief of Staff, Mr. Rafael Eitan, stated that soldiers use live ammunition only as a last resort after first firing rubber bullets. He said that every death in the area had been probed and that no cases had been found in which standing orders on opening fire had been disobeyed. The following list is given in two sources:


Date
Village/Town
Area
Wounded
Dead
6 Mar.
7 Mar.
8 Mar.
10 Mar.
Nablus
Nablus
Ramallah
Nablus
Bethlehem
2
1
20
2
15 Mar.
17 Mar.
29 Mar.
Bethlehem
El Bireh
Sinjel
El Birej
Nablus
Hebron
Ramallah
3
1
16
Muhammed Abdullah Suhwain,
17 'shot by settlers'
Ibrahim Aly Darwish, 17
21 Mar.Askar
Balata
Rafah
Halhoul
Nablus
Nablus
Gaza Strip
Hebron
5
22 Mar.Deir Ammar
Jalazoun and
Ramallah
Ramallah17Muhammed Hamad Dib, 17
24 Mar.Jenin
Khuza'a
Bani Naim
Gaza Strip
Hebron
Fadhi Kanouh
Bassam Al Najar, 13
Farhan Ali Al Mansara, 18
(settlers)
26 Mar.
27 Mar.
28 Mar.
29 Mar.
8 Apr.
11 Apr.
Halhul
Nablus
Yaabad
Khader
Ain Yabrod
Jerusalem
Hebron

Jenin
Bethelehm
Ramallah
1
2
3
1

62
Azizeh Issa, 50, (settlers)
Jihad Bader, 21
Muhammad Seleh Yamani, 65
Kalandia
Ramallah
Ramallah
12 Apr.Jerusalem
Nablus
Dheisheh
Gaza
Bethlehem16
13 Apr.Nuseirat and
Jabalia
Jerusalem
Am'ari
Balata
Gaza Strip

Ramallah
Nablus
56Suheil Ghabban, 8

18 Apr.
20 Apr.
21 Apr.
24 Apr.
25 Apr.


26 Apr.
Husan
Jenin
Rafah
Qabatya
Kalandia
Tubas Jenin
al-Aroub
Yamoun
Nablus
Bethlehem

Gaza
Jenin
Ramallah

Hebron
Jenin
1
3
1
1
5


3
27 Apr.

28 Apr.
Nablus
Khan Yunis
Jabalia
Nablus
Dhahiriyya
Dheisheh
Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip

Hebron
Bethlehem
5

50
Hussein Abd al-Fatah, 17,
died from wounds received
two weeks ago
29 Apr.

1 May
2 May


4 May
5 May
Halhul
Sair
Nablus
Shu'fat
Halhul
Ramallah
Khan Yunis
Jenin




Jabaliya
Arroub
Hebron
Hebron

Jerusalem
Hebron







Gaza
Hebron
2

1
3


4
9
Gamal Al Shalalda, 19
Abdel Rahim Jaradat





Ihsan Abu Daraz, 18
Saleh Abadi
Abdel Abadi
Muhammad Khatib
Abdullah Zeid
Jalal Afaneh
Maysoun Salman died of
wounds received three
days earlier
______________________________________________________________________________________
(Jerusalem Post, 6 May; Ha'aretz, 6, 14 May; Al Ittihad, 7 May; Al Fajr Weekly,
7-13 May)


114. Six reserve officers, who had just completed service in the territories, charged the Government with responsibility for the fact that Israeli soldiers were "increasingly losing their human image in their activities in the West Bank". They furnished the Israeli Judge Advocate-General with information concerning "violent and brutal conduct by the security forces towards Arabs on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip". They charged that "the army has nothing to propose to the soldiers in the West Bank except using shots, and the threshold of pulling the trigger is extremely low". One officer related that "soldiers and commanders become victims of the Government's policy, which does not pay attention to other measures and methods of action". Others charged that recruited soldiers who hardly knew how to shoot were given security assignments on the West Bank and attacked Arabs "like wild animals", and that "the population which we have in front of us is turning from human beings into objects". They also stated that the Jews who live in the West Bank aggravated the problems: "Jewish settlers take the law into their own hands, and treat the Arabs in the territories in a degrading and humiliating manner". It was subsequently reported that the Judge Advocate-General instructed an investigation in connexion with "allegations of irregularities and improper conduct by soldiers against Arab inhabitants of the territories". In a reply to critics on the moral code in the Israeli army, the Chief Education Officer, Mr. Avi Zohar, stated that "soldiers called upon to quell violence on the West Bank do so with not a little soul-searching". He added: "Because they are meticulous in guarding the moral code of the Israel Defence Forces, the number of its
violations has never been smaller and the investigation of them has been speedy and
thorough". (Yediot Aharonot, 11 May; Ha'aretz, 16, 23, 26 May; Jerusalem Post, 16 May,
4 June; Asha'b 18 May)

115. In a trial at the General Staff District Military Court of a sergeant on regular military service, facing charges of illegal use of firearms and attacking a 15-year-old Arab, the question was raised whether it was permitted to fire in the air during the tracking of stone-throwers in the territories and to what extent it was permitted to beat them. The prosecutor argued that the instruction given to the soldiers forbade the use of firearms during the tracking of stone-throwers and specifically forbade the beating or humiliation of suspects. The trial was adjourned until 7 July. (Yediot Aharonot, 24 May; Asha'b, 25 May)

116. According to a source, 157 Arabs were killed in the West Bank and Gaza Strip by security forces between 1967 and 1977. The source added that during that time 1,200 houses of West Bank and Gaza residents were destroyed, 800 residents were exiles and "hundreds" of suspects held without trial in administrative detention. Only a "handful" of houses had been demolished since Likud took office; only 2 Arabs had been expelled, while 8 persons had been allowed to return and there were no administrative detainees at all. (Jerusalem
Post, 16 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May)

117. After the division of the town of Rafah (Gaza Strip) into an Egyptian and a Palestinian part as a result of the Israeli withdrawal from Sinai, the Israeli forces compelled a large number of inhabitants to leave their houses for security reasons. According to the source, more than 120 houses had been destroyed against financial compensation and the allocation of 200 square metres of land to build a new house. In this context, the Special Committee examined a petition addressed to the Secretary-General in May 1982 by several municipalities and organizations in the Gaza Strip drawing attention to the plight of several thousand Palestinians who had remained on Egyptian soil after the drawing of the boundary between Egypt and Israel and who were not allowed to return to their homeland. The petition requests the intervention of the international community in the repatriation of these Palestinians. (Asha'b, 23, 24 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May;
Al Ittihad, 18 May)

118. One source gave an account of treatment of civilians from A-Dahaysha refugee camp suspected of participation in demonstrations. Twenty persons from Bethlehem and Hebron were, accompanied by guards, transferred to Far'ia detention camp on the road from Nablus to the Jordan Valley. When the detainees asked for food the guard was quoted as having answered: "You deserve poison and not food". During the 12 days the detainees spent in the camp, visits by relatives or the International Committee of the Red Cross were not allowed. The 20 detainees were released at the end of the period in which detention without a court order is permitted - 18 days. This treatment, combined with the imposition of curfews, is indicative of treatment of inhabitants of all the refugee camps in the territories in cases of demonstrations and stone-throwing. (Ha'aretz, 1 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17, 18-24 June, 9-15 July; Asha'b, 4 June, 8 July)

119. Individual cases of harassment by the Israeli authorities continued to appear in the press. Mr. Bassam Shaka'a, the dismissed Mayor of Nablus, who is constantly followed by the border police, allegedly spat on a border policeman calling him a "fascist" and "Hitler". Mr. Shaka'a, who had submitted several pleas to the Ministry of Defence, the General Military Commander of the West Bank and the city of Nablus, was subsequently detained and released. He also submitted an official statement in which he explained that the policeman's behaviour was provocative towards him. The lawyer Mrs. Felicia Langer has on more than one occasion filed a complaint with the Legal Counsellor in Beit-El in protest against his constant harassment. (Jerusalem Post, 4 June; Asha'b, 22 April, 17, 30, 31 May; 4, 6 June; Al Ittihad 22 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17 June, 18-24 June)

120. Citizens of towns of which mayors and municipal councils had been dismissed were subject to increased harassment in the form of raiding houses, arrests, being summoned to the Israeli authorities on a regular basis and requiring an exceeding number of licences to perform normal municipal duties. One report stated that in Nablus 354 students and citizens of the city and surrounding villages had been arrested, in a campaign of preventive arrests, during a period of two weeks. A new phenomenon was the increased activity of members of "village leagues" who harassed opponents of the league system and carried out duties against the wishes of the local inhabitants such as connecting the local electricity system to the Israeli grid. (Jerusalem Post, 6 July; Ha'aretz, 5, 6 July; Asha'b, 30 April, 2, 11, 13, 16, 19, 23, 27, 28, 31 May, 11, 17, 20, 23 June, 4 July; Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May, 28 May-3 June, 4-10, 11-17, 18-24 June, 25 June-1 July, 9-15 July; Al Ittihad, 28 May, 22 June)

121. One report entitled "A Survey of Collective Punishment" described the practices followed by the Israeli authorities towards the inhabitants of refugee camps. In Al Amari camp, near Ramallah, about 150 persons had been arrested, interrogated or imprisoned in the preceding four years. In A-Dahaysha camp, near Bethlehem, with 10,000 inhabitants, 70 per cent of the men underwent the same treatment. In Jabalya, near Gaza, and in Jalazoun, 10 kilometres north of Ramallah, "almost every youth between the ages of 15 and 24 has been
interrogated". The Israeli military authorities carried out preventive arrests in refugee camps in Gaza in order to prevent the organization of new sabotage cells. The military authorities lifted the curfew imposed on four villages east of Nablus and on two refugee camps after shots were fired at the settlement of Ariel. It was subsequently reported that the Director-General of Israeli radio and television had banned the showing of a television report on the Israeli soldiers' practices in the West Bank. The report purportedly showed the aggressiveness of Israeli soldiers against Arab citizens as well as soldiers' harassment of young Arab girls. According to the source "these pictures could have reminded the Jewish people of the Nazis' days". (Ma'ariv, 23 August; Asha'b, 26 August,
17 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 30 August-5 September 1981)

122. The town of Rafah was put under a five-day curfew on 3 January following riots in protest against the threatened expulsion of 30,000 Palestinians from the Gaza Strip to the territory to be returned to Egypt. The A-Dahaysha refugee camp outside Bethlehem was put under curfew following stone-throwing incidents, and searches and arrests by the army. At least 50 people were taken into custody. (Ha'aretz, 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 15, 16 January; Jerusalem Post, 1, 3, 4, 5, 8 January, 15, 16 March; Asha'b, 5 January; Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January, 15-21 January 1982)

123. The practice of imposing curfews or partial blockades on cities and villages
continued as a means to deter youths from rioting and stone-throwing. The refugee camps, allegedly centres of constant unrest, were mostly subjected to curfews for shorter or longer periods (up to two weeks): Qalandiya, A-Dahaysha, Balata, Ashkar and Al Amari refugee camps. However, Nablus, Hebron, Halhul and Ramallah and surrounding areas were also constantly being subjected to curfews and blockades. One source stated that in the middle of May the security forces had imposed a blockade on six villages in the Ramallah region: Ein Yabrud, Silwad, Beitin, Deir Jarir, Deir Dibwan, Tayyiba and Mazra'at Asharkiyya.
(Jerusalem Post, 12 May; Ha'aretz, 12, 20 May; Asha'b, 30 April, 2, 11, 12, 13, 17, 26 May; Al Ittihad, 15 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 28 May-3 June, 18-24 June, 2-8, 9-15 July)

124. An Israeli company called "Tomer" informed 13 Arab families living in houses
bordering on the Jewish cemetery in East Jerusalem that the land on which their houses were located belonged to the cemetery and that they had to evacuate it. The military authorities evicted three families (the Wazwaz and Jaber families from Hebron and the Tabanjah family from the village of Qatanneh, north of Jerusalem) and sealed off their houses. The owners of the houses have been charged with military activity and membership in an illegal organization. Two Israeli companies, Mizrahi and Basbin, instructed eight Arab families from Jabal Mukabar, south of Jerusalem, to evacuate their homes and lands. The companies claimed ownership of the 16-dunam tract since 1933. On 4 November 1981, after having
received a court order to evacuate their houses, they appealed to the Israeli High Court, which is scheduled to consider the case on 22 April 1982. (Ha'aretz, 24 January,
2 February; Al Fajr Weekly, 5-11, 19-25 February 1982)

125. Mr. Idris Shawki appealed to the Israeli Ministry of Justice for a revocation of an eviction order from his house in the Old City of Jerusalem. The Israeli High Court of Justice had issued an eviction order following allegations by the Guardian of Absentee Properties that the house belonged to Jews. Israeli forces evicted Mr. Judeh Talab Idris and his family from their house in the Old City of Jerusalem, claiming that the house belonged to Jews. (Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 June, 10-24 June)

126. The Military Government in Hebron demolished four houses in the village of Si'ir. The houses had been built "illegally" and the demolition took place after the owners had been informed. The State Land Administration demolished a house belonging to Mr. Issa Hassan Abd El Naby in Gilo suburb, south of Jerusalem. The house stood on land which was subject to expropriation, to permit the construction of a road. According to one source, Mr. El Naby "will be given a fair compensation for his property". (Ha'aretz, 25 October; Ma'ariv, 28 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

127. Security forces demolished the houses of Mahmoud Farhi Nimer Hasuna (18) and Abram Abed Al Wahaba Samiya Asibi (17), suspected of participation in the stabbing of David Kopelsky in Hebron; the house of a third suspect, reportedly the instigator of the attack, was sealed. Subsequently it was reported that the Israeli military authorities demolished the houses of the Shumaly family in Beit Sahur, because their son allegedly had thrown incendiary bottles; four other houses were also blown up in connexion with the same incidents in Beit Sahur and Al Jib. According to one source, the confessions were extorted forcibly two days after the demolitions took place. Beit Sahur village was placed under a curfew and 44 persons were arrested. Knesset members asked for a debate on the Government's
policy of house-demolitions in "Judea and Samaria" and "its repercussions". The Minister of Defence, Mr. Sharon, defended his policy by stating that the resorting to collective punishment by blowing up houses had considerably diminished over the past few years and was limited to a "very small number of houses each year". He admitted that the punishment was for the first time imposed in retaliation for the throwing of incendiary bottles. In addition, the security forces demolished two houses in Salfit and Qabalan ("Samaria") because they had been built illegally. (Jerusalem Post, 4, 17, 18, 19, 24 November; Ha'aretz, 2, 3, 4, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23 November; Yediot Aharonot, 3 November; Asha'b,
3 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November; Al Ittihad, 17 November 1981)

128. The Israeli High Court of Justice ordered Mr. Hassan Khalil Al Abassi from Silwan to destroy his house since it had been constructed without a building licence; in case of failure to comply with the order he faced a fine of IS 25,000 and a one-and-a-half-year prison term. Israeli bulldozers demolished a house owned by Mr. Abdul Hamid Alami from Beit Ummar village near Hebron. No reason was given. The Israeli authorities demolished a house in the village of Orif, Nablus area, alleging that it was illegally built. The municipality of Jerusalem demolished 23 houses in East Jerusalem for "illegal" building in 1980-1981,
according to Israeli statistics. (Al Fajr Weekly, 15-21 January, 22-28 January,
29 January-4 February, 5-11 March)

129. The Israeli authorities allowed Mr. Ahmed Ali Areikat from Tulkarem to return home, after he was deported in 1969 for political reasons. Mr. Bushra Al Adham, deported in 1969, was also allowed to return. In addition, the authorities cancelled an expulsion order issued eight years ago against Mr. Hussein Yaghoub, an advocate from Hebron. (Jerusalem Post, 6 January; Ma'ariv, 8 February; Ha'aretz, 7 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January, 15-21 January, 29 January-4 February 1982)

130. The Israeli authorities demolished a number of houses belonging to private individuals charging that the houses had been built "illegally" or without a construction permit, or because the land on which the house had been built belonged to Jews. This was the case with Mr. Ahmed Mohammed Mustapha Toss from Al Jaba'a village (Hebron area); Mr. Tawfik Suleiman Al Awawda from Al Breij refugee camp (Gaza Strip; in this case no reason for the demolition was given); Mr. Hassan Moussa Gheyada from Nahalin; Mr. Youssef Said Effendi from Abu Diss; Mr. Mustapha Natshe's warehouse in Abu Diss was demolished under the pretext that the State owned the land on which the building was erected; Mr. Najeh Fazoun from Azzariyya; and Mr. Khader Mohammed Kawasmi from Bein Hanina. In addition, three houses were demolished in Hebron which were located next to the Kiryat Arba settlement; the houses belonged to Mr. Assa'd Shaban Al Barday, Mr. Meysr Abu Ramileh and Mr. Mahmoud Gheriss. Security forces demolished the house of one of the suspects responsible for the murder of Mr. David Rosenfeld, a settler from Tekoa. (Ha'aretz, 6 July; Jerusalem Post, 6 July; Asha'b, 27 April, 18 May, 2 June, 2 July; Al Fajr Weekly, 28 May-3 June, 4-10 June)

131. The Israeli authorities bulldozed a number of shops and sealed off a number of houses in different areas of the occupied territories: Husan (Bethlehem), El Bireh, Gaza and Hebron, as a collective punishment for alleged participation in security offences by one of the family members or for lack of a permit. (Asha'b, 4, 5, 11 May, 11, 17 June; Al Fajr
Weekly, 7-13 May, 18-24 June)

(i) Settlers' activities

132. Militant Yamit settlers hurled a smoke bomb at the Director-General of the Prime Minister's Office to express dissatisfaction over an offer of compensation for evacuation of the town in accordance with the Israeli decision to withdraw from Sinai. According to another report, the former Supreme Court Judge, Mr. Haim Cohen was quoted as saying that the High Court of Justice of Israel lacked territorial jurisdiction over the settlers; the Court had jurisdiction over military commanders in propria persona. In addition, he stated that it was illegal to extend Israeli law to the West Bank. (Jerusalem Post, 15 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 September 1981)

133. Arab sources in Hebron maintained that worshippers from Kiryat Arba penetrated into the tunnel under the Patriarchs' tombstone in an attempt to gain access to the patriarchs' tombs. The Military Government reportedly told the Moslem Waqf leaders that "efforts would be made to discover the trespassers and put them on trial". Subsequently, eight Kiryat Arba settlers tried once more to enter the Tomb of the Patriarchs under the Ibrahim Mosque. The Military Government assured the Mayor of Hebron, Mr. Mustafa Abd El Naby Natshe that "there would be no repetition of such acts and that the Military Government would from now on prevent similar attempts". (Ha'aretz, 4-5-22 October, Jerusalem Post, 22 October, Al Fajr
Weekly, 4-10 October, 11-17 October, 23-29 October 1981)

134. Jewish settlers tried to break into the Al Aqsa Mosque but were prevented by the guards. "Unidentified" people set fire to the house of Mr. Haja Rafiqa Salayme, whose premises were a subject of dispute with Israeli settlers who wanted to settle in the Old City of Jerusalem. (Al Fajr Weekly, 16-22 October, 23-29 October, International Herald Tribune, 22 October 1981)

135. A group of more than twenty settlers broke into four homes in A-Dahaysha refugee camp wielding clubs and sub-machine-guns. The attack was the latest in a series of serious harassments of the Bethlehem-area camp population by settlers. A Palestinian from Hebron, Mr. Izzat Izzeldin Al Zarou, was severely beaten and stabbed in various parts of his body by five Israeli settlers from Kiryat Arba. (Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17 December, 18-25 December 1981)

136. A group of Israeli settlers took over areas of land in the village of Beit Awwa (Dura) for the establishment of a new settlement. An Arab farmer from the village of Latif, Qalqiliya district, alleged that he was taken away by Jews, who claimed the land was theirs; another farmer from the Al Rashayda tribe, near Bethlehem, alleged that he had been molested by settlers from the "Arqub" settlement who claimed that 100 dunams of his land was theirs. Inhabitants of the village of Qaryat, near the Shilo settlement, between Ramallah and Nablus, complained through an attorney, Mr. Elias Khoury, to the Ramallah Military Government about constant harassment by settlers, who fired in the air and
confiscated their ploughs, with which they were cultivating their lands. (Ha'aretz, 7,
30 December; Asha'b, 31 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17 December 1981)

137. The acting Mayor of Hebron, Mr. Mustafa Nabi Natshe, protested to the Minister for Defence, Mr. Ariel Sharon, and the local Military Government about the alleged destruction of a small house near Kiryat Arba by local settlers. Settlers from Kiryat Arba decided to accommodate two new settlers in the "Romano" house in Hebron (which is the Ossama Al Munkaz school). Professor Milson, head of the civilian administration in the West Bank, denied that the former school had been allocated to settlers and stated that the return of 700 Arab children to the school was under examination. (Jerusalem Post, 22 December; Ha'aretz, 18, 25 December; Asha'b, 16, 22 December 1981)

138. Four Israeli settlers from Shilo beat up Mr. Rateb Asmar Mohammed from Quryut, near Nablus, while he was ploughing his land. Other Quryut villagers have had similar problems. After the authorities confiscated 25 dunams of land, Shilo settlers fenced off 500 dunams; they also shot at a villager. Israeli settlers fired at Mr. Ismail Jamal from Beit Sunik, near Ramallah, while he was working on his land. Gush Emumin settlers attempted to take over an Arab house in the Old City of Jerusalem, but the Israeli police forced the settlers out. Kiryat Arba settlers invaded the property of Mr. Fahd Ahmad Yacoub Jaber from Hebron and uprooted his trees. A dozen private cars and buses in Beit Manina and a cinema in East Jerusalem were damaged by a group calling itself "Terror against Terror". The same group had claimed responsibility for the assassination attempts against the West Bank Mayor in June 1980. (Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January, 22-28 January, 19-25 February, 5-11 March)

139. Mr. Othman Abdel Karim from Deir Astya (Nablus area) was attacked by Israeli settlers from the "Yaghir" settlement. Mr. Lutfy Abdul Latif Jaber, from Kafer Labad complained to the police that an Israeli settler from Karney Shomoron had uprooted 17 olive trees on his land. The Da'ana family, whose house is located on the boundary of the Israeli settlement of Kiryat Arba in Hebron, complained that unidentified persons threw grenades at their house; they also reported harassment by Kiryat Arba settlers who allegedly tried to dispossess them from their house and their land. (Ma'ariv, Al Ittihad 5 January; Ha'aretz, 2 February; Asha'b, 6 January; Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January, 26 February-4 March 1982).

