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The communicable disease risk assessment was contributed to and reviewed by the Communicable Diseases Working Group on Emergencies (CD-WGE) at WHO headquarters. The CD-WGE provides technical and operational support on communicable disease issues to WHO regional and country offices, ministries of health, other United Nations agencies, and nongovernmental and international organizations. The Working Group includes the departments of Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR), the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases (FOS), Public Health and Environment (PHE) in the Health Security and Environment (HSE) cluster; the Global Malaria Programme (GMP), Stop TB (STB), HIV/AIDS and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in the HTM cluster; the departments of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH), Immunizations, Vaccines and Biologicals (IVB) in the Family and Community Health (FCH) cluster; Injuries and Violence Prevention (VIP) and Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) in the Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health (NMH) cluster; Security and Staff Services (SES) in the General Management (GMG) cluster; and the cluster of Health Action in Crises (HAC) and the Polio Eradication Initiative (POL).
The following people were involved in the development and review of this document and their contribution is gratefully acknowledged:
Giuseppe Annunziata (HAC/ERO); Maurizio Barbeschi (HSE/EPR); James Bartram (PHE/WSH); Eric Bertherat (EPR/ERI); Sylvie Briand (EPR/GIP); Amina Chaieb (EPR/ARO); Yves Chartier (PHE/WSH); Claire Chauvin (DGR/POL); Meena Cherian (EHT/CPR); Alya Dabbagh (FCH/IVB); Mahmoud Daher (WHO West Bank and Gaza); Ousmane Diouf (HTM/HIV); Pierre Formenty (EPR/BDP); Albis Gabrielli (HTM/NTD); Celine Gossner (HSE/FOS); Alexandra Hill (PHE/WSH); Stephane Hugonnet (EPR/ERI); Anthony Laurance (Acting WR, WHO West Bank and Gaza); David Meddings (NMH/VIP); Shanthi Mendis (CHP/CPM); Marc Van Ommeren (NMH/MSD); Fernando Otaiza (EPR/BDP); Salah Ottmani (HTM/STB); Jules Pieters (HAC/ERO); Aafje Rietveld (HTM/GMP); Cathy Roth (EPR/BDP); Irshad Shaikh (EHA/EMRO); Katja Schemionek (WHO/EMRO); Nadia Soleman (EPR/ARO); Peter Strebel (FCH/IVB); Jos Vandelaer (FCH/IVB); Steven Wiersma (FCH/IVB); Zita Weise-Prinzo (NMH/NHD)
Editing support was provided by Penelope Andrea and Ana Estrela (HSE/EPR).
Contributions to previous risk assessments from the following focal points have also been incorporated: Bernadette Abela-Ridder (HSE/FOS); Andrea Bosman (HTM/GMP); Claire-Lise Chaignat (PHE/WSH); Pascale Gilbert-Miguet (GMG/SES); Lulu Muhe (FCH/CAH).
3. Priority communicable diseases
Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus. M Roper et al. Lancet 2007; 370: 1947-59.
http ://www.who.int/hpvcentre/Maternal _and _neonatal _tetanus _Seminar.pdf
Tetanus Immunization: Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT) elimination