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        General Assembly
A/32/13 (SUPP)
30 June 1977

Original: Arabic/English/French



1 July 1976 - 30 June 1977



SUPPLEMENT No. 13 (A/32/13)


New York, 1977

[9 September 1977]
Letter of transmittal Letter from the Chairman of the Advisory Commission of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
General1 - 5
Agency programs 6
Financing the programs7 - 12
Special problems
        13 - 26
Conclusion27 - 28
A.General 29 - 37
Assistance from voluntary agencies and other non-governmental organizations30 - 31
Relations with other organs of the United Nations system32 - 37
B.Education and training services 38 - 65
General education40 - 50
Vocational and technical education51 - 55
Teacher training56 - 64
University scholarships65
C. Relief services 66 - 98
Eligibility, registration and basic rations 68 - 71
Camps and shelters72 – 89
Welfare90 - 98
D. Health services99 - 134
Control of communicable diseases106 - 109
Maternal and child health110 - 115
Nursing services116 - 117
Environmental health118 - 122
Nutrition including supplementary feeding123 - 131
Medical and paramedical education and training132 - 134
E. Common services and general administration135 - 141
F.Legal matters142 - 155
The Agency's premises142 - 150
Claims against Governments and other legal matters154 - 155
G.Financial operations 156 - 170
A.Introduction 171 - 180
Recurrent expenditure175
Non-recurrent expenditure 176
General 177 - 180
B. Budget estimates (tables A, B and C)181 - 217
Relief services 182 - 188
Health services189 - 197
Education and training services 198 - 205
Common costs 206 - 215
Other costs 216 - 217
C.Financing the budget - 1977 and 1978218 - 219


I. Tables 1-20 .

II. Pertinent resolutions, reports and other documents of the General Assembly and other United Nations bodies .

III. Resolution WHA30.37 adopted by the Thirtieth World Health Assembly on 18 May 1977

IV. Resolution 1.142 adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization at its nineteenth session .

22 August 1977


I have the honor to submit my annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) for the period 1 July 1976 to 30 June 1977 in compliance with the request in paragraph 21 of resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949 and paragraph 8 of resolution 1315 (XIII) of 12 December 1958.

As my predecessor has done in recent years, in the introduction to the report I invite the General Assembly's attention to the serious financial difficulties faced by the Agency. I describe new income solicitation procedures which the Agency is putting into effect in part this year and will institute in full in 1978, if the General Assembly extends the Agency's mandate beyond 30 June 1978. As these procedures are implemented the Agency will keep the Working Group on the Financing of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees informed of the results and seek the Group's advice and, as needed, its assistance. In addition to the Agency's financial difficulties, the introduction briefly describes two other special problems: the effect on the Agency's operations of the conflict in Lebanon, and matters of principle related to Agency staff and premises.

Chapter I of the report describes the Agency's programs and how they developed during the year which ended on 30 June 1977.

Chapter II presents the Agency's budget for 1978, for consideration by the General Assembly at its forthcoming session, and the revised budget for 1977.

Of the four annexes to the report, the first contains statistical data on various aspects of the Agency's work, the second lists pertinent resolutions, reports and other documents of the General Assembly and other United Nations bodies the third reproduces resolution WHA30.37 adopted by the World Health Assembly, and the fourth reproduces resolution 1.142 adopted by the UNESCO General Conference

The Advisory Commission of UNRWA examined this report in draft. Its views are set forth in a letter dated 10 August 1977 from its Chairman, of which I enclose a copy. I have had the benefit of the advice of the members of the Commission but it should not be assumed that the Governments represented on the Commission necessarily subscribe to all of the views I have expressed.

The President of the General Assembly
United Nations
New York

A major part of the Agency's operations during the past year has been conducted in areas under the control of the Government of Israel. Consequently I considered it appropriate to continue the practice of showing the report, in draft, to its representatives also and I have taken their views and comments into account in preparing the final text.

Accept, Sir, the assurances of my highest consideration.

(Signed) Thomas W. McELHINEY

10 August 1977

Dear Mr. McElhiney,

In its meeting held in Amman on 10 August 1977, the Advisory Commission of UNRWA considered the draft report which you intend to submit to the United Nations General Assembly at its thirty-second session on the Agency's activities during the period 1 July 1976-30 June 1977, and the remarks made thereon by its members.

The Commission hopes that the efforts to establish a just and lasting peace in the Middle East would ensure the rights of the Palestine refugees.

The Commission appreciates the positive position behind your proposal to assure adequate and timely funding for UNRWA, and expresses its deep concern for the continued deficit in the Agency's budget. The Commission hopes that the international community as a whole will be able to deal, in a constructive manner, with the problems of financing of UNRWA, which is an international responsibility. It also hopes that the Agency will be in a position to enable it to improve its services and extend them to all entitled Palestine refugees.

The Commission notes that you have agreed to take into consideration the remarks made by the members, especially those made by the Arab host States, when preparing your report in its final form.

The Commission expresses its appreciation of the services and efforts made by the former Commissioner-General, Sir John Rennie. It also wishes you success in your task and expresses to the Agency staff its appreciation of their efforts and services.

Yours sincerely,

(Signed) Ahmad Abdul HADI
Advisory Commission

Mr. Thomas W. McElhiney
Commissioner-General of the
United Nations Relief and Works Agency
for Palestine Refugees



1. The United Nations Belief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has existed as a temporary agency of the United Nations since 1950, with its mandate being renewed periodically by the General Assembly. l/ As the current mandate will expire on 30 June 1978, the General Assembly will presumably consider the question of the mandate during its current session.

2. The Agency's raison d'être is to provide services to Palestine refugees, that is, persons or the descendants of persons whose normal residence was Palestine for a minimum of two years preceding the Arab-Israeli conflict in 1948 and who, as a result of that conflict, lost both their homes and their means of livelihood. One can scarcely read this definition of a Palestine refugee without being reminded that the refugee problem has dimensions which go fax, beyond the purely humanitarian. Since 1948, the General Assembly has annually recommended the return of the refugees to their original homes or the receipt of compensation in lieu thereof. The political significance of the mass displacement of human beings is obvious, particularly when the right of return and the right to restoration of their property are acknowledged by the international community. The Agency is keenly aware of the essentially political nature of the problem when considered in all of its ramifications and knows that the only solution is a just settlement in the Near East. However, the Agency's mandate does not extend to all of the ramifications of the problem. It is concerned with only a part of the problem, that is, the provision of services to Palestine refugees pending a settlement.

3. Of the persons who fall under the established definition of Palestine refugees, 1,706,486 are now registered with the Agency. They are distributed in the Agency's area of operations as follows:

Lebanon 201,171

Syrian Arab Republic 192,915

East Jordan 663,773

West Bank a/ 302,620

Gaza Strip a/ 346,007

a/ The West Bank of Jordan and the Gaza Strip have been under military occupation by the Government of Israel since June 1967.

Not all refugees are eligible to receive services. Eligibility for different services varies and slightly less than half are

1/ For a list of pertinent resolutions, see annex II below.
eligible for and are actually authorized to receive all services. The services being provided, as they have evolved over the past 27 years, are not of the nature of a dole for the permanently destitute. On the contrary, they are directed towards establishing and maintaining levels of health, education and relief for a large part of the Palestinian people that help to make them productive, socially useful human beings who contribute to society rather than impose a burden on it. UNRWA's activities are one of the clearest practical examples of what international co-operation can achieve in pursuit of the United Nations goal of improving the human condition.

4. In the popular mind, refugees are associated with camps and the services provided them are generally thought of as being confined to emergency relief assistance like temporary shelter, food and clothing. It is not surprising, therefore, that UNRWA is often thought of as an agency that manages camps and is primarily concerned with purely relief activities. Both are misconceptions.

5. Only 35.3 per cent of the registered refugees live in camps and, even for that minority, the Agency is not a camp administrator nor does it police or otherwise control the camps. The Agency provides services to eligible registered refugees, whether they are in camps or not. The Agency provides virtually all of the services directly to the refugees, not through Governments, although it deals with Governments on matters of mutual interest affecting the Agency's activities. The Governments in the area of operations have reported that they provide assistance separately to refugees costing almost $80 million a year (see table 18 of annex I). The Agency provides three services: education, relief and health. It has its own school system, its own systems to procure and distribute rations and its own clinics and health centers. Through these means, it provides the kinds of services directly to Palestine refugees that are normally provided by education, health and welfare ministries of Governments. Its activities are institutionalized and continuing. It has quasi-governmental functions and is staffed and organized accordingly. The Agency is organized into a headquarters, five operational field offices (in Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, east Jordan, the West Bank and Gaza) and three small liaison offices (New York, Geneva and Cairo). It employs 120 internationally recruited staff members and slightly more than 16,000 area staff members, virtually all of the latter Palestine refugees.
Agency programs

6. The Agency's programs, described in detail in sections B, C and D of chapter I, may be summarized as follows (employee figures do not include the approximately 1,840 employees in common services):

(a) Education and training services, provided by approximately 10,700 employees (mostly teachers) at a total annual cost, including a share of common agency costs, of $54.8 million in 1976 and $66.1 million in 1977 (estimated), which include:

(iii) A program of subsidization of secondary education,
(b) Relief services, provided by approximately 1,250 employees at a total annual cost, including a share of common costs, of $36 million in 1976 and $37 million in 1977 (estimated), through which the Agency provides monthly basic rations of flour, rice, sugar and. oil to about 831,000 refugees. It also provides assistance in shelter repairs and special hardship assistance. The ration rolls (and other records of eligibility for other services) change constantly, of course, depending upon such considerations as income, presence in the area, births and deaths. This information, to the extent that it is available to the Agency, is computerized. Deletions and additions to ration rolls are made each month based on computer print-outs. As will be seen from table 2 of annex I, some 1,330,000 names have been added to ration eligibility rolls since 1,050 and about 946,000 names have been deleted. Of the approximately 1,341,000 refugees registered for rations, only 831,000 actually receive them, because of ration ceilings. The difference is made up of some 510,000 children (of any age, including infants below one year) of refugees whose names are added to the list of those authorized actually to receive rations only as names are deleted from the list.

(c) Health services, provided by approximately 2,330 employees at a total annual cost, including a share of common costs, of $17.3 million in 1976 and $21.2 million in 1977 (estimated). The Agency medical services are available to approximately 1,500,000 refugees at its own 98 clinics and health centers and at government and private hospitals. The Agency subsidizes the private hospitals and, when government hospitals charge fees for refugee patients, the Agency either subsidizes the hospitals or reimburses the patients. Mostly in support of its preventive medical services, the Agency provides supplementary food to some 123,000 refugees in vulnerable categories, for example, young children and expectant and nursing mothers. The health program also includes environmental sanitation in refugee camps.

Financing the programs
The financial position, July 1976 to June 1977

7. The United Nations and certain specialized agencies contribute about 4 per cent of UNRWA's income and non-governmental organizations about 1 per cent. The remaining 95 per cent must come from voluntary contributions by Governments.

8. Contributions received in 1976 did not provide income sufficient to meet all budgeted expenditures. Twice during the year the projected financial position required the Agency to plan to suspend operations and terminate the services of virtually all staff members. The first contemplated suspension - in July - was averted by the pledging of special contributions by a number of Governments in May and June made in response to a special appeal by the Secretary-General. At the beginning of September, the financial position had again become so grave that the Commissioner-General was forced to establish a six-weeks schedule for action culminating in the suspension of operations and discharge of staff. Only a last- minute contribution by a major contributor avoided the necessity of setting such drastic action in motion. Subsequently, total budget reductions of about $7.2 million, made possible by the temporary suspension of some services and the deferment of most of the budget provisions for capital improvements (undesirable as both of these actions were) plus certain additional contributions, enabled the Agency to close the year with, as it assumed, only a small deficit. Later, a delayed special contribution by the United States of $6 million for 1976 effectively left the Agency in surplus for the year by approximately that amount, as shown in section G of chapter I below.

9. At the start of 1977, the Agency's estimated deficit was of the order of $45 million, based on estimated expenditure of $139.7 million and estimated income of $94.7 million. In subsequent months, the Agency carefully re-examined its budget, in particular its assumptions regarding unit costs, inflation and exchange rates, and concluded that it would be possible to reduce its budget for 1977 to $134 million without reducing services. During the same period, expected income for 1977 rose to $117.6 million. Consequently, the deficit for 1977 at the end of the reporting period (30 June 1977) was estimated at $16.4 million, or the equivalent of the cost of approximately seven weeks' operations. Not included in these figures is the extraordinary, one-time cost of a new camp in Lebanon (see para. 79 below), which has been kept separate from the regular budget. The camp will be built in two stages, each costing about $6 million. As at 30 June 1977, $3.3 million was expected to be available leaving a shortfall for the first stage alone of $2.7 million. The Agency is unable to use any of its general funds to help meet the cost of the camp until it has covered the deficit of $16.4 million in its budget for regular programs.

10. The working capital position of the Agency is such ($17.8 million at the close of 1976) that the Agency, in theory, could cover the presently estimated deficit by drawing down virtually all of its working capital. However, this would leave the Agency with no working capital to cover operations in the early months of 1978 when, as the experience of the Agency clearly indicates will be the case, very few contributions will be received. More important, perhaps, it would also leave the Agency totally without reserves to deal with the financial crisis that is expected to arise in 1978 because the prospect is for lower total contributions in that year than in 1977.

11. Consequently, if additional contributions are not received for 1977, the Agency will have to reduce the deficit, if not completely then at least substantially, by the same means as were employed in 1976, namely, temporary suspension of certain services and further deferment of even essential capital and other improvements. Such action would, of course, bear heavily on the refugees affected by the temporary suspension of certain services, and the further deferment of essential capital and other improvements would mean a continued decline in the quality of the Agency's education and health services, which are already at a minimum.

12. Chapter II below contains the Agency's proposed budget for 1978 totaling $148 million as compared with the adjusted budget of $134 million for 1977 and actual expenditure in 1976 of approximately $115 million. The projected increase for 1978 over 1977 is less than that envisaged for 1977 over 1976. The latter increase, however, is somewhat misleading in that the rather low expenditure level for 1976 was achieved, as pointed out in paragraph 9 above, only by temporarily suspending some services and deferring certain capital improvements.

Special problems
A thoroughly unsatisfactory method of providing income

13. UNRWA has been assigned quasi-governmental responsibilities by the international community, but it does not have the authority Governments have to acquire resources to meet these responsibilities. The critical difference is that Governments have the authority to tax and to borrow. UNRWA has no such authority. Nor does it have a responsibility, in any case, to provide itself with revenue by any means. Despite these facts, fund-raising has become a major preoccupation of the Agency and, in particular, of senior UNRWA officials. The governing consideration is that it is meaningless to assign responsibilities the meeting of which require large amounts of money unless provision is made for the money. By default, therefore, the Agency has assumed non-assigned fund-raising responsibilities so that it can meet its assigned program responsibilities.

14. In its financial operations, the Agency, again like Governments, must engage in the elaborate staff work required to allocate resources among different programs competing for funds. To do so with any reasonable degree of effectiveness, it must, like Governments, conduct its financial operations on the basis of reliable estimates of expenditures and income in the current financial year and must, like Governments, be in a position to project both expenditure and income into the future.

15. The expenditure side of the UNRWA budget meets the requirements of orderly financial operations. The income side is disorderly and unpredictable and fails to meet requirements in many important respects. It is probably fair to state that no Government would even consider requiring its financial managers to budget and to plan in the uncertain framework imposed on UNRWA. The Agency is not concerned with orderliness per se, but rather with the adverse effect of disorderliness on the provision of services to the refugees. It is willing to cope as best it can only because it feels a responsibility to carry out its mandate as the instrument of an international community that has decided to provide services to Palestine refugees presumably until the community removes them from the refugee category by arranging a general settlement in the Near East.

16. The principal defects of the present system of providing income for UNRWA are:

(a) Income to maintain services at existing levels has been insufficient in recent years, thus forcing the Agency to reduce services (for example, rations in 1976) and to forego expenditures (such as school construction) thereby adversely affecting services in the future.

(b) No pro-vision can be made for improvement of refugee living conditions or for expansion of facilities (for example, vocational training centers) which not only benefit the refugees, but also improve conditions (e.g. economic development) in the area.

(c) The Agency does not know what income it will receive in any given year until well into the year, usually in the last quarter, and occasionally (as in 1976) until after the end of the year. In such circumstances, effective allocation of resources is impossible, even to the extent of not being able to spend income in the year it is required because it is pledged too late.

(d) Late pledging leads to late disbursement by contributors and the Agency is never sure of having enough cash or commodities at the time they must be used to meet current obligations.

(e) A large amount of the time of key staff is spent in preparing for the contingencies of reduction or suspension of services and the related reduction or discharge of the Agency's 16,000 employees. Twice during 1976, when it appeared that the Agency would have to suspend its activities entirely because its liabilities would exceed its assets, hundreds of man-hours were spent by the Commissioner-General, the Deputy Commissioner-General and the directors of the Finance, Personnel and Legal Departments and their staff in preparing for the discharge of all staff. Both crises were averted by pledges of special contributions, in the second case (in September) literally a few hours before the absolute deadline for setting the process in motion.

(f) The Commissioner-General's fund-raising activities require him to travel frequently and to devote much of his time while not away from headquarters to the personal preparation of papers and correspondence. He must also spend much time reviewing the budget and changing decisions on resource allocations. Altogether, he probably spends on this activity a total of at least two months each year that he would not have to devote to it if there were an orderly system of providing income. The time must be taken from the time that he could otherwise profitably devote to meeting his other management responsibilities.

(g) The Agency believes that the present system may also be defective from the points of view of contributors in that they feel a need to know in more detail and further in advance the Agency's requirements and the combination of individual contributions that the Agency considers necessary to permit the requirements to be met. The Agency is aware that many Governments have budget cycles of two or three years and that relatively firm decisions on financial commitments must be taken in the early stages of the cycles.

17. To correct these defects to the extent possible, the Agency proposes to adopt the forward planning procedure described below. It has consulted the Advisory Commission on the procedure and is taking into account the views expressed by members of the Commission. It has also informed the Working Group on the Financing of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East of its intention to adopt the new procedures and will, as in the past, keep the Working Group informed of its financial position and the results of its fund-raising activities. As contributions to the Agency are voluntary, the Agency believes that participation by contributors in the planning process must also be voluntary. If any Government approached by the Agency does not wish to participate or wishes to participate only in part, the Agency will, of course, respect its wishes and will thereafter simply keep the non-participating Government informed of the Agency's financial position. However, the Agency wishes to point out that, beginning in 1978, it will take no other initiative to raise funds than to follow the proposed procedure, except in response to specific requests from Governments for further information or proposals on levels of contributions.

18. The Agency is already engaging in forward financial planning with some Governments and with the European Economic Community. It will maintain established practice, including those elements not a part of the general system described above.

19. Solicitation of contributions from non-governmental organizations will continue as at present, outside the system proposed for Governments.

20. The Agency intends to put the proposed system into effect for the years 1979-1981 beginning in June 1978, if the General Assembly extends the Agency's mandate. It intends to put as much as possible of the system into effect for 1978-1980 in 1977, but the schedule will necessarily be compressed and not all Governments may be included. Priority in 1977 is, of course, being given to solicitation of special contributions urgently required (a) to eliminate the deficit for this year, which, as of 30 June, was $16.4 million in the Agency's regular budget totaling $134 million, and (b) to provide the $2.7 million still lacking of the $6 million required outside the regular budget to cover the extraordinary cost of the first stage of construction of a new camp to accommodate displaced refugees in Lebanon.

21. No significance should be attached to the fact that the proposed forward planning will usually extend beyond the period of the UNRWA mandate. Any agreements reached with Governments would, of course, be subject to review in the case of expiration of the mandate.