140. Kiryat Arba settlers held prayers at the Patriarch Cave in Hebron for several weeks without any interference from the Muslim Waqf representatives who administer the Mosque. A group of settlers broke into the Al Aqsa Mosque and attempted to hold prayers there. The Israeli police arrested a Yeshiva student for allegedly preparing to set fire to the Al Aqsa Mosque. Kiryat Arba Yeshiva students burst into the Temple Mount area and held prayers there. (Ha'aretz, 5 February, 3, 4, 16 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 22-28 January, 26 February-
4 March, 5-11 March, 12-18 March)

141. Settlers from Ofra settlement stoned several Arab houses in Ain Yabrud. In Bani Naim, armed settlers attacked residents, firing into the air. In Nablus, settlers were summoned by the police who were investigating the damage done to 300 car tyres. In Ramallah, settlers travelling in a bus threw stones at local cars. (Ha'aretz, 6 May; Asha'b,
25 April; Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May)

142. Seventy Kahane followers, the leader of the Kach movement, tried to break into the Al Aqsa Mosque. Threatening letters signed by "Kahana" and the "Village Leagues" were sent on several occasions to the Supreme Muslim Council in East Jerusalem, warning not to oppose Jewish prayers on the Temple Mount and threatening with explosions in the mosques. The Nablus and Dura municipalities received similar letters warning them to stop inciting people to demonstrate and oppose the civilian administration. The Bir Zeit Students' Board and the teaching staff of a secondary school in El Bireh received threatening letters signed by "Kahana" and the "Israeli Security Department". Subsequently, the newspapers Asha'b and Al Fajr received identical letters. Mr. Ahmed Lutfi Osman, Mayor of Beitunina, received a letter threatening to kill or kidnap him if he persisted in rejecting the civil
administration. (Asha'b, 27, 28 April, 3, 4, 13, 14, 26 May, 8 July; Ha'aretz, 10 May,
6 June; Jerusalem Post, 7 June)

143. A 50-year-old inhabitant of Hebron, who owns land in Kiryat Arba, alleged that settlers from that town beat him and threatened him with firearms when he objected to their working on his land. Israeli settlers erected barbed wire around 50 dunums of land belonging to Mukhtar Abu Omar Al Khatib from the village of Deir Mitham. More than 40 Hebron families subsequently filed a complaint regarding the destruction by settlers and army forces' bulldozers of 1,000 dunams of their lands for the purpose of cutting a road to link Kiryat Arba with "Harsina Hill", where the "Build Your Own House" housing project of Kiryat Arba is located. Residents of A-Dahaysha refugee camps were attacked by settlers, while settlers in the Tulkarem area seized 300 olive trees and Kdumim settlers claimed 800 dunams of land from inhabitants of Rumein and Anatra villages. (Jerusalem Post, 13, 20 May;
Ha'aretz, 20, 30 May; Al Ittihad, 21 May; Asha'b, 30 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 28 May-3 June)

144. Israeli settlers fired at students from Al Amari refugee camp near Ramallah, who returned fire with stones, smashing car windows. Four Arabs were attacked by 25 Israelis in the Musrara quarter in East Jerusalem, who beat them up and smashed their car windows. A number of Kiryat Arba settlers invaded the Ibrahim Mosque in Hebron, after having threatened an Israeli soldier. Settlers also tried to pray at the Al Nasra Mosque. The legal counsellor of the Israeli Government stated that West Bank settlers had the right to use their arms only in self-defence. (Asha'b, 14, 27 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 28 May-3 June)

145. Israeli settlers in Jinsafut village, near Tulkarem, worked on 200 dunams of land belonging to local villagers which had been allocated to the Emmanuel settlement. Kiryat Arba settlers destroyed cultivated lands belonging to inhabitants of Hebron; they also constructed a road south of Hebron, despite an order nisi granted by the Military Appeals Board to the villages. (Asha'b, 31 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 June)

(ii) Administrative detention

146. The Military Government decided to extend the administrative detention of five Druze notables from the northern Golan Heights by another three months. They had been put under administrative detention three months earlier on charges of inciting against the State of Israel and establishing bodies that acted against the Military Government. (Ha'aretz, 2, 3, 4, September; Al Ittihad, 22 September 1981)

147. As a result of their opposition to the annexation of the Golan Heights by the Israeli Government, 11 Druze leaders were put under administrative detention in Ramla prison for a period of three months by order of the Minister of Defence, Mr. Sharon. They are: Suliman Abu Salah, Mahmoud Safadi, Kamal Kanj Abu Salah, Asad Safadi, Jamal Babshish, Abdulhah El Kish, Kanj Abu Salah, Saliman Safridine, Arafa Safadi, Ayal Hussein Abu Isbul and Adal Hussein. (Ha'aretz, 25 and 26 February; 2, 5, 14 March; Jerusalem Post, 4 March; Ma'ariv,
3 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 19-25 February; 5-11-19-25 March)

148. Two Druze leaders, Mr. Faher Eddin Hassan from Majdal Shams and Mr. Bakhish Abu Ali Muhammad from Ma'asada, were put under administrative detention orders for a period of one month. This brought, at one time, according to the sources, the number of Golan Druzes under administrative detention to 15. They are accused, inter alia, of agitation against the State of Israel and disturbing the peace. The Northern Region Commander subsequently extended the detention of four detainees: Mr. Mahmud Safady, Sheikh Kamal Kanj, Sheikh Suleiman Kanj and Mr. Kank Abu Salah. On 28 June, it was reported that "the last six administrative detainees from Golan Druze villages, who were arrested four months ago" had been released. They are: Sheikh Kamal Kanj, Sheikh Suleiman Kanj, Mr. Kanj Kanj;
Mr. Mahmoud Safady; Mr. Hassan Katach Eddin, from Majdal Shams, and Mr. Mahmud Aly Bakhish from Ma'asada. The sources added that "at present there are no more Druze residents of the Golan Heights held in administrative detention". (Ha'aretz, 3, 14 May; Jerusalem Post,
14 May, 21 June; Ma'ariv, 21, 28 June; Asha'b, 3, 4, 14 May, 28, 29 June; Al Ittihad,
18 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 9-15 July)


(d) Incidents

149. The following is a selection of reports of incidents recorded by the Special Committee during the period covered by the report. It is not to be considered exhaustive as it is intended to reflect the frequency, location and type of such events. The "remarks" column is meant to assist in giving an indication of the context of such reports.

150. The following abbreviations of the names of newspapers are used in the table:

AF Al Fajr Weekly
ALQ Al Quds
ASH Asha'b
H Ha'aretz
JP Jerusalem Post
M Ma'ariv
YA Yediot Aharonot

4. Annexation and settlement

(a) Policy

151. The Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Simha Ehrlich, was quoted as saying: "Sinai must go, but other settlements will stay". The Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Michael Dekel, stated that construction in "Judea and Samaria" during the coming four years would be in the hands of public and private companies, building 8,000 apartments per year beginning in 1982. (Jerusalem Post, 17 September 1981)

152. The Israeli Ministry of Agriculture was reported to be preparing a new settlement strategy in the occupied territories. In the past, the settlement drive was directed principally by a small Israeli sector and ideologically aligned with the Gush Emunim Tehiya Party and the Likud. The future strategy was to concentrate on the Israeli population at large. The Government of Israel was to aim at strengthening urban settlements in the West Bank with special focus on thickening the 1967 border areas. The Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Michael Dekel, stated that the settlement policy in "Judea and Samaria" was determined by the Government of Israel alone and that the Jewish Agency was only an executive body. (Jerusalem Post, 6 October; Ha'aretz, 6 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 October 1981)

153. The Minister of Defence, Mr. Ariel Sharon, was quoted as saying that "establishing settlements Eretz Yisrael does more to assure the future of the Jewish People than any written word or signed treaty". Subsequently, Mr. Sharon stated that "Israel will continue its policy of establishing settlements in the West Bank". He also stated "In the land of Israel from the River Jordan to the Mediterranean, Jews and Arabs have been living together for hundreds of years". (Ha'aretz, 16 October; Jerusalem Post, 16-25 October; Guardian,
28 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

154. The Joint Settlement Committee of the Government and the Zionist Federation decided to establish three new settlements in the Katif bloc (Gaza Strip): two outposts in northern Gaza and one settlement in southern Gaza. It was also decided to accelerate the creation of a regional centre in the Katif area and to complete the construction of the settlements Netzarim, Morag, Gadid and Gan-Or. The Committee decided to build two new roads in the Gush-Adumin area (near Ma'aleh Adumin) and in the Yatir area in southern Mt. Hebron, which was to be connected to Gush-Adumin and the Alon road. The Committee approved an earlier decision by the Settlement Committee to build a new settlement "Natafim" in Samaria, between Elkana

INCIDENTS

SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1981
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
1 September




2 September

3, 4 and 7
September



8 September


8 September

8 September





12 September




15 September





17 September



2 October


4 October



3 October



17 October
Golan Heights




Majdel Shams
Golan Heights

West Bank
Gaza Strip
Jerusalem


Ramallah


Ramallah

Nablus





East-
Jerusalem



Bethlehem





Shu'fat (north of
Jerusalem

Nablus


Shu'fat



Gaza



East Jerusalem
Total strike




Stone-throwing


General strike




Stone-throwing


Car set on fire

Strike





Hand-grenade
thrown



Sit-in strike





Stone-throwing



Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing



Demonstrations



Hand-grenade
H: 3 Sept. 1981
ASH:12 Aug. 1981
ASH: 3 Sept. 1981
Al Ittihad:3,4 Sept.1981

ASH: 3 Sept. 1981


ASH, H: 4 Sept. 1981
JP, Le Monde: 8 Sept. 1981


ASH: 9 Sept. 1981
AF: 13-19 Sept. 1981

ASH: 9 Sept. 1981

AF: 13-19 Sept. 1981





JP, M: 13 Sept. 1981
H: 14 Sept. 1981
AF: 20-26 Sept. 1981


AF: 20-26 Sept. 1981





JP: 18 Sept. 1981



AF: 4-10 Oct. 1981


ASH: 5 Oct. 1981



AF: 11-17 Nov. 1981



AF: 23-29 Oct. 1981
JP: 18 Oct. 1981
In schools to protest the dismissal of several teachers


At Israeli cars; four Arabs arrested

In protest against Israeli excavations under the Al Aqsa Mosque. The strike was called by the Supreme Moslem Council

At Israeli bus; damage reported


By unidentified persons

By students of Jama'een school in protest against the cancellation of the "science stream" in their programme by the Israeli authorities

At foreign pilgrims; one person killed and 28 injured; 15 Arabs subsequently arrested and later released

By students of the El Khadr girls' school to protest against the lack of sufficient
classrooms and overcrowding of existing ones

At bus; one passenger injured



Israeli military forces closed down several shops

At Israeli bus; it was reportedly the second incident of its kind within 10 days

By students against the proposed "civil administration scheme" in the territories

At Israeli vehicle in the Old City; three
Israelis were injured; seven people arrested

OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1981
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
18 October



20 October





?



26 October





25 October


25 October



1 November



1 November







1 November


1 November



2 November


2 November
Burka
Beit Imrin


Nablus





Bir Zeit



East Jerusalem




Jerusalem area

Jalazoun
refugee camp
(Ramallah)

Ramallah



Hebron







Tarqumiya
(Hebron)

Ramallah
El Bireh


Beir Sahur


A-Dahaysha
refugee camp
2 hand-grenades
hurled


Strike





Demonstration



Car set afire





Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing



Car set on fire



Settler stabbed







Throwing of
hand-grenade

Stone-throwing,
tyre burning


Molotov cocktail
thrown

Stone-throwing
JP, ASH: 19 Oct. 1981
AF: 23-29 Oct. 1981


AF: 23-29 Oct. 1981





JP: 21 Oct. 1981



JP, H: 27 Oct. 1981





AF: 30 Oct.-5 Nov. 1981
ASH: 26 Oct. 1981

Ditto



AF: 6-12 Nov. 1981



JP: 1,2,3 Nov. 1981
M: 1, 4 Nov. 1981
YA: 1 Nov. 1981
H: 2 Nov. 1981
ASH: 5 Nov. 1981
AF: 6-12 Nov. 1981


JP: 2 Nov. 1981
AF: 6-12 Nov. 1981

H, JP: 2 Nov. 1981



ASH, H: 3 Nov. 1981


ASH: 3 Nov. 1981
At Israeli bus carrying Jewish settlers; a curfew was reportedly imposed

By teachers and students of Al Najah University to protest against the dismissal of four staff members and the warning of 11 others

By university students to commemorate Mr. Majd Abu Sharar's death

Car of Mr. Hanna Sinora, editor of Al Fajr, was set afire. A year ago a bomb was placed outside the paper's editorial offices

At Israeli vehicle in Ramot
settlement

At Israeli military vehicle



Unidentified people set on fire the car of trade unionist Mr. Adnan Dagher

Mr. David Kopulsky fired back at the attackers and wounded two local children. A curfew was imposed on the area and lifted after two days



Nine persons reported injured


At Israeli cars; damage reported at Israeli security personnel

To mark the 64th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration

"

NOVEMBER 1981
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
2 November






2 November


7 November





9 November





10 November




10 November


10 November




10 November



7 November



11 November

11 November

12 November



12 November


12 November




14 November



14 November


14 November


15 November

17 November



17 November



17 November








18 November


19 November



19 November


19 November


21 November






22 November

Jalazun
Qalandiya
refugee camps
Bir Zeit
Bethlehem
Anabta

East Jerusalem

El Bireh
Anabta
Bethlehem
Ramallah
Nablus

West Bank
East Jerusalem



Jalazoun
refugee camp
Ramallah


Bethlehem
Beit Jala

Beit Sahur




Kalkilya



Sair, Yatta



Hebron

Ramallah

A-Dahaysha
refugee camp


Dhahiriya
Yatta, Dura

Nablus,
Bethlehem,
East Jerusalem

Tulkarem
Nur A Shams
refugee camp

Abud/Ramallah
district

Beit Sahur


Nablus

Beit Sahur



Beit Surif
Bethlehem area

Bil'in-
Ramallah







Bani Naim


Jalazoun
refugee camp


Ramallah
Hebron, Jenin

A-Dahaysha
refugee camp

Halhul
Bani Naim





Jerusalem
Ramallah
Demonstrations,
stone-throwing,
tyre burning




Business strike


Demonstrations





General strike





Stone-throwing




Demonstrations,
business strike

Molotov
cocktail thrown



Molotov
cocktail thrown


Demonstration,
school strike


Stone-throwing

Bottle-throwing

Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning


Demonstrations


Demonstrations




Molotov cocktail
thrown


Stone-throwing


Throwing of
petrol bomb

Stone-throwing

Demonstration,
business strike


Stone-throwing



Assassination








Stone-throwing


Demonstration



Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing


Cars vandalized






Demonstration


ASH, H, JP: 3,4 Nov.1981
AF: 6-12 Nov. 1981
Times: 2 Nov. 1981




H, JP: 3 Nov. 1981


H, JP: 8,9 Nov. 1981





H, JP: 10,11 Nov. 1981





JP, Times, H: 11 Nov. 1981



JP, Times, H: 11 Nov. 1981

JP: 11,15 Nov. 1981
H: 11 Nov. 1981



JP: 11,15 Nov. 1981



AF: 20-26 Nov. 1981



H: 12 Nov. 1981

H: 12 Nov. 1981

H, JP: 13 Nov. 1981



H, JP: 13 Nov. 1981


JP: 13 Nov. 1981




H: 13 Nov. 1981



JP: 15 Nov. 1981
H: 15,18 Nov. 1981

JP, H: 16 Nov. 1981
AF: 20-26 Nov. 1981

JP, H: 16 Nov. 1981

H, Al Ittihad:
17 Nov. 1981
AF: 20-26 Nov. 1981

H, Al Ittihad: 17 Nov. 1981


H: 18,19,25 Nov. 1981
JP: 19,23,24 Nov. 1981
International Herald
Tribune, Times and Guardian:18 Nov. 1981




JP: 19 Nov. 1981


JP: 20 Nov. 1981



JP: 20 Nov. 1981


ASH: 20 Nov. 1981


ASH: 23 Nov. 1981
H: 23 Nov. 1981





ASH, JP: 23 Nov. 1981


To mark the 64th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration. In Bir Zeit the security forces used tear gas against the students who tried to enter the
university

"


To protest against the closure of Bir Zeit University. The demonstrations were dispersed by security personnel.


To protest against the closure of Bir Zeit University. In East Jerusalem 15 youths were arrested on suspicion of incitement to strike.

At army bus; a girl soldier reported injured



Protesting against the closure of Bir Zeit University

Protesting against the closure of Bir Zeit University, at military vehicle; temporary curfew imposed

At Israeli car; two persons wounded; temporary curfew imposed

Against the village league system; troops fired at the demonstrators

At Israeli patrol

At Israeli patrol

At bus with Israeli settlers.
Security forces welded shut seven stores




By students




Searches and arrests reported



At Israeli car


At Israeli buses; curfew imposed

10 persons reportedly arrested

Following the blowing up of nine houses by the Israeli security forces

At surveyors of the Jewish National Fund; a curfew was subsequently imposed

Of Mr. Yusuf Aly Al Khatib, head of the "Village League" Association in Ramallah, who died a few days after being shot. His son, Mr. Kazem Al Khatib, was killed instantly. A curfew was imposed on the areas and subsequently lifted

At Israeli army bus; damage reported

By students; border police fired tear gas to disperse the demonstrators

At military vehicles


Two persons arrested


Nine cars belonging to inhabitants of Halhul and Bani Naim were destroyed, allegedly because they demonstrated against the seizure of their lands

Against the detention of three public figures, Messrs. Haniya, Katouh and Ashai'by, and against the collective punishment inflicted upon the population of the occupied territories

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 1981
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
22 November



23 November







25 November


25 November

26 November


28 November



29 November



29 November




29 November


29 November

30 November




1 December



1 December


1/2 December
Bani Naim



Beit Sahur







East Jerusalem

Nablus

Ramallah


Bir Zeit



Kalandiya
refugee camp


Ramallah




A-Dahaysha
refugee camp

El Bireh

Qalandiya
refugee camp
(Ramallah)


A-Dahaysha
refugee camp


Beit Sahour


Tarqumiya
(Hebron)
Demonstrations,
stone-throwing


Arson







Sit-in strike


Stone-throwing

Demonstration


Demonstration



Stone-throwing



Rock-throwing,
demonstrations



Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing

Stone-throwing




Stone-throwing,
demonstrations


Car-burning


Hand-grenade
thrown
JP, H: 23 Nov. 1981



H: 24 Nov. 1981







JP, H: 26 Nov. 1981


H: 26 Nov. 1981

JP: 27 Nov. 1981


H: 29 Nov. 1981
JP: 30 Nov. 1981


JP, M, H: 30 Nov. 1981



JP, H: 30 Nov. 1981




JP, H: 30 Nov. 1981


JP, H: 30 Nov. 1981

JP, H: 1 Dec. 1981
AF: 4-10 Dec. 1981



ASH: 2 Dec. 1981
AF: 4-10 Dec. 1981


AF: 4-10 Dec. 1981


ASH: 2 Dec. 1981
At military vehicles; security forces used tear gas to disperse the demonstrators

Tent of Mr. George Kumsiyeh, whose house had been demolished last week, was burnt by unidentified persons; Mr. Walid Kumsiyeh, his son, had been detained after the demolition of the house

By journalists against the closure of Al Fajr newspaper

At Israeli car; damage reported

By youths; some arrests reported

By local Arabs together with 50 Israelis against the closure of Bir Zeit University

At the car of Mr. Bishara Kumsiyeh, head of the Bethlehem "Village League"

To commemorate the adoption of the "Partition resolution". Security forces used tear gas to disperse the demonstration

At bus and at border police vehicle

At Israeli truck

At a border police patrol. According to one source, a large number of youths were arrested

Israeli forces used tear gas to disperse the demonstrators; a number of youths were arrested

A similar incident occurred on
3 December

At a cafeteria; one person killed; nine persons were injured; a curfew was
imposed

DECEMBER 1981
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
1/2 December


2/17 December












3 December






3 December




5 December


5 December










?







7 December










8 December







8 December




8 December


8 December


9 December








10 December






10 December



12 December

12 December

14 December



14 December


15 December
Ramallah


Gaza Strip












A-Dahaysha
refugee camp
(Bethlehem)




Shuweika
(Tulkarem)



Burqa (Jenin)


Gaza










Bill'in
(Ramallah)






Rafah










Ramallah
El Bireh
Halhul
Jalazun
refugee camp
Qalandiya
refugee camp

Bein Hanun
Jabaliya
refugee camp


Rafah


Al Najah
University

Khan Yunis
Beit Hanun
Jabaliya
refugee camp
El Bireh
A-Dahaysha
refugee camp
Nablus

Tulkarem
Anabta
Jenin
Salfit
Qalqilya
Tubas

El Bireh



Khan Yunis

Hebron

Kalandiya
refugee camp


Al Najah
University

Golan Heights
Demonstration


General strike












Stone-throwing






Stone-throwing




Hand-grenade explosion

Demonstrations










Gun shots fired







Demonstrations










Stone-throwing,
demonstrations






Demonstrations




Tyre-burning


Demonstrations


Stone-throwing;
tyre-burning







Strike






Stone-throwing



Demonstrations

Stone-throwing

Demonstration,
stone-throwing


Demonstration


Total strike
ASH: 2 Dec. 1981
AF: 4-10 Dec. 1981

JP: 2,3,4,6,9,11,13,
17 Dec. 1981
H: 2,3,6,7,8, 9,
17 Dec. 1981
M: 3,6 Dec. 1981
ASH: 9 Dec. 1981
Al Ittihad: 4 Dec. 1981
AF: 11-17, 18-25 Dec. 1981




H: 4 Dec. 1981






M: 4 Dec. 1981




H: 6 Dec. 1981


M, JP: 6 Dec. 1981
H: 7 Dec. 1981









JP, H: 7 Dec. 1981







JP, H: 8,9,13 Dec. 1981
ASH, Al Ittihad:
8 Dec. 1981
AF: 11-17 Dec. 1981







AF: 11-17 Dec. 1981







JP, ASH, H: 9 Dec. 1981




H: 9 Dec. 1981


H: 9 Dec. 1981
AF: 11-16 Dec. 1981

H, JP: 10 Dec. 1981
AF: 11-17 Dec. 1981







AF: 11-17 Dec. 1981
H: 11 Dec. 1981





H: 11 Dec. 1981



JP, H: 13 Dec. 1981

AF: 18-25 Dec. 1981

JP: 15 Dec. 1981



JP: 1,5 Dec. 1981
AF: 18-25 Dec. 1981

H: 16,17,21 Dec. 1981
JP: 16,18,20,21 Dec.1981
ASH: 16 Dec. 1981
AF: 18-25 Dec. 1981
Observed intermittently by merchants, students, lawyers, doctors and pharmacists to protest against the imposition of excise taxes and the implementation of the civilian
administration. The length of the total strike by doctors was 20 days. For a period during the strike Gaza had been declared a closed area by the military authorities

At Egged bus on its way from Kiryat Arba to Jerusalem. Bus passenger chased the youths and injured Muhana Zariry (19); four youths were subsequently arrested

At Israeli car by two local youths. One Arab from the village of Baqa Al Gharbiya slightly injured

No damage or injuries reported


Security forces used tear gas to disperse demonstrators; 20 youths were arrested on suspicion of incitement, tyre-burning and illegal demonstrations. According to one report, a total of 400 pupils from Gaza Strip schools had been arrested after clashes with security forces

At house of local families. According to the sources, the shots had been fired by collaborators with the Israeli authorities who recently had supplied arms to members of "village leagues"

Dispersed by security forces, who fired at the demonstrators, killing Mahmud Abu Nahla (17) and wounding Ussama Mohammed Nasser (10), Jomal Zayyid Muammer (17) and Mohammed Yusuf Afrudan (14). According to the Mayor of Rafah, 400 to 500 local youths were taken into custody. A curfew was imposed

In sympathy with the strike in the Gaza Strip






Soldiers opened fire injuring four children and a woman;
200 persons were reportedly arrested

A number of suspects were arrested

Dispersed by security forces using tear gas

At Israeli vehicles; 14 youths were reportedly arrested. Israeli security forces dispersed the stone-throwers with tear gas




In sympathy with the Gaza population





At security personnel; dispersed by security forces using tear gas

Several students arrested

At Israeli military vehicle

In protest against the extradition of Zind Abu Ayn
to Israel

Dispersed by Israeli forces using tear gas

In protest against the annexation of the Golan Heights by the Israeli Government

DECEMBER 1981/JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
24 December





24 December


26 December



30 December


30 December


2 January



17 January



25 January




26 January



30 January



1 February






10-11
February
Hebron
Nablus




Yatta (Hebron)

Azzun



Beit Safafa


Nablus


Rafah



Attil village
(Tulkaren
area)

Ramallah




Gaza



Majdal Shams
(Golan)


Hebron






East Jerusalem
Strike





Assault


Assault



Firing


Hand-grenade
thrown

Stone-throwing,
road-blocks


Stone-throwing



Shooting accident



Arson



Demonstration



Two hand-
grenades thrown





Commercial
strike
H, JP: 25 Dec. 1981





H: 15 Dec. 1981


M: 27 Dec. 1981



ASH: 31 Dec. 1981


ASH: 31 Dec. 1981


H: 3 Jan. 1982
JP: 4 Jan. 1982
AF: 15-21 Jan. 1982

AF: 22-28 Jan. 1982



JP: 26 Jan. 1982
AF: 29 Jan.-4 Feb. 1982



AF: 29 Jan.-4 Feb. 1982



H: 31 Jan. 1982



JP: 2 Feb. 1982
AF: 5-11 Feb. 1982





JP, H: 12 Feb. 1982
AF: 12-18 Feb. 1982
In protest against the expro- priation of the "Romano house" in Hebron and the implementa- tion of civilian administration in the territories

On two local Arabs, who were seriously injured

On landowner from Azzun in order to force him to a land transaction

At house of school director; no
casualties reported

At a military car


Rioters were dispersed by security forces; temporary curfew imposed

By unidentified persons



Yusuf Al Khatib (17), grandson of the former head of the Ramallah "Village League", killed

Gaza Red Crescent Society building set alight by unidentified persons

By 200 Druzes from the Golan Heights protesting against the Israeli annexation

At the house of a Hebron resident; the Dara'a family claims that it had been threatened in the past by settlers who wished to expand the Kiryat Arba settlement

In protest against demands by the tax authorities for back- payment of value-added tax; two Arab youths were reported arrested for allegedly inciting merchants to close their shops

FEBRUARY 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
14 February








15 February







15 February

16 February




16 February



16 February


16 February



16 February


17 February



17 February






17 February


17 February



17 February


17 February


18 February


18 February


18 February


18 February

18 February


18 February


18 February

18 February



18 February


18 February




18 February



20 February



21 February


21 February



21 February
Golan Heights








Bir Zeit







Bir Zeit

Nablus




Ramallah



Bir Zeit


El Bireh



Battir/Khadr
(Bethlehem)

Nablus



Ramallah






Ramallah


Kalandiya
refugee camp


El Bireh


Hawara
(Nablus)

West Bank


Bethlehem


Hawara
(Nablus)

Bir Zeit

Ramallah


Beit Jala


El Bireh

Nablus



Kalandiya
refugee camp

Ofra




Majdal Shams



Ramallah



Jabaliya
refugee camp

Bir Zeit/
Ramallah
El Bireh

Jericho
Strike








Attack







Stone-throwing

Stone-throwing




Demonstrations,
stone-throwing


Demonstrations


Demonstrations



Demonstrations


Shooting
incident


Demonstration






Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing



Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing
tyre-burning

General strike


Stone-throwing,
demonstrations

Stone-throwing


Tyre-burning

Erecting stone
barricades

Stone-throwing,
demonstrations

Stone-throwing

Partial strike,
disruption of
classes

Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing




Assault



Demonstration



Strike


Stone-throwing,
blocking roads


Demonstrations
JP: 14,15,19,21,22,23,24,
28 Feb. 1982
H: 14,15,16,17,18,19,21,
22, 25 Feb. 1982
AF: 12-18 Feb. 1982
19-25 Feb. 1982
26 Feb. 1982-4 Mar. 1982


