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16 July 1986
16 July 1986
Item 37 of the preliminary list*
THE SITUATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Report of the Secretary-General
(in pursuance of General Assembly resolution 40/168)
1. The present report is submitted in fulfilment of the reporting responsibility conferred upon the Secretary-General in resolutions 40/168 A to C, which the General Assembly adopted on 16 December 1985, at its fortieth session, under the agenda item entitled ~The situation in the Middle East.
2. In paragraph 11 of resolution 40/168 A, which deals with the search for a solution to the Middle East problem, and in paragraphs 13 and 14 of resolution 40/168 B, which deals with the Israeli policies in the Syrian Golan Heights, the General Assembly called upon all States to adopt a number of measures concerning military, economic, diplomatic and cultural relations with Israel.
3. In resolution 40/168 C, the General Assembly deplored the transfer by some States of their diplomatic missions to Jerusalem in violation of Security Council resolution 478 (1980) and called once again upon those States to abide by the provisions of the relevant United Nations resolutions, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
4. In order to fulfil his reporting responsibility under the above-mentioned resolutions, the Secretary-General, on 30 January 1986, addressed notes verbales to the Permanent Representative of Israel and to the Permanent Representatives of the other Member States and requested them to inform him of any steps that their Governments had taken or envisaged taking concerning implementation of the relevant provisions of those resolutions. The relevant parts of the replies received from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Iraq, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Zimbabwe are reproduced in the annex to the present report.
5. In paragraph 14 of resolution 40/168 A, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council periodically on the development of the situation and to submit to the Assembly at its forty-first session a comprehensive report covering the developments in the Middle East in all their aspects. That report will be submitted separately as a document of the General Assembly and the security Council.
Replies received from Member States
[13 June 1986]
1. The People's Republic of Bulgaria has been following the situation in the Middle East very closely and with grave concern, as this region has become a
constant source of international tension and insecurity owing to Israel's incessant aggression against the Arab peoples. The expansionist policy of the Israeli leadership has been responsible for the five wars in the region in the past 40 years or so. This policy has caused countless casualties and losses, bringing untold suffering to the peoples of several Arab States and above all to the Arab people of Palestine, whose legitimate rights to self-determination and the establishment of an independent State are still being trampled underfoot. Israel has occupied Arab territories on the West Bank of the River Jordan, and in the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, southern Lebanon and Jerusalem, and has set up military settlements there. Even the Golan Heights and East (Arab) Jerusalem have been annexed by Israel, which has proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital.
2. The People's Republic of Bulgaria considers Israel's acts in the occupied Arab territories, including Jerusalem, to be illegal, in flagrant violation of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. They constitute a serious obstacle to the efforts to secure peace in the Middle East. It considers the measures and action taken by Israel to alter the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure and status of the occupied territories, including Jerusalem, as well as the ~Basic Law. that Israel has adopted, to be null and void; it considers that they constitute a flagrant violation of the Geneva Conventions and must cease.
3. The People's Republic of Bulgaria has always endorsed the United Nations resolutions and decisions aimed at bringing about a just and peaceful settlement of the conflict in the Middle East, as well as those condemning Israel's acts and practices in the occupied Arab territories, particularly in Jerusalem, and calling on Israel to apply the Geneva Conventions and the provisions of international law in general.
4. As is all too well known, Israel shows an utter disregard for the resolutions of the Security Council. Israel's behaviour and expansionist policy are fostered by the climate of strategic co-operation with the United States of America. It is precisely the military, economic, political and diplomatic aid and assistance from the United States which enable Israel to perpetrate its acts of aggression against the Arab States, to annex and occupy Arab territories and to ignore both world public opinion and the United Nations resolutions on the complete and unconditional withdrawal of its troops from the territories in question. Israeli-American strategic co-operation has shown itself to be so highly co-ordinated in acts of aggression against the Arab States that it has long since taken the form of a military and political alliance. Israel's attack on Lebanon in the summer of 1982 assumes particular significance in this regard.
5. The People's Republic of Bulgaria takes a consistent position of principle on the explosive situation in the Middle East. It supports the efforts of the Arab peoples to secure a lasting peace in the region, as witness the declaration adopted in Sophia on 23 October 1985 by the Political Consultative Committee of the States parties to the Warsaw Treaty. Bulgaria considers that a comprehensive, just and lasting solution to the problem of the Middle East is possible only through collective efforts by all the parties concerned, on the basis of the complete withdrawal of Israeli troops from all the Arab territories occupied since 1967, the realization of the legitimate rights of the Arab people of Palestine, including its right to self-determination and to the establishment of its own State, as well as a guarantee for all the States of the region of their right to exist and to develop independently. The practical way to achieve this is to convene, under the auspices of the United Nations, a conference on the Middle East with the participation of all the parties concerned, including the Palestine Liberation Organization.
6. Starting from this position of principle, the People's Republic of Bulgaria is ready as it has always been, and in its capacity as a member of the Security Council, to work actively with all countries and international organizations concerned and in particular with the United Nations to establish peace in this region. It will continue to apply all the United Nations resolutions and decisions aimed at bringing about a peaceful and equitable settlement of the conflict in the Middle East.