22. The new procedure the agency proposes to follow and the timing of its actions are as follows:

(a) June. Consistent with paragraph 6 of General Assembly resolution 31/15 A, the Agency will communicate with the permanent representatives of all Governments who have not contributed to UNRWA in the past. The Agency will ask each representative whether his Government wishes to begin contributing to the education, relief and health of the Palestine refugees through UNRWA. The Agency will inform each representative of its budgeted expenditures by major program and any extra-budgetary needs for the following year, of actual contributions received from each Government and other sources in the preceding year and of total expected income in the current and following years. The Agency will seek to reach agreement with the Government on an amount for pledging in November of that year for the following year, should the Government wish to begin contributing.

(b) July/August. The Agency will communicate with the permanent representatives of all Governments who have contributed in the past or, in the case of non-member Governments who contribute, other appropriate representatives. It will inform them of the results of its solicitations of previously non-contributing Governments. It will provide the same information to them as it will have provided to previously non-contributing Governments on past, current and future financial needs and income and, in addition, will inform them of projected totals of gross financial needs and of expected income for two years after the following year. In the light of this information and the past record of contributions by the Government concerned, the Agency will seek to reach agreement with the Government on (i) an amount for pledging in November of that year for the following year, (ii) an amount to be used as a reasonable estimate active consideration by the Government as a contribution in the year after the following year end (iii) a tentative planning figure for the third year. The figures thus arrived at for these various uses may be changed during the process of solicitation in the light of adjustments in financial needs and decisions by contributors.

(c) September through May. At least every three months, the agency will inform all representatives of contributing Governments of the results of its solicitations and of any adjustments in its budgeted expenditures. As Governments inform the Agency of firm pledges for the following or current year of reasonable estimates that may be used for the next year and of tentative planning figures that may be used for the third year, the Agency will include the agreed figures in the total of expected income for the year in question. No individual pledges estimates or planning figures agreed by a Government will be reported to other contributors without the agreement of the Government concerned. Beginning in January or as soon thereafter as possible, the Agency will include in its reports to contributing Governments information on the level of services that can be provided in the current year with the income expected in that year. If income is insufficient, the Agency will explain to Governments, the Advisory Commission and the Working Group on the Financing of UNRWA what services will have to be reduced or suspended.

The conflict in Lebanon

23. The situation in Lebanon continued seriously to affect the Agency's activities throughout the area of operations during the reporting period 1 July 1976 to 30 June 1977. The achievement of an effective cease-fire in most of the country in October 1976 with the help of the Arab Peace Force greatly improved the situation, but, even with the end of most armed conflict, much still remained be done to assure the personal security of individuals and to put back into operation the local and international communications and other facilities required by the Agency (particularly headquarters) to function. By the end of the reporting period, improvement was great enough, however, for the Agency to lease the additional office space required to permit the return to Beirut of Agency headquarters. The position is that adequate office space is expected to be available in Beirut, possibly as early as mid-October 1977, and the long-delayed construction required to provide adequate space in Amman is now expected to be completed some time during the same month. As soon as the time when adequate office space will be available is reasonably certain a decision will be taken in the light of conditions then obtaining in Beirut whether to reunite headquarters in Beirut or Amman. Actual implementation of the decision will, of course, depend upon developments in Beirut between the taking of the decision and the date fixed for the return. Meanwhile two thirds of headquarters will remain in Amman and one third in Vienna

24. The Agency will probably never be able to determine precisely how many refugee casualties the conflict in Lebanon produced, but there were doubtless many hundreds. Up to 30,000 refugees were displaced by the fighting and forced to find new places to live. Of these, about 12,000 - mostly from the totally destroyed camps of Dikwaneh and Jisr el-Basha on the outskirts of Beirut - settled in Damour, a town south of Beirut. It is not known at the present time how many displaced refugees must be provided with housing, but the Agency , at the request of the Lebanese Government, is planning the construction of a new camp at Bassriyeh, which will initially accommodate about 8,500 displaced refugees now in Damour. The cost of this first stage will be about $6 million. The camp will be so constructed that it can later be expanded, if adjacent land is made available, to accommodate up to 20,000 displaced refugees.

25. Thirty staff members employed by the Lebanon Field Office and one employed by headquarters are missing and presumed to have been killed in the whole period of sustained conflict from September 1975 to October 1976 inclusive. The normal operations of the Lebanon Field Office were understandably curtailed, but continued, often under very hazardous conditions, at a much higher level than had been considered possible. In addition to normal services (provided at times in improvised installations as part of the refugee population moved), emergency assistance in the form of food, blankets, mattresses, children's clothing and cooking kits, was provided to those in need, largely from donations made by voluntary agencies. By the end of the year under review, operations in Lebanon had returned nearly to normal.

Problems relating to staff and premises

26. As United Nations employees, UNRWA staff members, subject to their respective rules governing their conduct, should be free from arrest and detention and free -to travel on official duty. Agency installations are premises protected by international agreements and should not be entered or removed from its control except by its permission. These principles are violated, albeit infrequently, by some of the Governments in the area (for further details, see chap. I, sect. F).


27. In the concluding paragraphs of the introduction to his last annual report as Commissioner-General, covering the period 1 July 1975-30 June 1976, Sir John Rennie pointed out that, in his two preceding reports, he had

He went on to say that:

The present Commissioner-General agrees entirely with Sir John's expression of concern and with his observations. The Agency was created in the aftermath of one war and has continued

2/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-first Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/31/13 and Corr.1), para. 50.

3/ Ibid., para. 51.

to provide its services through two more international wars and one civil war. It has coped with the turbulence mentioned by Sir John and with the political complexities encountered in the area. It would be tragic if, having surmounted those formidable obstacles, it were to be prevented from fulfilling its mandate by the unwillingness of the international community to provide the resources required to do so.

28. I cannot conclude the introduction to this my first report to the General Assembly as Commissioner-General of UNRWA without paying special tribute to my predecessor Sir John Rennie. Sir John, who joined UNRWA as Deputy Commissioner--General in November 1968 and was appointed Commissioner-General in May 1971, retired on 31 March 1977. Sir John led the Agency through the most difficult period of its 27-year existence. He gave of himself unstintingly and, if it had not been for his skilled leadership, it is most unlikely that the Agency would have survived. When the Palestinian people look back on their long years of travail and frustration, it is hoped that they will keep in mind the major role this dedicated, humane man played in meeting an important part of the basic needs of perhaps more than half of the Palestinian people during a critical period of their history. They are in a far better position to pursue the goals they set for themselves because they are better trained and educated and much less debilitated by poverty and disease than would have been the case if UNRWA had not had the benefit of Sir John's leadership.


1 JULY 1976 TO 30 JUNE 1977

A. General

29. The present chapter describes the main activities of UNRWA during the year ended 30 June 1977. Supplemental information on the estimated expenditure for each activity in the calendar year 1977 and the actual expenditure in 1976 is given in chapter II below, which presents the Agency's budget for the year 1978.

Assistance from voluntary agencies and other non-governmental organizations

30. The Commissioner-General gratefully acknowledges the generous assistance provided by voluntary agencies, business and professional organizations and individuals, without which many projects would not have been carried out for lack of funds. Projects financed by these contributions are noted in the appropriate sections of the present report and all contributions made direct to UNRWA are shown in table 17 of annex I. The main contributors were: American Wear East Refugee Aid, Inc. (ANERA); the Arabian-American Oil Company (ARAMCO); the Canadian Save the Children Fund (CANSAVE); five Japanese business organizations (Federation of Economic Organizations; Chamber of Commerce; Federation of Employers; Associations; Committee for Economic Development; and the Industry Club); the Lutheran World Federation; the Norwegian Refugee Council; OXFAM of the United Kingdom; the Swedish Save the Children Federation (Radda Barnen); the United Kingdom Save the Children Fund; and Zonta International.

31. The Commissioner-General also wishes to pay tribute to the devoted service rendered direct to the refugees by the voluntary agencies in the Agency's area of operations (see table 19 of annex I).

Relations with other organs of the United Nations system

32. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborate with UNRWA in the conduct of the education and health programs, thereby assuring professional competence in these two fields. The UNESCO staff, including associate experts made available to UNRWA from or through UNESCO, without reimbursement, numbered 21 at the beginning and 18 at the end of the period under review. Recent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly and the UNESCO General Conference are reproduced in annexes III and IV below.

33. The agreement providing for co-operation between the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), UNESCO and UNRWA in the operation of the UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education (see paras. 59-62) was extended for two years from 31 December 1976. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) continued its support of the extension services through which the experience of the Institute is made available to Ministries of Education in the region, the provision of those services being co-ordinated by the UNESCO Regional office for Education in the 44 States, the UNICEF Regional Office and UNRWA.

34. UNICEF continued to extend certain procurement services free of charge and acted as a supplier to the Agency of its competitively priced pharmaceuticals. The Agency assisted UNICEF with the transport of supplies in the area of operation

35. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) continued to extend valuable assistance to the Agency's temporary headquarters (Vienna office) in the form of equipment, furniture and supporting administrative services.

36. In the Syrian Arab Republic, the Agency made available 20 per cent of its workshop capacity for the servicing of vehicles of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine (UNTSO) and the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) against reimbursement of the cost.

37. The Agency's accounts for 1976 4/ were audited by the Director of External Audit of Ghana on behalf of the United Nations Board of Auditors.

B. Education and training services

38. Under an agreement between UNRWA and UNESCO, the latter is responsible for the professional aspects of the UNRWA/UNESCO education program, fulfilling its responsibility in part by the secondment to UNRWA, without reimbursement, of directing and specialist staff, including the Director of Education, who numbered 18 at the end of the period under review. As in previous years, the UNRWA/UNESCO education program in 1976/1977 included general education at elementary and preparatory levels in UNRWA/UNESCO schools, vocational and teacher-training at UNRWA/UNESCO training centers, the work of the Institute of Education and a university scholarship program. Many refugee children continued their education at the upper secondary level in government schools of the host countries or in private schools. In Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic, book allowances were paid and, where no government secondary school was available, cash grants were paid to refugee pupils attending private schools. In 1976, expenditure on education and training amounted to $54.8 million and accounted for 47.7 per cent of the Agency's budget.

39. In addition, the Agency provides some pre-school education (para. 94), youth activities (paras. 95 and 96), adult training in crafts (paras. 97 and 98), and medical and paramedical education and training (paras. 132 to 134).


4/ Ibid., Supplement No. 7C (A/31/7/Add. 3 and Corr.1), chap. II.

General education

40. In 1976/1977, as in previous years, the largest single Agency activity was general education, and a total of 296,393 pupils, 7,500 more than in 1975/1976, were enrolled in the 595 UNRWA/UNESCO elementary and preparatory schools in Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, east Jordan, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, served by a teaching force of 8,712. A further 77,000 refugee pupils were known to be enrolled in government and private elementary, preparatory and secondary schools in the same area and approximately 35,300 non-eligible children were in Agency schools. The education staff in each field is headed by a locally appointed Field Education Officer working under the professional guidance of the Director of Education and of the specialist staff of the Department of Education at headquarters.

41. Double-shifting of schools continued to be a problem and, because of the steady natural growth in the school population and the Agency's lack of funds for school construction on the scale required, double-shifting was necessary in 422 schools (70.9 per cent of the total) during 1976/1977. In elementary schools in east Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic, double-shifting again affected 93.4 and 88.9 per cent of the pupils respectively. It was possible to avoid turning children away from school only through double-shifting and the construction of some additional classrooms. Lack of funds for capital expenditure generally limited school construction to the minimum necessary to prevent triple-shifting. During 1976/1977, 10 prefabricated classrooms and administrative rooms, 35 standard-type classrooms and administrative rooms were completed, and 38 standard-type and 16 prefabricated classrooms and administrative rooms were under construction.

42. As in previous years since 1969, all textbooks newly prescribed or revised by Governments of host countries were submitted to the Director-General of UNESCO for approval before they were procured for Agency schools. In the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, where Jordanian and Egyptian books, respectively, are used, books approved by the Director-General are subject to the further requirement of a special import permit from the Israeli authorities. The situation is described in greater detail, field by field, in paragraphs 44, 461, 47, 48 and 49 below.

43. In Lebanon, after the cease-fire and improvement in the security situation in late October 1976, it became possible to start the 1976/1977 school year in most schools. The Lebanese Ministry of Education decided that, in Lebanese government schools, the period from 18 October 1976 to 28 February 1977 was to cover the uncompleted part of the 1975/1976 school year and the period from 1 March to 15 August 1977 the 1976/1977 school year. This plan was adopted in principle for the 29 UNRWA/UNESCO schools, whose 1975/1976 program was seriously interrupted but the remaining 45 schools followed the 1976/1977 program and completed the school year on 30 June 1977. As a result of the armed conflict in Lebanon, 12 UNRWA/UNESCO schools in east Beirut were deserted and closed following the mass movement of refugees from the area. Four school buildings, three in Beirut and one in Saida, were seriously damaged and rendered unserviceable for months. School furniture, equipment and supplies (including textbooks) were damaged or looted; their repair and replacement costs were estimated at $565,500. Sixteen schools were occupied by displaced refugees at the beginning of the 1976/1977 school year, but, by the end of December 1976, the refugees had been evacuated from all except two buildings (in Saida), which normally house two schools on single shift. To cope with the displacement of refugees and the severe damage to some UNRWA/UNESC0 schools, the Agency established four temporary schools in the Damour area (south Lebanon) and increased enrolments in other schools. The Agency-rented school in Nabatiyeh (south Lebanon) was closed from 5 February 1977 because of sporadic shelling of the town by Israeli artillery fire and the resulting movement of refugees from the area. In the situation described above, enrolments in UNRWA/UNESCO schools in Lebanon totaled 36,714 refugee pupils, 26,943 of whom were in the elementary and 9,771 in the preparatory schools. Of these 74 schools, comprising 742 elementary and 279 preparatory class sections with a total of 1,181 teachers, 47 schools with 551 class sections operated on double-shift.

44. The new curriculum approved in 1971 by the Lebanese Ministry of Education was in its last phase of implementation during the interrupted 1975/1976 school year when it would have covered fifth and sixth elementary classes. (Implementation of the new curriculum in the preparatory cycle had been completed during 1974/1975.) Mainly as a result of the new curriculum, 26 newly prescribed textbooks were approved by UNESCO and 7 became obsolete. By the end of the reporting period, the number of approved textbooks in UNRWA/UNESCO schools in Lebanon was 189.

45. In the Syrian Arab Republic, UNRWA/UNESCO schools started the year on 4 September 1976 and operated normally throughout the school year. A total of 40,116 pupils attended the 65 elementary and 42 preparatory schools comprising 1,069 class sections served by 1,265 teachers. Eighty-two of these schools, involving 870 class sections and 33,650 Pupils, operated on double-shift. During the school year, 6 textbooks were revised and 14 were newly published. Of the 104 textbooks currently prescribed, 82 have been approved by UNESCO.

46. In east Jordan, the 189 UNRWA/UNESCO schools commenced the year on 26 August 1976 and operated normally throughout the year with a total enrolment of 114,928 in the elementary and preparatory cycles comprising 2,800 class sections served by 3,221 teachers. Double-shifting occurred in 173 schools involving 2,573 class sections and 105,799 pupils.

47. As a result of an agreement between Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic, a unified curriculum in the two countries was introduced in 1976/1977. In first elementary classes, the same textbooks in Arabic reading, mathematics and science were used in both countries. A new science textbook for second elementary classes was also used in both countries. Partly as a result of the new curriculum, 10 textbooks were newly prescribed by the Ministry of Education of Jordan and approved by UNESCO for use in UNRWA/UNESCO schools. The total number of textbooks prescribed in Jordan was 105, of which 87 have been approved by UNESCO.

48. In the West Bank, UNRWA/UNESCO schools started the school year on 1 September 1976. However, the unrest reported in 1975/1976 continued throughout the 1976/1977 school year and affected practically all schools in the West Bank. is estimated that 20 days of school instruction were lost during the year as a result of disturbances which erupted in the various areas at different times. Affected schools have worked for extra periods in an effort to cover as much of the curriculum as possible by the end of the year. Enrolments in the 94 UNRWA/UNESC0 schools in the West Bank totaled 34,629 pupils in 697 elementary and 269 preparatory class sections served by 1,133 teachers. Forty-five schools with 405 class sections and 15,371 pupils operated on double-shift. Of the 87 textbooks approved by UNESCO (see preceding paragraph), the occupying authorities have granted import permits for 77, rejected 8 and have 2 under consideration.

49. In the Gaza Strip, the UNRWA/UNESCO schools started on 1 September 1976 and operated normally throughout the year. Enrolments totaled 70,006 pupils in 131 schools comprising 1,119 elementary and 430 preparatory class sections with a teaching force of 1,909. Double-shifting occurred in 75 schools, involving 830 class sections of 37,825 pupils. Textbooks from Egypt for use in UNRWA/UNESCO schools in Gaza continued to be transported to Gaza by land across the Suez Canal tinder the same arrangements as agreed with the Governments concerned for the previous year and implemented with the assistance of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF). The total number of textbooks prescribed by the Egyptian Ministry of Education was 97, of which 57 have been approved by UNESCO; 1 book is not yet published. Of the 57 approved textbooks, the occupying authorities have permitted the importation of 23, disallowed the importation of 11 and have 23 under consideration. In the meantime, 19 textbooks, prescribed and approved for previous years, are still in use in Gaza schools.

50. In consultation with the Governments of Egypt and Israel and with UNRWA's assistance, UNESCO organized the holding of examinations in the Gaza Strip between 26 June and 8 July 1976 for the eighth year in succession for the Egyptian Secondary School Leaving Certificate (Tawjihi), for the fifth year in succession for the Al-Azhar Tawjihi, for the third time for the Agricultural Secondary School Diploma, and for the second time for the Teacher Training Certificate. The second session of the Al-Azhar examination was held from 2 to 4 November 1976. A total of 7,089 candidates sat for these examinations, supervised by 1,033 local government and UNRWA teachers and by 35 international UNESCO and UNRWA specialists assigned by the Director-General of UNESCO, most of whom were from among the staff of the Agency's Education Department. Logistical support and other essential facilities for these examinations were provided by the occupying authorities through the Gaza Directorate of Education and Culture and by the UNRWA Field Office in Gaza. Subsequently the Egyptian authorities announced that 5,028 pupils had passed the examinations for the Secondary School Leaving Certificate, 250 for the Al-Azhar, 16 for the Agricultural Diploma and 119 for the Teacher Training Diploma. Of those who had passed the 1975 examinations, 1,419 crossed the Suez Canal in convoys arranged by the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to enter universities in Egypt.

Vocational and technical education

51. In Lebanon, the Siblin Training Center, which had remained closed since August 1975 because of the civil war, reopened in March 1977. Under normal circumstances, this center would have reopened in October 1975 with an enrolment of 296 in first-year classes and 209 (against a capacity of 216) in second-year classes. When it became certain that conditions would not permit the reopening of the center during the school year 1975/1976, it was decided to carry over the 1975/1976 program to the school year 1976/1977, but, when the center eventually reopened, more than half of the training year 1976/1977 had already been lost. Consequently no new intake was accepted and the center reopened for second-year trainees only. Owing to the long lapse of time since the completion of their first year, these continuing trainees devoted the remainder of the 1976/1977 year to revising and completing the first year curriculum of their courses. These trainees are expected to do the second year of their courses beginning in October 1977, when a new intake will also be accepted. Originally the Siblin Training Center was operated as a residential center, but problems with trainee discipline compelled the Agency to close the dormitory section in 1970. 5/ These conditions no longer prevail and the center is again operating on a residential basis.

52. The other six UNRWA/UNESCO training centers offering courses in vocational training operated at their planned capacities. However, the Kalandia Vocational Training Center and the Ramallah Women's Training Center - the two centers in the West Bank - lost approximately three weeks of training owing to civil disturbances in the area (see also para. 151 below).