JP: 16,18 Feb. 1982
H: 16,17,18 Feb. 1982
AF: 19-25 Feb. 1982





JP, H: 16 Feb. 1982

AF: 19-25 Feb. 1982
H: 17 Feb. 1982



H: 17 Feb. 1982
AF: 19-25 Feb. 1982


H: 17 Feb. 1982


H: 17 Feb. 1982



H: 17 Feb. 1982


AF: 19-25 Feb. 1982



AF: 19-25 Feb. 1982






H: 18 Feb. 1982


H: 18 Feb. 1982



AF: 19-25 Feb. 1982
H: 18 Feb. 1982

H: 18 Feb. 1982


H, JP: 19 Feb. 1982
AF: 26 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982

H, JP: 19 Feb. 1982
AF: 26 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982

JP, H: 19 Feb. 1982


H: 19 Feb. 1982

H: 19 Feb. 1982


H, JP: 19 Feb. 1982


H: 19 Feb. 1982

H, JP: 19 Feb. 1982



H, JP: 19 Feb. 1982


H, JP: 19 Feb. 1982
AF: 25 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982



JP: 19 Feb. 1982



H: 21 Feb. 1982



AF: 25 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982


H, JP: 22 Feb. 1982



H, JP: 22 Feb. 1982
By 3000 Druzes in protest against the arrest of four Druze religious leaders on suspicion of inciting against the State of Israel. It was reported that the population vowed to strike for an
indefinite period

By university students on Israeli education official,
Mr. Gabay, who was seriously wounded. Bir Zeit University
was subsequently closed by Israeli authorities for a period of two months

At Israeli vehicle

At Israeli vehicle; the military authorities sealed off the area and shot bullets in the air to disperse the crowd

At Israeli trucks; the windscreens of one of the trucks were smashed

Dispersed by Israeli troops using tear gas

A total of 50 youths were arrested on suspicion of taking part in demonstrations




A 55-year-old woman was shot by Israeli troops; scores of stu- dents were reportedly arrested

By students at the teacher training institute. Border police dispersed the demonstrators by lobbing tear-gas bombs, the use of clubs and firing into the air

At military vehicle. Two sol- diers were wounded in the head

At military vehicle. Dispersed by soldiers who threw tear gas and fired into the air

"





To protest against the renewed closure of Bir Zeit University

At Israeli soldiers


At Israeli troops










At military vehicles

By high school students in protest against the closure of Bir Zeit University

At bus carrying Jewish settlers

At Israeli car. According to another source, Jewish settlers from Ofra stoned Arab cars in Ramallah

On pro-Israeli Druze; injuries reported; two persons subsequently arrested

In solidarity with Bir Zeit University; five demonstrators were detained for 48 hours

By students in solidarity with Bir Zeit University

At Israeli patrols. Dispersed by security forces


Dispersed by security forces


FEBRUARY/MARCH 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
21 February



22 February



22 February



22 February


22 February








24 February



24 February



27 February




26/27
February





22 February



1-31 March
Nablus



Nablus



Nablus



Nablus


Abu Dis








Majdal Shams
(Golan
Heights)

Kiryat Arba
(Hebron)


Gaza




East Jerusalem





Bil'in
(Ramallah)


Golan Heights
Demonstrations



Stone-throwing



Stone-throwing



Stone-throwing


Strike








Stone-throwing



Hand-grenade
thrown


Tyre-slashing




Tyre-slashing






Firing into the
air; stone- throwing

Strike-strike
H, JP: 22 Feb. 1982



AF: 25 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982



AF: 25 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982



AF: 25 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982


AF: 25 Feb.-4 Mar. 1982








H: 25 Feb. 1982



H: 25 Feb. 1982



AF: 5-11 March 1982




AF: 5-11 March 1982
JP: 28 Feb. 1982





AF: 5-11 March 1982



H: 1,8,9,12,16,19,21,
25 Mar. 1982
JP: 2,3,5,7,12,14,17,
19,23,24 Mar. 1982
AF: 5-11, 19-25 Mar.1982
26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982
2-8 Mar. 1982
Three persons were arrested on
suspicion of inciting to demonstrate

At Egged bus; damage reported; two suspects arrested for interrogation

At car of Israeli settler from
Beqa'ot settlement (Jordan Valley)

At Israeli patrol; one youth arrested

One-week strike (14-21 Feb.)
ended at the Science College after the students obtained assurances from the Council for Higher Education that their complaints about bad conditions at the campus would be looked into

At a journalist's car



At house inhabited by Arabs from Hebron; exploded without causing damage

Of cars belongiong to local
doctors. A doctor's car was burnt in Khan Yunis one week earlier

Tyres of 6 cars and 5 buses
were slashed and the windows broken. The vandalization was
attributed to an organization of Israeli settlers called "Terror against Terror"

By Ramallah "Village League" members


Strike by the Druze community against the Israeli annexation continued throughout the month. Attempts to settle the dispute failed, and was reported that if the Israeli authorities imposed new Israeli identity cards on them, the community would undertake a hunger-strike

MARCH 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
1 March




2 March









2 March





4 March





4 March






6 March




6 March








5 March



7 March

















7 March



7 March






7 March


7 March


8 March



8 March





8 March





8 March





9 March










9 March



9 March





9 March



9 March


9 March




9 March



10 March







10 March



10 March


11 March




11 March


11 March

11 March


13 March


13 March



14 March







14 March



14 March






15 March






16 March





16 March


16 March

17 March
Rafah




East
Jerusalem








Bir Zeit





Nablus





Ramallah
El Bireh
Bethlehem/
Beit Sahur
Aqbat-Jabr
refugee camp

Nablus




Nablus








Nablus



Nablus

















Nablus



Hebron






Ramallah


El Bireh


Ramallah



Nablus





Bethlehem





Nablus





Bethlehem/
Beit Jala









Ramallah



Hebron





Nablus



El Bireh


Bethlehem




Shu'fat
(East
Bethlehem)

Nablus/
Bethlehem






A-Dahaysha
refugee camp
(Bethlehem)

East
Jerusalem

Jalazoun
refugee camp,
Rama refugee
camp

Nablus


Ramallah

A-Dahaysha
refugee camp

Beit Horon


Nablus/
Ramallah,
Tulkarem

A-Dahaysha
refugee camp






Al Amary
refugee camp
(Ramallah)

Jalazoun,
Qalandiya
refugee camp
(Ramallah)



Bethlehem






Ramallah





Halhul


Hebron

Shu'fat
(East
Jerusalem)
Tyre-burning,
stone-throwing



Clash









Demonstrations





Stone-throwing





Demonstrations






Stone-throwing




Demonstrations,
stone-throwing







Stone-throwing



Demonstrations

















Stone-throwing



Stone-throwing,
demonstration





Disturbances


Disturbances


Stone-throwing



General strike





Demonstrations





Demonstrations





Stone-throwing,
demonstrations









Stone-throwing,
erecting of
road-blocks

Stone-throwing





Demonstrations



Window-smashing


Stone-throwing,
erecting of
road-blocks


Erecting of
road-blocks


Demonstrations







Rock-throwing



Demonstration,
tyre-burning

Stone-throwing




Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing

Car-smashing


Stone-throwing


Demonstrations,
blocking roads,
throwing stones

Stone-throwing







Stone-throwing



Tyre-burning,
road-blocking





Demonstrations






Demonstrations,
rock throwing




Stone-throwing


Demonstration

Tyre-burning,
erecting
barricades
JP: 2 Mar. 1982




H, JP: 3,5 Mar. 1982









H: 3,5 Mar. 1982





JP, H: 5 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982




H: 5 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982





JP, H: 7 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982



JP, H: 7 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982







JP, H: 7 Mar. 1982



JP, H: 8 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982
















JP: 8 Mar. 1982
H: 8, 9 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982

H, JP: 8 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982





H, JP: 8 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982

H, JP: 8 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982

H, JP: 9 Mar. 1982



JP, H: 9 Mar. 1982





H, JP: 9 Mar. 1982





H, JP: 9 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982




JP, H: 10 Mar. 1982










JP, H: 10 Mar. 1982



H: 10 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982




JP, H: 10 Mar. 1982



H: 10 Mar. 1982


H: 10 Mar. 1982




JP: 10 Mar. 1982



JP, H: 11 Mar. 1982
AF: 12-18 Mar. 1982






H, JP: 11 Mar. 1982



H: 11 Mar. 1982


H: 12 Mar. 1982




H: 12 Mar. 1982


H: 12 Mar. 1982

H: 12 Mar. 1982


JP: 14,15 Mar. 1982
H: 14 Mar. 1982

H: 14 Mar. 1982



H: 15,16,18, 19 Mar.1982
JP: 15,19 Mar. 1982
AF: 19-25 Mar. 1982
26 Mar.-1 Apr.1982




JP, H: 15 Mar. 1982



JP, H: 15 Mar. 1982






H: 16 Mar. 1982






JP, H: 17 Mar. 1982





JP, H: 17 Mar. 1982


JP, H: 17 Mar. 1982

H: 18 Mar. 1982
In protest against the pending
Israeli withdrawal from Sinai and the demarcation of the border line through the town

Between Arabs and 13 Jews, who had forced their way through to pray on the Temple Mount. Two people were reported injured; one Arab was stabbed and a Yeshiva student injured in the head by a stone. Subsequently, a commercial and school strike was reported

By secondary school students, in protest against the closure of Bir Zeit University; dispersed by security forces using tear-gas

By Arab youths at the car of an Israeli settler. The settlers fired into the air. The Israeli army subsequently detained several settlers








At Israeli soldiers, who opened fire at the stone-throwers; two Palestinians were wounded, one of them seriously

By secondary school students; Israeli soldiers fired tear-gas into the demonstrators. According to the sources, Israeli soldiers were "justified in opening fire, because they were in real danger"

At car of Israeli settlers from Eilon Moreh, who fired into the air

In protest against the shooting of a Palestinian by Israeli soldiers the previous day. The soldiers fired into the air, injuring an Arab youth. Mr. Or, the Central Region Commander, after an investigation into the incident in which two youths were wounded, concluded that the Israeli troops had acted according "to the procedures and instructions in all stages of the incident". The officer- in-charge had opened fire in the direction of the rioting youths only after the life of the soldiers had been in danger

At Israeli patrol. The Nablus municipality called for a general strike

At the car of the chief of the civilian administration, in protest against the shooting of the youths in Nablus. After the demonstration, 10 students were reportedly detained







At Israeli military vehicles; at Israeli guards; "dozens" of people were reportedly detained

In protest against the shooting of Arab youths; the strike was thwarted by security forces, who welded the shops of striking shopkeepers

By university students; in protest against the shooting of Arab youths in Nablus. The army surrounded the campus and fired tear-gas into the air

By students of Al Najah University; several students were reportedly arrested, as Israeli troops dispersed the demonstrators

By students of the girls' high schools. According to the sources, soldiers forced the students to stay inside the school premises, a new form of collective punishment, until late in the evening. Israeli military sources described the action as "an extended day of study"

At Israeli patrols; a number of female students were injured from the use of tear-gas

At military vehicles by Arab youths following the arrest of 46 students from the polytech- nic college as a result of previous incidents

Israeli troops dispersed the
demonstrators by firing tear- gas and shooting in the air

By schoolgirls; several windows of the school were shattered

At military vehicles by Bethlehem university students; they were dispersed by Israeli troops

Two men were detained after 50 high school students blocked the main Anata-Shu'fat road

Israeli soldiers shot an 18- year-old student, Khaled Al Madani, in the leg in Nablus. In Bethlehem, a student, Suheil Hamad, was hit by a tear-gas
grenade fired at him by an Israeli soldier

At Israeli cars; damage and injuries reported










At vehicle belonging to the prison service

At military vehicle




At a tourist bus; two passen- gers were reported injured

Rioters were dispersed with tear-gas grenades; "dozens" of youths were reportedly arrested

A four-day curfew was imposed; the army conducted house searches and 28 local youths were reportedly arrested on suspicion of stone-throwing at Israeli cars and participation in disturbances

At Egged bus, no damage reported


By students near Bethlehem University; the demonstration was dispersed with tear gas and firing into the air; Jamal Subhy from Beit Safafa was reportedly shot in the knee

Security personnel dispersed the demonstration with tear- gas; a passing Arab boy was hit and seven people sustained injuries as a result of an ensuing crash

At border police vehicle





By students of the Islamic College

Eight youths were reportedly arrested; similar incidents were reported in Jalazoun refugee camp, Ramallah and El Bireh
18 March





20 March









20 March





20 March








20 March







20 March





20 March




20 March








20 March




20 March



21 March




21 March








20 March (?)




21 March


21 March









21 March




21 March









21 March



21 March




21 March




22 March








22 March




22 March






22 March







22 March




22 March






22 March




22 March

22 March




22 March

22 March

23 March







23 March


23 March






23 March

23 March



23 March



23 March




23 March




23 March


23 March








23 March


23 March


23 March



23 March



23 March



23 March


24 March






24 March





24 March





24 March





24 March

24 March


24 March


24 March


24 March


24 March


24 March



24 March



24 March


24 March



24 March


24 March

24 March



25 March









25 March


25 March

25 March



25 March



25 March






25 March


26/27 March








26/27 March


26/27 March

26/27 March



26/27 March



26/27 March



26/27 March




26/27 March


26/27 March




26/27 March



28 March




28 March



28 March


28 March


28 March



28 March


29 March










29 March



29 March


29 March


30 March



30 March



30 March



30 March




30 March




30 March





30 March




30 March



30 March




30 March
Nablus
Ramallah
El Bireh
Hebron, Dura
Beit Sahur

El Bireh









West Bank
(general)




Hebron








Ramallah







Nablus





Halhul/
Bethlehem
East
Jerusalem

Sawiya
(Ramallah)







Wadi Joz
(East
Jerusalem)


Majdal Shams
(Golan
Heights)

Rafah




Ein Ainya








Ma'asada




Hebron


Balata/Askar
refugee camps








Jalazoun/
Qalandiya
refugee camps


El Brihe/
Nablus
Ramallah







Dir Dibwan/
Beit in
(Ramallah)

Bethlehem
Halhul
East
Jerusalem

Hebron




East
Jerusalem
(Old City)






Kalandia,
Jebel
Mukabber,
Anata

Nablus






Deir Ammar
refugee camp
(Ramallah)





Jalazoun
refugee camp
(Ramallah)


Balata
refugee camp
(Nablus)




Hebron/
Bethlehem
Beit Sahur/
Beit Jalla

Jericho

Jenin




Abu Dis

Ofra

Rafah







Gaza


East
Jerusalem





Shu'fat

East
Jerusalem
(Old City)

East
Jerusalem/
East Talpiot

Balata
refugee camp



Ashar refugee
camp (Nablus)



Maaleh Adumin


Tulkarem








Kalandiya/
Al Aroub

Nahal Oz


Dhahiriya



Ramallah/
El Bireh


Nablus



Jericho


Bani Naim






Jenin





Abassan





Rafah





Gaza


Tulkarem


Ashar refugee
camp (Nablus)

Bethlehem


Battir


Ramallah


Jenin/
Bethlehem


Ramallah/
Nablus


Hawara


Beit Jala



East Talpiot


Shu'fat

East Jerusalem


Gaza









Qabitya
(near Jenin)

Hebron

Nablus



Gaza



Shu'fat,
Beit Hanina,
Qalandiya
Anata,
Azzariya,
Wadi Joz

A-Tur (East
Jerusalem)

Nablus








Jenin


Hebron

Sammu,
Dhahiriya
(Mt. Hebron)

Bethlehem,
Beit Jala,
Beit Sahur

Halhul



Taiba
(Ramallah)



Beit Sahur


East
Jerusalem



Hebron,
Bethlehem
Jericho

Ya'abad
(Jenin
district)


Balata
refugee camp


Beit Sahur,
Ramallah

Shu'fat
(Jerusalem)

Hebron



West Bank/
Gaza

Khadr
(Bethlehem)









Nablus



Nablus, Tubas


Azzariya
(Jerusalem)

West Bank,
Gaza Strip/
E. Jerusalem

Kabatiye
(Jenin
district)

Qalandiya
refugee camp


Hebron




El Arub
refugee camp
(Hebron/Beth-
lehem area)

A-Dahaysha
refugee camp




Kalandiya
refugee camp



Beit Safafa



Jerusalem
area



Balata refugee camp/
Jenin,Nablus,
Ramallah
General strike





Demonstration









Business strike





Demonstrations








Demonstrations







Demonstration





Demonstrations




Person shot








Stone-throwing




Overturning of
military jeep


Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning,
blocking roads


Arson








Demonstration




Hand grenade
thrown

Stone-throwing,
demonstrations








Stone-throwing,
demonstrations



Clashes









Buses and cars
set afire


Strikes,
demonstrations



Business strike,
hoisting
Palestinian
flags

Stone-throwing








Placing road-
blocks



Demonstrations






Demonstrations,
stone-throwing






Demonstrations




Demonstrators






Commercial strike, stone- throwing, tyre-burning

Stone-throwing

Incendiary
bottle thrown



Demonstration

Stone-throwing

Demonstrations,
tyre-burning,
road-blocking,
stone-throwing




Strike


Strike






Tyre-burning

Tyre-burning



Stone-throwing



Stone-throwing




Attack




Shots fired


Demonstrations








Stone-throwing


Hand-grenade
thrown

Stone-throwing



Commercial
strike


Demonstrations



Stone-throwing


Demonstrations






Stabbing a
border policeman




Demonstrations





Demonstrations,
stone-throwing,
tyre-burning



Commercial strike

Demonstrations


Demonstrations


Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing


Demonstrations



Tyre-burning,
demonstration,
partial strike

Arson


Tyre-burning,
erecting road-
blocks

Throwing stones,
window-smashing

Stone-throwing

Stone-throwing



Hand-grenade
thrown








Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing

Stone-throwing



Partial
business strike


Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning,
erecting of
road-blocks



Stone-throwing


Demonstrations








Demonstrations


Demonstrations

Demonstrations



Partial strikes,
demonstrations


Stone-throwing



Shooting




Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning



Demonstrations,
tyre-burning


Throwing of
incendiary
bottles and
welding knives

Disturbances



Disturbances


Stone-throwing


Demonstration,
stone-throwing


Strike


Rock-throwing,
tyre-burning









Demonstrations



Demonstrations,
stone-throwing

Shooting


General strike



Stone-throwing



Demonstrations,
stone-throwing


Erecting
road-blocks,
burning tyres,
demonstrations

Stone-throwing




Demonstrations,
tyre-burning




Demonstration




Tyre-burning,
erecting
road-blocks

Erecting
road-blocks



Demonstrations
H, JP: 19 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982




H, JP: 21 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982








H, JP: 21 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982




H: 21 Mar. 1982








H: 21 Mar. 1982







H: 21 Mar. 1982





H: 21 Mar. 1982




JP: 21 Mar. 1982
H: 29 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982
2-8 Apr. 1982





JP: 21 Mar. 1982




JP: 21,22 Mar. 1982
H: 22 Mar. 1982


JP: 22 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



H: 22 Mar. 1982








H: 22 Mar. 1982




JP: 22 Mar. 1982


JP, H: 22 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982








JP, H: 22 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



JP: 22 Mar. 1982
H: 22,29 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982







H: 22 Mar. 1982



H, JP: 22 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



H, JP: 22 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



JP: 23 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982







JP: 23 Mar. 1982




JP, H: 23 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982





JP, H: 23 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982






JP, H: 23 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



JP, H: 23 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar. -1 Apr. 1982





H, JP: 23 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



H, JP: 23 Mar. 1982

H, JP: 23 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



H: 23 Mar. 1982

H: 23 Mar. 1982

JP, H: 24 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982






H: 24 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

H, JP: 24 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982





H, JP: 24 Mar. 1982

H, JP: 24 Mar. 1982



H, JP: 24 Mar. 1982



H, JP: 24 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982
H: 24 Mar. 1982



H: 24 Mar. 1982


H: 24 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982







AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982


H: 24 Mar. 1982


AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



JP: 24 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982


JP: 24 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982


AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982


H, JP: 25 Mar. 1982






H, JP: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982




H, JP: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982




JP, H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982




JP, H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

JP: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

JP, H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

JP, H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

H: 25 Mar. 1982



H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982


H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982


H: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

H, JP: 25 Mar. 1982

H, JP: 25 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982


JP, H: 26 Mar. 1982









H: 26 Mar. 1982


H: 26 Mar. 1982

H: 26 Mar. 1982



H: 26 Mar. 1982



H, JP: 26 Mar. 1982






H: 26 Mar. 1982


H, JP: 28 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982







H, JP: 28 Mar. 1982
AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982

H: 28 Mar. 1982

H: 28 Mar. 1982



H: 28 Mar. 1982



H, JP: 28 Mar. 1982



H: 28 Mar. 1982




H: 28 Mar. 1982


H, JP: 28 Mar. 1982




AF: 26 Mar.-1 Apr. 1982



JP, H: 29 Mar. 1982
AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982



JP, H: 29 Mar. 1982



H: 29 Mar. 1982


AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982


AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982



AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982
H: 29 Mar. 1982

H: 30,31 Mar. 1982
JP: 30 Mar. 1982
AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982








H: 30 Mar. 1982
AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982


H: 30 Mar. 1982


H, JP: 30 Mar. 1982


JP, H: 31 Mar. 1982
AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982


JP: 31 Mar. 1982



H: 31 Mar. 1982



H: 31 Mar. 1982




H, JP: 31 Mar. 1982




H, JP: 31 Mar. 1982
AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982




AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982
JP: 31 Mar. 1982



AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982
JP: 31 Mar. 1982


JP: 31 Mar. 1982




AF: 2-8 Apr. 1982
For three days to protest against the dismissal of the Mayor of El Bireh, Mr. A-Tawil, and the dissolving of the Municipal Council

To protest against the dismissal of El Bireh's Mayor. Security forces dispersed the demonstrators; Ibrahim Aly Darwish (18) was shot in the abdomen and killed; two Arab girls, aged 16, were reported injured. Two Israeli soldiers were also injured

To protest against the dismissal; security personnel forced shopkeepers to open their premises after welding shop doors

During the demonstration a clash ensued between Arabs and Jews returning from prayer at the Patriarch Cave; Israeli troops joined by settlers dispersed the demonstrators, wounding seven Arab youths. "Dozens" of Arabs were arrested

During the funeral procession for Aly Darwish; a clash ensued between security forces and demonstrators; soldiers threw "dozens" of tear-gas grenades, wounding a local woman in the head

Thwarted by Israeli troops. During a scuffle Mayor Shaka'a fell; according to Mr. Shaka'a, he was pushed by force, which security sources denied

Violent clashes between security forces and Arab demonstrators were reported


Body of Muhammed Suhwain (18) from Sinjil found with a bullet in his head; an Israeli settler from Shilo, Natha Nakanson, was subsequently remanded in custody for 15 days but later reported to have been released on bail

At Israeli bus; according to the source, in retaliation for the smashing of windows of 25 Arab cars

Israeli troops fired into the air. A total of 12 cars were reportedly damaged

At Israeli settlers from Yamit; security forces arrested 40 high school pupils and one girl was injured

Unidentified persons set fire to the council building. Three local residents were arrested. According to the source "this was the first time since the beginning of the strike that the Druzes resorted to violent means"

Ten women were reportedly arrested; security forces fired into the air to disperse the demonstrators

Into an army position in the Hadassah building

Camps were put under curfew after an Israeli officer was hit on the head. Israeli army broke up the demonstrations using tear-gas cannisters and shooting at demonstrators. According to military sources, one youth was hit in the leg, another was hit in the head

Israeli officer was hit. Arab sources reported that three youths and one girl were hit by rifle fire

Between Arabs and security for- ces. The three towns were put under a partial blockade, which was lifted after one week, as well as under curfew. Israeli settlers and troops fired at demonstrators, overstepping fi- ring instructions to shoot only in the case of danger of life

Heavy material damage reported



Resident of Halhul was hit when troops opened fire to disperse a demonstration


Army welded several shops in order to force shopkeepers to disregard the strike


At people and vehicles; a border policeman fired shots at the stone-throwers; the windows of a taxi at the scene were smashed by a rock. Security forces welded shops of shopkeepers who were reluctant to open them.