[23 June 1986]
The policy of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus is in accordance with resolutions 40/168 A to C and other relevant resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations. which it always votes in favour of.
[30 June 1986]
1. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic has been following the dangerous developments in the Middle East with grave concern. In contravention of the relevant United Nations resolutions, Israel has been continuing to pursue its policy of annexation and aggression against the Arab countries and illegal and anti-human practices towards the Palestinian people in the occupied territories, refusing to comply with the legitimate right of the Arab people of Palestine to self~determination and independence. Czechoslovakia resolutely condemns such acts of State terrorism committed by Israel as the hijacking of a civilian Libyan plane early this year or the bombing of Lebanese territory. It is the conviction of the Government of Czechoslovakia that the worsening of the situation in the Middle East has been substantially fomented by the manifestations of the United States policy of neoglobalism, namely the aggressive United States attack on the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the unveiled threats directed against the Syrian Arab Republic.
2. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic avails itself of this opportunity to reaffirm its commitment to a just, lasting and comprehensive settlement of the Middle East crisis, which should include, as its central point, a solution of the Palestinian problem. It is a fundamental condition for such a settlement that an international conference be convened for that purpose under the auspices of the United Nations and with the participation of the Palestine Liberation Organization - the only legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. Czechoslovakia condemns the attempts of the United States and Israel to impose upon Arab countries separate agreements which would promote the interests of the Israeli aggressor.
3. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic fully supports and strictly abides by all resolutions of the Security Council and the General Assembly of the United Nations concerning the Middle East. After the Israeli aggression of 1967 the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic suspended its diplomatic relations with the State of Israel; since that time Czechoslovakia has never engaged in any bilateral, political, economic, cultural, technological or other co-operation with that State, nor does it provide to Israel any military, economic, financial, technical or other assistance that might be instrumental in the pursuit of Israel's aggressive policy directed against Arab countries. Czechoslovakia condemns the annexation of Jerusalem and does not recognize that city as the capital of the State of Israel.
[5 May 1986]
1. The Iraqi Government considers that State parties to agreements concluded with Israel, those States that do not acknowledge Israeli occupation or recognize the annexation of the occupied territories and the merging of their economies with the Israeli economy, have become, from the practical standpoint, as though they condoned the occupation, annexation and merger referred to in United Nations resolutions and as though they agreed with the Israeli interpretation regarding the scope of those agreements.
2. Accordingly, the Government of the Republic of Iraq believes that the way to deal with this illegal situation is for States parties to agreements concluded with Israel to freeze such agreements until such time as Israel withdraws from all the occupied Palestinian and Arab territories or for those States to demand that Israel affirm that the scope of application of the above-mentioned agreements does not extend to the above-mentioned occupied Arab territories.
UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
[13 July 1986]
1. The Soviet Union fully supports the condemnation voiced in that General Assembly resolution of Israel's aggression against the Palestinian people and the Syrian Arab Republic, the continuation of Israel's occupation of the Palestinian and other Arab territories and Israel's policies and practices against the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territories and outside these territories.
2. Events in the Middle East show that Israel is continuing its flagrant violations of international law, the Charter of the United Nations and the norms of civilized behaviour among States. This confirms the correctness of the conclusion expressed in that General Assembly resolution that Israel is not a peace-loving State and is not carrying out its obligations under the Charter of the United Nations which arise from its membership in the Organization.
3. In its resolution 40/168 A, the General Assembly clearly indicated the basic reasons for the persistence of the dangerously explosive situation in the Middle East. The Soviet Union shares the General Assembly's conviction that the strategic co-operation between the United States and Israel, the continued supply of modern arms and
to Israel, augmented by substantial economic aid, are encouraging Israel to pursue its aggressive and expansionist policies, have had adverse effects on efforts for the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East and threaten the security of the region.
4. In connection with the General Assembly's call to all States Members of the United Nations to cease all dealings with Israel in order totally to isolate it in all fields, the Soviet Union recalls that on 10 June 1967 the Soviet Government announced that it was breaking off diplomatic relations with Israel because of its aggressive actions against neighbouring Arab countries. Since then the Soviet Union has had no diplomatic, trade or economic relations with Israel, has not supplied Israel with any weapons or military equipment and has not acquired any from Israel.
5. The Soviet Union is firmly convinced that the only effective way to achieve a comprehensive and just settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is to convene an International Conference on the Middle East with the participation of all the parties concerned, including the Palestine Liberation Organization, such a Conference has been frequently called for by the General Assembly, for instance in resolution 40/168 A. The implementation of such a settlement would enable the international community, in the person of the United Nations, to change its attitude towards Israel, whose practical approach to the question of respecting and securing the rights and interests of the Arab countries and peoples is precisely the basic obstacle to peace and stability in the region.
[18 March 1986]
The Republic of Zimbabwe has never had any diplomatic, trade or cultural relations with Israel, nor does it purchase from or sell to Israel any weapons or related equipment. There are also no ties of an economic, financial or technological nature between the Republic of Zimbabwe and Israel. It has been the consistent policy of the Government of the Republic of Zimbabwe to abide by all resolutions of the United Nations on this matter as on other matters and Zimbabwe certainly does not subscribe to the view that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.