53. `The closure of Beirut port continued to affect the Agency's supply system, although in recent months supplies were routed through other Middle Eastern ports and the situation improved considerably. Nevertheless, at the Wadi Seer Training Center (Jordan), two new courses, which were to have been introduced in the training year 1975/1976, were postponed again for the same reason, because fairly costly supplies were missing for many months. Some of these were located and others were reordered when their destruction through fire was established. The curtailment in the training program of the Siblin Training Center (Lebanon), the postponement of the two courses at the Wadi Seer Training Center (Jordan) and the inability to recruit an instructor for one course at Kalandia Vocational Training Center (West Bank) (see para. 55 below), resulted in a reduction in the number of vocational training places from 3,316 to 2,956. Details of the training capacity by course, center and training year are given in table 13 of annex I below.

54. The Agency also subsidized the vocational training of 71 refugees in private institutions. This represents an increase over last year's figure of 59 6/ mainly because it includes 19 girls whose training at the Beirut YWCA during 1975/1976 was interrupted by the
events in Lebanon, then resumed in 1976/1977 and was expected to be completed in July 1977.


5/ See ibid., Twenty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/8713 and Corr.1 and 2), para. 154.
6/ Ibid., Thirty-first Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/31/13 and Corr.1 and 2), para. 148.

55. The employment opportunities in the Arab countries continue to exceed the output of the UNRWA/UNESCO vocational training centers, and the Agency is actively exploring ways of financing an expansion of the program. The ever-growing demand in the region for skilled workers has led to a marked increase in wages for all categories of employees in the commercial and industrial sectors facilitating placement of graduates. However, as the Agency is unable to match these increases in pay, it faces difficulties in retaining existing training staff and attracting suitably qualified instructors. A training instructor's post at the Kalandia Vocational Training Center (West Bank) could not be filled and, as a result, one class section with 16 places, had to be suspended throughout, the 1976/1977 training year.

Teacher training

56. Primarily in order to provide teachers for the general education' program, which covers elementary and preparatory (lower secondary) levels during the 9-year compulsory cycle (10 years in Lebanon), the Agency also has its own pre-service teacher-training centers, complemented by a program of in-service training. Many teachers trained by UNRWA/UNESCO have, however, found employment with the Governments of the host countries and other Arab Governments frequently after gaining practical experience in UNRWA/UNESCO schools. UNRWA/UNESCO teacher-training centers accept Palestine refugees who have completed secondary education and provide a two-year course of professional training, which is adequate for teaching at the elementary level. At present the UNRWA/UNESCO system relies on two sources of recruitment for Palestinian subject teachers at the preparatory level: (1) university graduates, who, if without professional training, are encouraged by the incentive of up-grading to follow a professional education course at the UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education; and (2) non-graduate but qualified elementary-level teachers, who are encouraged by the incentive of up-grading to follow an in-service course of subject specialization and, if necessary, also other courses for professional training.

57. In the training year 1976/1977, of the four UNRWA/UNESCO pre-service teacher--training centers, the one in Amman (Jordan) functioned normally, while the two in Ramallah (West Bank) continued to suffer some disruption to their programs because of disturbances in the West Bank (see also para. 152 below), losing nearly three weeks of instruction time. By the end of the training year, however, measures had been taken to make up for the instruction time lost. The fourth center, Siblin (Lebanon), did not reopen until March 1977, when training recommenced for 56 first-year trainees of 1974/1975, who had not completed their first-year program because of the situation in Lebanon, and who devoted the remaining part of the school year 1976/1977 to revising and completing their first-year program; their second year of training will commence in September 1977, and a new first-year intake will then be enrolled as well. The number of teacher trainees in the four centers was 1,157, which is 50 more than last year because of the resumption of training at the Siblin Center.

58. In July 1976, at the end of the 1975/1976 training year, 546 trainees - 273 men and 273 women - Graduated from the Agency's training centers, a smaller number than in 1975, because there were no graduates from the Siblin center in Lebanon: 191 teacher graduates were employed to work in UNRWA/UNESCO schools in east Jordan; 114 are teaching in West Bank and Gaza UNRWA/UNESCO schools and 213 were employed in government and private schools in the host and other Arab countries, making a total of 94.9 per cent of the 1976 graduates known to be employed; only 11 were known to be without employment and the employment status of 17 graduates was unknown. Even without graduates from Siblin, there will again be more teachers graduating in 1977 than are required for UNRWA/UNESCO schools and, as in previous years, the Agency's Placement Office will make every effort to find them employment.

59. The UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education, which has received financial support from UNDP since 1 July 1972, completed its twelfth year of operation. Through correspondence lessons, weekly seminars, tutorial guidance and audio-visual and closed-circuit television material, the Institute provides in-service training for various categories of UNRWA/UNESC0 educational staff, working in Jordan and Gaza through the Education Development Centers (see para. 63 below). As was the case last year, the Institute's training activities in Lebanon during the training year 1976/1977,were affected by the events in that country, delaying the re-commencement of training until February 1977 and preventing the beginning of new courses. The renewed in-service training activities in Lebanon comprised final examinations for 17 teachers in the basic two-year course for unqualified elementary teachers, who should have completed their course in August 1975, and for 7 teachers referred from Previous courses, and seminars for 11 head teachers in the course of administration and supervision; eight other courses with an original enrolment of 410 could not recommence, because the staff needed for instruction had either been sent to Amman On extended temporary duty or were unable to move freely within Lebanon. In-service training in other fields was carried out satisfactorily during 1976/1977 and a total of 994 teachers participated in the various courses organized there by the Institute. Of these, 147 teachers participated in the two-year basic course of professional training for unqualified elementary teachers, 333 followed specialized preparatory-level courses, 63 teachers followed the head-teachers' course, 278 followed the refresher and special courses to meet curricular changes and 173 followed various ad hoc courses for professionally qualified teachers.

60. Out of a cumulative total of 4,232 teachers who have so far participated in the Institute's basic in-service professional courses for elementary teachers, 3,347 have successfully completed their training and have been recognized by the Agency as qualified elementary teachers and graded accordingly. At the same time, 1,822 preparatory teachers have successfully completed specialized preparatory--level courses out of a cumulative total of 2,462 participants, and have also been graded accordingly.

61. In co-operation with UNICEF, UNDP and UNESCO, the Institute continued to render assistance to Governments in the region, mainly by making available to them, at their request, its experience in in-service training of educational personnel based on the multimedia approach it has developed. The main countries who benefited from this assistance during the reporting period were Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Oman, the Sudan and the Syrian Arab Republic. In addition, co-operation was established with the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), mainly through active participation in its seminar on the effectiveness of recent developments in the field of in-service training in respect of programs and techniques. In addition, UNICEF sought the co-operation of the Institute in the organization of in-service training of social workers in Jordan and supervisors of Arab day-care centers and kindergartens in the Syrian Arab Republic.

62. During the reporting period, the main services of the Institute rendered to Arab Governments included advice related to the problems faced by them in their efforts to extend the Institute's multimedia approach, as adapted by them to new categories of educational practitioners other than teachers; advice on qualitative improvement of their current in-service training programs; assistance in the preparation, organization, implementation and evaluation of in-service training programs for teacher educators and educational supervisors involved in national in-service training projects; assistance in their efforts to develop new features in their programs and tools of continuous evaluation of their in-service training programs; acting as an agent for the effective exchange of instructional materials and successful field experiences amongst the various Governments.

63. In their third year of operation, the two Education Development Centers (EDCs) which form integral parts of the UNRWA/UNESCO education programs in east Jordan and the Gaza Strip, continued their activities - in co-ordination with the UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education - for the in-service training of education personnel, for example, through visits to schools by EDC staff to guide and assist teachers in their class-room practices, carried out development projects related to educational research, to more effective teaching and learning in schools and to the enrichment of the school curricula, the preparation of audio-visual and other educational material and evaluation devices for experimental and general use in schools, and the provision of library and documentation services for education personnel in the fields.

64. To supplement the in-service training courses provided by the Institute and the EDCs, Divisions of the Department of Education have also carried out such staff-training activities as short summer courses, seminars, workshops and conferences designed to give guidance and specific technical assistance to teachers, instructors and supervisors. During the period under review, 24 such courses and meetings were held, involving 750 education staff in all fields except Lebanon. In addition, nine senior Palestinian education staff members were awarded UNESCO fellowships for overseas study, tenable during the reporting period.
University scholarships

65. During the academic year 1976/1977, UNRWA awarded 326 scholarships for study at universities (see table 14 of annex I), of which 242 were continuing scholarships and 84 were new awards granted to school leavers. The UNRWA scholarships, partly funded from special contributions, are awarded for one year but are renewable from year to year for the duration of the course of study, provided the student satisfactorily passes the end-of-year university examinations.

C. Relief services

66. The Agency's relief services comprise the distribution of basic rations, the provision of or assistance with shelter in individual cases of special hardship or in such special circumstances as displacement of refugees or large-scale destruction or damage of shelter, and hardship and welfare assistance. These services are provided to registered Palestine refugees and certain other categories of refugees and displaced persons eligible within the Agency's mandate.

67. In Lebanon, the Agency's relief programs continued to be seriously affected until fighting largely ceased in October 1976. Up to that time the Agency's services were maintained, with difficulty, at a level of approximately 80 per cent in areas outside Beirut and at approximately 20 per cent in the Beirut area. After the major disturbances ceased in October, every effort was made to bring the Agency's services back to normal. This was achieved by early January 1977, although additional welfare assistance on an emergency basis continued to be provided in the form of clothing, blankets and supplementary food to the approximately 30,000 refugees displaced during the conflict and by the sporadic outbreaks of fighting in isolated areas, which is still continuing. Following an appeal by UNRWA to meet the emergency in Lebanon, clothing and blankets were generously donated by voluntary agencies, such as the Lutheran World Federation, the Norwegian Refugee Council, the Pontifical Mission for Palestine and Catholic Relief Services. Further generous cash donations to meet this emergency were received from the Norwegian Refugee Council, the Norwegian Save the Children Fund, the Lutheran World Federation, OXFAM and the Pontifical Mission for Palestine.

Eligibility, registration and basic rations

68. The number of refugees registered with the Agency on 30 June 1977 was 1,706,486 compared with 1,668,205 on 30 June 1976, an increase of 2.3 per cent. The number of UNRWA rations issued in December 1976 was 806,134, including issues made on an emergency basis, compared with 815,082 in December 1975. Deletions on grounds of false and duplicate registration, death, absence, employment or graduation from UNRWA training centers were largely offset by the addition of eligible children not previously receiving rations because of ration ceilings. Eligibility for rations (and other services) is computerized and lists of those eligible refugees who are authorized actually to receive rations are brought up to date each month by computer print-out. However, except for its own employees and their dependents (estimated to total 80,000 refugees, largely denied rations because of the level of their incomes), the Agency is unable, without the agreement and co-operation of the authorities in the area, to establish criteria for deletions from ration rolls or to carry out full investigations to determine employment status or income levels. In Gaza and the West Bank, programs of partial rectification of rolls for deaths and absence from the area are successful and updating of ration rolls is an ongoing process (see table 2 of annex I for details). It should be kept in mind that any ration denied to a refugee presently receiving it would be transferred to a needy refugee child eligible for but excluded from receiving it because of the ration ceiling. It will be noted that only 49 per cent of registered refugees were in receipt of rations in June 1977. Tables 1 to 4 of annex I below give statistics of registered refugees, the categories of service to which they are entitled and changes in the composition and entitlement of refugee families as recorded by the Agency.

69. Because of financial difficulties and of difficulties the Agency encountered in the rectification of ration rolls, a limit or ceiling has been maintained on the number of ration recipients in east Jordan and the West Bank since 1953, and in the other fields since 1963, new beneficiaries being added only when deletions are made. As a result, with the natural increase in the refugee population, the percentage receiving rations has fallen, and the number of children of refugees aged one year and over (some of whom are now adults), for whom no rations are available on a permanent basis within the ceiling and who are potentially eligible, continues to grow. By June 1977, these children totaled 496,004: 280,044 in east Jordan, of whom 38,236 are eligible to receive government rations (see para. 70 below); 84,138 on the West Bank; 38,167 in Lebanon; 63,972 in the Syrian Arab Republic; and 29,233 in the Gaza Strip, of whom 1,243 were members of Gaza families receiving rations in the West Bank.

70. In east Jordan, the Agency, as requested by the Government in 1967, has continued to distribute rations on the Government's behalf to displaced persons who are not registered with the Agency as Palestine refugees of 1948. In June 1977, the number of such persons issued with rations was 193,943 compared with 197,618 in June 1976. In addition, 38,108 children of displaced West Bank refugee families in east Jordan, the majority of whom live outside emergency camps, were also issued with rations provided by the Government. The Agency co-operates with the Government in these tasks in accordance with General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) of 4 July 1967 requesting the Agency to provide humanitarian assistance, as far as practicable, to persons other than refugees who were displaced in 1967. The cost of the rations and 50 per cent of the distribution and transport costs are borne by the Government of Jordan. Displaced persons residing in the post-1967 emergency camps benefit also from medical, sanitation and other Agency camp services. Many of their children also attend UNRWA/UNESCO schools and benefit from the supplementary feeding and milk programs against reimbursement of the cost of supplies by the Government.

71. The monthly basic dry ration during the period of the present report was normally composed of 10 kilograms of flour, 600 grams of sugar, 500 grams of rice and 375 grams of cooking oil. Because of logistical problems arising from the late arrival of donated food commodities and the Agency's inability for lack of sufficient funds to purchase flour in time for the ration distribution program, the components of the basic ration could not always be issued in full. The Governments of the host countries were most co-operative in lending commodities to the Agency against repayment in kind, but, when they were unable to do so, short issues, particularly in flour, were unavoidable. Other supplies distributed by the Agency included 1.5 liters of kerosene, during each of the five winter months, to ration beneficiaries and to infants and children (some of whom are now adults) registered for services in camps in all fields except Gaza, where 1 liter was issued monthly during the period from November through March to the same beneficiaries whether they lived in camps or not.

Camps and shelters 7/

72. The registered population of the 51 camps established before 1967 increased from 496,631 to 498,677. In the 10 emergency camps (6 in east Jordan and 4 in the Syrian Arab Republic) set up to accommodate refugees and other persons displaced as a result of 1967 hostilities, the population showed a slight decrease from 146,437 last year to 148,181 at present. The registered camp population represented 35.5 per cent of the registered refugee population, varying from 57.5 per cent in the Gaza Strip and 51.6 per cent in Lebanon to only 25.3 per cent in the West Bank, because of the continuing presence in east Jordan of many former West Bank refugees who left the West Bank in 1967 and have been prevented by the Government of Israel from returning. Table 4 of annex I provides more detailed statistics on the distribution of the refugee population.


7/ Attention is invited to paras. 55 to 57 of the annual report for the period from 1 July 1970 to 30 June 1971 (Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/8413)), in which the origin and nature of the Palestine refugee camps and UNRWA's relationship and limited responsibilities towards them are explained. In particular, it was explained in Para. 57 that the "camps were constructed on government land or on private land made available (with one or two minor exceptions) by the Governments, which remained responsible for the maintenance of law and order and similar governmental functions as part of their normal responsibilities towards the population within their borders ..." It is also desirable to distinguish between three categories of buildings in camps: installations constructed or rented by the Agency, for example, schools, clinics and stores, which ate in the possession of the Agency and used by it for the purposes indicated; shelters (huts) constructed by the Agency, which are the dwellings of and in the possession of the refugees, who have maintained them in repair and, in many cases, added to and improved them; and shelters and other buildings constructed and occupied or otherwise used by refugees (or others), for some of which the Agency may at most have given some assistance at the time they were constructed. It should be noted also that some camps contain large numbers of persons who are not registered refugees or even registered camp population (see table 4 of annex I).

73. In east Jordan, minor repairs to camp roads were carried out at a cost of $11,527. In the five emergency camps with prefabricated shelters, work on external repairs was limited due to the cost involved. Repairs are to be made, however, to 309 shelters occupied by registered refugee families and 103 shelters occupied by displaced persons as both of these groups are enduring extreme hardship. The cost of repairs to the shelters occupied by refugees registered with the Agency will be borne by UNRWA, and by the Government of Jordan for those shelters occupied by displaced persons. Fifteen self-help projects were completed at a total cost of $28,144, of which $5,835 were contributed by the Agency and the remainder by the refugee community, the Government of Jordan, municipalities and voluntary agencies.

74. In the Syrian Arab Republic, the Agency has eliminated the last 224 tents in the emergency camps by providing $87,143 in financial assistance to the refugees who constructed 208 shelters in Dera'a and 16 shelters in Jaramana Camp. The Syrian Government supplied land for self-help shelter construction by the refugees at Homs and Hama camps, 8/ which is progressing very satisfactorily. So far 190 of the 650 planned shelters have been completed. At Khan Danoun Camp, some refugees have also started a self-help shelter construction program to reduce over-crowding in the camp. They purchased about 6,000 square meters of land adjacent to the camp where they are building durable shelters at their own expense.

75. The Agency constructed two schools of seven and eight rooms in Yarmouk Camp near Damascus and 13 new class-rooms in Jaramana Camp schools. A distribution center is under construction at Neirab Camp near Aleppo.

76. In Dera'a Emergency Camp, the Agency constructed a new sewerage system, and the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic built 2,300 square meters of pathways there. In Jaramana Camp, the Government constructed a new water system, including a well and a water tower which will be connected to the existing camp water supply network. In Khan Danoun Camp the Agency contributed to the construction of some 4,800 square meters of pathways through a self-help project.

77. In Lebanon, during the first four months of the period under review, the severe fighting during the conflict caused loss of life and injuries among refugees and destruction of and damage to Agency installations and refugee shelters. All Agency installations and refugee shelters in Dikwaneh and Jisr el-Basha camps were destroyed. These camps were under siege in the summer of 1976 until 12 August 1976, when all the inhabitants were forced to leave. Damage was sustained to Agency installations and refugee shelters in Wavel, Dbayeh, Ein el-Hilweh, Mia Mia, Shatila, Burj el-Barajneh and Mar Elias camps and outside camps


8/ See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-first Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/31/13 and Corr.1 and 2), para. 110.

to various Agency schools located in the Beirut and Saida areas, as well as to the Agency's area offices there and to the main warehouse in Beirut. The exact number of casualties among the refugee population in Lebanon is difficult to ascertain, but it is estimated that approximately 900 persons were killed, 2,700 were wounded and some 800 persons were reported missing. These figures include 31 Agency staff members reported to be missing. Damage to and loss and destruction of Agency installations is estimated at $990,000; damage to refugee shelters is estimated at $590,000.

78. All damaged schools, with the exception of two schools in the Saida area, which have been occupied by displaced persons since 1975, have been repaired and all damaged or missing furniture and equipment is being replaced. Approximately 30 per cent of the repairs to other Agency installations has been completed and plans for repairing the balance are under way. Plans are also in hand for the repair of damaged refugee shelters.

79. Discussions are being held with the authorities in Lebanon regarding the construction of a new camp, to be located between Saida and Tyre and to provide accommodation and facilities for the refugees from Dikwaneh, Jisr el-Basha and other camps who are presently occupying mostly damaged houses in the town of Damour which were abandoned by their original occupants during the disturbances. The plans for the new camp include the construction of Agency installations and refugee shelters.

80. With the exception of the Agency-built school, UNRWA installations in Nabatieh Camp, which was largely destroyed during an Israeli air-raid in 1974, have been reconstructed. As a result of continued shelling and fighting in south Lebanon, these installations suffered further slight damage. Also as a consequence of the armed conflict, no further progress has been made on the reconstruction and repair, on a self-help basis, of damaged refugee shelters in the Rashidieh, Bin el-Hilweh, Nahr el-Bared and Beddawi camps for which the Agency had been providing building materials and which had reached an advanced stage of completion by June 1976. It is hoped, however, that this work can be completed shortly.

81. A comprehensive plan for the improvement of installations, environmental sanitation, shelters and roads in the camps in Lebanon, at a cost of some $200,000 over a two-year period which had not been carried out because of the fighting, is now under way and it is hoped to complete all the work by the end of 1978.