Police arrested at least 10 people for disturbance of the peace


By secondary school students. Israeli soldiers entered the school and threw tear-gas grenades; some students were injured, others fainted from the use of tear-gas

At Israeli soldiers. After se- curity personnel failed to dis- perse the rioters, they threw tear-gas and shot at them, fatally wounding Muhammed Hamad Dib (17) in the chest; two others were seriously wounded

Mahmoud Abd Al Aziz was wounded in the head by security personnel


Demonstrators were dispersed by tear gas. One source reported that there was in total 14 casualties in the refugee camps. Curfews were temporarily imposed

Israeli bus was stoned and its escorts opened fire to disperse the stone-throwers


At military vehicle

At the vehicle of the local military governor; Israeli forces used tear-gas cannisters to break up a demonstration

Dispersed by Israeli troops

At Israeli bus

Four local youths were wounded as troops opened fire to disperse hundreds of demonstrators. Four Israel soldiers and one officer were hit by stones. 20 youths were arrested for interrogation

In solidarity with the West Bank inhabitants

Despite the issuing of over 100 orders to shopkeepers to reopen their business, the police subsequently arrested "dozens of merchants" for defiance of the orders

One suspect detained

Two 12 year old boys arrested



At Egged bus; no injuries reported


At Israeli soldiers; one sol- dier injured; army used tear- gas to disperse the demonstra- tors; a curfew was imposed

At police station; Israeli army arrested several people; two local Arabs were injured by gun shots

At vehicle in the Mikhmash settlement

Three female teachers were arrested for inciting to demonstrate and attacking Israeli soldiers. A total of 15 persons were arrested, accor- ding to the sources; they will be brought before a military court for a summary trial

At military vehicles and Israeli buses

At Israeli car


At military vehicle; journalists were prevented from entering the area





Six Al Najah students were arrested, suspected of participation in demonstration

At military vehicles; four students were detained

Ali Mansara (18) shot by Israeli civilians, who allegedly were stoned by the demonstrators. One Israeli was
seriously injured. A curfew was imposed

The assailant, Fadhi Kanouh, was shot in the chest by one soldier and killed at close range by another. The town was put under curfew

Bassam Al Najar (12) was fatally shot in the head. At least seven other children were injured in the clash. A curfew was imposed

Israeli troops used tear-gas & fired into the air to disperse the demonstrators. Six people were arrested for interroga- tion. A curfew was imposed




Three youths were arrested for taking part in the disturbances

Six youths were arrested


At Israeli bus; several passengers were injured

At Israeli train; three passengers were wounded

At Israeli soldiers; several youths were arrested

Dispersed by security forces using tear-gas; a number of arrests reported

Several injuries reported



Civil administration building set on fire

Security forces dispersed the rioters with tear-gas


By Arabs from Sur-Bahir; two persons were arrested

Three youths were arrested

Four policemen and three civilians were injured, 15 persons were arrested

Into a military car; one Israeli officer was killed; three soldiers were wounded.
Three local residents were injured in the explosion of another grenade. The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility for the attack

At military car; damage reported

At Israeli vehicle





Israeli welded shops of shopkeepers who refused to open their business

A total of 30 youths were reportedly arrested in several riots in the Jerusalem area




At Egged bus; damage reported


An Israeli soldier hit by a stone, two others slightly injured. For the first time since the outbreak of the present wave of violence the Israeli troops used rubber bullets to disperse the demonstrators

An Israeli soldier was injured by a stone



The villages were placed under curfew






17-year-old Jawad El Katahush was injured by shots from the passengers of an Israeli car

At Israeli car; Israeli civilians subsequently broke into the house of the Yassar family, smashing windows

At several houses; damage reported

At vehicles; one person injured and several cars reportedly damaged; the police opened 50 criminal files

Israeli army dispersed the demonstrators by throwing tear-gas grenades

Attack at patrol personnel; soldiers shot at the attackers, wounding three youths, two of them seriously

A blockade was imposed; the blockade on Nablus, El Bireh and Ramallah was lifted




Two persons reported arrested


At military vehicle; Israeli army dispersed the demonstration




At Israeli settlers from Gush Etzion, who fired at the rioters, wounding one Arab youth. Four rioters were arrested. A curfew was imposed. The curfew imposed on Ya'bad and Sair, Halhul and the Jenin
refugee camps continued. A blockade was reported on Edna, Battir and Dhahiriya.

Dispersed by security forces throwing tear-gas grenades and firing into the air

Three soldiers were reportedly injured

At car belonging to settlers from Maaleh Adumim

To mark "Land Day"; Israeli troops forced shopkeepers to open their business

At military vehicle; a woman soldier sustained injuries


Two soldiers were injured; five youths arrested; a curfew was imposed

Dispersed by Israeli troops using tear-gas



At Israeli cars; one Israeli reported injured



Israeli troops dispersed the rioters with tear-gas; 30 local residents were arrested for questioning; the camp was put under curfew

Army besieged the camp; two Israeli soldiers were wounded; five youths were reportedly arrested

Six people were arrested



Driver of an Egged bus from Ramallah to Jerusalem fired shots into the air to disperse the crowd

Curfew was imposed on Balata camp; 29 arrests were reported in Nablus

APRIL 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
April



8 April


12 April


15 April



14 April

14 April

14 April



14 April


14 April


14 April





14 April


14 April





14 April


14 April


14 April


15 April



15 April



15 April



17 April

17 April





17 April


18 April


18 April


18 April


18 April


18 April




20 April



20 April

21 April


22 April



24 April



24 April



25 April






25 April


25 April


25 April


26 April


26 April




26 April




26 April


26 April



26 April




26 April




29 April








29 April


29 April







29 April



29 April


29 April



29 April





29 April





29 April



29 April



30 April




____________

Date_____________

30 April



1 May





1 May




1 May




1 May



1 May


1 May


1 May




1 May



1 May




1 May





1 May
Golan



Beit Sahour/
Bethlehem

A-Dahaysha
refugee camp

Al Azy
refugee camp
(Bethlehem)

Azzariya

Jerusalem

Kalandiyya



Jabaleyya


Hebron


Bethlehem





Ramallah/
El Bireh

Bir Zeit/
Jalazoun




Nablus


Balata refugee camp

Khan Yunis
(Gaza)

Gaza



Nablus



Ramallah/
El Bireh


Beit Safafa

Nablus





Husan


Hebron


Husan


Nablus


Nablus


Golan/Majdel
Shams



Hebron



Jenin

Nablus


Ramallah/
El Bireh
Nablus/Jenin

Ramallah/
Jenin/Nablus/Kabateya

Gaza



Nablus,
Ramallah,
El Bireh,
Hebron,
Kalandiya
refugee camp

Al Jalazoun
refugee camp

Hebron


Bani Naim


Nablus, Jenin


Ramallah,
El Bireh,
Beit Sahur


Nablus




Hebron,
Dhahiriya

Beit Sahur
A-Dahaysha
refugee camp

Ramallah,
El Bireh
Amony, Al Azy
refugee camp

Khan Yunis,
Gaza, Jabaliyya refugee camp

Sair
(Bethlehem)







Dhahiriya
refugee camp

Halhul







A-Dahaysha
refugee camp
(Bethlehem)

Aida refugee
camp

Bethlehem



Nablus





Ashkar/Balata
refugee camp
Beit Ein Alma refugee camp (Nablus)

Jenin



Nablus/Hebron



Nablus




____________

Place
_____________

Nablus



Dura (Hebron)





Hebron




Hebron/
Ramallah/
El Bireh


Balata/
Ashkar
refugee camp

A-Dahaysha
refugee camp

Bethlehem


Al Khadr,
Beit Jala,
Artas,
Bethlehem

Sair, Hebron



Husan




Beit Fajjar





Al Aroub refugee camp
Beit Umar
(Hebron area)
General strike



Sit-in strike


Bomb explosion


2 Molotov
cocktails thrown


Stone-throwing

General strike

Shooting
incidents


Shooting incident

Demonstrations


General strike,
stone-throwing,
tyre-burning,
erecting
barricades

Demonstrations


Stone-throwing,
hoisting the Palestinian flag, erecting
barricades

Demonstrations


Demonstrations


General strike


Grenade thrown



Demonstration



Tyre-burning,
erecting barricades

Stone-throwing

Demonstrations





Demonstrations


Grenade thrown


Shooting
incident

Stone-throwing


Demonstrations


Strike




Demonstration



Demonstration

Bomb thrown


Stone-throwing



Shooting incident


Shooting incident


Demonstrations






Demonstrations


Demonstrations


Demonstrations


Demonstrations


Demonstrations,
stone-throwing



Demonstrations,
stone-throwing,
throwing of petrol bombs

Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing



Tyre-burning,
hoisting Palestinian flags

Stone-throwing




Demonstrations;
stone-throwing







Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning

Stone-throwing,
demonstration






Stone-throwing,
demonstrations


Stone-throwing


Sit-in
demonstration


Demonstrations, stone-throwing, tyre-burning



Demonstrations





Demonstration



Rock-throwing



Stone-throwing
tyre-burning



______________

Type
________________

Sit-in
demonstration


Stone-throwing





Stone-throwing




Stone-throwing




Demonstrations



Stone-throwing


Demonstrations


Setting up
road-blocks



Demonstrations



Demonstrations




Setting up
road-blocks, tyre-burning



Demonstrations,
tyre-burning
H: 6 Apr. 1982
ASH: 6,16 Apr. 1982


ASH: 9 Apr. 1982


ASH: 13 Apr. 1982


ASH: 16 Apr. 1982



ASH: 15 Apr. 1982

ASH: 15 Apr. 1982

ASH: 15 Apr. 1982



ASH: 15 Apr. 1982


ASH: 15 Apr. 1982


ASH: 15,18 Apr. 1982





ASH: 15 Apr. 1982


ASH: 15 Apr. 1982





ASH: 15 Apr. 1982


ASH: 15 Apr. 1982


ASH: 15,16 Apr. 1982


ASH: 16 Apr. 1982



ASH: 16 Apr. 1982



ASH: 16 Apr. 1982



ASH: 18 Apr. 1982

ASH: 18 Apr. 1982





ASH: 18 Apr. 1982


ASH: 18 Apr. 1982
H: 19 Apr. 1982

JP, H: 19 Apr. 1982


JP: 19 Apr. 1982


JP, H: 19 Apr. 1982


JP: 19 Apr. 1982




ASH, H: 21 Apr. 1982



H: 21 Apr. 1982

ASH: 22 Apr. 1982


ASH: 23 Apr. 1982



ASH: 25 Apr. 1982



ASH: 25 Apr. 1982



JP, ASH: 26 Apr. 1982






ASH: 26 Apr. 1982


ASH: 26 Apr. 1982


ASH: 26 Apr. 1982


ASH, H: 27 Apr. 1982


ASH, H: 27 Apr. 1982




H, ASH: 29 Apr. 1982




H, ASH: 29 Apr. 1982


H, ASH: 29 Apr. 1982



H, ASH: 29 Apr. 1982




H, ASH: 29 Apr. 1982




JP: 30 Apr. 1982
ASH: 20 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982






JP: 30 Apr. 1982
ASH: 30 Apr. 1982

JP: 30 Apr. 1982
ASH: 30 Apr., 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982





Ditto



AF: 7-13 May 1982
ASH: 30 Apr. 1982

JP: 30 Apr. 1982
ASH: 30 Apr. 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982

JP: 30 Apr. 1982
ASH: 30 Apr., 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982



Ditto





JP: 30 Apr. 1982
ASH: 30 Apr. 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982

JP: 30 Apr. 1982
ASH: 30 Apr. 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982

AF: 7-13 May 1982
H: 2 May 1982



_____________________

Sources
_________________________

ASH: 2 May 1982



JP: 2 May 1982
ASH: 2,3 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982



JP: 2 May 1982




JP: 2 May 1982
H: 2 May 1982
ASH: 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982

JP: 2 May 1982
ASH: 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982

ASH: 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982

Ditto


Ditto




JP: 2 May 1982
H: 2 May 1982
ASH: 3 May 1982

ASH: 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982



ASH: 2, 3 May 1982
H: 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982



ASH: 2 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982
Continuing strike in protest against the annexation of the Golan Heights

By university students in protest against the attack

Damage reported


Several arrests reported



At Israeli bus; damage reported



Two Arab youths struck by bullets fired by Israeli soldiers

During a curfew; one person injured

27 persons reported injured, five seriously

As a result of the incidents, one Israeli soldier was injured and 25 Arabs arrested



Several arrests reported


At Israeli soldiers; numerous arrests reported




Total of 40 persons reportedly arrested

Dispersed by Israeli forces





Six citizens injured by bullets, three of them seriously

In protest against the measures taken against Al Najah University





At Israeli vehicles

Following the opening of shops by the Israeli army; the Israeli forces used tear-gas to disperse the rioters; several
suspects arrested

Dispersed by Israeli forces, using tear-gas

At the house of the Dan'a family

A 16-year-old boy was shot from an Israeli car

At car of the Israeli-appointed Mayor

By university students of Al Najah University

Strike by farmers in protest against the annexation of the Golan, which ended after 63 days

By local Arab landowners against the take-over of their lands by Israeli authorities

Dispersed by security forces

At military vehicle; five Arabs reportedly injured

At Israeli soldiers by secondary school students


In Jenin, Israeli forces reportedly arrested 21 students


Arab citizen from Gaza shot and seriously wounded by a bullet fired by an Israeli soldier

Marking the return of Sinai to Egypt





Ditto


Israeli army dispersed the demonstrators

Against the seizure of their lands by Israeli settlers

In Jenin, two men were injured by bullets

In the wake of the return of Sinai to Egypt, the Israeli forces used tear-gas to disperse the rioters

Israeli soldiers dispersed the rioters with tear-gas



At Israeli military vehicles


At Israeli cars; the passengers fired into the air


Dispersed by Israeli soldiers




Four Israeli soldiers were injured; the Israeli forces fired back and injured four local Arabs

In the ensuing clash with Israeli troops, Abdel Rahim Jaradat (18) was killed and another youth injured. According to military sources, the stone-throwing took place despite the fact that a curfew had been imposed
Dispersed by Israeli troops


In the ensuing clash with Israeli troops, Gamal Mussa Al Shalalda (18) from Sair was killed. Five students were
reportedly shot in various parts of the body. A curfew was imposed

At Israeli guards. A curfew was subsequently imposed


At Israeli settlers and army


By university students



Israeli troops used tear-gas to disperse the rioters. Eight persons were shot in various parts of the body and had to be
taken to hospital

"Scores" of inhabitants were arrested and curfews were imposed



By school students, two schools were closed down by the Israeli authorities

At cars of Israeli settlers; damages reported; the passen- gers were slightly wounded

Israeli authorities closed off the area


APRIL/MAY 1982
___________________________

Remarks
_______________________________

In protest against the methods used against the civilian population

At local police station; secu- rity forces fired bullets in order to disperse the rioters; according to one report, 80 civilians were arrested

At the office of Arab "Village League"; Israeli army used tear-gas to disperse the demonstrators






Curfew imposed



At Israeli guard post; the curfew continued

Israeli army subsequently raided some houses






Military authorities imposed a temporary blockade


Eight rioters were detained on charge of possession of mines and participation in demonstration

Israeli security forces surrounded the village and fired bullets at demonstrators, searched houses and arrested some students
MAY 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
1 May

1 May



2 May


2 May




2 May






2 May





2 May




2 May




2 May



2 May


3 May


3 May

3 May


3 May




3 May


4 May









4 May



4 May



4 May



4 May






4 May


4 May




5 May



5 May




5 May





6 May



6 May






6 May




6 May



7 May



8 May




8 May


8 May


9 May



10 May





10 May

12 May


12 May



13 May


15 May




15 May




16 May





16 May


16 May




17 May



17 May



17 May



17 May



17 May


17 May


18 May


19 May
Ramallah

Wadi Joz
(East
Jerusalem)

Halhul


Al Aroub
refugee camp


Shu'fat
refugee camp
(Jerusalem
area)



Yatta/Dura
(Hebron area)




Nablus,
Hebron,
Ramallah,
El Bireh

Beit Fajjar,
Al Khadr,
A-Dahaysha
refugee camp

Gaza Strip



Beit Hanina


Jabaliya


Jenin

East Jerusalem

Ramallah/
El Bireh,
Bethlehem


Hebron, Yatta


Abassan
(Khan Yunis)








Wadi Joz (East Jerusalem)

Old City (East Jerusalem)

Jabaliya
refugee camp
(Gaza Strip)

Alfawar
refugee camp
(Hebron) Beit
Fajjar; Tekoa
Yatta


Jericho


Bethlehem,
Ramallah



Jabaliya
refugee camp


A-Dahaysha,
Aida refugee
camps; Aim
Yabrud

East Jerusalem




Majdal Shams



A-Dahaysha
refugee camp/
Aida refugee
camp
(Bethelem)
Nablus

Gaza Strip




Khan Yunis



Bugata (Golan
Heights)


Majdal Shams




Ma'asada


Ma'asada


Nablus,
Ramallah,
Tulkarem

Silwad,
Beitunia,
Ein Yabrud
(Ramallah area)

Silat A-Dahir

Jenin


Jenin



Al Amary
refugee camp

Nablus




Jenin




Silwad
(Ramallah)




El Bireh


Nablus




Jericho



Azzariya



Silwad
(Ramallah)


Balata refugee
camp (Nablus)
Beitunia


Azzariya


Jericho


Jericho
Stone-throwing

Stone-throwing



Shooting incident

Demonstrations,
stone-throwing



Stone-throwing






Demonstrations,
tyre-burning




Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning,
placing
road-blocks

Demonstrations




Demonstrations



Stone-throwing


Bomb explosion


Demonstrations

Stone-throwing


Demonstrations,
stone-throwing,
erecting
road-blocks

Demonstrations,
tyre-burning

Stone-throwing,
demonstrations








Stone-throwing



Ditto



Molotov cocktail
hurled


Stone-throwing,
demonstrations





Ditto


Demonstration,
sit-in strike



Demonstrations



Demonstrations




Stone-throwing





Demonstration



Stone-throwing






Rock-throwing




Stone-throwing



Demonstrations



Demonstrations




Rock-throwing,
tyre-burning

Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning

Demonstrations



Demonstrations





Demonstrations

Stone-throwing


Demonstration



Stone-throwing


Demonstrations




Demonstrations




Demonstrations,
stone-throwing




Stone-throwing


Unfurling
Palestinian
flags, demonstrations

Bomb explosion



Throwing incendiary bottles

Bomb explosion



Demonstrations



Molotov cock- tails thrown

Throwing two
fire bombs

Molotov cocktail thrown

Molotov cocktail thrown
ASH: 2 May 1982

JP: 2 May 1982



AF: 7-13 May 1982


H: 3, 6 May 1982
JP: 6 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982
ASH: 3 May 1982

Ditto






H: 3, 6 May 1982
JP: 6 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982
ASH: 3 May 1982


Ditto




Ditto




ASH: 3 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982
H: 3 May 1982

H: 3 May 1982

ASH: 4 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982

AF: 7-13 May 1982

ASH: 4 May 1982
H: 4 May 1982

AF: 7-13 May 1982




Ditto


JP: 5 May 1982
H: 5 May 1982
ASH: 5 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982






JP: 5 May 1982
H: 5 May 1982
ASH: 5 May 1982

JP: 5 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982


Ditto



JP: 5 May 1982
H: 5 May 1982
ASH: 5 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982



JP: 5 May 1982


JP: 5 May 1982
H: 5 May 1982
AF: 7-13 May 1982
ASH: 5 May 1982

AF: 7-13 May 1982
Al Ittihad: 7 May 1982


JP: 6 May 1982
H: 6 May 1982



JP: 6 May 1982
H: 6 May 1982




JP: 7 May 1982



H: 7 May 1982






JP: 7 May 1982




Ditto



Al Ittihad: 11 May 1982



JP: 9 May 1982
H: 9 May 1982



Ditto


H: 9 May 1982


H: 10 May 1982



ASH: 11 May 1982
JP: 11 May 1982




JP: 11 May 1982

ASH: 13 May 1982


Ditto



H: 14 May 1982


JP: 16 May 1982
H: 16 May 1982



JP: 16 May 1982




H: 17 May 1982
JP: 17 May 1982
AF: 21-27 May 1982



H: 17 May 1982
JP: 17 May 1982

H: 17 May 1982




JP: 18 May 1982
H: 18 May 1982
AF: 21-27 May 1982

H: 18 May 1982
JP: 18 May 1982


Al Ittihad: 18 May 1982



JP: 18 May 1982



AF: 21-27 May 1982


JP: 18 May 1982


AF: 21-27 May 1982
H: 20 May 1982

Ditto
At Israeli soldiers

At Israeli ? car; two passengers injured


Girl student was shot by an Israeli civilian

At Israeli cars; one car driver shot a 14-year-old girl in the head who later died of her wounds

At Israeli military vehicles; security forces besieged the camp and broke' into the boys' school, opening fire and wounding a 32-year-old woman and a 13-year-old boy

In Yatta some 80 youths were arrested after they threw stones at cars of Israeli settlers; In Dura the local police station was attacked

Security forces used gas bombs and fired bullets to disperse the rioters; 15 students were reportedly arrested










At Egged bus; the bus driver reported injured

An 11-year-old boy killed and another 8-year-old boy wounded



At Israeli border police, who fired bullets in the air

Security forces opened fire to disperse the demonstrators; several arrests reported


Rioters clashed with Israeli settlers

By students; the security for- ces intervened, asking to stop rioting. Upon the students' refusal, the soldiers used tear-gas and fired shots in the air and subsequently at the rioters' legs. A 13-year-old girl, Ihsan Khalil Abu Dahaz, was killed and others injured

At Israeli tourist bus; a number of passengers reported injured

At Israeli settlers and border police


At Israeli vehicle; a number of youths were arrested


At local police station; security forces dispersed the demonstrators; a 14-year-old girl injured; At Israeli cars on their way to Israeli settlements

At Israeli tourist bus; injuries reported

By students; the security forces dispersed the strikers with tear-gas


Security forces fired bullets at the demonstrators; 14 rioters reported injured

Soldiers fired in the air to disperse the demonstrators; several arrests reported


At tourist; injuries reported;
two 17-year-old youths were arrested after they allegedly tried to snatch a weapon from a soldier

To mark the death of Sultan Basha Atrash, the Syrian Druse leader

At Israeli cars






During a visit by Minister for Defence, Mr. Sharon; soldiers used tear-gas to disperse the rioters

By students at Israeli vehicles; several youths were arrested

Dispersed by soldiers firing bullets; nine persons were reported injured

In protest against the wounding of six residents of Buhata village, as a result of shots fired by a border policeman

At patrolling policeman


At Egged bus and Israeli military vehicles

Dispersed by security forces; a number of suspects arrested


Israeli authorities declared the areas "closed"






At Israeli military and civilian cars

By school students; dispersed by security forces, firing bullets in the air

At Israeli military vehicles


Security forces dispersed the
demonstrators. Mazan Marwan Namer (15) was shot in the abdomen

Several public and civic institutions were closed down in the area as a result of these disturbances

At Israeli cars and military vehicles; security forces dispersed the demonstrators, wounding Adam Abd Al Hay Hamad (17)




Security forces dispersed the
demonstrators using tear-gas and shooting in the air


In front of local military government headquarters


The village was placed under curfew


The bomb exploded and killed Tayrsir Ahmed Hamad, who handled the charge

The camp was subsequently put under a blockade


At Israeli vehicles
MAY/JUNE 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
19 May



19 May


19 May



23 May


23 May


24 May


26 May



26 May




29 May





29 May





29 May






3 June



3 June





3 June


4 June
Shweikeh village (Tulkarem)

Kiryat Arba


Jericho, Azzariya


Nablus


East Jerusalem

Tulkarem


Majdal Shams



Gaza




Nablus
(Balata refugee camp)



Majdal Shams





Nablus






Qabateya
(Jenin)


Gaza





Nablus


Jenin
Fire-setting



Stone-throwing


Throwing
incendiary bottles

Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing



Window-smashing




Stone-throwing





Stone-throwing





Demonstration






Explosive charge



Three hand- grenades thrown




Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning

Molotov cocktail thrown
Ditto



Ditto


JP: 20 May 1982
AF: 28 May-3 June 1982


Ditto


Ditto


H: 25 May 1982


JP: 27 May 1982



AF: 4-10 June 1982




JP, H: 30 May 1982





JP: 30 May 1982





ASH: 30 May 1982






ASH: 4 June 1982
JP: 4 June 1982
AF: 11-17 June 1982

ASH: 4 June 1982





ASH: 4 June 1982


AF: 11-17 June 1982
ASH: 6 June 1982
To crops, by unknown people, destroying a total of 217 dunams of land

At Egged bus on its way to the settlement

At military cars driving from Jericho to Allenby Bridge village

At Israeli bus; damages reported

At Arab bus


At Israeli car; damages reported

At house of Salman Abu Saleh, chairman of the Golan Druze Zionist Organization

At Israeli bank in Gaza. A number of banks have been stoned recently during demonstrations

By school students; in the ensuing clash between students and security forces, Eiman Mahmoud Nadi (17) was shot in the shoulder

At Israeli police van; in protest against the Israeli refusal to allow Syrian trucks to cross the border with medicines for the villagers

By school students; security forces dispersed the rioters using tear-gas and firing bullets in the air. The school
was ordered closed until further notice

Detonated before it exploded



One Israeli soldier killed. Military commander in Gaza Strip added that sabotage activities had been renewed after a year of silence

At Israeli military vehicle


At Israeli police car. 18 youths were arrested


Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
7 June



8 June



8 June



9 June



10 June


12 June








12 June


13 June


14 June


17 June


14 June







19 June



22 June
Nablus



Nablus



Gaza



Bethlehem



Gaza


Nablus








East Jerusalem

Nablus


Gaza


Bir Zeit


Nablus







Masa'ada



Ramallah
Sit-in
demonstration


Stone-throwing;
road-blocking,
burning tyres

Hand-grenade



Demonstrations



Stone-throwing


Stone-throwing,
demonstrations







Strike


Stone-throwing


Molotov cocktails thrown

Demonstrations


Shots fired







Bomb thrown



Stone-throwing,
tyre-burning
ASH: 8 June 1982



H: 9 June 1982
JP: 9 June 1982


AF: 11-17 June 1982
H: 9 June 1982
JP: 9, 10 June 1982

JP: 10 June 1982



YA: 11 June 1982
AF: 18-24 June 1982

H: 13,15 June 1982
JP: 13 June 1982
AF: 18-24 June 1982
Al Ittihad: 15 June 1982





H: 13 June 1982
JP: 13 June 1982

JP: 14 June 1982
Al Ittihad: 15 June 1982

Al Ittihad: 15 June 1982


ASH: 18 June 1982
AF: 25 June-1 July 1982

Al Ittihad: 15 June 1982
AF: 25 June-1 July 1982






ASH: 20 June 1982
JP: 21 June 1982


ASH: 23 June 1982
At Al Najah University, in protest against Israeli invasion of Lebanon

By students of Al Najah University. Israeli soldiers dispersed the demonstrators

One person killed, three others wounded


By university students; dispersed with tear-gas by the security forces

At Israeli car; the driver reported injured

At Israeli border police; in the ensuing clash, 25-year-old Mohammed Al Asmar was killed. In other injuries reported, another youth, Riad Kunkirya (17), died subsequently of his wounds. A curfew was imposed on Bakka refugee camp

In protest against Israel's invasion of Lebanon

At Israeli vehicles; damage reported

At Israeli patrol


By university students against the Israeli invasion in Lebanon

By unidentified person at Zahair Manna. According to another source, Israeli soldiers allegedly fired in cold blood at Mr. Mohammed Ahmed Hussein Al Alik (23) after having beaten him

At the office of Mr. Solman Abu Saleh, allegedly a collaborator with the Israeli authorities

At cars of Israeli settlers, who in return opened fire on the rioters

JUNE/JULY 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
24 June





24 June


28 June




28 June


28 June





30 June



3 July





4 July



4 July




4 July



4 July


4 July
Majdal Shams





Gaza


Bir Zeit




Nablus


Majdal Shams





Asirah
Al Shamaliyah
(Nablus)

Bethlehem





Beit Sira



Nablus




Ramallah



4 July
(Ramallah)

El Bireh;East Jerusalem;
Gaza
Two bomb
explosions




Three bomb
explosions

Stone-throwing




Shots fired


Bomb explosion





Demonstrations



Stabbing





Stone-throwing,
shooting


Shooting incident/ general strike


Rock-throwing,
business strike


Explosion


Strike
H: 25 June 1982
JP: 25 June 1982
ASH: 25 June 1982
AF: 2-8 July 1982
Al Ittihad: 29 June 1982

Al Ittihad: 25 June 1982


JP, H: 29 June 1982




ASH: 29 June 1982


JP, H: 29 June 1982





AF: 2-8 July 1982



ASH: 4 July 1982
AF: 9-15 July 1982
H: 6 July 1982



AF: 9-15 July 1982
JP: 5 July 1982
H: 5, 6 July 1982

JP, H: 5 July 1982
AF: 9-15 July 1982



JP, H: 5 July 1982
AF: 9-15 July 1982


JP: 5 July 1982


JP, H: 5 July 1982
AF: 9-15 July 1982
In houses belonging to "alleged" collaborators with the Israeli authorities



One Israeli soldier killed


At Israeli soldiers by university students; one Israeli soldier wounded during the dispersal of the rioters

Mr. Walid Alywy (30) reported wounded

It was third time within a week that an explosion took place in Golan Heights within the Druze community; no injuries but damage reported

Against the establishment of a new village league


To death of an Israeli settler from Tekoa; the house of the assailant was subsequently dynamited by the security forces

Between members of the Ramallah "Village League" and local villagers

Two Arabs, Kifah al-Zahara (24) and Mohammed Abdel Rahman Abu Issa (16), killed in a clash between soldiers and rioters

By youths; border police opened fire, dispersing the rioters, injuring one person




Broken by border police
JULY 1982
Date
Place
Type
Sources
Remarks
4 July



4 July


5 July




6 July





7 July




10 July



11 July



12 July




17 July









17 July






21 July



24 July







25 July
Khan Yunis



Jenin


Nablus
Ramallah, El Bireh, East Jerusalem

Bir Zeit





Jenin




East Jerusalem


Bir Zeit/
Jalazun
refugee camp

Nablus, Jenin




East Jerusalem








Bethlehem






Dhahiriya
(Hebron)


El Bireh







Ras Karkar
(Ramallah)
Si'ir(Hebron)
Demonstrations;
molotov cocktail
thrown

Demonstrations;
stone-throwing

Stone-throwing




Demonstrations





Strike




Stone-throwing



Stone-throwing



Demonstrations;
molotov cocktail
thrown


Demonstration









Shooting accident





Stone-throwing



Murder







Stone-throwing
AF: 9-15 July 1982



Ditto


H, JP: 6 July 1982




H, JP: 7 July 1982





AF: 16-22 July 1982




H, JP: 11 July 1982



AF: 16-22 July 1982



AF: 16-22 July 1982
ASH: 13 July 1982
H, JP: 14 July 1982


JP, H: 18 July 1982
Al Ittihad: 20 July 1982








JP: 18 July 1982






JP: 22 July 1982
H: 25 July 1982


H: 25 July 1982







H: 26 July 1982
At Israeli military vehicles; several arrests reported

At Israeli vehicles; in East Jerusalem the driver of an ambulance was injured


By university students against the war in Lebanon; security forces dispersed the rioters using tear-gas and shooting in the air; injuries reported

By municipal councillors in protest against the dissolution of the council by the Israeli authorities

At Israeli military vehicle; injuries reported; 12 suspects arrested

At Israeli military vehicle; injuries reported


Israeli forces used tear-gas and opened fire to disperse the demonstrators. Several arrests reported

By Arab youths against the war in Lebanon at the Temple Mount; security forces dispersed the rioters firing bullets and using tear-gas; one police officer reported injured; eleven suspects were arrested on suspicion of inciting to demonstrate

An unidentified young man shot an Israeli civilian; police and security forces clamped a curfew on the area and several people were detained for questioning

At military vehicle; security forces dispersed the rioters; a curfew was imposed

22-year-old Fadel Yussuf Mahmoud Zayed from Alam'ary refugee camp (Ramallah) shot dead while shopping. The youth carried a weapon with the military Government's permission

Two separate incidents involving village league people and local villagers. A total of six people were injured



and Ariel. The Ministerial Committee on Settlement Affairs decided to establish a communal settlement on the "Radar Hill", close to Ma'aleh Hahamisha, several hundred metres inside the occupied territories. It also envisaged the construction of a suburb of 250 villas.
(Ha'aretz, 2, 8 November; Jerusalem Post, 6 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 November 1981)

155. The Minister of Defence, Mr. Sharon, stated that "Israel's reply to the eight points of the Saudi Arabian peace plan was eight Israeli settlements". (Jerusalem Post, 3, 6 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 November; Asha'b, 6 November; Ha'aretz, 6 November 1981)

156. The Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Shamir, declared that Israel did not sign the Camp David Accords with the intention of abandoning "Judea, Samaria" and Gaza. He affirmed that "no force in the world shall disconnect us from these areas". Mr. Begin stated that Israel would not cede its rights to continue settlement activities, although it had already restricted itself to state lands that were not cultivated. (Ha'aretz, 27 January; Jerusalem Post, 29 January)

157. According to the Jewish Agency Settlement Department, development of Jewish settlements on the Golan Heights has been given less priority, despite the law annexing the region. The Israeli Cabinet allocated funds to develop and increase Israeli settlement on the West Bank and Golan Heights. The Israeli Ministers of Transport and Housing, Mr. Haim Corfu and Mr. David Levy, confirmed Israel's commitment to widen Israeli settlement in the West Bank. (Jerusalem Post, 21 February; Ma'ariv, 23 February; Al Fajr Weekly,
26 February-4 March, 12-18 March)

158. The Prime Minister, Mr. Begin, affirmed that "in any future negotiations on a peace treaty between Israel and its neighbours, Israel will reject any proposal to dismantle any Jewish settlement. In addition, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Shamir, stated "that the Government's intention in seeking a parliamentary ban on the removal of Jewish settlements from the West Bank and Gaza was to make clear to future negotiating partners not to expect such a thing". (Jerusalem Post, 2, 4, 5 May)

(b) Plans

159. A new urban settlement, "Ganey Modi'in", was to be set up within a few months in the Modi'in area on both sides of the Green Line. In addition it was reported that a new settlement, established near El Bireh in Jebel Tawil, would be called "Psagot". This settlement was intended to serve as a regional centre for an entire area called "Matteh-Benjamin". (Ha'aretz, 17 August; Asha'b, 18 August 1981)

160. The Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Dekel announced plans for three new
settlements in the Jordan Valley, before enlarging existing ones. This plan, according to one source, entailed the doubling of the population of the West Bank settlements; according to another source, 100,000 settlers could be accommodated within four years. Mr. Drobles, head of the Zionist Federation's Settlement Department, stated that with the completion of an outline plan for 20 settlements in "Judea and Samaria" it was possible to build an infrastructure for 2,000 to 4,000 additional housing units. He was later quoted as saying that 12 to 18 new settlements were to be created in the next four years; according to one source, the Zionist Federation intended to establish three new settlements in the Gaza
District, Golan Heights and Jordan Valley. In the preceding four years more than 60 new settlements had been established. According to another source, an estimated 25,000 Jews were living in 85 settlements, 70 of which were built in the four years since Mr. Begin became Prime Minister. One source quoted Mr. Drobles as saying that existing settlements would be strengthened to take 50,000 settlers and that a further 36,000 would be put in 10 new settlements. It was also reported that a new settlement, accommodating 400 families, was to be established south of Hebron in accordance with a settlement plan for that area in which six new settlements were to be established. In addition, two agricultural settlements were planned around Nablus. Mr. Drobles, Chairman of the Jewish Agency Settlement Department, reported on plans to establish two new settlements in the Golan in addition to the three settlements which had just been established and a fourth one under construction. His master plan to settle 100,000 Jews in the West Bank in the period 1981-1985 would cost 20 billion Israel shekels (approximately $1.25 billion). (Ma'ariv,
13 August; Asha'b, 14 August, 4, 17 November; Jerusalem Post, 13, 17 September,
5 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 13-19 September, 27 September-3 October, 4-10 October,
6-12 November, 20-26 November; Ha'aretz, 5 October; Times, 6 October; International Herald
Tribune, 5 October)

161. The head of the Israeli Settlement Committee in the Golan Heights announced that plans were under way to build 1,000 housing units in that area. (Al Fajr Weekly,
30 August-5 September 1981)

162. A new settlement called "Anatol" located near the Arab village of Anata, between Neve-Yaacov and Mishor Adumin in the Jerusalem area, was to be established to accommodate 60 families at a first stage. Other sources revealed plans to create settlements beyond the Green Line. Mr. Drobles stated that the creation of a settlement north-east of Lake Tiberias, beyond the Jordan River, could accommodate settlers from the Yamit area, in particular from Neot-Sinai and Tarsag. The "Herut" movement launched a plan to create the town of "Kadihav Yair", beyond the Green Line, near Kfar Sava, north of Tel Aviv, to accommodate 5,000 settlers in some 1,400 flats; the site consisted of an "observation post"
populated by 16 families. Another source gave the name "Kokhav Meir" and its location "the West Bank". (Ma'ariv, 9 September; Ha'aretz, 21, 23 September; Asha'b, 10, 22 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 27 September-3 October 1981)

163. A new town in "Samaria" (northern West Bank) to be called "Kokhav Yair" and located between Qalqilya and Taiyiba, was being planned. Some 1,400 flats were to be built and to house immigrants from South Africa. (Yediot Aharonot, 23 September 1981)

164. One source gave a detailed description of Mr. Drobles' plan. In each urban settlement up to 10,000 people were to be settled; up to 500 families were to be housed in smaller settlements (villages). At the same time, at a smaller level, an increase in settlers was planned for the southern slopes of Mt. Hebron, in the southern West Bank, on top of the mountains (northern West Bank) and on the Jordan Valley slopes. The plan also provided for the cutting of four new roads: a Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway going through Beit Horon and Modi'in; a road going from the coastal plain to the Jazreel Valley (the trans-Menasheh road in the northern West Bank); a trans-northern Samaria road from Hadera to Jenin; and a trans-Beyamin road (Ychad, Beit-Arieh-Neve, Tzuf-Ofra). The permanent settlement of Elon-Moreh was to be called "Kiryat-Elon-Moreh", and built on top of a 754-metre high mountain overlooking the valley of Nablus. (Ma'ariv, 5 October 1981)

165. According to Israeli sources, six new settlements were to be established in the area between Gaza and Sinai after the Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Poalei Agudat Israel, the Jewish orthodox labour movement, was planning to establish a community settlement in the occupied territories in the area of Latrun. There were already five settlements affiliated with this movement in the occupied territories. The United Kibbutz Movement announced a five-year settlement plan for the establishment of three new settlements each year, in all parts of the country, including "Judea and Samaria". (Al Fajr Weekly, 23-29 October,
30 October-5 November; Jerusalem Post, 19 October)

166. A new residential suburb called "Tzefon-Yerushalaim" (north Jerusalem) was to be built near Neve Ya'acov. The new suburb was to contain 1,200 flats and the Ministry of Housing and Construction was to start land preparation works. Plans to construct 30,000 apartments in the surrounding areas of Jerusalem by 1985 were to be submitted to the Israeli Cabinet shortly. In addition, the Minister of Housing, Mr. Levy, stated that a new settlement was planned to connect the Neve Yaa'cov and Beit Hanina suburbs with Sheikh Jarrah in Jerusalem. (Jerusalem Post, 20 November; Ha'aretz, 24 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November, 20-26 November 1981)

167. The Israeli Government is planning to establish two new settlements in the Golan Heights. According to a source, the Settlement Department of the Zionist Federation planned to enlarge Israeli settlements in order to accommodate thousands of settlers within one year. A new settlement called Beit Arieh H is scheduled to be established near Rantiss, between Nablus and Ramallah. (Ha'aretz, 7 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17 December; Asha'b, 8, 31 December 1981)

168. The Golan Settlements Committee presented a plan to settle 20,000 new settlers in the next four years, raising the Israeli population there to approximately 27,000. The plan consisted of the establishment of seven new settlements: Mitzpeh Ram on Mount Qeta in the northern Golan, Bnei Btira (east of Birhat Ram), Bnei Tzfat, Ein Simsim, north of Katzrin, Beit Zeida, east of the "Jordan Park", a settlement between Ramat Magshimim and Yonatan in the southern Golan, and a settlement on the site of Nahal Zion. (Al Fajr Weekly, 22-28 January; Jerusalem Post, 7 January; Ha'aretz, 7 January, 19 February; Al Ittihad,
8 January)

169. The West Bank Military Government drew up a new "master plan" for the area surrounding Jerusalem. The plan, which was approved by the Supreme Planning Council for the Judea and Samaria Region, covers an area from Ein Yabrud, near Ramallah in the north, to Beit Fajjat near Bethlehem in the south. The new plan earmarks vast areas for settlement and for new roads linking Jerusalem with the new settlement areas. In addition, a plan was put forward to create three new settlements called Elisha (provisional name: Ma'aleh - Melalchim); Mitzpeh Gilad (provisional name: Peles) and Hasmedet (provisional name: Yavok), in the northern Jordan Valley. (Jerusalem Post, 1-3 February; Al Fajr Weekly, 22-28 January;
Ha'aretz, 1-2 February)

170. A total of 16 new outposts were to be created and to be completed before 26 April 1982 in "Judea and Samaria" and in the Golan Heights region. The 16 outposts are: Hever - east of Hebron; Lahav - west of Hebron; Amatzia; Negohot; Mitzpeh - Adulam; Telem; Tirza; Grizim (on Mt. Gerizim); Mul-Nevo (Beit Ha'arava B'); Maluah; Peret; Peles; Gan (near Jenin) and Harish in the West Bank and Keta and Manpuha in the Golan Heights. (Ha'aretz,
2 January, 2, 25 February; Jerusalem Post, 4 January, 3 February; Al Fajr Weekly, 19-25 February, 26 February, 4 March)

171. The Interministerial Committee on Settlement accepted a proposal by the World Zionist Federation's Settlement Department to allocate 30,000 dunams of "state land" in the Jordan Valley for agriculture. Large tracts of land, previously frozen for security considerations, could be used for the creation of 10 new settlements to close some of the gaps in the settlement chain along the Jordan River. In addition to creating new settlements, the proposal called for expanding existing settlement covering 4,000 dunams. Mr. Begin accepted a proposal put forward by the Minister of Education, Mr. Hammer, to create the same number of settlements in Judea and Samaria as the number of settlements which are being dismantled in the Yamit area. (Jerusalem Post, 16 February; Ha'aretz,
17 February, 11 March)

172. The Zionist Federation's Settlement Department intends to accelerate the construction of settlements in the northern Gaza Strip. Five settlements are planned to be created in northern Gaza: Nativ-Ha'assara B, Netzarim (which is at present a provisional settlement) and three others, one of which will be a communal settlement. (Ha'aretz, 7 March; Al Fajr
Weekly, 12-18 March)

173. The Israeli authorities decided to create three new towns in the West Bank: Beit-Arieh (located west of Birhan and south-east of Elkana); Nili (near Modi'in) and Yakir (north of Birkan). These towns are designed to intensify the Jewish presence in the centre of Samaria. In northern Samaria, 27,000 dunams of State and absentee lands have recently been located and are allocated to the settlements of Karney Shomoron, Elhana and Emmanuel. (Ha'aretz, 19 April)

174. Seven new settlements are planned in the West Bank. They are: Neot-Adumin (east of Ubeidiya village, in the Bethlehem area); Salit B' (west of Salit); Garey-Modi'in (west of Mathityahu); Elkana D, J, H and Sha'arey Tikva, east of Elkana. All settlements, except Elkana J, will be built on State lands. (Jerusalem Post, 26 April; Ha'aretz, 26 April; Asha'b, 26, 27 April)

175. The plan to create 16 settlements in the West Bank, based on the proposal to settle 100,000 Jews there within the next four years, was submitted to the Cabinet. Five out of the 16 proposed settlements are already in existence as Nahal outposts. The budget for this plan is estimated at 6 million Israel shekels. The names of the planned settlements are: Beitar (near the village of Battia, south of Jerusalem); Nagid (Beit Unmar area, north of Hebron); Ein-Arow (near Al Arub refugee camp); Kolihava (near Si'ir, north of Hebron); Yahin (near Barin-Naim, south of Hebron, at present Nahal post); Susia, (south of Hebron); Atviel (south of Hebron); Ginat (north of Jenin); Matar, (east of Jenin); Moked (east of Jenin); Hermesh (south of Reihan settlement); Tirsa (south-west of Tubas); Braliha (on Mt. Garizim, near Nablus); Milihmetet (near Nablus); Tel Haim (south of the original site of Eilon-Moreh); and Maaleh-Levona (near Nablus). (Ha'aretz, 29 April; Asha'b,
30 April; Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May)

176. The Israeli authorities plan the creation of nine new settlements (according to another source 11) this year in the West Bank. They are: Netafim (near Beit-Aba); Ateret; Yoezer; Nahal-Ginat (a Nahal outpost near Jenin); Hermesh (a Nahal outpost near Dotan); Maon (Mt. Hebron); Yavi (Mt. Hebron); Nahal-Adura (Mt. Hebron); and Nahal Eshkolot (Mt. Hebron). In addition, five settlements are planned in the Gaza Strip (Katif bloc); four in the Golan Heights and four others in the Jordan Valley. (Ha'aretz, 22 April, 28 June; Asha'b, 22, 23 May, 29 June; Al Ittihad, 29 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 2-8 July)

177. In the next four years 16,000 settlement units will be built in the city of Jerusalem and its suburbs. According to Mr. Drobles, chairman of the Jewish Agency Settlement Department, the plan envisages the creation of 17 municipal settlements within the Greater Jerusalem area in order to absorb a population of 700,000 Jews. (Asha'b, 4 June; Al Fajr
Weekly, 28 May-3 June)

(c) Measures, including budgetary appropriations

178. The Israeli authorities started preparation works on an area of 400 dunams for the creation of a new settlement on the Golan Heights provisionally called "Ein Shimshon", located near Ein-Samsan, four kilometres north-east of Katzrin. The Israeli company Diur, part of the Solel Bonel Company, sold houses in Ariel, near Nablus. Subsequently it was reported that 60 out of 83 houses scheduled to be built in Ariel were sold before work on them had started. According to one source, it was the first time that the Diur Company had undertaken constructon in the occupied territories. In addition, according to one source, an Israeli company had recently bought 15,000 dunams of Arab lands in the West Bank for Israeli housing. The Mayor of Anabta, Mr. Walid Hamdallah, reported that an individual had sold a plot of 42 dunams of land on the main road between Tulkarem and Anabta to the
Israeli Himanuta Company. (Ma'ariv, 20 August; Ha'aretz, 6 September; Asha'b, 21 August; Al Fajr Weekly, 30 August-5 September, 13-19 September, 27 September-3 October 1981)

179. It was reported that Mr. Yitzhak Mod'ai, Minister without portfolio, had moved his offices to East Jerusalem. He was the second minister, after the Minister of Justice, to move to East Jerusalem. In December 1981, part of the Israeli Housing Ministry moved their offices to East Jerusalem; another 1,500 employees were scheduled to move by the summer of 1982. The Minister of Housing was the third minister to move his offices, following the Minister of Justice and the Minister without portfolio. (Ha'aretz, 19 August, 30 December; Ma'ariv, 3, 28 December; Jerusalem Post, 6 December)

180. The trans-Samaria road, 60 kilometres long, stretching from Kafr Kasim within the pre-1967 line to the Israeli settlement of Phatzael in the Jordan Valley, was to be opened, according to the Jewish National Fund, by the end of 1981. One source estimated the total cost at 65 million Israel shekels (IS) ($US 4.82 million). The Minister of Defence, Mr. Ariel Sharon, gave instructions for the cultivation of 3,000 dunams (3 sq. km.) of land adjacent to the Jordan Valley. A new settlement, Carmel, was set up south of Hebron, the first in a series of settlements planned for the hills surrounding Hebron. Ten Gush Emunim
settlers moved in. (Jerusalem Post, 2, 10 September; Ha'aretz, 3 September; Ma'ariv,
9 September; Asha'b, 3 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 13-19 September, 27 September-3 October 1981)

181. The Military Government promulgated a regulation extending the validity of contracts that the Jordanian Government had concluded with private landowners in the West Bank for afforestation projects, thereby preventing the return of the land to its original owners for another 10 years. Under Jordanian law, the land was due to be returned to the landowners after a period of 15 years. The Legal Department of the Military Government had in the past extended the validity of powers of attorney, which under Jordanian law are valid for a period of five years. Local lawyers claimed that by extending the validity of powers of attorney, Israeli land-purchasing companies were able to avoid the registration of land transactions. (Jerusalem Post, 14 September 1981)

182. An Israeli family recently signed a contract to sell 1,500 dunams (1.5 sq. km.) of rocky lands it had bought from Arabs in the Modi'in area to the "Hatzav" settlement movement. Under the contract the settlement movement would pay $2.25 million within a period of nine months. In addition, it was reported that the Military Government seized over 800 dunams of land between Mazra'tat esh Sharqiya and Kafr Malik, near Ramallah, for military purposes. The Military Government, according to one report, declared lands belonging to villagers in Ara'an and Wa'ar Ashaib, to be "state land". Two sources stated that renovation works in the Jewish quarter of Hebron were continuing at an accelerated pace. (Ha'aretz, 2, 11 September; Jerusalem Post, 18 September; Al Fajr Weekly,
13-19 September; Asha'b, 3, 18 September 1981)

183. Mr. Drobles, head of the World Zionist Organization's Settlement Department, stated that 24,000 Jews were living in "Judea and Samaria" settlements, an increase of 7,000; in the preceding six months 1,870 housing units had been constructed. He also stated that in one year 23 settlements had been established in "Judea and Samaria" and the Jordan Valley; eight settlements had been established, or were under construction, over the preceding four months. There were in all 62 settlements in "Judea and Samaria" and 20 settlements in the Jordan Valley. In the Jericho area, four settlements had been established and a fifth one called "Tzuri" was under construction. (Ha'aretz, 9 September; Al Fajr Weekly,
13-19 September 1981)

184. Works were reportedly under way under the Temple Mount and the Aksa Mosque in the course of making repairs north of the Western Wall. Subsequently, the works were ordered to a halt by the Minister of Religious Affairs, although some sources reported that work had continued in secrecy. The Moslem Waqf sealed, according to one report, the Temple Mount cistern from the inside after the Israeli Police had sealed the outside in order to protect the Holy Shrine against Jewish penetration. (Jerusalem Post, 28, 30 August,
10 September; Yediot Aharonot, 30 August; Ha'aretz, 1, 14 September; Le Monde, 29 August; Times, 3 September; documents A/36/489-S/14684, 14 September, and A/36/519-S/14695, 18 September 1981)

185. The Minister of Energy, Mr. Yitzhak Berman, stated that the Cabinet had decided to consider the request of the Minister of Transport, Mr. Haim Corfu, to take over over the Jerusalem District Electricity Company in view of recurrent power failures. According to the Deputy Director of the Ministry of Energy, the power failures were caused by "insufficiently close or efficient co-operation between the two countries". (Jerusalem
Post, 6, 7 September; Ha'aretz, 7 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 13-19, 20-26 September 1981)

186. A new settlement was established in the centre of "Samaria" called Nili. Nili was set up by a decision of the Ministerial Committee on Settlement of the previous Government and was to be populated by members of Gush Emurim. By a military order, the Israeli authorities prevented inhabitants from Yatta, Bani Naim and Sair villages from entering their lands near the Dead Sea on the grounds that their lands were being used for military purposes. A land survey by the Israeli Military Government was to be conducted to complete all previous partial surveys in the occupied territories. The Israeli authorities repealed their decision to confiscate 500 dunams of lands owned by residents from Beit Sureik and Biddo after the owners brought title deeds that proved ownership of the lands. (Ma'ariv,
28 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 October 1981)