82. There are 19 camps in the West Bank still inhabited by refugees, including two in the Jericho area which are only partly inhabited. One camp in the Jericho area is totally unused.

83. Facilities in the camps have continued to improve, mainly due to refugee projects executed on a self-help basis, with some financial aid from the Agency. These projects included the construction of 7,162 square meters of concrete pathways and drains, construction of a water pipeline system, extension of the municipal water supply in Far'a and Balata camps, the construction of a youth activities center at Far'a Camp, electrification of Jalazone Camp also with contributions from the Military Governor, the construction of a playground at Hebron Preparatory Boys' School, the construction of youth activities centers in Shufat and Amary camps and several other smaller projects. The Agency provided funds for four additional class-rooms built in Shufat and Balata camps.

84. In the Gaza Strip the Israeli occupying authorities continued to insist that refugees demolish their shelters as a condition for the provision of new housing. In the case of a family in Khan Yunis Camp, however, the authorities turned over their shelter to another refugee family, whose shelter in another part of the camp had been demolished on the instructions of the authorities. Six hundred and nineteen shelter rooms (339 Agency rooms, 81 Agency-assisted rooms and 199 private rooms) were demolished in Rafah, Khan Yunis and Beach camps. No punitive demolitions took place during the year

85. In last year's report mention was made of an option for refugees to move to shelters vacated in another section of a camp when they were notified that their shelters were to be demolished. With the exception of the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, all shelters vacated by refugees moving to government housing projects were demolished and none is available for other refugee families.

86. The Agency still has on its records over 2,000 families, whose shelters were demolished by the Israeli occupying authorities in 1971 and who are now housed in accommodation ranging from substandard shanties to housing purchased in government housing projects. No families have been provided with free housing. Of the total of over 2,000, 138 families are recorded on the hardship list and 422 families are recorded as living in unsatisfactory housing.

87. The government housing project at Khan Yunis has been completed, except for some perimeter walls and water and electricity connections, and 63 families from Khan Yunis Camp moved into the project.

88. Construction of more houses in the Sheikh Radwan project near Gaza town continues and, in addition, some shops are being built. Two hundred and seventy-seven families from Beach Camp moved into houses in this project and 55 families, who purchased plots of land in the project, built their own houses and moved into them. In addition, 70 other families moved into houses in the same project. These 70 families had been recorded on the hardship accommodation list prepared by the joint UNRWA/Israeli occupying authorities survey in 1973, following the road-widening operation in some camps in 1971. These families paid a reduced amount for the houses. The matter of free accommodation for the refugees on the hardship accommodation list has not been resolved yet with the occupying authorities. Two families from Rafah Camp moved into a government housing project near Rafah.

89. Additional self-help projects were started and seven were completed at a total cost of $40,085, of which $18,314 were contributed by the Agency and the remainder by the refugees and community groups. The continuing projects include the laying of water pipes in Jabalia and Bureij camps, construction of pathways and drains at Bureij and Nuseirat camps and the construction of four class-rooms at Beit Hanoun. A new two-room play center was constructed at Nuseirat Camp. Other works included the leveling of playgrounds and minor repairs at schools and youth activities centers. At Jabalia Camp the occupying authorities constructed a park and are completing the construction of a market place. At Beach Camp they completed the construction of a park in an area cleared by the occupying authorities of refugee shelters in 1971. Old barracks housing 20 families in Bureij Camp were replaced by new rooms constructed by the Agency with some participation by a number of refugees.


90. Voluntary agencies again donated used clothing to UNRWA for distribution to the refugees. Five hundred and seventeen tons and 296 bales, including 10 tons of layettes, and some 52,000 blankets were received and distributed to hardship cases in east Jordan, West Bank, the Syrian Arab Republic, Gaza and particularly to refugees in Lebanon to help meet the emergency situation after the hostilities.

91. The following agencies contributed to the program: American Friends Service Committee (United States), Canadian Red Cross Society, Catholic Relief Services (United States), Church World Service (United States), Lutheran World Federation (Sweden), Lutheran World Federation (Amman/Jerusalem), Lutheran World Relief Inc. (United States), Near East Council of Churches (Jerusalem), Pontifical Mission for Palestine (Jerusalem), Radda Barnen (Sweden), Save the Children Fund (United Kingdom), Unitarian Service Committee (Canada) and Norwegian Refugee Council.

92. The most needy refugees, such as those physically handicapped, tuberculosis and chronically ill, widows with minor children and the aged, continued to receive special assistance.

93. The number of families registered with UNRWA as hardship cases totaled 22,751 comprising about 114,000 persons. Small cash grants were given to 18,057 persons. Assistance in other forms was given to 30,351 persons. Welfare workers, through counseling and guidance, helped solve individual and family problems. Prosthetic devices were issued to 1,013 persons and 87 destitute aged persons and 844 orphans were placed in institutions, mainly free of charge, constituting a major increase principally in Lebanon due to the emergency.

94. Activities for pre-school children are directed to the particular needs of those three to six years old, having in mind the need to develop the children's potential through play periods supervised by trained teachers. Of the 52 centers serving nearly 4,800 children, the American Friends Service Committee finances and operates 13 centers on behalf of the Agency in Gaza and the Holy Land Mission finances 6 in the West Bank. The remaining centers are financed either by local groups or voluntary agencies.

95. Youth activities were carried out in co-operation with the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations in 35 refugee camps and 5,015 young refugees participated. There were 1,450 boys under 16 years of age who participated in self-help projects and recreational programs in 25 camps. Twenty-eight projects, including the construction of new premises and improvement of sports grounds, were completed on a self-help basis by the members of youth activities centers. Cash, labor and materials were contributed by members of the centers and the refugee community as a whole. Youth services to the community included special programs for orphans, informal classes for illiterates and tutoring lessons for pupils, assistance in cleanliness campaigns, and visits to sick and elderly camp residents. Young refugees from 10 centers in east Jordan volunteered to assist the Agency in its efforts to combat cholera.

96. Training courses in summer camping, scouting, sports, health education and youth leaders' seminars were attended by 210 young refugees from the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and east Jordan. In 1976, summer camps were organized in east Jordan, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and were attended by 480 refugee boys and girls, while 85 counselors volunteered to work in the camps.

97. Afternoon activities in the women's activities centers are dependent on special donations; 14 centers are operated by UNRWA and three by voluntary agencies. This program aims at giving refugee girls and women living in camps a chance to develop such skills as may help them raise their standard of living. In the year under review, 379 female refugees were taught a variety of arts and crafts, including embroidery, crocheting, knitting, bead and straw work, and painting on pottery and glass. Health education, first aid and simple household skills also form part of the program, and the better educated teach the illiterates in the groups how to read and write.

98. The Agency also organizes training activities outside schools in order to provide basic training in various skills for young refugees who would not otherwise receive vocational training or education. In the 33 sewing centers operated by the Agency, 789 of 842 refugee women and girls undergoing sewing training successfully completed the 11-month courses during the period under review. In the West Bank, UNRWA operates three carpentry centers, where 46 young refugees attended a one-year carpentry course. The majority of the young men who complete this course find employment locally. Special training was provided for 206 disabled refugees to integrate them into the life of their community: 60 of them were trained at the Center for the Blind in Gaza, which is operated by the Agency for refugees and financed by the Pontifical Mission for Palestine, and the others were trained in similar specialized institutions in the area.

D. Health services

99. The Agency continued to provide curative and preventive out-patient medical care at all of its 98 health units and, by special arrangements, at 17 government and 16 voluntary agency units. The degree of use of the Agency's out-patient services is influenced by the accessibility of the clinics to the intended beneficiaries and by the availability of other free or low-cost services. Statistical data in respect of the out-patient curative medical care services are provided in table 5 of annex I.

100. To ensure adequate treatment and proper follow-up of certain chronic diseases, health units were encouraged to establish specialized clinics where patients are seen by appointment. New diabetes and dermatology clinics were established during the year, increasing the total to 18 diabetes, 7 rheumatic diseases, 1 cardio-vascular, 4 ophthalmic, 4 ENT, 1 dermatology and 12 tuberculosis clinics.

101. As at 30 June, 22 government hospitals (of which the Bureij Tuberculosis Hospital is administered jointly by the Department of Public Health in Gaza and the Agency) and 44 private hospitals provided in-patient medical care to eligible refugees by arrangement with UNRWA, in most cases free of charge. The Agency provides in-patient care directly at the UNRWA-operated Qalqiliya Hospital in the West Bank, at the pediatrics ward of one UNRWA health center in Gaza (for which the Swedish voluntary organization Radda Barnen meets the cost, including the salary of a doctor) and at nine UNRWA maternity centers, one of which is in the Syrian Arab Republic, two in the West Bank and six in Gaza.

102. The average number of hospital beds available to refugee patients during the year was 1,689 (see table 6 of annex I). The general beds available included 657 government beds, 573 private and voluntary agency beds subsidized by UNRWA and 122 beds operated by UNRWA. The rapidly rising cost of medical care in the Middle East entailed increases in almost all Agency subsidy rates. However, in addition to the above hospital beds, many refugee patients (their number cannot be determined) were directly admitted to government facilities, particularly in the Syrian Arab Republic and east Jordan. In April 1976, Israeli legislation in Gaza introduced payment of fees for most curative medical care services provided by government institutions. As a consequence, and to help Gaza refugee patients, the Agency decided to introduce a refund scheme from 1 July 1977. In December 1976, government hospitals in east Jordan started to charge refugee patients the same fees as those paid by the indigenous population. The health authorities were approached on this subject and, in April 1977, they decided to discontinue collecting fees for medical services provided at government medical centers from refugees in possession of UNRWA ration cards. The Agency therefore decided to include in its 1977 and subsequent budgets an amount equivalent to the subsidy previously paid to the Government of Jordan for these services and will effect payment subject to the receipt of sufficient contributions to meet the Agency's budgeted expenditures each year.

103. In Lebanon, the Agency encountered serious difficulties in the delivery of in-patient care services as most of the UNRWA subsidized hospitals had either been damaged, looted or become inaccessible to refugee patients. The average daily occupancy of general hospital beds had dropped from 223 to 70. In Beirut, most of the emergency cases requiring surgical and urgent medical attention were referred to the American University Medical Center. First-aid and surgical treatment of war casualties were provided, to a great extent, by the Palestine Red Crescent and by teams of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

104. The Agency operates three central laboratories; one has been in existence for many years in Gaza; two others were established in Jerusalem (West Bank) and Amman (east Jordan) health centers during the period under review; in the other two fields, laboratory services are obtained under agreements with private laboratories against a lump-sum subsidy or on a fee-for-service basis. Laboratory tests of a public health nature, such as cultures, virology, bacteriological examination of water etc., are usually performed free of charge at the laboratories of the Government of the host countries. In addition, 21 of the larger Agency health centers possess their clinical laboratories where simple tests are performed, but progressively facilities for the most-often-needed biochemical tests are being installed at these units to reduce the number of specimens referred to central laboratories.

105. In addition, the Agency provides for medical rehabilitation of crippled children through physical therapy in specialized private and government institutions, and also provides prosthetic devices, on a priority basis, mainly to children.

Control of communicable diseases

106. Continuous surveillance was maintained over the important communicable diseases. Early in July 1976, an outbreak of cholera occurred in the north-eastern district of Hasaka in the Syrian Arab Republic and soon spread to other localities. Prompt control measures were taken, particularly in refugee camps, by the UNRWA Field Health Department in co-ordination with the Ministry of Health. Two cases were reported among the refugees and both were cured. The disease later spread to east Jordan, West Bank and Gaza, where 19, 3 and 14 cases, respectively, occurred among the refugees, but no fatality was reported. No confirmed cases were reported from Lebanon. Only two imported cases of malaria were reported, both in the Gaza field. With 16,326 cases, influenza showed an increase, the majority reported from Gaza, West Bank and the Syrian Arab Republic

107. Diarrhea diseases, dysentery and typhoid remained near the previous year's level. Infectious hepatitis increased in all fields except Gaza. After a low in 1976 and despite the primary and booster doses of oral polio vaccine given routinely to children below three years of age attending the Agency's child health clinics, the incidence of poliomyelitis increased to almost the 1975 levels: 67 cases Agency-wide, of which 55 were reported from Gaza. The efficacy of the vaccine and the level of protection are being investigated in an attempt to find an explanation for the rise.

108. While acute conjunctivitis and trachoma showed little change in incidence, respiratory tuberculosis (163 cases) showed a slight increase. Whooping cough decreased from 153 to 125 cases, mostly reported from Lebanon, and measles increased from 1,422 to 3,196 cases, the majority of which were reported from Lebanon and east Jordan.

109. Environmental sanitation, food hygiene and health education are the Agency's general preventive and disease control activities in support of immunization and other specific measures and the special tuberculosis control program. From early infancy, primary and reinforcing immunization is provided against tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, typhoid, measles and smallpox. Communicable disease surveillance and control is maintained in close co-operation with government health authorities.

Maternal and child health

110. Of the 98 UNRWA health centers, 84 also provided maternal and child care, supported by specialist and hospital referral services. A number of government and voluntary agency centers complemented the Agency's maternal and child health centers, especially in Amman, Damascus and Jerusalem. In Gaza, the Swedish Save the Children Federation continued its support of maternal, child-care and related planned parenthood educational and service programs based in the UNRWA health center in Beach Camp. In east Jordan, the child-care services at Jarash Camp, provided by the Lutheran World Federation on the Agency's behalf, were handed over to UNRWA on 1 November 1976. Some data on the maternal and child-care services are provided in table 7 of annex I below.

111. Prenatal care, including regular health supervision and the issue of extra rations, milk and iron-foliate, was extended to 28,761 women. Assistance was provided for 28,763 deliveries, the majority at home by UNRWA-supervised dayahs (traditional midwives) and at Agency maternity centers (especially in Gaza), hospital delivery being reserved mainly for women with complications or at special risk.

112. On the average, 86,000 children up to three years of age were registered for child-care services at the health centers. The immunization program described in the preceding section provides protection against a number of serious communicable diseases and the nutrition of children is being promoted through the educational program in the maternal and child health clinics, the provision of milk and hot meals at UNRWA feeding centers, as well as the distribution of dry milk in the clinics to children under two years of age for consumption at home, a program being extended Agency-wide (see para. 127). About 1,600 children, mostly below two years, suffering from diarrhea diseases, with or without accompanying malnutrition, were treated in the 21 rehydration/nutrition centers with a total capacity of 229 cots. Seven specialized clinics, aiming at a more comprehensive and effective treatment of malnutrition, have been established since July 1976, one in east Jordan, two in the Syrian Arab Republic and four in the West Bank, and their operation produced encouraging results.

113. The health centers and seven school health teams (three in east Jordan and one in each other field) provided school health services for children in UNRWA/UNESCO elementary and preparatory schools (see table 7 of annex I below). Comprehensive medical examinations, and treatment where necessary, are given to children on first school entry, and other pupils receive medical attention when required. Reinforcing immunization was given against diphtheria, tetanus, typhoid, smallpox and tuberculosis, and nutritional support was provided through the issue of milk in some schools and of hot meals on a medical selection basis at the supplementary feeding centers. Supervision was maintained over school sanitation and systematic health education was conducted in all schools.

114. Screening tests for early detection and cure of vision and hearing defects were carried out regularly. Early restorative dental care was provided to the extent possible and oral hygiene was stressed in the health education program. In the Syrian Arab Republic, the program of prophylaxis and treatment of simple goiter in school-children in the Damascus area continued. Mass treatment of ascariasis and of certain other fungal and parasitic skin infestations was carried out on a selective basis in some fields. In preparation for implementation of the Agency's pilot mental health project for pre-school and elementary-school children, a Palestinian doctor completed his special training in child psychiatry and mental health in London.

115. In each field, a team of health education workers promoted the health education program as an integral part of the health services, with the participation of health, education and welfare staff. Their activities in health centers, schools, welfare centers and camp communities were supported by camp and school health committees and included camp sanitation drives and disease prevention campaigns, particularly in relation to cholera. A health calendar, pamphlets and other visual aids were produced for use in lectures and group discussions and in schools. In Gaza, the curriculum for senior girls in preparatory classes in UNRWA/UNESCO schools includes lectures on "Health and family life", and a similar program is included for young women in the sewing courses in all fields. The World Health Day, with the theme "Immunize and protect your child", was celebrated in all fields through exhibitions, meetings and other activities in schools, health and welfare centers.

Nursing services

116. The nursing services have their established place in the Agency's medical work and play an increasingly important role in the Agency's community health programs. As three quarters of the nursing staff are auxiliary nursing personnel, continuous in-service training is necessary. A number of courses were conducted, including in-service training (in line with WHO recommendations) for dayahs, the traditional midwives, who attend the majority of deliveries at home. An Agency- conducted midwifery training course of 18 months' duration was started in Gaza with 13 participants and a number of graduate nurses received post-basic education and training. Auxiliary nursing personnel was heavily relied on in Lebanon when normal nursing services had been interrupted during the recent conflict, and also in Gaza, where midwives and specially trained practical nurses participated in the community and family health program as well as in planned-parenthood activities at certain centers.

117. The long-established layette program was maintained through special contributions in kind and cash from voluntary organizations and other donors. Token layettes (a blanket and soap) were issued to new-born infants, complete layettes were issued to multiple births, premature babies and hardship cases, and woolen baby blankets were issued to babies in the emergency camps during the winter months in east Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic.

Environmental health

118. The environmental health service of the Agency provides basic community sanitation in the refugee camps, comprising water supply, removal and disposal of wastes, storm-water drainage, latrine facilities and control of insect and rodent vectors of disease. In general, this objective was satisfactorily achieved. A total of 644,858 refugees living in 61 refugee camps benefited from the service. Although the Agency continued to experience financial difficulties, it was possible to carry out a number of improvements, mostly through community participation and co-operation of the Governments of the host countries and local authorities.

119. The joint self-help scheme of construction of drains and pavement of pathways in camps 9/ benefited nine camps in the West Bank, two in Gaza, a few in Lebanon and one each in east Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic. The program of replacement of public with private latrines progressed satisfactorily and about 94 per cent of the refugee population in camps now have access to private latrines. At Dera'a Camp extension (where the refugees have recently replaced their tented accommodation with properly built shelters, mostly at their own expense), the Agency completed the construction of sewers. With the exception of only 25 shelters located in a depression, the entire Dera'a Camp is now served by a proper sewerage scheme. The Agency and the Syrian General Authority for Palestine Arab Refugees (GAPAR) have so far jointly provided sewerage facilities in 8 of 10 refugee camps in the Syrian Arab Republic benefiting 77 per cent of their population.

120. Substantial progress has also been made in improving the water supply situation in a number of camps. The chronic water shortage problem of Suf Camp in east Jordan has been solved by augmenting the supply from a newly drilled private well. Municipal water schemes at Balata and Askar camps in the West Bank and Beach, Khan Yunis and Rafah camps in Gaza are progressing steadily. Private water connections are being authorized to refugees by the respective municipalities from the newly laid municipal water distribution networks in the five camps. At Fara'a Camp in the West Bank and in a selected section of Jabalia Camp in Gaza, the refugees have also executed private water connection schemes on a purely self-help basis. Similar self-help sc-hemes are being planned for Bureij Camp and the remaining part of Jabalia Camp in Gaza, where illegal and indiscriminate tapping of the Agency's water distribution mains had been a common problem. In the Syrian Arab Republic, GAPAR is in the process of completing the private water connection scheme at Khan Eshieh and is considering the extension of a municipal water supply system to Sbeineh Camp. Already 42 per cent, of the camp inhabitants are served by private water connections.


9/ Ibid., para. 107.

121. Efforts are continuing to improve further the refuse collection facilities, particularly in camps which are located in urban areas, and the refuse transport needs are under review. The inefficient mule carts used for refuse transport at Nairab Camp have already been replaced by a scooter-cart, and a tipper truck will shortly be provided for the removal of garbage from Damascus area camps.

122. The Municipality of Amman is carrying out a field trial of four rodenticides with the aim of selecting one for the rodent control program referred to in last year's report. 10/

Nutrition including supplementary feeding

123. Supervision, protection and promotion of the nutritional state of the refugees is one of the main objectives of the UNRWA health services, and the supplementary feeding program is directed towards the most vulnerable groups. The data collected during the year through routine surveillance are evidence that the nutritional state of the refugees has been maintained at a satisfactory level.

124. The supplementary feeding program provides eligible refugees with a daily hot meal, reconstituted milk, and monthly extra rations to pregnant and nursing women, tuberculosis patients on ambulatory treatment, selected medical cases and displaced refugees. This program is important because the monthly basic dry ration does not contain any fresh food or animal protein, and also because many children, though eligible in principle, do not receive monthly basic rations. As in previous years, the cost of the program was almost entirely met from a generous contribution by the European Economic Community (EEC).

125. The hot meal program provides nutritionally balanced midday meals six days a week at the 97 Agency supplementary feeding centers and four voluntary agency centers. The meals are available to refugee children up to the age of six and, on medical recommendation, to older children and even adults. Suitable menus are prepared for the different age groups. A special high-protein high-calorie diet is also available daily to infants and children suffering from the effects of diarrhea or malnutrition. Vitamin A and D capsules are issued with the hot meals.

126. The milk program normally consists of daily distribution of reconstituted whole/skim milk mixture seven days a week to infants 6 to 12 months old and non-breast-fed babies under six months of age; reconstituted skim milk six days a week to children one to six years of age, to women from the fifth month of pregnancy until one year after delivery and to sick adults upon medical recommendation; and reconstituted skim milk five days a week to children in elementary classes of UNRWA/UNESCO schools. Because of the paralysis of Beirut port and unavoidable delays in shipments of skim milk from Europe coinciding with a surplus in the whole milk stocks of the Agency, reconstituted whole milk was issued to

10/ Ibid., para. 112.

infants under one year in lieu of the usual whole/skim milk mixtures. The school milk program, which had been suspended in February 1976 in all fields except east Jordan, was resumed for the year 1976/1977 in east Jordan and school the West Bank.

127. The pilot study on the distribution at the maternal and child-health centers of dry milk powder to infants six months to two years of age and non-breast-fed babies under six months of age, which had started in May 1975, was continued during the period under review. The monthly issue of dry milk powder at the maternal and child-health centers to eligible children during their routine visits, coupled with education of the mothers in infant feeding and proper milk reconstitution and storage, proved definitely superior to the daily issues of reconstituted milk to babies. Evaluation of the study revealed unanimous acceptance by both the recipients and the staff, with a remarkable increase in attendance at the maternal and child-health centers, especially in the one to two years age group. On the basis of these encouraging results, this scheme is being introduced in all centers in all fields with a consequent adjustment of the milk program.

128. The outbreak of cholera in the area in July 1976 necessitated the temporary suspension of the general milk distribution program and the omission of fresh vegetables and fruits from the hot meal menus as a precautionary measure. These restrictions were lifted as soon as the area was declared free from cholera.

129. The emergency feeding program established for the benefit of the refugees displaced or directly affected by the 1967 hostilities continued to provide daily issues of reconstituted whole milk to infants of four to six months of displaced families in east Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic; daily hot meals and reconstituted skim milk to all displaced children up to the age of 15 years; and a monthly protein supplement (one 12-ounce tin of meat) to all displaced refugees in the Syrian Arab Republic, to those living in the emergency camps and to displaced pregnant and nursing women and tuberculosis out-patients living outside the emergency camps in east Jordan. The general milk distribution to children from 6-15 years, discontinued in the Syrian Arab Republic and Gaza with effect from February 1976 because of shortage of milk supplies at the time, was not resumed in anticipation of the generalization of the dry milk distribution scheme. As with the school milk program, the general milk distribution had continued in east Jordan.

130. In east Jordan, as in previous years, the Agency continued to provide, on behalf of the Government and on a reimbursable basis, daily milk end hot meals for displaced persons (other than UNRWA-registered refugees) living in the emergency camps.

131. Civil war activities prevailing in Lebanon until late October 1976 and the -paralysis of Beirut port seriously affected the program in Lebanon as well as other fields. In Lebanon, the program was interrupted in many areas for varying periods owing to difficulties with the supply of food and fuel. An emergency feeding program was started late in 1976 for the refugees from Dikwaneh Camp, who temporarily gathered in and around Damour village south of Beirut. Other fields suffered from shortages of a number of commodities, particularly skim milk, usually supplied through Beirut.

Medical and paramedical education and training

132. In the 1976/1977 scholastic year, 209 refugee students held UNRWA medical university scholarships (see table 14 of annex I below), 113 refugee trainees were enrolled in paramedical courses in Agency training centers and two in non-Agency institutions in the area of operations. Of these, 33 university students and 40 trainees either successfully completed their courses of education or were expected to pass their qualifying examination.

133. Young women as well as men were encouraged to enroll for basic nursing training in local schools of nursing, two of which are subsidized by the Agency. Individual nursing scholarships were provided through contributions received from voluntary organizations and private donors. Free nursing education was provided to refugee students by a number of private and government institutions. Of the 63 sponsored student nurses enrolled in basic nursing training, 25 graduated during the period covered by the present report.

134. In-service training of doctors, nurses, midwives, dayahs and feeding staff was promoted. Two medical officers were granted study leave of one year's duration to pursue post-graduate medical specialization in pediatrics and clinical pathology. Three Agency nurses have completed post-basic midwifery training of one year's duration, and five more started such training.

E. Common services and general administration

135. The fighting in Lebanon continued to disrupt the operations of the Lebanon Field Office, although various functions and activities were carried on to the extent possible. After late October 1976, when the main hostilities ended, the work of the Lebanon Field Office gradually began to return to normal, although the aftermath of the fighting has obviously caused many more problems affecting the Agency's work. As a result of the disturbances, 30 area staff members of the Field Office and one from headquarters are still missing and it must be feared that they are no longer alive

136. During the period under review, the international staff manning table decreased by two posts, bringing the total to 120. This decrease was in posts provided on non-reimbursable loan from UNESCO. Of the 120 posts, 89 (the same number as last year) were financed by the regular budget of the United Nations, one was financed by voluntary contributions from a non-governmental organization, 25 were provided on non-reimbursable loan by UNESCO and five by WHO. During the same period, there was an increase of 349 posts in the local area staff manning table, almost entirely as a result of the increase in teachers to meet the growth of the school population, bringing the total number of local posts to 16,231.

137. Representatives of the Agency Administration and the area staff unions held 29 meetings during June 1976, December 1976, March 1977 and May/June 1977 to consider a large number of staff union requests, submitted earlier in 1976, for improvements in conditions of service. Some of these requests had been withdrawn under the terms of the agreement reached on 15 April 1975 between the Agency and the Staff, and thus they were inadmissible to further discussion. There still remained, however, a large number of requests and, at the end of the series of meetings, a new Memorandum of Understanding (the second) was signed on 3 June 1977 by the Commissioner-General and the Chairman of the Inter-Staff Union-Conference. Among other things, the staff representatives agreed that the Agency was fully meeting its present obligations to staff, that they would withdraw all previous staff requests except those specifically repeated in the new Memorandum of Understanding and its annexes and that future staff requests would continue to be dealt with through orderly and systematic consultation between the Agency and the staff. The Agency agreed to implement changes in conditions of service as a direct response to staff union proposals. While in many instances not considering it justified to make changes to the full extent of the staff requests, the Agency agreed to a number of improvements which were thought to be justified, and to review further a significant number of other staff union proposals. During the period of these discussions, and as a result of the continued rise in consumer prices as measured, except in Lebanon, by government consumer price indices, the Agency increased cost-of-living allowances in all five fields with effect from - July 1976, then again in all fields except Lebanon effective 1 January 1977 and, at the time of preparing this report, it is implementing further increases in all fields with effect from 1 July 1977. In Lebanon, the government indices were not published owing to the disturbances, and the Agency made ad hoc decisions based on the best information available. A substantial part of cost-of-living allowances was incorporated into salaries with effect from 1 March 1977, thus increasing the amounts of Provident Fund contributions and separation benefits. The estimated cost of these adjustments in cost-of-living allowances and their partial incorporation into salaries is $13,554,000, calculated on an annual basis, and $1,232 000 in non-recurrent costs.

138. With regard to the Provident Fund for locally recruited staff, further progress was made in resolving differences of view between the staff and the Agency in respect of the treatment of capital gains or losses arising from changes in exchange rates. In addition, agreement was reached and implemented to establish the Provident Fund as a special fund separate from the Agency's general funds. The Provident Fund Advisory Committee (established by mutual Agency/staff agreement in 1975 and comprised of representatives of the Agency, the area staff unions and the Secretary-General) held further meetings and made recommendations to the Commissioner-General on various aspects of the operation of the Provident Fund.

139. Despite the involvement of representatives of locally recruited staff, in the, general consideration of various aspects of their conditions of service, the Agency has again not been free from strike action. In the Gaza Strip, locally recruited staff held a one-and-a-half-hour sit-in strike on 13 September 1976, and general strikes of locally recruited staff took place on 22 and 23 September 1976, mainly to protest the Agency's decision to charge the staff (as it did in other fields) for part of the cost of home/office transport provided by the Agency. At the same, time, the staff objected to the Agency's "negative attitude" on certain other staff requests, one of which would have been illegal if granted, and the others were under consideration by the Agency. In the West Bank, some 26 representatives of the staff held a 30-hour hunger strike on 29 and 30 December 1976 to protest the Agency's system of adjusting remuneration for cost-of-living increases. As on a number of previous occasions, the staff were informed that the Agency reserved the right to deduct pay for unauthorized absences due to strikes. The Agency explained, as it also had done on numerous previous occasions, that the system for adjusting cost-of-living-related remuneration was essentially correct and fair since, although, the Jordanian dinar (the currency of entitlement) level of remuneration had not been greatly increased, the take-home pay in Israeli pounds (the currency of expenditure) had been considerably increased through an exchange rate mechanism which had, in the vast majority of cases, exceeded the increase in cost of living as measured in Israeli pounds by the government consumer price index, and in all cases had at least matched the increase. However, on 22 January 1977, there was a general one-day strike by all West Bank staff, except for a few essential personnel, and a further strike was threatened on 9 and 10 February 1977. Apart from the position already notified to staff that the Agency reserved its right to deduct pay for absences due to strikes, the provision of section II of General Assembly resolution 31/193 B "that no salary shall be paid to staff members in respect of periods of unauthorized absence from work unless such absence was caused by reasons beyond their control or duly certified medical reasons" was also conveyed to the staff, before the threatened strike for 9 and 10 February, together with the Agency's expressed intention to apply it to all staff who participated in the strike. The strike took place and pay deductions were accordingly made in the following month's payroll. Pay was also deducted from a small number of staff in the Gaza field who participated in a sit-in strike on 8 March 1977. While the Agency Administration is serious in its efforts to give sympathetic consideration to the problems of its local area staff and to try to reach understandings in this respect (as evidenced, for example, by the 29 meetings with staff representatives and by their membership in the Provident Fund Advisory Committee), it is equally serious in its intention to operate within the framework of established legislation, rules and written agreements and to insist that the staff should do the some.

140. The security situation in Beirut is regularly reviewed in co-ordination with the United Nations Designated official stationed in Beirut and the Assistant Secretary-General for General Services in New York. Despite the cessation of fighting in late October 1976, the Agency has not so far considered the situation with respect to the security of individuals sufficiently stable to justify reuniting headquarters in Beirut and headquarters offices therefore continue to be temporarily located in Amman and Vienna. The UNRWA Lebanon Field Office, because it was then located in an area of Beirut which many of its staff were unable to reach, was moved into the premises in Beirut vacated by headquarters. It continued to operate its programs in Lebanon throughout the period of fighting as far as conditions permitted.

141. The Agency intends to reunify headquarters in either Beirut or Amman at the earliest possible date, and arrangements are being made in preparation for the reunification. Additional office space in a building under construction was rented in Amman in 1976 with a view to reuniting headquarters there if an early return to Beirut did not appear feasible for technical or other reasons. However, repeated delays in the completion of the construction and the installation of necessary equipment in the building have left the Agency with insufficient space in Amman. In addition, a survey has been made of available office space in Beirut and a lease has been signed for a building that will provide the required office space. The Agency expects that these arrangements will remove the administrative obstacles to reunification of headquarters by September or October 1977. When more precise information on the timing of the removal of these obstacles is available, the Commissioner-General will decide, in the light of security conditions then obtaining in Beirut, whether headquarters will be reunited in Beirut or in Amman.

F. Legal matters
The Agency's staff

142. In the year under review, four Agency staff members were arrested and detained in the Gaza Strip (for various periods, not exceeding six months in any case), but were subsequently released without being charged or brought to trial. The staff member mentioned in last year's report 11/ as having been under detention for over two years without charge or trial as at 30 June 1976, was eventually released from detention in April 1977 to proceed with a Red Cross convoy to Egypt. In regard to the staff member who was reported last year 12/ as having been under detention for 15 months as at 30 June 1976, the Agency was subsequently informed by the Israeli occupying authorities, in August 1976, that he had been brought to trial and convicted by a military court earlier in the year.

143. In the West Bank two Agency staff members were arrested and detained in the year under review (for various periods, not exceeding six months) and were subsequently released. Another staff member was brought to trial and convicted by a military court. The staff member reported to be still under detention at 30 June 1976 13/ was brought to trial and convicted by a military court in the year under review.

144. In east Jordan four staff members were arrested and detained (for various periods, not exceeding six months in any case) all of whom were released without being charged. The staff member referred to in last year's report 14/ as having been still under detention on


11/ Ibid., para. 171.

12/ Ibid., last sentence.

13/ Ibid., para. 172.

30 June 1976 was eventually released in February 1977, after 17 months of detention, without being charged or brought to trial.

145. In the Syrian Arab Republic one staff member was arrested and detained during the year under review, and was released without being charged, having been detained for under six months. The Agency is seeking clarification from the Government of the status of three other staff members who are missing as of 30 June 1977.

146. The difficulties in obtaining adequate, timely information on the reasons for the arrest and detention of staff 15/ continue and cases of prolonged detention without trial have persisted. The Agency views the matter with the utmost concern and continues to press the government authorities to give the reasons for the arrest and detention in each case, in order to ensure that the staff member's official functions are not involved, bearing in mind the rights and duties of the staff member flowing from the Charter of the United Nations, the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, of 13 February 1946, 16/ and the Agency's Staff Regulations and Rules.

147. With regard to paragraph 175 of last year's report, the Agency has encountered difficulties in the year under review concerning the travel of its staff, including two international staff members, to and through the Syrian Arab Republic. These cases are being followed up by the Agency. Difficulties were also encountered with regard to travel of staff on duty from and through east Jordan. In one case an Area staff member was prevented from travelling on official business when he was about to board a plane at Amman for Vienna. In another incident the same staff member was prevented from travelling to Damascus on official business, and another Area staff member, who was returning to his duty station in the Gaza Strip from Damascus after an official visit, had his private travel document confiscated by the Jordanian authorities while he was in transit through east Jordan. The Agency has protested to the Jordanian Government at these developments and has asked for appropriate remedial action as well as for assurances that there will be no further interference with the travel of its staff on official business. In regard to the staff member who was prevented from travelling from Amman to Vienna, the Government of Jordan has made a reply to the Agency, which the Agency understands to mean that there will be no interference with the staff member's travel on duty in the future.

148. In regard to the travel of staff to the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the difficulties referred to in paragraph 176 of last year's report continue. The Agency has continued to press the matter and has reiterated its protests to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the continued denial of duty travel facilities to some of its staff.

14/ Ibid., para. 173.

15/ Ibid., para. 174.

16/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. I, No. 4, p. 15.

149. The occupying authorities continued to interrogate Agency staff in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip during the year under review. The Agency has taken up with those authorities, as necessary, the circumstances and scope of the interrogations.

150. There have also been cases of Agency staff in east Jordan being interrogated by the Jordanian authorities and the Agency has, as appropriate, taken up with those authorities the circumstances and scope of the interrogations.
The Agency's premises

151. With regard to paragraph 179 of last year's report, the soldier who was alleged to be responsible for opening fire in the incident resulting in the death of a trainee at the Agency's Vocational Training Center at Kalandia has been tried and acquitted by an Israeli Military Court. The evidence was not considered by the Court as sufficient to establish that the bullet which killed the trainee was fired by the accused.

152. The Agency made strong protests to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs concerning incidents arising from disturbances in which trainees in residence at two training centers in the West Bank participated. Accounts differ, but it appears that some time after a road block was erected (and removed) by some of the male trainees at the Agency's "teacher Training Center at Ramallah, some trainees were beaten inside the center and others who ran away were pursued and beaten at some distance from the center, without reference to whether they had been involved in the road-block incident. After a demonstration by some of the trainees at the Women's Training Center, also at Ramallah, tear gas bombs were exploded in the dormitories. The beating of the male trainees produced severe injuries, including fractures, and in the case of the women trainees, several of them suffered shock as well as injuries in both these incidents, the Israeli occupying authorities, disregarding the intervention of Agency staff, entered the training centers, which are United Nations premises, and took indiscriminate action both in and outside
the centers. The Agency has taken the position that, if the Israeli occupying authorities had wished to apprehend certain trainees for a breach of the law or to interrogate some of them, the Agency staff on the premises should have been consulted and, in any case, individual responsibility should have been properly established before resort to any action.

153. Paragraph 180 of last year's report referred to difficulties which had arisen regarding the use by the Agency of one of its premises in Hebron, in the West Bank. In the year under review, trespassers broke into the premises on certain occasions and, on one occasion, removed into the yard unserviceable furniture, which had been stored by the Agency in the building, and set fire to it. The Israeli occupying authorities advised that they could protect the premises effectively only if they were able to place guards inside the premises. The Agency accepted this advice, but made clear its position that the premises were United Nations premises and that the Agency was entitled to retain and use the premises.

Claims against Governments and other legal matters

154. The Agency was unable to make any progress with regard to outstanding claims against Governments mentioned in previous reports.

155. Reference was made in paragraph 182 of last year's report to a claim amounting to $192,839 and Italian lira 55,414,213 which had been made against the Agency in connection with the carriage by sea from Trieste to Lattakia of a quantity of wheat flour. At a meeting between the parties, the Agency's procedure for the settlement of disputes of a private law character, including the need for a statement of claim, was explained in detail to the representatives of the contractor.
G. Financial operations

156. The financial accounts of UNRWA are published separately, together with the related report of the Board of Auditors. 17/ This section therefore presents, in summary form only, the Agency's actual financial operations in 1976 and its estimated financial operations in 1977.

157. The following table summarizes the Agency's financial operations in 1976:


17/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-second Session, Supplement No 7C (A/32/7/Add.3 and Corr.1
(In thousands of United States dollars)

Income received in 1976:

Contributions by Governments 112,261 a/

Contributions by United Nations agencies 5,074

Contributions from non-governmental sources 1,449

Miscellaneous income 1,170

Exchange adjustments 765

Total income 120,719

Expenditure in 1976:

Recurrent Non-recurrent
operations operations Total

Relief services b/ 35,707 244 35,951
Health services b/ 17,056 269 17,325
Education services 53,918 841 54,759
Other costs c/ - 6,740 6,740
_______ _____ _______

Total expenditure 106,681 8,094 114,775
_______ _____ _______

Excess of income over expenditure (surplus) 5,944


Working capital at 1 January 1976 (after
adjustment of prior year's accounts) 11,838

Working capital at 31 December 1976 17,782 a/

a/ Income for 1976 (and consequently working capital at the end of 1976) has exceptionally been adjusted from that shown in the Agency's audited accounts for 1976 to reflect the late receipt (in 1977) of a special contribution of $6 million by the United States for 1976. This adjustment has also been reflected in tables 15 and 16 in annex I below.

b/ In the 1978 budget and 1977 adjusted budget, the supplementary feeding activity has been transferred to the health services program to reflect its essential character as a preventive and curative health supplement. Data for 1976 have been adjusted correspondingly to permit valid comparison.

c/ "Other costs" comprise the cost of temporary relocation of Agency headquarters and other costs due to the civil war in Lebanon, the cost of increasing the provision for staff separation costs as a result of the incorporation of part of cost-of-living allowances into salaries and certain other costs not readily allocable to programs.