187. The Military Governor of Ramallah announced that 600 dunams of land were confiscated for "military and security" purposes in Bi'lin village; an additional 3,000 dunams had been earlier confiscated for the same purpose. The plot of 600 dunams was the subject of a court case when Mr. Yousef Khatib, head of the Ramallah "Village League", claimed ownership. In September 1981 the civil court in Ramallah had annulled the sale of the plot by the alleged owner to an Israeli company. (Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 October 1981)

188. The Military Government informed the head of the local council of Talluza, north of Nablus, of the expropriation of 131 dunams of land. A new settlement, Beit Horon, was soon to be established south of Beit Ur sponsored by the Jewish National Fund. Israeli surveyors and bulldozers started work on the lands of Arzun Al Alme and Beit Amin villages near Qalqilya despite the fact that the Israeli High Court was still considering the cases of these lands. The landowners had appealed to the Israeli High Court after a Nablus court ruled that the land had been sold illegally by Nimr Abu Najla, who had forged documents and then sold the land to an Israeli company. (Ha'aretz, 22-29 October; Jerusalem Post,
29 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17 October, 16-22 October 1981)

189. The "Judea and Samaria" Land Settlement Company bought 470 dunams for the Sharei Tikva settlement and 434 dunams for the Meskha settlement. (Al Fajr Weekly, 16-22 October, 30 October-5 November 1981)

190. Settlers from Kiryat Arba moved to the Schneersohn House in Hebron, close to the "Hadassa" building. The Arab occupants of the house had been evacuated from it shortly after the "Hadassa" building murder for "security reasons". (Ma'ariv, 27 October;
Ha'aretz, 27 October; Jerusalem Post, 27 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

191. The Ossama Bin Munkaz School in Hebron was seized and occupied by the Israeli army and its pupils dispersed to other schools. The school was housed in a building which had belonged to the Ramano family prior to 1929. Kiryat Arba settlers had asked the Military Government to expropriate the house in order to expand the area of the reconstructed Jewish quarter in Hebron. (Jerusalem Post, 10 November; Ha'aretz, 11 November; Asha'b,
12 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 November 1981)

192. The Israeli authorities sent Mr. Judeh Idris from the Old City in Jerusalem a court order instructing him to vacate his house in Aqbat Al Bustami and to pay a IS 5,000 fine. The Israelis claim the house to be the property of the Custodian of Absentee Property. The Idris family reportedly had owned the house for more than 100 years. Land belonging to Mr. Iss Hussein Abdel Nabi was expropriated for the expansion of the Gilo settlement. In 1970 the authorities had already expropriated 44 dunams of Mr. Nabi's land and his house.
(Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November 1981)

193. The Israeli authorities decided to hand back 900 dunams of land to inhabitants of El Bireh that had been closed off in 1976 for military reasons; 200 dunams of State land was allocated to Israeli settlers for the expansion of Psagot (Jebel-Tawil); 400 dunams belonging to absentees remained in state possession. Psagot is located near the Jerusalem-Beit - El road. Beit Suraf villagers were informed of the seizure of 440 dunams (6,000 dunams, according to another source) of their lands for "military needs"; 3 Nahal outposts were to be established on the land. In Bani Naim, the mukhtars were informed of the seizure of 300 dunams of their lands by the army. The Mayor of Dura was informed that a military camp would be installed on the lands of the Khalil family in Dura. (Ha'aretz, 17, 18 November; Jerusalem Post, 18 November; Asha'b, 17 November 1981)

194. Residents of the village of Bani Naim (east of Hebron) complained that the Military Government closed off 50,000 dunams of land extending from the eastern slope of the village to the Judean Desert and the Dead Sea. (Ha'aretz, 27 November; Jerusalem Post, 27 November 1981)

195. The Israeli Civil Appeals Court in Jerusalem ordered Mrs. Zahira Abdel Razzah Salymeh (60) to destroy her house in the Shayyah area, "or else the Jerusalem municipality will do the job", for lack of a building licence. Mrs. Salymeh had previously been evicted from her house in the Old City; she had reportedly subsequently paid licence fees and a fine for her house in the Shayyah area, although the Jerusalem municipality never issued her with a licence. Mr. Sami Farid Dahbour, resident of the Al Musrara area in Jerusalem, received a
final notice from the Custodian of Absentee Property to evacuate his house upon an
IS 16,000 fine and eviction by force by 22 December 1981. Mr. Yunis Hussein Sayam and his brother, from the Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood, were informed by the Israeli authorities that their two houses and four dunams of land were seized for settlement purposes.
(Al Fajr Weekly, 27 November-10 December, 11-17 December; Asha'b, 1 December 1981)

196. Since the Israeli elections in June 1981 the Israeli Government had established 10 new settlements in the West Bank in addition to the construction of private homes on existing settlements and "purchased property". The Israeli Ministry of Housing started work on land for a settlement called Givat Zeev, in Beit Hanina, north of Jerusalem, despite the fact that an application against the measure was still sub judice. The settlement was part of a project to increase the Jewish population of Jerusalem by 20,000. Another settlement, "Shimaly Jerushalaim", located in northern Jerusalem, between Ramallah and Beit Hanina, was inaugurated. Work started on a new settlement (Beit Horon) on lands belonging to villagers of Beit Ur, Ramallah district; 15 Israeli settler families from a nucleus of the "National Worker" moved into the settlement Sanur (north of Nablus). Sanur is the second of six settlements scheduled for the region. The first, Homesh (originally named Ma'aleh Nahul) was situated near the Nablus-Jenin road. Settlers also moved into "Mul-Nevo", south-east of Jericho and Na'ama, north of Jericho. (Ha'aretz, 2, 22, 28 December; Jerusalem Post, 23 December; Asha'b, 31 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 December,
26 December 1981-7 January 1982)

197. The following information was reproduced in Al Fajr Weekly (December 26-7 January) in the context of a report entitled "Losing the land to ten new settlements" by Nura Sus.

198. Inhabitants of the villages Sanniriya, Mas'ha, Azzun, Atma, Beit Amin and Zamnir in the Kalqiliya district were informed that 7,000 dunams of their land had been declared "state land" and had been allocated for the expansion of Elkana. One hundred dunams of land were seized in Dhahiriya village (near Hebron); the Israeli authorities informed residents of the villages of Urif, Asira, Hwara and Borin (near Nablus) that some of their lands were to be confiscated for the establishment of a new Israeli settlement. In Bani Naim (Hebron area) work started on 300 dunams of privately-owned Arab land from the village of Khilet-El-Arish. (Jerusalem Post, Ha'aretz, 24 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 December, 11-17 December, 26 December-7 January 1982)

199. Ten villages in "Samaria" were connected to the Israeli electricity grid. The
Jerusalem District Electricity Company, for the first time in 10 years, was authorized to buy a new generator. (Ma'ariv, 8 December; Jerusalem Post, 6 December; Ha'aretz,
30 December 1981)

200. A new regional council, the South Hebron Council, was established in the Mt. Hebron area. It groups three existing settlements, Carmal, Ziv and Mahaneh-Yattar, and six further settlements. (Ha'aretz, 25 December 1981)

201. Over 2,000 dunams of private land were closed off and subsequently expropriated for military needs close to the village of Mughaiyir (north-east of Ramallah). Some 20,000 dunams (20,000 sq. km.) had been expropriated earlier from villagers in that area for the same purpose. The villagers were offered compensation by the Custodian of Absentee Property. The land in question is located near the "Allon Road", which separates the Jordan Valley from the rest of the West Bank. Israeli private as well as government bodies bought hundreds of dunams of land located between Rujeib (the old Eilon-Moreh settlement) and Jebel Kabir (the new Elon-Moreh site). Members of the Khater family from Jebel Mukabar (East Jerusalem) complaimed that an Israeli company had started to carry out land preparation works. (Jerusalem Post, 4 January; Ha'aretz, 4-5 January; Al Fajr Weekly,
8-14 January)


Colonies
Village land
confiscated
Dunums
No. of
families
Construction
Significance
Givat
Ze'ev


Burkan


Burkan
annex

Anava


Mitzpe
Govrin

Ma'aleh
Amos


Ha'atarah



Emanuel




Nili


Lakhish


Lutcifer
Jib and Beitunia
(north of Jerusalem)


Harris
(Qalqilya area)

Harris
(Qalqilya area)

Anabta (Tulkarem area)

Tarquinia
(Hebron area)

Tequa-Tamerah tribe
(Bethlehem area)


Privately-owned land
from Jibya and Em Safa (Ramallah area)

Deir Astya
(Tulkarem area)



Deir Qaddis
(Ramallah area)

Fqukis (Hebron area)


Old Jordanian police post (Hebron area)
2 000



?


500


300


?


300



250



300+




?


100


?
5 000
apartments
planned

20-40
residing




5-10
residing

?


10-15
residing


10-15
residing


30




10-15


Military


?
Government housing under construction


Pre fabs


Wheat field plowed,
under land flattened

Pre fabs


Under construction


Pre fabs



Pre-fabs



Pre fabs, permanent
housing under construction


Pre fabs


Under construction


Pre fabs
Given bloc, largest residential urban settlement

On "trans-Samaria" highway

Industrial park for Ariel settlement

Cuts Nablus-Tulkarem


Between Idna and Hebron on trans-Hebron highway

Near partially destroyed Palestinian village

Behind Bir Zeit village, on road to Nabi Saleh

Gush Emunim settlement, Kornei Shomron bloc, barrier between Nablus and Qalqilya

Only four kilometres from the Green Line

Cuts Hebron from string
of villages

Gush settlement east of Yatta on road planned to connect Israeli development town of Arad with Allon Rd., arid land along Green Line

202. The Custodian of Absentee Property Department conducted a wide-scale campaign and asserted that dozens of houses were "discovered" in the Moslem Quarter of Jerusalem's Old City belonging to Jews which had been bought 300 years ago and which were duly registered. (Ma'ariv, 10 January; Al Fajr Weekly, 15-21 January, 29 Feburary-4 March)

203. The Israeli military authorities took over 200 dunams of land near the village of Al Jeeb, in the Ramallah region. An Israeli company bought 100 dunams of land in the village of Beit Amin, near Qalquilya; the villagers subsequently applied to the High Court of Justice, which is considering the case. The Military Government informed villagers from Abud, near Ramallah, that 800 dunams of their lands had been designed for building a settlement; Beit Surik inhabitants complained that Israeli settlers prevented them from entering their lands, alleging that the 700 dunams were theirs. (Ha'aretz, 24, 31 January, 1 Feburary; Jerusalem Post, 31 January, 1 Feburary; Asha'b, 11 January; Al Fajr Weekly, 15-21 January, 5-11 February)

204. Mr. Manoah Zehavi has been appointed co-ordinator of an interministerial committee within the Ministry of Defence designed to locate State lands and absentee lands which will be put at the disposal of the Israel Defence Forces and the Jewish settlements. According to a source quoting Minister Sharon, 30,000 Jews had settled in "Judea and Samaria" since 1967. The demand for lands in "Judea and Samaria" had risen, following the decision to pay high compensation to the Yamit evacuees. A great demand for lands has been reported in the areas of Karney Shomoron, Ma'aleh Shomoron, Ariel, Efrat and Elkana. An Israeli company called Rassco Company offered to pay IS 65,000 ($US 4,000) per dunam for a transaction of 34 dunams of privately-owned Arab land from landowners in Ma'aleh Shomoron. (Ma'ariv, 12 January; Ha'aretz, 13 January, 3 February)

205. The Military Government in the Nablus area informed inhabitants of the villages Kafr Qalil, Burin and Hakef located on Mt. Gerizin (Nablus area) that 200 dunams of land were being declared state land. Villagers of Qarawat and Sarta (Nablus area) related that surveyors started to carry out works for the establishment of a new settlement. Digging works have started on a 140-dunam piece of land in Wadi Nuweima. According to the source, this land is defined "absentee property". The Military Government decided to cancel a decision to confiscate Arab land in the village of Kufr Hares, near Nablus. The 250 dunams were to be given back to its owners, the Islamic Waqf. (Ha'aretz, 10 Feburary; Al Fajr
Weekly, 15-21 January; 12-18 February)

206. A 4,000-dunam area south of Jerusalem was declared state land for the purpose of creating a new urban settlement called "Beitan", located between Beit-Jala and Battir; the mukhtars of Battir and Walaja were informed of the possibility of lodging an appeal with the "Military Government's advisory committee". According to experts of the State Land Administration, most of the area consisted of State lands and comprised Jewish-owned plots that were bought before the 1948 war. Residents of the villages Deir Ballut and Kafr Ed Dik in "Samaria" protested over seizures of land; preparations had been completed for the creation of a new settlement called Yerovam (provisional name Beit Aryeh B'). (Ha'aretz,
14 Feburary; Al Fajr Weekly, 19-25 February)

207. The Israeli military authorities confiscated 900 dunams of land in the village of Tammun, near Jenin. In Ramallah, the Israeli authorities levelled 600 dunams of land in the village of Midya. The military authorities informed 40 residents of the village of Saffa, in the Ramallah area, that 500 dunams of their lands had been confiscated, against compensation. Israeli bulldozers started works on Arab land in the village of Beit Iskaria in the Hebron district. The owner, Mr. Ibrahim Attalah, had already obtained an order nisi from the High Court of Justice barring further work on his land. One thousand dunams of land were reportedly expropriated in the village of Aqraba, near Nablus. Twenty thousand
dunams of land (20 km2), belonging to residents of Surif, north of Hebron, were confiscated; the owners were given 21 days to lodge their appeal. (Ha'aretz, 18 March; Al
Fajr Weekly, 12-18 February, 26 February-4 March, 19-25 March)

208. A number of reports indicated alleged forgery in land sales in the West Bank. The citizen Qadoura Abu Qadus from Azun, near Qalqilya, was threatened by Jewish brokers to sell his land. Moshe Reich, a contractor from the Elkana settlement, was arrested in connexion with the case, together with two suspects from Jaljula and Kafr Kassem, villages in Israeli proper. A magistrate's court in Petah-Tikva extended the detention of one of the suspects. (Jerusalem Post, 10 January, 24 February; Ha'aretz, 18 January, 25 January, 24 February; Ma'ariv, 26 January; Asha'b, 1, 7 January, 27 April; Al Fajr Weekly, 12-18 March 1982)

209. The budget of the Ministry of Finance for settlements in the occupied territories in the financial year 1982-1983 would reach one billion shekels ($US 50 million); Mr. Drobles, head of the Zionist Federation's Settlement Department, stated that there were 126 settlements in the occupied territories, 98 of which had been established under the auspices of the Settlement Department. In "Judea and Samaria" there were 63 settlements; the Ministry of Defence was setting up four Nahal outposts. In the Jordan Valley there were 25 settlements and six more were planned (three in the northern Jordan Valley and three in the south, designed to close the "Jericho corridor", referred to in the Allon plan). In the Golan Heights there were 33 settlements and four were under construction. In 1982-1983, 16 more settlements and 14 Nahal outposts were planned or were under
construction. The plan for the West Bank providing for a Jewish population of 100,000 envisaged three categories of areas. In the first, close to Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, there was to be only private construction and almost no public investment; in the second, within a "20-50-minute car-ride distance" from Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem, there was to be private construction with planning and infrastructure by the Zionist Federation's Settlement Department. In the third area, located mainly on the "Samaria" mountain ridges, in the Judea desert and on the Hebron mountains, settlements were to be given financial advancement. According to Mr. Drobles, Nahal outposts were designed to curb the "illegal spread of Arabs in vital areas". Five such outposts were under construction in the Hebron
mountains; seven in the center of "Samaria" and two outposts were under construction in the Golan Heights. (Ha'aretz, 19 February 1982)

210. Nahal Nimrod was established between the Druze villages of Ma'asada and Majdal Shams. The construction was started of Alfey Menasheh, a settlement designed for employees of the security establishment, near Karney Shomoron. The settlement was to accommodate 1,800 families, but the State was buying more land in the region; Alfey-Menasheh was to be a "security town" by a decision of the Ministerial Committee on Settlement Affairs of 8 August 1979, which, according to a report, was being made public for the first time.
(Ha'aretz, 3, 17 March 1982)

211. The Israeli authorities closed off areas and expropriated lands in different parts of the territories. In Hebron, 27 dunams were expropriated belonging to Mr. Soleiman Abu Seryna, who subsequently appealed to the Israeli High Court of Justice. In Heja (Jenin district), villagers were not allowed to reach 3,000 dunams of their land. In Nablus, Israeli bulldozers resumed work on 4,800 dunams of land belonging to villagers in Kafr Kalil and Borein. In addition, the Israeli authorities informed citizens from Sofian (near Qalquilya) of the expropriation of 34 dunams. In Jebel Mokabar (Jerusalem area) Israeli bulldozers started work on 40 dunams of land belonging to Mr. Ahmed Al Haleysy. Israeli
bulldozers worked on land of inhabitants of Yinsafout for the expansion of "Emmanuel settlement", despite a court order halting work, pending proof of ownership. The work was subsequently halted. Three thousand two hundred dunams of land in Bani Naim were declared State land. In Tulkarem, preparation for a settlement called "Alar" on 400 dunams of land got under way. In the Golan Heights the settlement of 20,000 Israelis, in addition to the actual population of 8,000 Israelis, started during the month of May. (Ha'aretz, 13, 18 May; Asha'b, 4, 26, 27, 28, 30 April, 5, 12, 17, 18, 23, 26, 27, 30 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 28 May-3 June, 4-10, 11-17 June)

212. Two Israeli settlements located between Bethlehem and Hebron were recently established; Ayronim and Gush Etzion. The Minister of Housing, Mr. David Levy, stated that the Efraim settlement would develop into a city to be inhabited by 300 families. (Asha'b, 27 May, 1 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 June)

213. Several thousands of dunams of land were seized in the Tulkarem area in the villages of Boya, Haris Masha, Azoun Osma, Kafr Tulz and Deir Istya. These lands have been expropriated despite proof of ownership. Villagers of Borin filed a complaint with the Israeli High Court of Justice against the seizure of 500 dunams of their lands by settlers. The Israeli military authorities notified Mr. Ali Al Jaradat from Sair (Hebron area) that he had 45 days to object to the seizure of his land. About 5,000 dunams of land were seized in the village of Hussan (Bethelehem). (Asha'b, 3, 6, 30 June; Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17 June, 2-8, 9-15 July)

214. Prefabricated houses were put at the disposal of Jewish settlers from Kiryat Arba, who had asked for many months to be authorized to live in Hebron. The Nahal outpost of "Bedolah", near Rafah, turned into a civilian settlement, the new name of which will be "Mitzpeh Atzmona". (Ha'aretz, 1 July; Ma'ariv, 6 July; Asha'b, 2 July)

215. The World International Zionist Organization allocated IS 416 million ($US 30.8 million) for the period 1981-1982 in order to assist border settlements in emergency situations. (Jerusalem Post, 9 September 1981).


5. Judicial remedies

(a) Remedies against measures affecting the person

216. Five (according to another source, six) Druze teachers who had been dismissed by the Military Government in the Golan Heights for alleged incitement against the State of Israel applied to the Labour Court in Nazareth asserting that their dismissal was unlawful and a punitive measure directed against those who refused to accept Israeli identity cards. The Ministry of Education in defence rejected this position and stated that the acceptance of Israeli identity was not a conditio sine qua non for employment; it was pointed out that nearly 90 per cent of the Druze teachers in the Golan Heights were not Israeli citizens. The Labour Court subsequently rejected the teachers' appeal. The judges Meir Weinstein and
Josef Pick, in a majority decision, ruled that the teachers, who had refused to take up Israeli citizenship and identity cards, could not benefit from the same rights as Israeli teachers. The President of the Court, Khalil Aboud, in a minority opinion, stated that the dismissal of two teachers was "illegal" and contrary to "public morality"; he upheld the Ministry's right to transfer the other three teachers to different schools. (Ha'aretz, 16, 17, 18 August, 10, 23 September; Jerusalem Post, 10, 20, 23 September; Asha'b, 11 September 1981)

217. The High Court of Justice of Israel rejected the application of the four Arabs, charged with the "Hadassa house" murder in Hebron, in which they had argued that they should be treated as prisoners of war and that a military court had no jurisdiction in such a case. The reasons for the decision were to be published at a later date. (Yediot
Aharonot, 10 September; Ha'aretz, 11 September 1981)

218. The High Court of Justice of Israel determined that a public person in "Judea and Samaria" who is convicted of a security offence is no longer entitled to hold public office. The Court rejected the appeal by Mr. Aly Al Mahraza, former head of the Dhahiriya Local Council, against his dismissal after being put on trial for "failing to report to the military authorities an infiltrator who arrived in his village from an Arab country".
(Yediot Aharonot, 17 September; Asha'b, 18 September 1981)

219. The State Tribunal of Labour of Israel handed down a judgement that, according to the source, "is considered to be of a great importance with regard to the eligibility of Arab workers fom the territories to receive allowances and grants following work accidents in Israel - even if they were staying in Israel without a permit". The widow of an inhabitant from El Arish applied to the Tribunal after her husband was killed in a work accident; he had worked in Holon (Israel) but not employed in conformity with the Employment Service Law. The judges criticized the worker's subhuman working conditions and stated: "Subhuman situations oblige the court to look for a `human interpretation', to the limit of what is permitted in the framework of the law, while bearing in mind that the respondent is a State
body". The judges explained that, under the law, an accident should be considered as a work accident if a causal link can be proved between the work and the accident. The special circumstances of the case showed that such a link existed between the poor conditions of work and the death of the worker. (Ha'aretz, 25 September 1981)

220. The Attorney Mrs. F. Langer applied to the Israeli High Court of Justice requesting the Court to order the Military Governor to allow her client Ahoned Hassan Darwish from Dora to travel to Jordan for medical treatment. During his six years of imprisonment, convicted of the offence of violating State security, Mr. Darwish incurred a spinal disease which could not be cured in local hospitals. (Asha'b, 7 October 1981)

221. Arab businessmen from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip applied to the Israeli High Court of Justice. In their applications they argued that the collection of value-added tax in the form of "excise-added tax in the territories under military occupation" is contrary to the Geneva Convention and international law, since the tax in question did not exist under Jordanian rule. In a hearing before the Court, Professor Gerhard von Glahn, who had conducted research on the matter at the request of the Israeli authorities, concluded that the collection of tax and the military order issued dealing with the matter were contrary to international law. The State Attorney had argued that the applicants had not challenged the legitimacy of the new tax at the time the order was issued (1976). It was maintained that the Military Government was entitled to impose a 12 per cent excise-added tax to cover
the granting of services to the population of the territories. (Yediot Aharonot,
2 November; Ha'aretz, 12, 15 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November, 20-26 November)

222. The High Court of Justice issued an interim injunction upholding the Ramallah Military Governor's order to close Bir Zeit University; it instructed the Military Governor to show cause within eight days why the closure should not be limited to a reasonable period. In their ruling the justices stressed that the authorities had the discretion to decide whether closing the university was a suitable means of ensuring public order. Therefore, the Court would not intervene as long as discretion was reasonably exercised. The Court cancelled an interim injunction it had granted earlier against the forcible eviction of the students from the university. (Jerusalem Post, 6 November; Ha'aretz, 5, 6, 15 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November; Ma'ariv, 15 November 1981)

223. The Mayor of Nablus, Mr. Shaka'a, applied through Mrs. Felicia Langer to the High Court of Justice against the Minister for Defence and the "Judea and Samaria" Region Commander. The applicants asked the High Court to instruct the respondents to show cause why they should not refrain from harassing the Mayor of Nablus, bullying him and harming him and his family unceasingly. (Ha'aretz, 10 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 November 1981)

224. The High Court of Justice issued an interim injunction barring the Military Government from destroying the house of a Beit Sahur resident whose son had allegedly thrown an incendiary bottle at a military vehicle. It was subsequently reported that the inhabitants of the houses in Hebron that were blown up and sealed following the stabbing of Yosef Kopelsky petitioned the High Court for the removal of the sealing and the reconstruction of their houses. (Jerusalem Post, 18, 30 November; Ma'ariv, 18 November; Ha'aretz, 17, 30 November 1981)

225. The Israeli High Court of Justice ruled that the right of Jews to pray on the Temple Mount was essentially a political issue to be decided upon by theGovernment. Justice Yehuda Cohen, who wrote the judgment, stated that the HighCourt had been seized with the question three times since 1967. The Courtmaintained that, in the light of Moslem attitudes to the problem, it could not bedealt with by the judiciary. In a leading judgement in 1968, the Court had based itself on mandatory legislation of 1924 which gave the Minister of Religious Affairs the power to take matters relating to the holy places outside the jurisdiction of the courts. (Jerusalem Post, 1 December 1981)

226. The High Court of Justice issued a provisional injunction prohibiting the demolition of the house of the Abu Ayn family from Ramallah. Ziad Abu Ayn had been extradited from the United States to Israel, suspected of having perpetrated a sabotage act in Tiberias in 1979 in which two Israelis were killed. (Ha'aretz, 14 December 1981)