158. The foregoing summary distinguishes between expenditure on "recurrent operations" (salaries, supplies, rents, subsidies and other costs incurred regularly) and expenditure on "non-recurrent operations" (capital improvements such as shelter and school-rooms, replacement of worn-out equipment and other essentially non-repetitive costs). The distinction is significant because (a) the cost of recurrent operations is a measure of the minimum cost of maintaining the three programs - relief health and education - which the Agency regards itself as obliged to maintain under its mandate, to the extent that its financial resources permit (these programs are not a series of finite projects, but indefinitely continuing basic services for which a degree of financial stability is required), and (b) non-recurrent operations are sometimes financed by special contributions which cannot be used for recurrent operations.

159. Had it not been for the late contribution of $6 million by the United States for 1976, the Agency would have completed the year with a small deficit despite having temporarily reduced certain services and having postponed a number of highly desirable construction projects (the two groups of budgetary reductions together totaling some $7.2 million) because of its inadequate financial resources. Had the United States been able to pledge its special contribution much earlier, most of these budget reductions could possibly have been avoided. As matters turned out, however, the Agency completed the year with a surplus of income over expenditure of nearly $6 million as shown in the table above.

160. During 1976, the Provident Fund benefited from large capital gains owing to the appreciation of the United States dollar relative to the local currencies in which Provident Fund liabilities are payable. Consequently, it proved possible to cancel the reservation of $1.9 million of working capital to cover previous capital losses which had been established in 1975.

161. As a consequence of having a surplus of nearly $6 million for 1976, of canceling the reservation of $1.9 million of working capital, as mentioned above, and of having net credit adjustments of prior years' accounts of approximately $1.1 million, the Agency completed 1976 with working capital (that is, excess of assets over liabilities) of $17.8 million compared with only $8.8 million unreserved working capital at the end of 1975. Although this increase represented a very good improvement in the Agency's financial position, it was achieved largely at the cost of large involuntary budget reductions, as explained in paragraph 159 above, and these reductions bore heavily on many of the refugees.

162. Nevertheless, as the experience of recent years has clearly shown, even $17.8 million working capital is inadequate. The Agency should have at least $30 million in working capital (roughly the equivalent of the cost of three months' operations) to ensure its ability to continue operations normally during the last quarter of a year even if contributions for the year fail to match income. This would largely obviate the possibility of the Agency's having to suspend operations abruptly and thus having to increase its liability for termination indemnities to local staff by some $13 million (which an orderly liquidation could avoid, ass continued employment could then be found for a great many of the Agency's staff).

163. The Agency's cash position also improved somewhat during 1976, largely as a result of more current payment of pledges and a reduction in inventories and advances to suppliers, but partly due also to a temporary increase in accounts payable and to receipt of some income in advance for 1977. Nevertheless, the balance of cash of some $18.4 million at the end of 1976 was barely sufficient to cover the Agency's requirements for the first two months of 1977, when contributions for the new year had not yet begun to be received in useful amounts.

164. During 1976, the Agency's own health insurance fund for its international staff was abandoned in favor of participation in the general United Nations health insurance plan in Europe, and its staff savings fund for non-pensionable service was entirely used to finance, in part, the validation of pre-1961 service for the purpose of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund, as had been originally envisaged.

165. Unliquidated budget commitments carried forward from 1976 (or prior years) to 1977 totaled $3.9 million, approximately the same as at the close of 1975. During 1976, savings on the liquidation of budget commitments from prior years totaled approximately $1,079,000, which was credited to working capital.

166. At the end of 1976, unpaid pledges for 1976 or previous years totaled only $3.1 million, compared with $9.9 million unpaid at the end of 1975. Of the pledges unpaid at the end of 1976, $2.9 million were payable in cash and $0.2 million in supplies of various kinds. Inventories of supplies and advances to suppliers (the Agency's supply "pipeline") at $13.7 million were substantially lower than at the close of 1975 ($17.3 million), representing a return to a more normal situation than had prevailed at the end of 1975.

167. At the beginning of 1977, the Agency estimated its deficit for the year at some $45 million. Subsequently certain budget decreases plus substantial increases in estimated income had reduced the deficit to an estimated $16.4 million at the time this report was prepared. The following table summarizes the Agency's estimated financial operations for 1977 as at 30 June 1977:

(In thousands of United States dollars)

Estimated income in 1976:

Contributions by Governments 109,078

Contributions by United Nations agencies 5,865

Contributions from non-governmental sources 1,500

Miscellaneous income 1,200

Exchange adjustments -

Total estimated income 117,583

Estimated expenditure in 1976:

Recurrent Non-recurrent
operations operations Total

Relief services a/ 36,749 283 37,032
Health services a/ 19,890 1,290 21,180
Education services 63,147 2,918 66,065
Other costs b/ - 7,717 9,717
_______ ______ _______

Total estimated 119,786 14,208 133,994
expenditure _______ ______ _______

Estimated surplus (deficit) (16,411)


a/ In the 1978 budget and 1977 adjusted budget, the supplementary feeding activity has beer, transferred to the health services program to reflect its essential character as a preventive and curative health supplement. Data for 1976 have been adjusted correspondingly to permit valid comparison.

b/ "Other costs" comprise the cost of temporary relocation of Agency headquarters and other costs due to the civil war in Lebanon, the cost of increasing the provision for staff separation costs as a result of the incorporation of part of cost-of-living allowances into salaries and certain other costs not readily allocable to programs.

168. In 1977, expenditure on recurrent operations is expected to increase by $13.1 million over 1976, mainly because of a higher school population, normal increases, such as annual staff salary increments, improvements in staff remuneration to keep pace with the rise in the cost of living and generally in line with that of local government employees, the resumption of certain services temporarily suspended in 1976 because of the lack of funds (the pledge of the special contribution of $6 million by the United States referred to in note a/ to the table in para. 157 above was received too late to prevent such temporary suspension) and the continuing increase in costs of non-staff items. Non-recurrent expenditure is expected to increase by $6.1 million, the main item being the cost of capital construction for schools, health facilities etc., which had to be deleted from the 1975 budget, so that total expenditure is expected to be $19.2 million greater than in 1976. Although in principle the Agency now has sufficient working capital to cover its presently estimated deficit for 1977, this is on the assumption that all non-cash assets could either be utilized or converted into cash. Even in this event, the Agency would be left with quite inadequate resources to operation during the early months of 1978, when contributions can be expected to be late in arriving, or to operate during any temporary shortfall of contributions in 1978.

169. A comparison of the summary tables for 1976 and 1977 confirms that health and education continue to increase in importance. Expenditure on education services is expected to increase by 20.6 per cent in 1977, while for health services the increase in expenditure is expected to be about 22.3 per cent. In relief services, however, expenditure is expected to increase by only about 3.0 per cent, mainly owing to the issue of food-stuffs in 1976 below the standard levels because financial restrictions prevented issue of full rations in certain months. Expenditure on school construction to cope with the increasing school population (triple shifting is not feasible) is also expected to be higher than in 1976. In addition, and provided funds become available to permit budgeted expenditure to be carried out, a considerable amount of construction will be carried out in 1977 to replace unsuitable school premises with proper schools.

170. Although a projected deficit even of $16.4 million at this time represents a considerable improvement over the position at the start of 1977, it can hardly be said to represent a satisfactory position. While the improvement in the Agency's working capital position mentioned above would possibly suffice to enable the Agency to complete the year, it very probably could do so only at the cost of some budget reductions and of a seriously depleted working capital that would expose the Agency to the possibility of a forced suspension of operations in the latter part of 1978.


A. Introduction

171. The present chapter of the report presents both the budget estimates for 1978 and the adjusted budget estimates for 1977. Actual expenditure for 1976 is also shown for purposes of comparison. The original budget estimates for 1977 were submitted to the General Assembly at its thirty-first session in the Commissioner--General's report for 1975-1976. 18/ The revised estimates for 1977 totaling $133,994,000 show a net reduction of $5,739,000 since the original estimates for 1977 were prepared, owing largely to reductions in exchange rates affecting the Agency's operations.

172. Total expenditure for 1978 is estimated at $148,233,000 compared with the adjusted budget estimate of $133,994,000 for 1977 and actual expenditure of $114,775,000 in 1976. These totals include both recurrent and non-recurrent costs: the budget presentation which follows deals separately with each type of cost. 19/

173. In the 1978 budget, expected inflation accounts for over $15.7 million increase in total costs over the adjusted budget for 1977. Should the rate of inflation by good fortune prove to be less than anticipated, the budget for 1978 can be reduced accordingly. Cost increases from other causes in the recurrent costs include $1.7 million for normal program increases due to increase in population (mainly in education services), $1.7 million for annual salary increments for local staff, $0.2 million for improvements in the milk distribution program of supplementary feeding, and $0.4 million for minor improvements and miscellaneous items. These increases are offset by a decrease of $5.5 million in non-recurrent costs largely related to the expected return of Agency headquarters to the Agency's area of operations and the expected absence of hostilities losses, thus resulting in a net estimated increase of $14.2 million in total costs in 1978.

174. It should be noted that almost the entire increase in the number of staff budgeted for in 1978 is in education services, where provision has been made for additional teachers and supervisors for the increased school population. Since staff costs represent a substantial part of the Agency's budget, the effect of inflation of staff costs constitutes

18/ Ibid., Thirty-first Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/31/13 and Corr.1)

19/ "Recurrent costs" include most staff costs, supplies, rents, subsidies and other costs incurred on a regularly recurring basis. "Eon-recurrent costs" include construction and equipment and other items not regularly incurred, and if necessary they can be deferred for a certain time without giving rise to immediate difficulty in most cases. They are also to a certain extent a function of special contributions. Recurrent costs, on the other hand, are a measure of the Agency's basic programs which it cannot easily reduce, even in the short run, without causing hardship for the refugees and risking local disturbances.

a major part of the annual increase in the Agency's costs. The effect is twofold: as staff remuneration is increased in response to the increased cost of living, the Agency's recurrent costs increase; in addition, non-recurrent provision must be made for the corresponding increase in staff entitlements to separation benefits related to past service. This latter effect, although non-recurrent, assumes something of the nature of a recurrent cost when it occurs annually as a consequence of sustained inflation such as is now being experienced. It should be appreciated, moreover, that in the event of an abrupt suspension of the Agency's operations for lack of income, or any other cause, the cost of providing termination indemnities to the Agency's local staff of about 16,000 would be nearly doubled from the present estimate of some $14.5 million. The reason is that, under the Agency's staff rules, terminated staff members for whom the Agency finds suitable employment are not entitled to termination indemnities. The Agency estimates that in normal circumstances employment can be found for some 50 per cent of its general and teaching service staff and 40 per cent of its manual service staff, and has made provision for termination benefits accordingly. If the Agency were forced to suspend operations suddenly, however, it is probable that all staff would qualify for termination indemnities.

Recurrent expenditure

175. The budget for recurrent costs in 1978 is set at $139,467,000 compared with the adjusted budget of $119,786,000 for 1977 and actual expenditure of $106,681,000 in 1976. The estimates for 1978 provide for approximately $3.4 million of "normal" annual increase (in particular, growth in school population and annual increments for staff), some $15 million for higher costs resulting from inflation, $0.8 million for increase in costs of basic rations and supplementary feeding and $0.4 million for essential improvements in services and miscellaneous items, a total increase in recurrent costs of $19.7 million over the 1977 adjusted budget.

Non-recurrent expenditure

176. The budget for non-recurrent costs in 1978 is established at $8,766,000 compared with provision of $14,208,000 in the adjusted budget for 1977 and actual expenditure of $8,094,000 in 197-6. The estimate for 1978 includes $1,157,000 for replacement of unserviceable equipment, $2,897,000 for urgently needed capital additions or improvements, particularly in education, shelter and environmental sanitation facilities, $4,673,000 for the non-recurrent cost (adjustment of provision for staff separation benefits) of incorporating a part of cost-of-living allowances of local staff into salaries, and $39,000 for staff training costs. The major items involved are described under each of the main activity headings in the paragraphs which follow.


177. In relief services, provision has been made only for maintaining normal services in 1978, but costs are expected to be $2.7 million more than in 1977, partly because of expected increases in cost-of-living allowances and related remuneration for staff, but also partly because of expected small increases in ration costs. The estimates for non-recurrent costs provide mainly for miscellaneous improvements in shelter facilities.

178. In health services, provision has been included to meet the basic needs of a slightly larger population in 1978, but staff and other costs are also expected to be substantially greater than in 1977, essentially due to inflation, as there will be only a minimal increase in the number of staff required. A small net increase in the cost of supplementary feeding is due to the implementation of a revised milk program (see para. 127). The estimates include provision for essential replacement of equipment in medical and camp sanitation installations and a minimal amount ($401,000) for certain highly desirable improvements in facilities. Provision is included under environmental sanitation for Agency participation in small-scale camp improvement schemes of a self-help kind, involving participation by the benefiting refugees.

179. In education services, the expected increase in costs is mainly due to provision for cost-of-living adjustments for staff and, to a lesser extent, to the growth of pupil population (about 11,000 more than in 1977). In 1978, education services will account for approximately 54 per cent of the total budget, compared with 27 per cent for relief services, 16 per cent for health services and 3 per cent for other costs (comparable figures for the 1977 adjusted budget are 50 per cent for education services, 27 per cent for relief services, 16 per cent for health services and 7 per cent for other costs).

180. Other costs in 1978 comprise only provision for staff separation costs due to incorporation of part of the cost-of-living allowance into salaries, as it is anticipated that none of the other types of non-recurrent costs incurred in 1977 will be incurred in 1978.

B. Budget estimates

181. The following tables present in summary the budget estimates for 1978, together with comparative data for the adjusted budget for 1977 and actual expenditure in 1976; table A shows the estimates for recurrent costs, table B the estimates for non-recurrent costs and table C the estimates for total costs. (Note: As the supplementary feeding program is administered by the Agency's Health Department, budgetary provision is now being made accordingly. For purposes of direct comparison corresponding changes have been made for the 1977 adjusted budget and the 1976 actual expenditure.) The estimates for 1978 are described briefly in the paragraphs following the tables.

Table A

Recurrent costs

(In thousands of US dollars)

1978 1977 1976
budget adjusted actual
estimates budget expenditure
_________ estimates ___________

Part I. Relief services

Basic rations 30,112 29,216 28,839
Shelter 358 352 372
Special hardship assistance 1,102 1,001 915
Share of common costs from
part IV 6,901 6,180 5,581
Total, Part I 38,473 36,742 35,107

Part II. Health services

Medical services 9,793 8,528 7,246
Supplementary feeding 5,492 4,788 3,898
Environmental sanitation 3,712 3,035 2,730
Share of common costs from
part IV 4,026 3,539 3,182
Total, Part II 23,023 19,890 17,056

Part III. Education services

General education 62,740 49,846 42,362
Vocational and professional
training 8,430 7,317 6,262
Share of common costs from
part IV 6,801 5,984 5,294
Total, Part III 11,271 63,147 53,918

Part IV. Common costs

Supply and transport services 7,576 6,823 6,363
Other internal services 6,761 5,659 4,820
General administration 3,391 3,221 2,874
Total, Part IV 17,728 15,703 14,057
Costs allocated to programs (17,728) (15,703) (14,057)

Part V. Other costs

Temporary relocation of
headquarters - - -
Other local disturbances costs - - -
Adjustment in provision for
staff separation costs - - -
Other costs - - -___
Total, Part V - - -___

Grand total 139,467 119,786 106,681

Table B

Non-recurrent costs

(In thousands of US dollars)

1978 1977 1976
budget adjusted actual
estimates budget expenditure
_________ estimates ___________

Part I. Relief services

Basic rations 21 17 10
Shelter 156 31 29
Special hardship assistance - - -
Share of common costs from
part IV 381 235 205
Total, Part I 558 283 244

Part II. Health services

Medical services 110 656 54
Supplementary feeding 47 252 20
Environmental sanitation 514 281 110
Share of common costs from
part IV 200 101 85
Total, Part II 871 1,290 269

Part III. Education services

General education 2,196 2,609 609
Vocational and professional
training 152 175 122
Share of common costs from
part IV 316 134 110
Total, Part III 2,664 2,918 841

Part IV. Common costs

Supply and transport services 525 397 355
Other internal services 362 33 27
General administration 10 40 18
Total, Part IV 897 470 400
Costs allocated to programs ( 897) ( 470) ( 400)

Part V. Other costs

Temporary relocation of
headquarters - 4,883 3,949
Other local disturbances costs - 1,244 1,180
Adjustment in provision for
staff separation costs 4,673 3,214 1,191
Other costs - 376 _420
Total, Part V 4,673 9,717 6,740

Grand total 8,766 14,208 8,094

Table C

Total costs

(In thousands of US dollars)

1978 1977 1976
budget adjusted actual
estimates budget expenditure
_________ estimates ___________

Part I. Relief services

Basic rations 30,133 29,233 28,849
Shelter 514 383 401
Special hardship assistance 1,102 1,001 915
Share of common costs from
part IV 7,282 6,415 5,786
Total, Part I 39,031 37,032 35,951

Part II. Health services

Medical services 9,903 9,184 7,300
Supplementary feeding 5,539 5,040 3,918
Environmental sanitation 4,226 3,316 2,840
Share of common costs from
part IV 4,226 3,640 3,267
Total, Part II 23,894 21,180 17,325

Part III. Education services

General education 64,936 52,455 42,971
Vocational and professional
training 8,582 7,492 6,384
Share of common costs from
part IV 7,117 6,118 5,404
Total, Part III 80,635 66,065 54,759

Part IV. Common costs

Supply and transport services 8,101 7,220 6,718
Other internal services 7,123 5,692 4,847
General administration 3,401 3,261 2,892
Total, Part IV 18,625 16,173 14,457
Costs allocated to programs (18,625) (16,173) (14,457)

Part V. Other costs

Temporary relocation of
headquarters - 4,883 3,949
Other local disturbances costs - 1,244 1,180
Adjustment in provision for
staff separation costs 4,673 3,214 1,191
Other costs - 376 420
Total, Part V 4,673 9,717 6,740

Grand total 148,233 133,994 114,775

Relief services

Basic rations

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 30,133,000 30,112,000 21,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 29,233,000 29,216,000 17,000

1976 actual expenditure 28,849,000 28,839,000 10,000

182. The components of the basic ration have been described in paragraph 71 above. The costs included under this heading cover both the purchase and the final distribution of basic rations, but transport and warehousing of rations within the UNRWA area of operations are charged to "supply and transport services" (paras. 206 to 208 below). The budget estimate for 1978 provides for the issue of rations throughout the year to the same number of beneficiaries as in 1977.

183. The net increase of $896,000 in the recurrent costs estimate for 1978 is attributable to an estimated increase in the cost of food commodities ($611,000), by increased staff costs ($275,000, largely for cost of living) and minor improvements in services ($10,000).

184. The provision of $21,000 in the 1978 budget estimate for non-recurrent costs is mainly for miscellaneous minor improvements in ration distribution facilities.


Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 514,000 358,000 156,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 383,000 352,000 31,000

1976 actual expenditure 401,000 372,000 29,000

185. This program is described in paragraphs 72 to 89 above and in table 4 of annex I. The 1978 estimate for recurrent costs includes $277,000 for the rental value of camp sites, most of which represents contributions in kind by Governments. The small increase of $6,000 for recurrent costs is related entirely to inflation factors.

186. The 1978 budget estimate of $156,000 for non-recurrent costs is essentially for the repair of shelters and major repair to asphalt roads and pathways in camps.
Special hardship assistance

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 1,102,000 1,102,000 -

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 1,001,000 1,001,000 -

1976 actual expenditure 915,000 915,000 -

187. This budget estimate provides for additional relief assistance to refugees who suffer from special hardship (as distinct from the basic relief services provided for needy refugees generally). This assistance is limited to welfare case-work and the distribution of blankets, kerosene, soap and donated used clothing and layettes. The program is described in paragraphs 90 to 93 above. Unfortunately, in its present financial position, the Agency can make little cash provision for the special needs of the aged, widows with minor children and the chronically ill. Only the most urgent cases can be considered for some form of assistance.

188. The increase of $101,000 in the 1978 budget estimate for recurrent cost provides for increased cost-of-living remuneration for staff ($78 000) for effect of inflation on non-staff costs ($12,000) and for normal salary increments for staff ($11,000).

Medical services

Health services

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 9,903,000 9,793,000 110,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 9,184,000 8,528,000 656,000

1976 actual expenditure 7,300,000 7,246,000 54,000

189. The Agency's program of preventive and curative medical services is described in paragraphs 106 to 117 above and in tables 5 to 7 of annex I. The objective of the Agency has always been that its health services should at least match the level of those provided by the Governments of the host countries for their own indigent citizens. With the rapid increase in hospital subsidy rates, higher costs of supplies, services, utilities and staff remuneration, the Agency finds it increasingly difficult to achieve this objective.

190. The increase of $1,265,000 in the 1978 budget estimate for recurrent costs is to provide for increased cost-of-living remuneration for staff ($1,094,000), for normal salary increments for staff ($124,ooo), for inflation in non-staff costs ($21,000), for normal program increases ($14,000) and for miscellaneous increases to deal with a larger population ($12,000).

191. The non-recurrent costs provision for 1978 of $110,000 is principally for minor improvements and miscellaneous items ($24,000), for replacement of essential equipment ($57,000) and for in-service staff training ($29,000).

Supplementary feeding

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 5,539,000 5,492,000 47,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 5,040,000 4,788,000 252,000

1976 actual expenditure 3,918,000 3,898,000 20,000

192. This program is described in paragraphs 124 to 128 above and in table 8 of annex I. In this activity also, as for basic rations (paras. 182 to 184 above), the costs of transport and warehousing within the UNRWA area of operations are charged to "supply and transport services".

193. The increase of $704,000 in the recurrent costs estimate for 1978 is mainly attributable to increased costs of staff ($468,000, largely for cost-of living), of a revision in the milk program ($209,000) and to effects of inflation on non-staff costs ($27,000).

194. The 1978 estimate of $47,000 for non-recurrent costs consists of a provision for highly desirable improvements of existing facilities ($29,000) and a provision for the replacement of essential unserviceable furniture and equipment ($18,000).

Environmental sanitation

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 4,226,000 3,712,000 514,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 3,316,000 3,035,000 218,000

1976 actual expenditure 2,840,000 2,730,000 110,000

195. The programs under this heading are described in paragraphs 118 to 122 above. The 1978 estimate provides only for the minimum basic requirements considered necessary to maintain essential community sanitation and water supply services at reasonably safe levels. Once again, the Agency is unable to raise existing standards of sanitation to more desirable levels because of rising costs over which it has no control,

196. The increase of $677,000 in recurrent costs in 1978 is to provide for increased cost-of-living remuneration for staff ($594,000), for annual salary increments for staff ($65,000), for inflation in non-staff costs ($14,000) and for miscellaneous increases in services ($4,000).

197. The 1978 budget estimate of $514,000 for non-recurrent costs provides for the replacement of unserviceable special-purpose vehicles, refuse trucks, tractor units, corroded water pipes and wheelbarrows ($135,000), for essential capital improvements to surface water drainage and water supply ($377,060) and for in-service training of camp sanitation supervisors ($2,000). A large portion of the capital improvements provided for would be constructed with refugee participation in self-help projects.

Education and training services

General education

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 64,936,000 62,740,000 2,196,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 52,455,000 49,846,000 2,609,000

1976 actual expenditure 42,971,000 42,362,000 609,000

198. For a description of the Agency's general education program, see paragraphs 40 to 50 above and tables 9 to 12 of annex I. Certain minor activities conducted outside the UNRWA/UNESCO schools are also included under this heading, namely, pre-school children's activities (para. 94), youth activities (paras. 95 and 96) and women's activities (para. 97). Although the budget for these minor activities is included in the Agency's general education budget, they are carried on only to the extent special contributions are received for the purpose or associated programs carried out by other agencies are maintained (the 1978 budget estimate assumes the same level of operations as in 1977). This program also includes the UNRWA/UNESCO Institute of Education (paras. 59 to 62 above), which provides in-service training for teachers and works to improve the content and presentation of the curricula offered in the UNRWA/UNESCO schools.

199. The increase of $12,894,000 in the 1978 budget estimate for recurrent costs reflects in part the continuing growth in the school population, estimated at some 11,000 additional pupils in the financial year 1978, at an estimated cost of $1,600,000. Other components of the increase in recurrent costs for 1978 provide for increase in cost-of-living remuneration of staff ($9,690,000), for normal salary increments ($1,099,000), for essential improvements in services ($400,000) and for effects of inflation on non-staff costs ($105,000).

200. The 1978 budget estimate of $2,196,000 for non-recurrent costs includes provision for construction and equipment of additional class-rooms to avoid triple--shifting ($400,000) and to replace unsatisfactory premises ($1,600,000), for replacement of essential unserviceable equipment and for library books other supplies and minor capital improvements ($196,000).

Vocational and professional training

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 8,582,000 8,430,000 152,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 7,492,000 7,317,000 175,000

1976 actual expenditure 6,384,000 6,262,000 122,000

201. Details of these programs are given in paragraphs 57 to 65 above and tables 13 and 14 of annex I. The budget under this heading provides principally for the costs of vocational, technical and teacher-training courses conducted in Agency training centers. The estimates assume a total enrolment of 4,800 trainees in Agency training centers throughout 1978. No provision has been made for any further construction of training facilities in 1978, but a slightly larger number of trainees will be accommodated in existing facilities than in the 1976/1977 academic year, following a return of Siblin Training Center operation to a residential basis.

202. Also included is the cost of scholarships awarded at universities in the Agency's area (described in para. 65 and in table 14 of annex I), the amount of the scholarship (within a general maximum of $690 a year in most cases) being related to the candidate's economic circumstances. In past years, a high proportion of the scholarship program was funded from special contributions. For 1978, however, only $45,000 of the total scholarship budget of $200,000 is expected to be funded by a special contribution.

203. This heading also includes certain minor categories of training, such as adult craft training (largely funded by special contributions), the training of physically handicapped children and some vocational and nursing training outside UNRWA centers (para. 98).

204. The increase of $1,113,000 in the recurrent costs estimate is to provide for additional trainees in the 1977/1978 and 1978/1979 academic years ($100,000), for increase in cost-of-living remuneration for staff ($898,000), for normal salary increments for staff ($99,000) and for the effects of inflation on non-staff costs ($16,000).

205. The estimate of $152,000 for non-recurrent costs provides only for the replacement of essentially unserviceable equipment ($110,000), for minor capital improvements ($36,000) and for in-service staff training ($6,000).

Common costs

Supply and transport services

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 8,101,000 7,576,000 525,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 7,220,000 6,823,000 397,000

1976 actual expenditure 6,718,000 6,363,000 355,000

206. The services provided for under this budget heading cover the procurement, control and warehousing of supplies and equipment, port operations and the provision of passenger and freight transport within the Agency's area of operations.

207. The increase of $753,000 in the recurrent-costs estimate for 1978 is accounted for by provision for increase in cost-of-living remuneration for staff ($718,000), normal salary increments for staff ($80,000) and provision for effects of inflation on non-staff costs ($42,000), partly offset by a reduction in costs for freight and transport services ($87,000), on the assumption that Beirut port can again be used, thus reducing port, handling and transport costs.

208. The provision of $525,000 for non-recurrent costs in 1978 is required to replace passenger and freight vehicles which have become unserviceable ($441,000), for replacement of unserviceable motor transport workshop and warehousing equipment ($18,000) and for a number of essential capital improvements to motor transport and warehousing facilities ($66,000).

Other internal services

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 7,123,000 6,761,000 362,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 5,692,000 5,659,000 33,000

1976 actual expenditure 4,847,000 4,820,000 27,000

209. The estimate under this heading provides for the following costs: investigation and determination of eligibility of refugees for Agency assistance; personnel and administrative services; translation, legal, financial and data--processing services; internal and external audit services; technical (architectural and engineering) services and protective services.

210. The increase of $1,102,000 in recurrent costs for 1978 is for increase in cost-of-living remuneration for staff ($991,000), for normal salary increments for staff ($88,000), for essential improvements in services ($19,000) and for effects of inflation on non-staff costs ($4,000).

211. The provision of $362,000 for non-recurrent costs in 1978 is mainly for the replacement of essential computer facilities in Beirut.

General administration

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 3,401,000 3,391,000 10,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 3,261,000 3,221,000 40,000

1976 actual expenditure 2,892,000 2,874,000 18,000

212. The costs of providing general administration services at Agency headquarters and the five field offices (including subordinate area and camp services offices), Of the liaison offices in New York, Geneva and Cairo and of public information services are included under this budget heading.

213. The increase of $170,000 in the recurrent-costs estimate for 1978 is attributable to provision for increase in cost-of-living remuneration for staff ($134,000), for normal salary increments for staff ($33,000) and for the effect of inflation on non-staff costs ($3,000).

214. The provision of $10,000 for non-recurrent costs in 1978 is mainly for the replacement of unserviceable office equipment.

Allocation of common costs

215. The summary tables under paragraph 181 above reflect the allocation of common costs to the three main categories of Agency services - relief, health and education. Any such allocation is to some extent a matter of judgement, but the percentages applied have been evolved and re-tested periodically on the basis of a detailed study of all Agency operations in all offices and extracted as weighted averages. The most recent study was carried out in 1973; a further review is currently in progress and the results will be reflected in the budget for 1979.
Other costs

Total Recurrent Non-recurrent
$ $ $

1978 budget estimate 4,673,000 - 4,673,000

1977 adjusted budget
estimate 9,717,000 - 9,717,000

1976 actual expenditure 6,740,000 - 6,740,000

216. The budget estimate of $4,673,000 for 1978 is to cover local staff separation costs arising from the incorporation of a part of cost-of-living allowances into salaries.

217. The 1977 adjusted budget estimates contained a provision of $4,883,000 for the temporary relocation of headquarters in Vienna and Amman, and a provision of $1,244,000 for additional costs arising from the civil war in Lebanon. No such costs are envisaged in the 1978 budget. This therefore accounts substantially for the reduction of other costs in 1978 from 1977.

C. Financing the budget - 1977 and 1978

218. The chronic problems facing the Agency in financing the adjusted budget for 1977 and the proposed budget for 1978 will be appreciated from the summary below:
(In thousands of US dollars)

1978__ 1977__

Estimated expenditure per budget: 148,233 133,994

Estimated income available from:

Contributions by Governments 86,618 109,018

Contributions by United Nations agencies 5,473 5,865

Contributions from non-governmental sources 1,500 1,500

Miscellaneous income 1,200 1,200
_______ _______

Total estimated income 94,791 117,583
_______ _______

Estimated surplus (deficit) (53,442) (16,411)

219. At the time the budget is prepared, pledges for the following year have not yet been made by Governments and other contributors, so the estimate of income for 1978 can be little more than an extrapolation of regular contributions for 1977, excluding special contributions limited expressly or by implication to one year.


1. Total registered population according to category of registration

2. Recapitulation of changes in families registered for rations

3. Recapitulation of changes in composition of total registered population

4. Distribution by place of registration of total registered refugee population and of camp population

5. Number of patient-visits to UNRWA clinics and UNRWA-subsidized clinics

6. Number of hospital beds available to UNRWA patients

7. Maternal and child health

8. Supplementary feeding program

9. Number of elementary and preparatory pupils in UNRWA/UNESCO schools

10. Number of refugee pupils attending government and private schools

11. Number of pupils in UNRWA/UNESCO schools

12. Distribution of refugee pupils receiving education

13. Number of training places in UNRWA/UNESCO training centers

14. University scholarship holders by course and country of study

15. Summary statement of income, expenditure and working capital

16. Detailed statement of income to UNRWA (1 May 1950-31 December 1977)

17. Statement of income from non-governmental sources

18. Direct assistance to Palestine refugees

19. Voluntary agencies which have operational programs for direct assistance to UNRWA-registered refugees

20. UNRWA manning table posts at 30 June 1976 and 30 June 1977

Table 1
A 32 13 Corr.2 Tables pages 60.pdf

(Foot-notes to table 1

a/ These statistics are based on the Agency's registration records, which do not necessarily reflect the actual refugee population owing to factors such as unreported deaths and births, false or duplicate registrations or absences from the area of UNRWA operations.

b/ The "R" category (columns 1 to 4) comprises registered families with some or all members eligible for all Agency assistance including basic rations.

c/ The "S" category (column 5) comprises refugees whose income is above that of "R" category refugees, but below that of "N" category refugees, and who are eligible for general education, health services and some other UNRWA assistance, but not for basic rations. However, in Gaza, for technical reasons, there is no category and "N" category refugees enjoy "S" category eligibility.

d/ "N" category (column 6) comprises the following, subject to what is said about Gaza refugees in foot-note c/ above and foot-note a/ to table 9:

e/ Before 1954, half rations were issued to bedouins and infants as well as to frontier villagers in Jordan. Since then, bedouins have been regarded as eligible to receive full rations and infants have also been eligible for full rations after their first anniversary if the ration ceiling permits. Half rations are issued only to frontier villagers on the West Bank (9,022). Frontier villagers displaced to east Jordan as a result of the hostilities of June 1967 (3,342) are issued with full rations under the normal program and are therefore included in the figure of full ration recipients (column 1). Also included in column 1 are Gaza Poor (919) and Jerusalem Poor (1,347).

f/ This grant total included refugees receiving relief in Israel who were UNRWA's responsibility through 30 June 1952.

g/ The total of 510,706 comprises:

Table 2
A 32 13 Corr.2 Tables pages 62.pdf
(Foot-notes to table 2)

a/ This table recapitulates changes over 25 years affecting the number of ration recipients, their babies and children registered for services. Births, new registrations, deaths, false registrations and duplications result in additions to or deletions from the registration records. Self-support and absence reflect transfers to or from the lower categories of registration (shown in columns 4, 5 and 6 of table 1)

Transfers within or between areas, as well as issue of rations (when available) to children registered for services, are not shown in this table.

b/ Includes changes effected during the 1950-1951 census operations.

c/ Self-support: included under this heading are those persons who, because of income derived from employment or other sources, have become self-supporting and those who have, through vocational or university training or other UNRWA programs, received assistance to enable them to become self-supporting.

d/ Miscellaneous changes include, up to June 1953, a number of additions to or deletions from the registration records, as well as certain changes in category of registration. The deletion of refugees in Israel from the Agency's records (40,930 persons over the period from July 1950 to June 1953) is included under this heading.

Table 3
A 32 13 Corr.2 Tables pages 64.pdf
(Foot-notes to table 3)

a/ This table recapitulates changes affecting the total number of registered 'population (column 7 of table 1) over 25 years.

Transfers within or between areas are not shown herein.

In comparing the figures in this table with those in table 2, it should be borne in mind that deletions from the ration rolls do not necessarily entail deletions from the total registered population. Persons ceasing to draw rations because of absence or self-support continue to be registered within the total population. On the other hand, some deaths and false and duplicate registrations are reported among persons registered but not receiving rations, and this accounts for the minor differences under those headings in the two tables. In the early years of the Agency's history, the distinction between ration recipients and registered population was incompletely recorded.

b/ Nature of changes reported under "miscellaneous" was not specified during the census operation. Figures reflect those amendments which resulted in addition or deletion in the total registered population, removal of refugees in Israel from UNRWA registration records, and correction of deletions previously made by error which were included in the figures of new registration in the reports of previous years.
A 32 13 Corr.2 Tables pages 66.pdf
Table 5

Number of patient-visits (first visits and revisits combined)
to UNRWA clinics and UNRWA-subsidized clinics

(1 July 1976-30 June 1977)
Type of East West Arab
services Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

consultation 655 657 295 115 378 208 240 854 380 298 1 950 132

Injection 338 804 200 368 349 954 126 966 128 556 1 144 948

Dressing and/or
treatment 239 574 135 969 190 125 103 756 83 852 753 276

Eye treatment 166 166 75 488 187 745 43 863 16 520 489 782

Dental treat-
ment 19 771 17 578 22 842 10 889 24 629 95 709

services 1 419 972 724 518 1128 874 526 328 634 155 4 433 847
Table 6

Number of hospital beds available to UNRWA patients

(as at 30 June 1977)

Type of East West Arab
services Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

General medicine
and surgery 185 137 414 191 83 1 010

Tuberculosis 5 0 84 27 20 136

Maternity 25 32 57 16 6 136

Pediatrics 23 52 104 17 0 196

Mental care 36 75 0 96 4 211

All services 274 296 659 347 113 1 689

centers 8 1 6 3 3 21

Number of cots 81 5 98 25 20 229

Table 7

Maternal and child health

(1 July 1976-30 June 1977)

A. Ante-natal East West Arab
services Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

Number of ante-
natal clinics 11 24 9 21 19 84

Pregnant women
registered 7 394 4 610 12 555 1 924 2 278 28 761

Average monthly
attendance 2 290 1 283 3 669 398 677 8 317

Home visits 1 294 142 45 62 78 1 621

B. Child health East West Arab
care Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

Number of child
health clinics 10 23 9 17 19 78

Infants 0-1 year
: registered a/ 13 228 4 089 11 253 2 551 3 101 34 222
: attended b/ 5 947 3 578 9 496 1 281 2 291 22 593

Children l-2
: registered a/ 7 280 4 285 10 149 3 243 2 670 27 627
: attended b/ 6 161 3 293 4 513 1 117 2 306 17 390

Children 2-3
: registered a/ 5 933 4 353 9 995 1 766 2 069 24 116
: attended b/ 2 356 2 816 2 279 312 1 513 9 276

Home visits 10 583 9 918 7 260 3 663 9 712 41 136

immunizations 39 520 28 345 61 153 9 242 22 672 160 932

Table 7 (continued)

C. School health East West Arab
services Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

Number of
health teams 3 1 1 1 1 7

School entrants
examined 15 251 4 108 6 846 1 988 5 247 33 440

Other pupils
examined 10 759 10 820 10 435 416 10 431 42 861

examined 207 199 293 41 1 254 1 994

inspections 315 426 190 10 161 1 102

immunizations 47 340 30 125 41 786 6 309 16 266 141 826

a/ These figures reflect average monthly number in Agency registers.

b/ Attendance figures represent average monthly (0-1 category),
bi-monthly (1-2 category) and quarterly (2-3 category) numbers respectively.

Table 8

Supplementary feeding program

(1 July 1976-30 June 1977)

A. Hot meal East West Arab
program Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

Number of feeding
centers 18 31 23 12 17 101

Average daily
number of
(0-15 years) 10 385a/ 7 386 7 139 2 308 6 654 33 972

B. Milk East West Arab
program Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

Average daily number of:

Beneficiaries in
milk centers 10 534b/ 3 658 7 246 11 510 15 573 48 521

Children in
schools 9 410c/ 12 947c/ 0 0 0 22 348

Total 19 935d/ 16 605 7 246 11 510 15 573 70 869

C. Extra dry East West Arab
rations Jordan Bank Gaza Lebanon Republic Total

Average monthly
number of

Pregnant women 892 1 272 2 698 263 481 5 601

Nursing mothers 2 801 499 7 403 755 1 455 16 913

TB out-patients 114 352 216 135 43 806

supplement 38 727 0 0 0 16 124 54 851

a/ Includes 1,782 displaced persons in emergency camps, included at the request of the Government of Jordan and on a reimbursable basis.

b/ Average for nine months program suspended during September-November as an anti-cholera measure.

c/ Average for six months in Jordan and West Bank.

d/ Includes 1,453 displaced persons in emergency camps, included at the request of the Government of Jordan and on a reimbursable basis.