227. The Israeli High Court of Justice published its reasons for the rejection of the application by the East Jerusalem newspaper Al Fajr which had asked the Court to compel the Minister of Interior to rescind the closure order issued against it. Justice Cohen, who wrote the judgement, stated that Al Fajr had knowingly broken its commitment in a previous application to the High Court of Justice to submit the published material to the censorship's control by failing to submit many publications "which any reasonable person intending to comply with the agreement in good faith would have considered necessary to submit to the censor's control". These publications, according to Justice Cohen, "contain expressions of encouragement to an unrestrained war against the Israeli occupant, and a positive prominence given to the activity of terror organisations". Examining the
application in the light of a judgement of 1953 (regarding the case of the communist Hebrew daily Kol Ha'am, which constituted a guiding judgement with respect to the basic right to freedom of expression and the restrictions thereon), the judge stated that "the Minister of the Interior was entitled - under the given circumstances and taking into account the numerous disturbances of the peace - to halt its publication for a certain period". In conclusion, Justice Cohen stressed that "the applicants, by publishing in their newspapers material that may almost certainly endanger the public peace, made ill use of the right to freedom of expression and overstepped the bounds of what can be tolerated by a democratic
régime wishing to defend its existence". (Ha'aretz, 1 January; Jerusalem Post,
1 January 1982)

228. Two Israeli civilian administration officers in the Ramallah district were convicted at the Military Court of the Central Region Command in Ramallah of "assault in aggravating circumstances" and sentenced to a suspended prison term of 30 days. According to the charge sheet, they had beaten up an Arab, Mr. Hatam Othman, near the village of Beit Ur Ettahta, after he had almost caused a collision between his car and the military jeep they were driving. In another development the Supreme Court rejected the appeal of three Jews sentenced to nine months' imprisonment for beating up an Arab. The defendants were found guilty of attacking Salame Jaddula, a villager from Jenin. Justice Landau stated that the
Jewish people, who had long suffered from discrimination, "must take a specially serious view of so-called `nationalist' acts of revenge". Nine landowners from Beit Amin in the Tulkarem district applied to the High Court of Justice maintaining that border police and "unidentified Jews" had beaten some of them while the Military Government personnel and the Tulkarem police helped Israeli settlers to take hold of their lands, despite the fact that a local court in Qalqilya has issued a provisional injunction banning any works in the area. (Ha'aretz, 6, 7 January; Jerusalem Post, 9 March; Al Fajr Weekly, 8-14 January and
15-21 January 1982)

229. The Israeli High Court of Justice rejected an appeal to release two Arab female students from Moscobiyya Interrogation Centre, where they were under interrogation for alleged possession of inciting materials. The Israeli High Court of Justice ordered the restitution of a 300-dunam piece of land in the village of Surif, near Hebron, to its legal owner after the Israeli authorities had confiscated it. The Civil Court in Nablus annulled a land deal in which an Israeli contractor tried to buy 150 dunams of land in the village of Awarta, Nablus area. The Appeals Court in Ramallah ordered the Israeli company, Himanuta, to give back a 60-dunam piece of land to its legal owner, Mr. Ahmed Ali Abu Ayyash, from Beit Ummar village in the Hebron area. (Al Fajr Weekly, 22-28 January;
12-18 February; 26 February-4 March; 5-11 March 1982)

230. The Supreme Court Justice, Mr. Yitzah Cohen, decided to release from detention an administrative detainee suspected of "terrorist acts" in Jerusalem, although the State had argued that his detention was necessary "for security reasons and for protecting public safety". Justice Cohen ruled that the Minister of Defence, who issued the administrative detention order, resorted to a power given to him by law for a purpose which was extraneous to the new law on administrative detention, 1979, i.e., for the purpose of punishment for past acts, instead of the purpose provided by the law-prevention of a future danger to the security of the State and the public. The detainee had been arrested on 9 December 1980 and was sentenced to a 10-year prison term by the Military Court in Lod on 28 January 1982 by two of the three judges. However, under the Defence (Emergency) Regulations of 1945, a
defendant cannot be convicted by a military court unless the judgement is unanimous. The Military Court subsequently decided to release him. The State lodged an appeal against the decision to acquit the suspect and the chief of staff issued an administrative detention order for 48 hours, subsequently reinforced by an order by the Minister of Defence for a period of two months. Under the provisions of the Law on Emergency Powers (1979), the Jerusalem District Attorney, Mr. Michael Kirsh, asked the President of the Jerusalem District Court to uphold the order, who, after examination, granted the request. The lawyers for the defendant, Mr. Avigdor Feldman and Gideon Pinhassi, appealed to the Supreme Court arguing that the administrative detention order in the present case was not in
conformity with the law. The Supreme Court Judge, Mr. Cohen, accepted this reasoning and overruled the decision by the Jerusalem District Court, releasing the suspect from administrative detention. He concluded that "the power given to the Defence Minister by law is large and exceptional as it enables the denial of a person's freedom not through a regular legal proceeding; it should therefore be resorted to with the maximum strictness". It was the first time that the Supreme Court had annulled an administrative detention order under the new law and the second case since the creation of the State of Israel. (Ha'aretz, 26 February 1982)

231. The lawyer Mrs. Felicia Langer obtained three orders nisi from the High Court of Justice preventing the deportation of the three Mayors, Mr. Abrahim A. Tawil (El Bireh), Mr. Bassam A. Shaka'a (Nablus) and Mr. Karim Khalif (Ramallah), after their dismissal from office by the Israeli Military Government. (Jerusalem Post, 26 March; Al Fajr Weekly,
26 March-1 April 1982)

232. The case of Mr. Haj Abu Diab was considered by an Israeli Appeals Court in Jerusalem. He had been sentenced to 10 months' imprisonment by an Israeli Court of First Instance in September 1981 for participation in a protest march after the death of the two Nafha prisoners Mahmoud El Jafer and Rasem Halawa in July 1980. The Israeli High Court of Justice issued two orders nisi in the case of eight municipal councillors from Nablus instructing the Israeli authorities to stop harassing them in the aftermath of the dismissal of Mr. Shaka'a, the Mayor of Nablus. (Asha'b, 18, 23 April 1982)

233. The Military Court in Lod rejected an appeal by seven Druze residents of the Golan Heights against prison sentences, ranging from three months to one year, passed on them following the wave of disturbances. Over 30 Golan Druzes were summoned to the Ma'asada Court for failure to carry Israeli identity cards. Subsequently, 12 citizens from the Golan Heights submitted a petition to the High Court of Justice against the holding of identity cards. The High Court of Justice rejected an application by three West Bank high school students to be allowed to sit for their matriculation examination in prison. They are awaiting trial after having been convicted of stoning civilian vehicles, burning tyres and erecting road-blocks. The reasoning of the Court was that the case was not within its
jurisdiction as "a Jewish school boy from Tel Aviv who was arrested for throwing stones would be treated in a similar way". (Ha'aretz, 18 May, 3 June; Jerusalem Post, 3 June;
Al Ittihad, 25 June 1982)

234. Alan Harry Goodman, who shot his way into the Al Aqsa Mosque in East Jerusalem on
12 April, was indicted in the Jerusalem District Court on one account of murder and five accounts of attempted murder. He had been in (preventive) detention and was subsequently considered fit to stand trial. (Jerusalem Post, 9, 10 May, 30 June 1982)

(b) Remedies against measures affecting property

235. The Supreme Court rejected an appeal of Jews who had laid ownership claims to East Jerusalem lands, ending years of legal proceedings in various Israeli courts. The ownership of the 17 dunams in question was transferred in 1972 to the "General Committee of Knesset-Yisrael" and the "Committee of Sephardic Community". Earlier the land had been registered in the names of various rabbis since 1875, when it had been bought originally from Arabs. Under Jordanian rule three lease contracts were signed involving the land in question: the first one between the Custodian of Enemy Property as lessor and the Jordanian Minister of Housing and Construction on behalf of the Hashemite Kingdom, as lessee; a second contract between the Kingdom of Jordan and UNRWA; and the third one between the Jordanian Housing Minister and the tenants. Following the application of Israeli law on East Jerusalem after the Six-Day War, claims were raised against the Arab tenants "asking them to take their hands off the apartments", and a demolition order was requested for a house built on disputed land. The Jerusalem Magistrates' Court and the Jerusalem District Court rejected these claims. The Courts had determined that the three contracts had been made lawfully and that, on the basis of these contracts, the tenants had
the right to occupy the houses in which they were living. (Ma'ariv, 6 August 1981)

236. The Hebron Municipality appealed to the Military Review Board against the Military Government's decision to classify land in A-Ras area as "state land". The plot of land, adjacent to a tract known as "Givat Ja'abara", was to be allocated to Kiryat Arba; the land allocation was subsequently blocked by the High Court of Justice. In another land case, the southern District Civil Court in Ramallah ruled on 20 September 1981 to cancel a sale to an Israeli company by a Mr. Yousef Khatib who claimed ownership to 569 dunams of land in Bi'lin. The owners (Messrs. Mohammad Abed Samara, Ismail Abed Yassin, Mahmoud Salim Mansour, Ishra Mohammad Al Atrash and Mustafa Ahmed Abu Rahmeh) through their lawyer,
Mr. Safer Suleiman Tawil, submitted documents that supported their claim. The Court stated that its decision could not be overruled by any higher court since "the rightful owners have proved ownership". The Appeals Court in Ramallah decided to grant the transfer of three dunams of land in Bethlehem to an Israeli who "presumably bought the land from Miriam Mazurha in Latin America ten years ago". (Jerusalem Post, 18 September; Asha'b,
25 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 September, 27 September-3 October 1981)

237. The High Court of Justice granted three villagers from Tsurif near Hebron an interim injunction barring the Military Government from building on 440 dunams of land which the army had seized for a Nahal outpost. (Jerusalem Post, 18 November 1981; Ha'aretz,
18 November 1981)

238. The Mayor of Salfit and the municipal councillors applied to the High Court of Justice requesting to cancel the Military Government's order under which Salfit should be connected to the Jewish electricity grid. The Court subsequently issued an interim injunction instructing the stoppage of works pending the hearing of the municipality's application on the matter. (Ha'aretz, 3, 10 December 1981)

239. The High Court of Justice rejected an application by 16 landowners from seven villages in "Judea and Samaria" who requested to instruct the Judea and Samaria Region Commander to annul the declaration of their lands as "state lands". In their application, submitted through Mrs. Langer, the landowners from the villages of Tarqumiya (Hebron district), El Khadr (Bethlehem district), Anabta (Tulkarem district), Haris, Salfit and Qaddum (Nablus district) and Biddu (Ramallah district) maintain that their lands, totalling approximately 1,000 dunams, were arbitrarily declared State lands and that their lands had been designed as the site upon which the settlements of Mitzpeh Govrin, Efrat A, Karney Shomoron B, Hadasha, Kiryat Arba and Ariel were to be established and/or expanded. The landowners argued that the measure was taken to circumvent the decision of the High Court of Justice in the Eilon-Moreh case. The Court would give the reasons for its decision on a later date. The High Court in addition looked into the case of landowners from Jebel Al-Tawil (El Bireh). According to the owners, the Israeli authorities intended to establish a settlement on 3,500 dunams of their lands. (Asha'b, 2 December; Ha'aretz,
18 December 1981)

240. The High Court of Justice in a decision of principle ruled that the Military Government in "Judea and Samaria" is entitled to declare lands in the territories as "state lands" and take possession thereof. Justice Meir Shamgar, who wrote the judgement, explained that under international law the "Judea and Samaria" Region Commander has a duty to guard public property in the region, including property which belonged to the Jordanian Government. The Court also ruled that the Military Government was not subservient to the regular local courts in the territories and that, for that reason, people who claim to own lands that were declared "state lands" had to do so through the advisory committee. The Court nevertheless called on the Military Government to ensure that the declaration of lands as "state lands" should be made according to orderly procedures and that adequate legal procedures should be introduced in the advisory committee. The judgement was given on the application by a group of 16 inhabitants from Tarqumiya, in the Hebron district,
and Kaddum, Salfit and Anabta in the Nablus area, who claimed ownership of their lands.
(Jerusalem Post, 11 February; Ha'aretz, 11 February; Al Fajr Weekly, 12-18 February 1982)

241. The Israeli High Court of Justice rejected the application of 12 Qalqilya residents against the expropriation of their lands, ruling that the expropriation was for defence purposes and therefore not in contravention of international law. The Court criticized the plaintiffs' lawyer, Mrs. Felicia Langer, for grave violation of judicial procedure in allowing signatures of deceased persons to appear on affidavits she had presented to the Court. The plaintiffs were ordered to pay IS 10,000 in court costs. (Ha'aretz, 30 April; Jerusalem Post, 30 April; Asha'b, 30 April; Al Fajr Weekly, 7-13 May 1982)

242. The Israeli High Court of Justice issued a verdict allowing the Israeli military authorities to take over lands in the West Bank and Gaza Strip on the claim that it is public land. According to this decision landowners whose land is confiscated will have no right to appeal. The High Court issued an interim injunction instructing the Israeli Minister for Defence to show cause why he should not open the house of Mr. Abdul Aziz Sabatin from Husan (Bethlehem), closed down several weeks ago. (Al Fajr Weekly, 28 May-3 June, 11-17 June 1982)

243. Seven villagers of Beit Kahel filed, throught Mrs. Felicia Langer, a petition with the Israeli High Court of Justice against the attempts to link the village to the Israeli electricity grid. (Asha'b, 21 June 1982)

6. Treatment of detainees

(a) Prison conditions

244. The Nafha prisoners held a two-day hunger-strike on 23 and 24 September 1981 to protest against deteriorating conditions. According to a statement issued by the prisoners' lawyers, "the Nafha prison administration follows a policy of provocation and humilitation of prisoners". Prisoners complained of being held in solitary confinement for two weeks, guards breaking into cells at midnight, the confiscation of books and the beating of prisoners who dare to argue or to complain. The main problem facing political prisoners is the quantity and the quality of food. According to the prisoners' lawyers: "nothing had changed since last year, on the contrary it has deteriorated". (Al Farj
Weekly, 27 September-3 October 1981)

245. Relatives of Nafha prisoners visited the offices of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in East Jerusalem where they were told that the ICRC could not organize a second visit to Nafha prison, despite the request by the head of the Prisoners' Committee in Jerusalem, former prisoner Khalil Abu Zayad, because, according to one source, they (ICRC) "don't want to become a transportation company". On the other hand, representatives of ICRC confirmed that several complaints had been lodged with the Israeli authorities about the bad conditions prevailing in Israeli jails in general and in Nafha prison in particular. (Al Fajr Weekly, 30 August-5 September, 20-26 September; Asha'b,
20 September 1981)

246. One report gave a detailed description of prison conditions in the prisons of Gaza and Ashkelon. Four different kinds of cells existed in these prisons:

(a) "Shock" cells: four cells each measuring 80 centimetres by 200 centimetres, with small openings which are open only during the night from the outside. These cells are kept especially for prisoners who contravene prison regulations.

(b) Cells (numbers 20-26) each measuring 120 centimetres by 120 centimetres. These are totally closed except for a small area of narrow slits covered with wire netting. Up to six prisoners can be put into each of these cells.

(c) The third kind of cells (numbers 10-15) each measuring 150 centimetres by 500 centimetres, are wider than others, but their ceilings are cracked and the waterpipes running through them leak onto the prisoners.

(d) Cells wide enought to take up to 11 prisoners designated for prisoners who have already gone through interrogation procedures and those who would have spent a long time in the smaller cells. In addition, the prison administration chooses the most "ferocious" wardens to guard these cells. There are no toilets or water facilities in the cells and the food, apart from its scarcity and bad quality, is taken away by civil prisoners or collaborators.

In Gaza prison, the first floor is kept for those prisoners already sentenced; the second for administrative detainees and the third one for civil prisoners. The report stated that the administration does not pay any attention to the prisoners' health conditions. Mr. Yahya Fuad (17) from Khan Yunis stated at a press conference by the "League for Human and Civil Rights", organized by Mrs. Langer, that prisoners in Gaza were forced to stand for many hours and to relieve themselves in their clothes, while wardens spit at them. In some cases cigarettes were extinguished on prisoners' bodies and prisoners were beaten on the genitals. The Israeli Prison Service subsequently emphatically denied the charges, adding
that interrogations did not normally take place inside the prisons and that the allegations were "patently false". (Jerusalem Post, 17 September; Ha'aretz, 17 September; Al Ittihad, 22 September; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 September 1981)

247. Dr. Ibrahim Abu Hilal from Bethlehem, held in Hebron prison for six years so far, reported through Mrs. Langer that the prison was overcrowded and that there was no medical treatment available to the prisoners. In addition, he stated that the quality of the food was bad and that prison administrators attacked prisoners and prohibited the use of study materials. In Ramallah prison, the prisoners complained to Mrs. Langer about overcrowding and torture. Prisoners related to Mrs. Langer that the prison authorities covered their heads with sacks and forced them to stand up for periods of up to one week in order to force them to confess. (Al Fajr Weekly, 27 September-3 October 1981)

248. The officer in charge of the prisons' administrations admitted in a meeting with the Knesset Committee for Domestic Affairs that the Israeli prisons conditions "leave much to be desired and should be reformed". Palestinian prisoners in Beersheba prison alleged that when they refused to go to the prison hospital they were beaten with clubs and had gas grenades thrown at them by the prison authorities. (Al Ittihad, 29 September; Asha'b,
7 October 1981)

249. Mrs. Felicia Langer submitted a report to the Israeli League of Civil and Human Rights on conditions of prisons and prisoners entitled "Torture, Cruelty, Humiliation". The report is based on information gathered from visits to prisoners in Beersheba, Ashkelon, Hebron and Ramallah prisons. (Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

250. On 6 July 1981, Mrs. Langer visited Beersheba prison and was informed that
Mr. Abdallah Taleb had refused a medical check-up in Ramallah prison. According to the prisoners "medical checks were a cover-up for a special interrogation where, with the help of drugs, prisoners are induced to become collaborators and then return to spy on their comrades". As a result of Mr. Taleb's refusal, a number of prisoners were taken out of their cells and beaten. Mrs. Langer spoke to Mr. Mustafa Samari (from Nablus), Ahmed Savahan, Hassan Sarandak and Kahled Al Ashab (from East Jerusalem). They related to Mrs. Langer that, in addition to the beatings, they were subsequently sprayed in their cells with tear-gas that causes "nausea and a feeling as if one is to die" and that many prisoners were thrown in "punishment cells", (2.5 by 3 metres). According to prison regulations, the punishment cell should be used only after a disciplinary trial for a stated offence. (Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

251. Mr. Salah Ali Abbous (34) died in Ashkelon prison as a result of a heart attack, according to Mrs. Langer who visited this prison on 11 September 1981. He had served 13 years in prison and was the eleventh to die in less than 10 years. Mrs. Langer spoke to the following detainees: Messrs. Majid Qassem Nazral, Faruk Jamil Abd Al Razeh, Hakkam Shanar Muhammed Abu War, Rabhi Burhan and Adballah Shalash. According to the prisoners, medical help in the prison was negligible and the problem of overcrowding had gained momentum; in addition, clothing was inadequate and the authorities restricted the use of certain books.
(Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

252. Mrs. Langer visited Hebron prison on 16 September 1981 and spoke to Dr. Ibrahim Abu Hilhal from Bethlehem, serving a six-year prison sentence. He complained about overcrowding, insufficient medical help, bad food and the treatment inflicted upon the prisoners by the authorities. Mr. Ibrahim Abu Hashhash, after having painted a picture, "was thrown handcuffed into a punishment cell and was given the `cold shower' punishment". (Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

253. Palestinian prisoners in Gaza prison rioted in the prison to protest against the refusal of the prison administration to meet their minimum demands for an improvement in their prison conditions. The prisoners started a hunger-strike, but the prison authorities broke into the prison cells and reportedly threw "grenades" into the cells. Mrs. Felicia Langer who had come to visit the prison was reportedly herself at the prison. (Asha'b, 3, 22 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12, 20-26 November; Al Ittihad, 20 November 1981)

254. Mr. Akram Haniya, editor-in-chief of Asha'b, Dr. Azam Shueibi, El Bireh Municipal Councillor and Dr. Sanur Katba, head of the West Bank Physician Organization, detained in Ramallah prison, complained to Mrs. Langer about the bad sanitary conditions in the prison and went on a hunger-strike to protest against the reasons for their detention. (Ha'aretz, 20, 27 November; Asha'b, 20 November 1981)

255. The Israeli prison authorities intend to build 262 new prison cells in West Bank prisons to accommodate the increasing number of prisoners. One hundred and ten rooms were to be added to Gaza prison; 72 rooms to Jenin prison; 20 rooms to Tulkarem prison and 60 rooms to Ramallah prison. The Minister of the Interior, Mr. Burg, declared that the conditions of Israeli prisons were below the average required standards and that, unless a budget was immediately allocated to the prison administration, the living conditions of detainees would violate the prisons' law. According to Israeli figures, there were 1,700 Palestinians in prisons in the West Bank and Gaza and 1,000 in prisons in Israel. (Asha'b, 1, 4 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 December 1981)

256. Security prisoners in Tulkarem prison held a six-day hunger-strike to protest against ill-treatment and bad prison conditions. Mothers of Palestinian prisoners were prevented from visiting Ashkelon prison; Mr. Walid Fahum, a lawyer, was prevented from visiting Mr. Salim Hassan Kalah (27) in Jenin prison who is handicapped and who had been arrested for the third time. According to Mr. Fahum, Mr. Khalah had been subjected to beatings and other abuses during his previous detentions. (Al Ittihad, 4 December; Al Fajr Weekly, 11-17 December, 26 December 1981-7 January 1982)

257. Damun prison on Mt. Carmel accommodates 400 criminal and security prisoners, i.e., more than 10 inmates per prison cell. Mr. Wertheimer, the Prison Commissioner, stated that each prisoner had an "average" living space of 2.6 square metres, whereas abroad prisoners enjoyed an area at least twice as large. The quality of food supplied to security prisoners had recently become equal to that of criminal prisoners. A new prison called "Yiftah-El" near Nazareth was to be completed before the end of 1982. The new prison was to accommodate 400 inmates and would replace the old Damun prison. Seventy-five per cent of the cells in the new prison will be individual; the rest will accommodate no more than three inmates per cell. The number of security prisoners in Israeli prisons stands at approximately 2,800. (Ha'aretz, 10 January; Asha'b, 11 January; Jerusalem Post,
10 March 1982)

258. Mr. Wertheimer subsequently presented a "master plan" calling for the building of six new prisons and phasing out of the Shattha and Damun prisons. He stated that existing prisons are overcrowded and cited the findings of the Kennet Committee, appointed by the Supreme Court in January 1979, to the effect that 500 out of 650 inmates in Ramle prison live in "subhuman, overcrowded conditions unfit for human habitation". Living space under the new plan was to be a minimum of six-and-a-half square metres per prisoner. Ramle prison, according to its Prison Commander, Mr. Gundar-Mishne David Perry, was being reorganized in accordance with the recommendations put forward by the Kennet Committee in
May 1981. The prison accommodates 650 inmates serving sentences of five years or
more; the reorganization will cut this number by 100 inmates. Mr. Wertheimer said
that Israel's prison system lags about 30 years behind other Western systems because of their being given last priority by the State. (Jerusalem Post, 10, 12 March 1982)

259. One hundred twenty Palestinian prisoners detained in Gaza prison on security charges rioted in protest against overcrowded prison cells. Conditions in the recently-built military prison in "Samaria" near Tubas were reportedly bad. This new detention centre, constructed to accommodate youths awaiting trial on charges of rioting and stone-throwing, according to the Prison Service Commission was necessary because "prisons in which terrorists were held were full to capacity". (Ha'aretz, 11, 16 May; Asha'b, 18 May; Al Fajr
Weekly, 21-27 May 1982)

260. The lawyer, Mr. Walid Fahum, reported on prison conditions in some prisons. The women in the female prison Nave Tirza complained about lack of educational facilities: books are banned, because the prison authorities claim the books to be "anti-Semitic". Prisoners are reportedly being punished, i.e., put in solitary confinement, for singing nationalistic songs and teaching sentences during an English lesson such as "I am a Palestinian". The prevailing conditions in Kfar Yona prison were similar, according to the report. (Al Fajr
Weekly, 21-27 May 1982)

261. One source provided a detailed report on methods of torture inflicted upon Arab detainees in Gaza/Ashkelon prison. Methods of torture by the Intelligence Service were of a nature that leave behind no obvious signs after a few months or at the time of a trial. The following methods were described:

(a) Forcing prisoners to stand - to exhaust them - for a period of more than a week. This method is used together with starving prisoners.

(b) Deprivation of toilet privileges (example Mr. Usamah Zeidan).

(c) Putting bags over the heads of prisoners, used in combination with prolonged standing; tying arms with handcuffs (example Mr. Abdel Salam Ashour).

(d) Squashing testicles and beating the penis of prisoners (example Mr. Bassem Joudeh).

(e) Forcing prisoners to take pills that cause hysteria and hallucinations (example Mr. Rasmi Abaid).

(f) Pulling hair, beating the head against the wall and hanging prisoners upside down (example Messrs. Abdel Hadi Zaidan, Sami Abu Sahodaneh, Marwan El Khalidi and Imad Nasser).

(g) Spraying gas into the prisoners' faces.

(h) Spitting into the mouths of prisoners (example Messrs. Yahya Fayyed and Usama Zeidan).

(i) Extinguishing cigarette butts on the prisoners' body (example Mr. Mousa al Wawi).