Tables 9-16

A 32 13 Corr.2 Tables pages 70-80.pdf

(Foot-notes to table 16)

a/ The figures in this table generally show for each year government and United Nations agency contributions applicable to that year regardless of when they were received. Certain of these contributions, however, may be shown in a year later than that to which they relate because of late notification (if a minor amount).

b/ Estimated figures.

c/ Now part of the United Arab Emirates.

d/ Received up to 24 October 1971. By resolution 2758 (XXVI) of 25 October 1971, the General Assembly, inter alia, decided "to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it".

e/ Includes $6,000,000 pledged for 1976 not reflected in the Agency's audited accounts for that-year due to late notification.

f/ Special contributions to the Government of Jordan (in 1971) and the Syrian Arab Republic (in 1977) for the benefit of the Palestine refugees for which UNRWA acted as executing agent. As these contributions were used for purposes budgeted for by UNRWA, they have been included in the Agency's income and expenditure accounts.

Table 17

Statement of income from non-governmental sources
(1 January 1976 to 30 June 1977)

(in US dollars)

First six
Year months
Contributor 1976 of 1977
$ $


Australians Care for Refugees (AUSTCARE) 9 022 5 054
United Nations Association of Australia 1 000 -


Austrian Junior Red Cross - 941
Caritas 1 007 -
Elschatti, Mr. Jakob 106 -
Sundry donors - 4


Comite Belge d'Aide aux Refugies 3 300 5 078
Sundry donors 38 -


Beechy United Church 218 -
Canadian Red Cross Society 4 346 -
Canadian Save the Children Fund 24 036 1 268
Central United Church, Sarnia 3 049 -
Henderson, Mrs. D. C. 2 082 -
Seymour, Rev. Susan 100 -
Trinity United Church, Ontario 2 001 1 423
Unitarian Service Committee of Canada 25 557 -
Sundry donors 622 551


Statens Seruminstitut 1 646 1 584


Finnish Refugee Council 9 458 -
Sipila, Mrs. Helvi - 2 000


Association de Solidarite Franco-Arabe 222 -
Chapireau, Mr. Francois - 161
Sundry donors 59 -
Table 17 (continued)

First six
Year months
Contributor 1976 of 1977
$ $


Abu Middain family 982 485
Abu Salim family 241 119
Abu Sha'b family 217 107
Awada family 770 380
Awada and Abu Middain families 158 67
Beit Hanoun Village Community - 2 392
El Musaddar family 138 68
Musaddar and Qur'an families 184 91
Quakers 524 -
Wakf Department 3 240 1 600
Sundry donors 2 614 212

Germany, Federal Republic of

Deutsche Bank 1 237 -
German-Tunisian Association 2 827 1 625
Sundry donors 920 188


Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi, Rome (AGTP) 1 545 -
Sundry donors 10 -


Chitose UNESCO Association in Chitose Town 280 -
National Federation of UNESCO
Associations 453 324
Nishinomiya, Rotary Club - 100
Federation of Employers' Associations )
Chamber of Commerce )
Federation of Employers' Associations ) 25 000 30 000
Committee for Economic Development )
Industry Club )


Beit Dajan Voluntary Society 80 -
Municipal Council, Qalqilia 663 331
O'Donoghue, Mrs. J. Dental Fund,
Jerusalem - 5 400
Anonymous 1 305 295
Sundry donors 5 5
Table 17 (continued)

First six
Year months
Contributor 1976 of 1977
$ $

American Mission 1 235 556
Greek Orthodox Community 882 401
Heirs of Saadeddin Shatila 1 764 801
Mneimneh and Bohsaly 1 985 901
Pontifical Mission for Palestine - 168
Syrian Lebanese Mission 2 646 1 201
Sundry donors 80 -


UNESCO Centrum 2 500 -
United Europe Philatelic Society 2 714 -

New Zealand

Council or Organizations for Relief,
Rehabilitation and Development (CORSO)
(Inc.) 654 18 011


Norwegian Refugee Council 185 025 198 903
Redd Barna 11 861 7 526


Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation 9 900 -

Saudi Arabia

Arabian-American Oil Company (ARAMCO) 165 000 -
Sundry donors 2 -


Reichert, Prof. Dr. Rolf 188 -


Swedish Committee for Palestine Refugees
Lindstrom, Mrs. Ingrid 329 -
Swedish Save the Children Federation
(Radda Barnen) 474 300 261 425
Sundry donors - 47
Table 17 (continued)

First six
Year months
Contributor 1976 of 1977
$ $

Association Suisse-Arabe 236 -
Caritas - 8 467
Kappeler, Dr. F. 2 572 -
Kappeler, Mr. Jurg 1 500 1 702
Krbec, Miss Eva Marie 395 696
Societe Suisse des Industries Chimiques 1 975 -
Von Berchem, Mrs. M. Gautier 700 700
Sundry donors 58 184

Syrian Arab Republic

Syrian Local authorities 1 534 717

United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
Association of Assistant Mistresses 150 -
British Consulate-General, Jerusalem 100 -
Brune Park County High School, Gosport 130 -
OXFAM 221 715 175 518
Rennie, Sir John S. and others - 975
Save the Children Fund 32 164 -Standing Conference of British
Organizations for Aid to Refugees - 155
UNIPAL (Universities' Fund for the
Education of Palestine Refugees) 1 680 769
United Nations Association, Merton Branch 61 -
Anonymous 120 -
Sundry donors through Lady Jane Willoughby 961 -
Sundry donors 10 -

United States of America

American Friends Service Committee 1 824 155
American Near East Refugee Aid, Inc.
(ANERA) 23 140 7 680
American Middle East Rehabilitation
(AMER division of ANERA) 6 297 5 399
Bing, Mrs. June W. and family 100 -
Brittain, Mr. Robert 2 000 -
Catholic Relief Services 4 540 -
Christian Reformed World Relief Committee 4 672 4 460
Dickerson, Mr. C. 100 -
Gamble, Mrs. Clarence J. 500 -
Ibrahim, Mrs. Somin - 110
Jedlicka Junior High School 100 -
Jewett, Mr. H. J. 300 -
NAJDA (American Women for the Middle East) 2 003 700
Souder, Miss Attie M. - Bequest 100 -
Sparks, Miss Lamar 100 -
Sundry donors 433 67
Table 17 (continued)

First six
Year months
Contributor 1976 of 1977
$ $
International organizations

Federation of Business and Professional
Women's Clubs:
Canada - 4 949
Denmark 101 -
New Zealand 700 700
Sweden 100 -
Switzerland 700 700
United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland - 596
United States of America 550 72
International Federation 189 53

Church World Services 14 451 7 556
Lutheran World Federation 32 416 77 268
Mennonite Central Committee 46 -
Near East Council of Churches 4 990 1 461
UNESCO Co-operative Action Program 269 -
Women's Auxiliary of UNRWA 585 1 051
World Alliance of YMCAs 8 000 -
Zonta Club of Kansas City - 100
Zonta International 45 147 -

Other organizations

Palestine Liberation Organization 37 000 -

Total 1 449 141 854 753
Table 18

Direct assistance to Palestine refugees a/
(1 July 1976-30 June 1977)

N.B. All data shown in the table below were provided by the G6vernments concerned and are expressed in United States dollars computed by applying the Agency's accounting rates of exchange, which are based on official or free market rates, as

Syrian Arab
Egypt b/ Israel Jordan Lebanon Republic
$ $ $ $ $

services 3 528 563 6 306 170 6 567 596 - 16 006 400

services 550 897 854 460 3 913 832 42 278 1 011 200

services 1 804 800 5 581 230 975 348 - 460 800

Housing 1 830 400 57 200 283 672 1 364 890 8 634 211

services 23 040 - c/ 305 395 - 256 000

services - - c/ 13 604 482 47 938 1 013 547

costs 783 360 1 716 200c/ 1 126 875 125 337 768 000

Total US$ 8 521 060b/ 14 515 260 26 777 200 1 580 443 28 150 158
Table 19

Voluntary agencies which have operational programs
for direct assistance to UNRWA-registered refugees a/
(1 July 1976-30 June 1977)

American Friends Service Committee (Quakers), Arab Relief Fund (Jordan), Arab Women's League (Lebanon), Arab Women's Society, (Jordan), Association for the Development of Palestine Camps (Lebanon), Baptist Mission, CARITAS, Catholic Relief Services, Christian Reformed World Relief Committee, Commonwealth Save the Children's Fund, Holy Land Christian Mission, International Committee of the Red Cross, Islamic Society (Jordan), Lutheran World Federation, Mennonite Central Committee, Near East Council of Churches - World Council of Churches, Pontifical Mission for Palestine, Terre des Hommes, World Alliance of YMCAs, Young Men's Christian Association, Young Women's Christian Association.


a/ This assistance was rendered direct to the refugees and in addition to contributions to UNRWA (see tables 16 and 17, respectively).

b/ The figures are those reported for 1975/1976. The Government of Egypt reported that its direct assistance in 1976/1977 was similar to that reported for 1975/1976.

c/ Security and miscellaneous services are included in administrative costs.
A 32 13 Corr.2 Tables pages 88.pdf


Pertinent resolutions, reports and other documents of the
General Assembly and other United Nations bodies

1. Pertinent General Assembly resolutions:

Resolution No. Date of adoption Resolution No. Date of adoption

194 (III) 11 December 1948 2052 (XX) 15 December 1965
212 (III) 19 November 1948 2154 (XXI) 17 November 1966
302 (IV) 8 December 1949 2252 (ES-V) 4 July 1967
393 (V) 2 December 1950 2341 (XXII) 19 December 1967
513 (VI) 26 January 1952 2452 (XXIII) 19 December 1968
614 (VII) 6 November 1952 2535 (XXIV) 10 December 1969
720 (VIII) 27 November 1953 2656 (XXV) 7 December 1970
818 (IX) 4 December 1954 2672 (XXV) 8 December 1970
916 (X) 3 December 1955 2728 (XXV) 15 December 1970
1018 (XI) 28 February 1957 2791 (XXVI) 6 December 1971
1191 (XII) 12 December 1957 2792 A to E
(XXVI) 6 December 1971
1315 (XIII) 12 December 1958 2963 A to F
(XXVII) 13 December 1972
1456 (XIV) 9 December 1959 2964 (XXVII) 13 December 1972
1604 (XV) 21 April 1961 3089 A to E
(XXVIII) 7 December 1973
1725 (XVI) 20 December 1961 3090 (XXVIII) 7 December 1973
1856 (XVII) 20 December 1962 3331 (XXIX) 17 December 1974
1912 (XVIII) 3 December 1963 3419 (XXX) 8 December 1975
2002 (XIX) 10 February 1965 31/15 24 November 1976

2. Reports of the Director (Commissioner-General) of UNRWA and special reports of the Director and the Advisory Commission to the General Assembly:

1950: Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifth Session, Supplement No. 19 (A/1451/Rev.1);

1951: Ibid., Sixth Session, Supplements Nos. 16 and 16A (A/1905
and Add.1);

1952: Ibid., Seventh Session, Supplements Nos. 13 and 13A (A/2171
and Add.1);

1953: Ibid., Eighth Session. Supplements Nos. 12 and 12A (A/2470
and Add.1);

1954: Ibid., Ninth Session, Supplements Nos. 17 and 17A (A/2717 and Add.1);

1955: Ibid., Tenth Session, Supplements Nos. 15 and 15A (A/2978 and Add.1);

1956: Ibid., Eleventh Session, Supplements Nos. 14 and 14A (A/3212 and.Add.1);

1957: Ibid., Twelfth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/3686 and Corr.1); and A/3735;
1958: Ibid., Thirteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/3931); and A/3948;

1959: Ibid., Fourteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/4213);

1960: Ibid., Fifteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/4478);

1961: Ibid., Sixteenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/4861);

1962: Ibid., Seventeenth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/5214);

1963: Ibid., Eighteenth Session, Supplement No. 15 (A/5513);

1964: Ibid., Nineteenth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/5813);

1965: Ibid., Twentieth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/6013);

1966: Ibid., Twenty-first Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/6313);

1967: Ibid., Twenty second Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/6713); A/6723 and Add.1 and Add.l/Corr.l. For the printed text, see Official Records of the Security Council, Twenty-second Year Supplement for April, May and June 1967, document S/8001; and ibid., Supplement for July, August and
September 1967, document S/8001/Add. 1;

1968: Ibid., Twenty-third Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/7213);

1969: Ibid., Twenty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 14 (A/7614);

1970: Ibid., Twenty-fifth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/8013); and A/8084 and Add. 1;

1971: Ibid., Twenty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/8413); and A/8383 and Add. 1;

1972: Ibid., Twenty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/8713 and Corr.1 and 2);

1973: Ibid., Twenty-eighth Session, Supplement No._13 (A/9013);

1974: Ibid., Twenty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/9613 and Corr.1);

1975: Ibid., Thirtieth Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/10013 and Corr.1);

1976: Ibid., Thirty-first Session, Supplement No. 13 (A/31/13 and Corr.1).

3. Reports of the Working Group on the Financing of UNRWA:

1970: Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth Session, Annexes, agenda item 35, document A/8264;

1971: Ibid., Twenty-sixth Session, Annexes, agenda item 38, document A/8476 and Corr.1;

1972: Ibid., Twenty-seventh Session, Annexes, agenda item 40, document A/8849;
1973: Ibid., Twenty-eighth Session, Annexes, agenda item 43, document A/9231;

1974: Ibid., Twenty-ninth Session, Annexes, agenda item 38, document A/9815 and Corr.1;

1975: Ibid., Thirtieth Session, Annexes, agenda item 54, document A/10334;

1976: Ibid., Thirty-first Session, Annexes, agenda item 53, document A/31/279.

4. Economic and Social Council resolution 1565 (L) of 3 May 1971

5. Other documents:

1949: Final report of the United Nations Economic Survey Mission for the Middle East (28 December 1949) (A/AC.25/6, parts I and II);

1949: Report of the Secretary-General on assistance to Palestine refugees: Official Records of the General Assembly, Fourth Session, Ad Hoc Political Committee, Annexes, vol. II (A/1060), p. 14

1959: Proposals for the continuation of United Nations assistance to Palestine refugees: document submitted by the Secretary-General (Official Records of the General Assembly, Fourteenth Session, Annexes, agenda item 27, document A/4121 and Corr.l);

1967: Report by the Secretary-General under General Assembly resolution 2252 (ES-V) and Security Council resolution 237 (1967) (A/6787 and Corr.1). For the printed text, see Official Records of the Security Council, Twenty-second Year, Supplement for July, August and September 1967, document S/8124.

Resolution WHA30.37 adopted by the Thirtieth World Health Assembly on 18 May 1977

Health assistance to refugees and displaced persons in the Middle East

The Thirtieth World Health Assembly,

Recalling resolution WHA29.69 and the previous resolutions of the World Health Assembly concerning the health conditions of refugees and displaced persons on the one hand, and on the other hand the relevant resolutions adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations and the Commission on Human Rights;

Taking note of the report of the Director-General on "Health assistance to refugees and displaced persons in the Middle East", concerning the assistance provided to the Palestinian population; a/

Having examined the report of the Special Committee of Experts set up to study the health conditions of the inhabitants of the occupied territories in the Middle East, and noted that the Special Committee of Experts has not, up till now, been able to carry out its mandate owing to the refusal of the occupying authorities to grant it permission to visit the occupied Arab territories.

Convinced that the occupation of territories by force gravely affects the physical, mental and social health conditions of the population under occupation, and that this can be rectified only by the cessation of such occupation;

Bearing in mind, that the liberation of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of a just peace;

Deeply concerned at the forms of pressure practiced by the occupying authorities, such as the eviction and deportation of medical and auxiliary staff from the occupied territories, with resulting deterioration of health conditions and services within the occupied territories;

Deeply concerned at the continuation in the occupied Arab territories of Israeli practices such as:

(a) the eviction and deportation of Arab populations and the resettlement in their homes of non-Arab inhabitants;

(b) the destruction and demolition of Arab houses and the confiscation and expropriation of Arab lands and properties;

(c) detention and ill-treatment of persons, resulting in numerous deaths;

a/ World Health Organization document A30/27.
Considering that proper adherence to the mandate conferred on the Special Committee of Experts by the World Health Assembly
is essential for the implementation of the Committee's mission;

1. DENOUNCES the procrastination and obstinacy of the Israeli occupying authorities and their obstruction of the mission of the Special Committee of Experts, and considers unacceptable all the excuses to which the authorities have resorted for refusing to grant the Committee permission to visit the occupied Arab territories;

2. CONSIDERS that the data which the Israeli occupying authorities have submitted to the Committee concerning the health conditions of the Arab population in the occupied Arab territories, without permitting the Committee to visit those territories, are inconsistent with resolution WHA26.56 and hence irrelevant;

3. CONDEMNS Israel for ignoring the previous resolutions adopted by the World Health Assembly;

4. DEMANDS that the Israeli occupying authorities permit the Special Committee of Experts as such to visit all the occupied Arab territories and guarantee the Special Committee freedom of movement so that it can directly contact the Arab population under Israeli occupation, Arab institutions and specific target groups within the population, and in the event of failure on the part of Israel to comply with the Assembly's request, that consideration be given by Member States to appropriate action to be taken under the Constitution of the World Health Organization, after a report has been presented by the Director General

5. REQUESTS the Special Committee of Experts to carry out its mandate as set forth in section B of resolution WHA26.56, and to take into consideration the deteriorating health conditions of the detainees which are resulting in many deaths, bearing also in mind the resolution of the thirty-third session of the Commission on Human Rights;

6. NOTES with appreciation the role played by the Director-General in implementing resolution WHA29.69, and requests him to continue collaborating with the Palestine Liberation Organization in providing technical and material assistance to raise the level of health of the Palestinian population;

7. REQUESTS the Director-General to continue to allocate the necessary funds for the improvement of the health conditions of the population in the occupied Arab territories and to ensure that such funds are used under the direct supervision of WHO through its representative in the occupied Arab territories.

8. REQUESTS the Director-General to report to the Thirty-first World Health Assembly on the execution of the mandate of the Special Committee of Experts;

9. DECIDES that the title of the relevant item be amended to read "Health conditions of the Arab population in the occupied Arab territories including Palestine" in the provisional agenda for the Thirty-first World Health Assembly.

Thirteenth plenary meeting, 18 May 1977

Resolution 1.142 adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Nineteenth Session, 26 October to 30 November 1976
Equality of educational opportunity
and special programs

The General Conference,

Recalling the terms of resolutions 11.1, 13.1 and 1.141 adopted at its eighteenth session concerning respectively UNESCO's contribution to peace and its tasks with respect to the promotion of human rights and the elimination of colonialism and racialism, the right of the population in the occupied Arab territories to such education and culture as will preserve their national identity, and the financing of the education program for Palestine refugees in the Near East jointly operated by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) and UNESCO,

1. Invites Member States:

(a) to contribute to the financing of the education program for Palestine refugees in the Near East jointly operated by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) and UNESCO;

(b) to contribute to the funds-in-trust administered by UNESCO for the -financing of education programs operated in co-operation with the Organization of African Unity for refugees and peoples fighting for their independence, for human dignity and human rights, and against apartheid and all other forms of colonialism, racialism, oppression or foreign domination;

2. Authorizes the Director-General to continue to develop and intensify activities within the fields of UNESCO's competence to aid African liberation movements recognized by the Organization of African Unity, and the Palestine Liberation Organization recognized by the League of Arab States, and to co-operate with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) in the education program for Palestine refugees in the Near East with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and with other United Nations bodies and regional intergovernmental institutions concerned with rendering educational services to refugees and liberation movements and organizations.

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