(j) Cursing and swearing at prisoners and threatening to abuse relatives of prisoners (example Messrs. Hasan Dahdouh and Freij Al Kairi). (Al Fajr Weekly,
20-26 September 1981)


(b) Individual cases

262. Mr. Mohamed Saleh Abu Habsa from Kalandiya refugee camp near Jerusalem, arrested in 1972 and sentenced to life imprisonment, suffers from many diseases in Beersheba prison: a gradual weakening of his sight; inability to control the urinary bladder; a stomach ulcer and hemorrhoids. Mr. Kaddoura Diab Kaddours from Jenin prison is reportedly mentally ill and needs medical and psychiatric treatment. (Asha'b, 25 August; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-26 September 1981)

263. Mr. Fayez Taraireh from Bani Naim, near Hebron, was arrested on 6 June 1981 and accused of membership in an illegal organization. His attorney, Mr. Usama Odeh, alleged that Mr. Taraireh had been severely beaten and tortured during his interrogation. On 24 September 1981, the Military Court in Hebron authorized his release on bail, after which he was taken to Tel Hashomer hospital to undergo intensive care treatment while being shackled by his feet and his hands. His condition was too severe to transport him to an Arab hospital. His attorney claims that Mr. Taraireh was in perfect health before his arrest and states that his condition (after suffering from a brain haemorrhage in hospital) was "definitely the result of his mistreatment in the Israeli prison". (Al Fajr Weekly,
27 September-3 October 1981)

264. Four of the five Golan Druze leaders held in administrative detention complained that the Ramleh prison authorities did not provide them with proper medical treatment. Sheikh Kamal Kanj Abu Saleh needed a special diet owing to an illness; Mr. Mahana Al Safadi suffered from acute pains in his back and feet and was granted an X-ray after several complaints, but did not obtain further treatment. Sheikh Ahmed Oudman and Sheikh Mahmud Al Safadi suffered from gradual loss of sight. (Jerusalem Post, 3 September; Al Ittihad,
11 September 1981)

265. A former prisoner at Nafha prison, Mr. Abdel Aziz Aly Shahin, compained about harsh conditions inflicted upon him in Shatta prison. He shared a cell measuring 7 square metres with Abdel Rahman Al Qadi and Jabr Abdallah Ammar. His attorney, Mr. Walid Fahum, stated that after 14 years of imprisonment Mr. Shahin is suffering from many diseases but he refuses to be taken to hospital for treatment in order to avoid "revengeful measures being taken against him". (Al Ittihad, 18 September 1981)

266. A 32-year-old security prisoner from Gaza held in Ashkelon jail was beaten to death by another security prisoner (22) from Kalkilya. The victim had been serving a 16-year sentence and his slayer was serving a life sentence. (Jerusalem Post, 27 September; Ha'aretz, 27 September 1981)

267. Prisoners in Ashkelon prison complained to the Israeli prison authorities that 140 inmates suffered from various kinds of illnesses and diseases such as diabetes, heart infections, stomach inflammations, spinal ache, hemorrhoids, eyesight weakness, rheumatism, lung inflammation, chronic headache, ulcers, hernias, prostate inflammations, pneumonia and anaemia. The family of Mohammed Abu Asra from Katabya, near Jenin, who is serving a life sentence in Ashkelon prison, appealed to ICRC to "save the life of their son, who is gravely ill". (Al Fajr Weekly, 4-10 October; 30 October-5 November 1981)

268. A Nazareth lawyer, Mr. Walid Fahoum, released a report on the health conditions of Palestinian women prisoners in Neve Tirza prison. Mrs. Zala Frietekh from Nablus, serving a three-year term, is suffering from stomach and abdominal pains. Mrs. Halima Arabi Freitekh has a stomach inflammation and pains in her right side. She is serving a six-year sentence for throwing a molotov cocktail at the occupation forces. (Asha'b, 21 October;
Al Ittihad, 20 October; Al Fajr Weekly, 20-29 October 1981)

269. A security detainee in Ramallah prison from the village of Bani Naim, Mr. Abd El Fatah (Fayez) A Trayra, died in "Tel Hashonner" hospital after having been arrested on 4 June and detained for 144 days. According to his family, Mr. A Trayra was struck down by a brain haemorrhage while being interrogated in Hebron prison. His lawyer, Mr. Usama Odeh, stated that Mr. A Trayra was supposed to be tried on political charges, but on 13 September the Israeli authorities informed Mr. Odeh that his trial was postponed "until further notice". Mr. Fayez, according to one source, complained of having been severely tortured. Mr. Odeh also stated that Mr. Fayez A Trayra died of "severe torture, especially inhuman
beating on the head", and that he and Mr. A Trayra's brother "had seen marks of torture on his body before the burial". The hospital doctor had stated that an operation on the aorta was necessary, which had never been performed, and that Mr. A Trayra's condition was "too critical for him to be transferred". According to Israeli sources, Mr. A Trayra died as a result of a disease called "brucelosis" which is contracted from cattle and affects the blood vessels. (Jerusalem Post, 27 October, 1 November; Ha'aretz, 27 October, 2 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

270. Mrs. Langer visited Ramallah prison on 9 September 1981 and spoke to Messrs. Al Nader Nubani, Farh Taha, Mohammed Mosh'al Dail Azzam, Abd Al Salam Al Ahra and Ahmed Nubani, awaiting trial. The arrested persons were held in isolation, in punishment cells, where collaborators were used to maltreat the prisoners; prisoners under interrogation were forced to put "an opaque sack over their heads". The accused prisoners were made to stand against the wall for several days, without being allowed to use the toilet. (Al Fajr Weekly, 30 October-5 November 1981)

271. Mr. Jacoub Dáblash (37) from A-Shatta refugee camp in Gaza died in Ashkelon prison; five other inmates were reportedly in critical condition. Palestinian prisoners in Ashkelon prison declared a hunger-strike to protest against the deteriorating prison conditions. (Asha'b, 5, 8 November; Al Fajr Weekly, 6-12 November 1981)

272. Seven students from Beit Sahur and Bethlehem who had been arrested in connexion with stone-throwing incidents and whose family houses had subsequently been demolished were, according to their lawyer, Mrs. Felicia Langer, in serious condition as a result of beatings and other physical abuse by their interrogators. According to these reports, Walid George Qumsieh (16) had injuries in his back from repeated kicks from soldiers and had to be taken from Moscobiyya Detention Centre to hospital; Bassam Abdul Wahed Musa Aslini (17) was beaten in order to confess to membership in an illegal organization; Abdul Nasser Abdul Wahed Musa Aslini (15) was handcuffed and forced to confess under torture after his family home had been demolished by the army; Amjad Abu Aita (16) was beaten in the stomach and
Mrs. Langer had seen marks of severe beatings on his body; Ayman Abu Aita (16) was beaten on the part of his body where he had just been operated upon before his arrest and he was forced to confess to a two-year membership in an illegal organization; Raja Qumsieh (17) was beaten on his genitals and was also forced to confess to membership in an illegal organization; Tarek Shumali (18), whose family had been expelled from Beit Sahur for alleged stone-throwing at Israeli vehicles in 1981, was tortured by having metal rods inserted into his urethra, rupturing it, and he confessed to membership in an illegal organization. (Al Fajr Weekly, 27 November-3 December 1981)

273. The Chief of Staff, Mr. Rafael Eitan, mitigated the sentences of two detainees who were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1970, reducing them to a 30-year sentence. The Southern Region Commander, Mr. Haim Erez, granted an amnesty to 10 security prisoners in the Gaza Strip; three were released and seven had their sentences reduced. (Ma'ariv,
8 February; Ha'aretz, 16 March 1982)

274. Mrs. Felicia Langer visited Ashkelon prison on 21 January 1982 and met Said Wajeeh Al Attabeh, Hatem Shonar, Muhammad Wa'ar and Hassan Al Bakkat, who complained to her about the savage treatment they were subjected to. They reported that, on 10 December 1981, the prison authorities let off a tear-gas bomb and sprayed water at the prisoners in their cells; the prison authorities transferred 30 prisoners from their cells into isolation cells. The authorities also cancelled family visits. Mrs. Lea Tzemel, on a visit to Nafha prison, was prevented from seeing her clients because the prisoners were on strike for better conditions. According to the prison authorities, Mrs. Tsemel was denied access because she had not co-ordinated her visit with the prison authorities; the Prison Commissioner, Mr. Wertheimer, denied that Nafha security prisoners were on strike.
(Jerusalem Post, 19 January; Al Fajr Weekly 15-21 January, 8-11 February 1982)

275. Mrs. Langer visited the Druze leaders held in administrative detention for protesting against the annexation of the Golan, who complained about harsh prison conditions and bad health. Mr. Suluman Kanj Abu Saleh suffered a heart attack and had to be taken to hospital. Some of the administrative detainees were transferred from Ramle prison to Yagur prison; others to Kishon prison, near Haifa. (Ha'aretz, 19, 28 February, 14 March; Jerusalem Post, 23 March 1982)

276. Abdel Aziz Shahin, detained in Shatta prison, suffers from a spine disease. He has been in prison for 15 years, after being sentenced to life imprisonment on security charges. A 23-year-old prisoner from Gaza was strangled in his prison cell after being suspected of collaboration with the prison authorities. The Prisons' Service Commissioner, Dr. Mordechai Wertheimer, subsequently appointed a commission of inquiry. In the same prison another detainee lost his eye in a "mysterious" incident. (Yediot Aharonot, 25 May; Asha'b, 11, 12 May; Al Ittihad, 25 May 1982)

277. Mrs. Felicia Langer complained to the General Military Commander of the West Bank concerning the humiliating treatment inflicted on Sami Mahmoud Adib, Ahmed Muhammed Hamad, Khalid Taha Ali Adid and Said Muhammed Ibrahim, detained in Ariha prison. Mr. Walid Al Fahum met with his clients Nabil Salem, Khalil Ali Qeisi and Tawfik Mohana in Kfar Yona prison. Ali Qeisi, who is serving a 12-year sentence, suffers from rheumatism and an inflammation in his left eye and needs an operation outside the prison. Mr. Al Fahum sent a letter to the International Committee of the Red Cross concerning the treatment inflicted on Selim hassan Salem Khalili from Yabul, who is serving five-year prison sentence on a security charge in Jenin prison. Mr. Al Faham requested medical care and an artificial leg for the detainee. ICRC was asked to intervene in the case of Mr. Mohammed Ahmad Abu Kishak, who suffers from a backbone disease. He had been sentenced to a 12-year prison term seven years ago. Mr. Abd Al Assali reported on the repressive treatment inflicted on Abdel Majid Hamdan, editor of the newspaper Atalia, who had to stand on his feet for 48 consecutive hours while his hands were tied. (Al Ittihad, 28 May, 11, 15 June; Asha'b,
31 May; Al Fajr Weekly, 21-27 May, 4-10 June 1982)

278. According to the Prison Commissioner, Mr. Wertheimer, Arab security prisoners in Israeli jails will be entitled to a visit every two weeks, instead of the once-every-two- months visits allowed in the past. In addition, all security prisoners will get beds within two months; most prisoners sleep on mattresses on the floor. Special visits were permitted on the occasion of the Moslem feast Id Al Fitr, marking the end of Ramadan.
(Jerusalem Post, 20 July 1982)

V. CONCLUSIONS

279. During the period covered by the report (4 September 1981 to 27 August 1982), the Special Committee continued to follow the situation of human rights in the occupied territories. The General Assembly last renewed the mandate of the Special Committee by adopting resolution 36/147 C on 16 December 1981. The Government of Israel has continued to deny its co-operation to the Special Committee; in section II above the Special Committee reproduces its request to the Secretary-General to secure the co-operation of the Government of Israel and the reply received thereto confirming the continuation of the non-co-operation of the Government of Israel. Section IV contains the information and evidence before the Special Committee. The Special Committee has been precluded from visiting the occupied territories and it was therefore obliged to conduct a series of hearings in Amman and Damascus in May of this year where it could benefit from the presence
of persons from the occupied territories with first-hand knowledge and experience of the human rights situation in these territories. The information gathered in the course of these hearings is reflected in section IV A.

280. Section IV B is subdivided into six parts. The first part (sect. IV B 1 and 2) gives a summary of the policy followed by the Government of Israel by the application of the so-called "civil administration" and the establishment of "village leagues". This is followed by an account of the general situation prevailing in the occupied territories during the period covered by the report, particularly as it affects the economic, social and cultural rights of the civilian population as affected by the occupation (sect. IV B 3). Information is given relating to fundamental freedoms such as freedom of movement, freedom of education, freedom of expression and freedom of worship. Information is also given on particular aspects of treatment of civilians such as collective punishment, curfews, evictions, demolitions of houses, illegal activities of Israeli settlers and administrative detention affecting civilians. A table of incidents occurring in the period covered by the report is reproduced in this section in order to illustrate the everyday realities faced by the civilian population.

281. Section IV B 4 contains information on various aspects of annexation and settlement of the occupied territories. This consists of information that reflects the policy as stated by members of the Government to annex and settle the occupied territories, the plans formulated by virtue of this policy and the measures, including budgetary appropriations, for the execution of these plans. Annex I to this report reproduces a map illustrating the settlements established or planned in the occupied territories as reflected in the information received by the Special Committee.

282. Section IV B 5 concerns information on judicial remedies invoked by the civilian population against measures affecting them and their property.

283. Section IV B 6 describes information received by the Special Committee in regard to the treatment of detainees; this section gives information on conditions existing in certain prisons and on the treatment accorded to certain persons in detention. As stated in previous reports, the Special Committee considers its mandate as having a continuing nature and this report should be considered as complimentary to previous reports prepared by the Special Committee.

284. During its first series of meetings from 18 to 22 January 1982, the Special Committee, having examined the developments in the Golan Heights, found that it was necessary and relevant to invite to appear before it two of the leaders of the Druze Syrian population in the Golan Heights, Mr. Kamal Kanj and Mr. Mahmoud Safadi. In spite of the efforts underaken by their lawyer to obtain the appropriate travel papers in time to enable them to attend the meetings of the Special Committee, these were only issued two days after the Special Committee adjourned its meetings. Within a few days thereafter, both persons, together with seven other leaders of the Druze community, were put in administrative detention for three months. The Special Committee had fixed its next meetings for mid-May 1982 and renewed its invitation to Mr. Kanj and Mr. Safadi to appear before it at those meetings to enable them to appear upon the expiry of their detention. Shortly before the detention was due to end, the administrative order was renewed thus preventing them from appearing before the Special Committee. They were reported to have been released finally in August 1982. Similarly, and for the purpose of informing itself on the situation in the Golan Heights, which by then had become the subject of reports of a very serious nature, the Special Committe invited Mr. Salman Natour, an Israeli citizen, Secretary of the Golan Heights Solidarity Committee; Mr. Natour was one of the few persons who had first-hand
knowledge of the situation in the Golan Heights. He would have been able to inform the Special Committee, in the absence of information from the authorities themselves, of the events taking place in the Golan Heights. Subsequent to the receipt of his invitation from the Special Committee, Mr. Natour was put under restriction of movement and not allowed to leave Israel; he appealed to the High Court for lifting of the restriction for the express purpose of appearing before the Special Committee, but his application was rejected on the grounds that his appearance before the Special Committee could have been considered as being against the security of Israel. In these three cases, sworn statements eventually obtained from these persons showed that they were indeed in possession of relevant information that could have assisted the Special Committee. After much deliberation, the Special Committee is regrettably obliged to conclude that the Government of Israel is denying the Special Committee the opportunity to carry out its mandate as completely and faithfully as required by the General Assembly. Not only has the Government of Israel continued to withhold its co-operation and therefore access by the Special Committee to the occupied territories, but during the period covered by this report, the Government of Israel has deliberately prevented persons invited by the Special Committee from appearing before it to communicate to it information relevant to its mandate.

285. The Special Committee considers such measures to be a most serious hindrance in the execution of its task. The deprivation of the freedom of movement to ordinary citizens in this manner and for such reasons is a matter to which the General Assembly should give serious and urgent consideration.

286. In spite of the conclusion reached in the preceding paragraph, the Special Committee continued to apply its mandate and it informed itself on the situation in the occupied territories on the basis of sources considered to be reliable and in any case not contradicted by the Government of Israel. The information contained in the preceding chapter led to a fundamental conclusion, namely that the persistent violation of human rights derives from the very fact of a 15-year military occupation and a policy of colonization and annexation of the occupied territories. The Palestinian people as well as the Syrian people under occupation cannot expect to enjoy their fundamental rights so long as they are denied the right to self-determination. None is free to enjoy his rights if he is not himself directly or indirectly responsible and involved in the determination and the
application of his rights and obligations as a citizen. In a situation of occupation it is the occupying power which dictates the limits of these rights. The years of occupation have shown that the Government of Israel as an occupying power has legislated in such a manner as to subject the civilian population to the Government of Israel's own requisites. The military orders through which Israel has changed law in all areas have exceeded 950 in all. In the Golan Heights, Israel claims to have applied, in its entirety, Israeli legislation which constitutes de facto annexation, and this is a flagrant violation of international
law.

287. It is therefore vital that the international community recognizes that the violation of human rights in the occupied territories will cease only when the Palestinian people are allowed to enjoy their right to self-determination. The Syrian nationals in the Golan Heights who are themselves under occupation will not secure their own rights until that territory is reintegrated into Syrian territory.

288. The foregoing manifests itself in virtually all aspects of life in the occupied territories, both as regards the individual and the society. The information available to the Special Committee during the period covered by the report confirms that received in earlier years to the effect that the situation of the civilian is adversely affected by the occupation not only in regard to matters of individual security but also on such matters as their social welfare, economic well-being, education and generally their right to develop as a society.

289. This year in particular has demonstrated the gravity of the situation; since the time, in September 1981, when the Minister of Defence, Mr. Sharon, announced a "new policy" and the subsequent imposition of the "civil administration", the situation in the occupied territories has taken a distinct turn for the worse. The decree by the Knesset on 14 December 1981, purporting to annex the occupied Golan Heights by the extension of Israeli law to this territory, triggered a wave of resistance which was unprecedented in that area. By the third week of January 1982, the population in the Syrian Golan Heights had stepped up their resistance to the measures taken to apply this decree. Upon the insistence by the
Israeli authorities that the Syrian Golan citizens should carry Israeli identity cards and the resulting opposition thereto, the situation deteriorated even further and culminated in riots and a blockade of the Golan Heights by the Israeli army. This resulted in extreme hardship for the civilian population in that they were denied even the means for subsistence unless they co-operated with the Israeli authorities. During the same period the municipal authorities in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, who had been lawfully elected, declared their opposition to the civil administration and were systematically dismissed. Henceforth, the situation in this area became yet more explosive leading to the death of several persons at the hands of the Israeli forces or Israeli settlers, in the course of demonstrations by the Arab population against the dismissal of the municipal
authorities. Not less than 21 persons were reported to have been shot dead within the space of two months in the early part of 1982.

290. The result of the prolonged occupation has led to the complete subjugation of the economy of the occupied territories to the Israeli economy. Agriculture in these territories, which is the main economic sector, is largely conditioned by the vicissitudes of Israeli agriculture. The latter, benefiting from subsidies and centralized planning, has taken control of markets that would normally constitute the outlets for agriculture in the West Bank.

291. Parallel to these events and starting in September 1981, the Government of Israel, in its efforts to eliminate the popular base of the municipalities, undertook the establishment of "village leagues" in various areas. These "village leagues" are without any popular base and include persons whose reputation and standing in he Palestinian community leave room for doubt. These "village leagues" have been accorded, over a period of time, such power and influence as to make them indispensable in the daily life of the civilian population in the occupied territories. Originally established as "charitable organizations" they have already been accorded the power to issue certain permits, as, for example, building permits and permits for summer vistis issued to persons wishing to visit relatives abroad.

292. The policy followed by the Government of Israel in the occupied territories and the measures taken in the implementation of the policy are illustrated in chapter IV above. The policy that the Special Committee has underlined in its previous reports continues to be pursued by the Government of Israel and this is amply shown by statements made by members of the Government of Israel and other leaders, as, for example, that made in September 1981 by the Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Ehrlich, who stated that "Sinai must go but other settlements will stay". In October 1981, Mr. Sharon, Minister of Defence, stated that "Established settlements in Eretz Israel does more to assure the future of Jewish people than any written or signed treaty". In January 1982, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Shamir, declared that Israel did not sign the Camp David accords with the
intention of abandoning the West Bank and the Gaza Strip; he affirmed that "No force in the world shall disconnect us from these areas." In May 1982, the Prime Minister, Mr. Begin, confirmed that "In any future negotiation on a peace treaty between Israel and its neighbours, Israel will disregard any proposal to dismantle any Jewish settlement".

293. Parallel to these statements the Government of Israel decided on 14 December 1981 to give effect to the annexation of the Golan Heights. The repercussions of this decision are well known.

294. The plans, and the measures taken to implement these plans, continued during the period covered by the report. The settlement policy has been distinctly intensified. The map reproduced in annex I to this report shows that over 130 settlements had been established by July 1982. In this context, the Special Committee notes that there is a greater tendency to consolidate the settlements that have already been established and these in particular in those areas considered as being densely populated by Palestinians, as, for example, the peripheries of the towns of Hebron, Nablus and Ramallah. The Special Committee concluded that the argument of security invoked in support of the policy of
annexation and settlement is without any justification.

295. In the face of this policy and these measures, the civilian population does not benefit from any means of protection, be it local or national. In spite of the provisions of the international conventions applicable to the subject, the civilian population has been completely deprived of any remedy. The Supreme Court of Israel and the High Court of Justice of Israel have been resorted to by civilians in an effort to neutralize measures taken against them both as regards the protection of their individual liberty and their property and to other social rights. This, however, has been shown to be without any significant result. It is therefore clear that the military power in Israel continues to rule over all aspects of life of the civilian population. The judicial authority has indeed conceded this in several of its judgements, some of which have been referred to in chapter IV above.

296. Since the individual in the occupied territories is deprived of all protection, juridical or otherwise, he easily becomes the victim of the Draconian legislation based on so-called "security" considerations. The number of detainees continues to increase and this has necessitated, as indicated in the report, the construction of more prison cells in the occupied territories. Several statements of responsible authorities, like the Minister of the Interior, Mr. Burg, and the Commissioner of Prisons, Mr. Wertheimer, refer to the very unsatisfactory conditions in the prisons, provoked mainly by over-crowding. The statements of these leaders are amply corroborated by the statements of other witnesses,
particularly by those who themselves have been imprisoned and by lawyers who are in
constant contact with their clients in detention.

297. The Special Committee has had occasion to state in its previous reports that the Fourth Geneva Convention remains the principal international instrument in humanitarian law which applies to the occupied territories. The information contained in the report and reflected in chapter IV and the conclusions enunciated in the foregoing paragraphs would indicate that the articles of the Convention, reproduced in annex II, continue to be contravened.
VI. ADOPTION OF THE REPORT

298. The present report was approved and signed by the Special Committee on 27 August 1982 in accordance with rule 20 of its rules of procedure.


(Signed) I. B. FONSEKA (Sri Lanka) (Chairman)

(Signed) A. SENE (Senegal)

(Signed) B. MEHOLJIC (Yugoslavia)




ANNEX I
Map showing Israeli settlements established, planned or under
construction in the territories occupied in June 1967




ANNEX II
Articles of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian
Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 referred to in paragraph 297

1. In regard to the annexation of the occupied territory, article 47, which
states:

2. In regard to the transfer of Israeli settlers to the occupied territories, article 49. Article 49 reads as follows:

3. In regard to the behaviour of Israeli settlers in the occupied territories, particularly as regards acts of violence against the person and property of the civilian population, article 29. Article 29 reads as follows:

4. In regard to measures of collective punishment such as arbitrary resort to curfews, demolition of houses and other forms of reprisal, articles 33 and 53, which read as follows:

Article 33

"Pillage is prohibited.

"Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited."

Article 53

5. In regard to the treatment of prisoners in detention, articles 64 and 76. Articles 64 and 76 read as follows:

Article 64

Article 76

"Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors.

6. In addition to these articles, the Special Committee draws attention to article 146 of the Fourth Geneva Convention which envisages the enactment of legislation to impose penal sanctions on persons committing grave breaches of the Convention. Acts declared to be grave breaches are defined in article 147.

Article 146 states:

Article 147 states:

Notes


1/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, agenda item 101, documents A/8089; A/8389 and Corr.1 and 2; A/8389/Add.1 and Add.1/Corr.1 and 2; A/8828; A/9148 and Add.1; A/9817; A/10272; A/31/218; A/32/284; A/33/356; A/34/631; A/35/425 and A/36/579.

2/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 101, document A/8237; ibid., Twenty-sixth Session, Annexes, agenda item 40, document A/8630; ibid., Twenty-seventh Session, Annexes, agenda item 42, document A/8950; ibid., Twenty-eighth Session, Annexes, agenda item 45, document A/9374; ibid., Twenty-ninth
Session, Annexes, agenda item 40, document A/9872, ibid., Thirtieth Session, Annexes, agenda item 52, document A/10461; ibid., Thirty-first Session, Annexes, agenda item 55, document A/31/399; ibid., Thirty-second Session, Annexes, agenda item 57, document A/32/407; ibid., Thirty-third Session, Annexes, agenda item 55, document A/33/439; ibid.,
Thirty-fourth Session, Annexes, agenda item 51, document A/34/691 and Add.1; ibid.,
Thirty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 57, document A/35/674; and document A/36/579.

3/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 101, document A/8089, annex III.

4/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, No. 973, p. 287.

5/ Ibid., No. 972, p. 135.

6/ Ibid., vol. 249, No. 3511, p. 215.

7/ Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Hague Conventions and
Declarations of 1899 and 1907 (New York, Oxford University Press, 1915).

8/ General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI).

9/ J. Kuttab and R. Shehadeh, "Civilian Administration in the Occupied West Bank: Analysis of Israeli Military Government Order No. 947" (published by "Law in the Service of Man").



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