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UNITED
NATIONS

Distr.
GENERAL
CRC/C/129/Add.7
25 October 2005

Original: ARABIC and
ENGLISH

COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES
UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION

Third periodic reports of States parties due in 2003

LEBANON* **
[15 November 2004]

_______________
* This report has not been edited before being submitted for translation.

** For the second report submitted by Lebanon, see CRC/C/70/Add.8; for its consideration by the Committee, see documents CRC/C/SR.751, 752 and CRC/C/15/Add.169.





Chapter I
IMPLEMENTATION OF RIGHTS IN THE CONVENTION
1-1 Legislative Measures

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1-2 Administrative and other Measures, Budgetary Analysis,
Monitoring Implementation, International Cooperation

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1-2-10 International cooperation for implementation

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1-2-10-2 The international program for the elimination of child labor (IPEC) 5

67. The Lebanese government signed a memorandum of agreement with ILO and IPEC and launched the program in 2000. IPEC funded in Lebanon, with the support of the French government ten projects having the following objectives:

...

(k) The prevention of school drop out and early entry into the labor market for children residing in Palestinian camps in Lebanon.

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Chapter IV
CIVIL RIGHTS AND FREEDOM
4-1 Name and Nationality


4-1-1 Blood relation

129. The Father is the giver of nationality in Lebanon, and the legitimate born child from a Lebanese father is considered Lebanese whether born in Lebanon or outside Lebanon; the nationality of the mother is not taken into account (Article 1 and 10 of the Legislative Decision No. 15/1925).

130. The non-registration of a legitimate or an acknowledged child while being minor by one of his or her parents is considered as neglect and shortcomings, since Article 12 of the Law pertaining to registration at the Personal status registers dated 7/12/1951 imposes that every child is registered immediately after birth by one of the parents. If the delay of one year has passed (with the exception of refugees) without registration, a court lawsuit must be initiated before the first instance civil judge in order to register the child and this lawsuit is considered as a case for unregistered and not a nationality case.

131. As for the children born out of wedlock, they are considered Lebanese if it is proven before they reach the legal age of maturity that the respective father is Lebanese whether by consent or by judicial proceedings, or if it is proven that the respective mother is Lebanese before proving that the father is a foreigner, or if the national Laws of the foreign father do not provide nationality to the newborn.

4-1-1-1 Children born on the Lebanese territory having a foreign father

132. Foreigners in Lebanon are classified into 4 categories: “Citizenship under study”, Palestinians, Syrians and holders of foreign passports:

(a) Persons having their citizenship under study: The birth certificate is established by the personal status” department after referral to the Directorate General for General Security- department of special cases, whereby a copy of the issued certificate is handed over to the person in question.

(b) Palestinians living in Lebanon: They are registered either at the department of Palestinian refugees affairs or at the Directorate of General Security. In addition to Palestinians who are registered at Palestinian authorities outside Lebanon and have not been registered at the department of refugees affairs in Beirut, they are also treated as foreigners. If the parents fail to register a Palestinian new born within the legal time delay of one year, the administration for Palestinian affairs and not the judicial court sets out a file noting the issue and reasons for the delay and presents it to the director general, who has the authority to approve of the request for registration. This applies to the above mentioned first category of Palestinians. Whereas for the second category of Palestinians, if the parents fail to register their newborn within the legal time delay of one year, the registration of the newborn would subsequently abide by the same administrative regulations that fall under the category” registration under study”.

(c) Syrians: The birth certificate of a newborn from a Syrian father is transferred to the Syrian authorities before execution in Lebanon, to be certified and returned to the Lebanese department for the registration of foreigners.

(d) Holders of foreign passports: For born children in Lebanon from a foreign father, the latter has to prove that he is legally married by forwarding his marriage papers in order for his child to be registered, then a copy of the birth certificate is sent to the relevant embassy.

(e) The Lebanese mother married to a foreigner and who has lost her husband, in any case cannot give her nationality to her child, despite the fact that this contradicts the best interest of the child.

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Chapter VIII

SPECIAL PROTECTION MEASURES
8-1 Refugee Children


8-1-1 Introduction

445. Lebanon hosts a number of refugees estimated at 2600 refugees belonging to various nationalities including Iraki, Sudanese, Somali, and other nationalities. Since nationalization is not allowed by the national constitution, support to refugees is consists of finding permanent solutions to their problems through supporting their right to return to their countries. Given the limited services provided by the government to non-Palestinian refugees, one of the active NGOs in this field provides services and help on various levels to refugees that are acknowledged by the United Nation Refugee Agency (UNHCR). 47

446. Palestinian refugees in Lebanon are divided into two groups, the registered and non-registered. The registered refugees are those registered at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), the majority had left Palestine after the 1948 war, their numbers are estimated at 382973 persons. Children constitute 35% (0 to 18 years). This group is considered according to the Lebanese law as foreigners.

447. The other group of refugees were not registered at UNRWA; they entered Lebanon in 1956. However, they don’t have the right to a residency permit, and consequently their children are in especially difficult circumstances, with no birth certificates or proof of their Palestinian nationality, consequently they cannot receive the UNRWA services in a formal manner. Their number in Lebanon is not known. 48

8-1-2 Domestic and international legislation

448. In January 1999, Decree 478 was annulled, requiring an exit and entry visa from Palestinians. This step has facilitated the reunification of families and reinstated the freedom of travel for Palestinians.

449. A series of laws protecting the rights of children and women were promulgated by the Lebanese Judiciary. Namely the law enacting compulsory elementary education, the prohibition of gender discrimination in the workplace, the reduction by half of entrance fees to tourist sites and museums for children and the disabled, and the protection of detained children in conflict with the law. 49 These laws were previously mentioned.

450. In 1959, Lebanon created the Directorate for the Affairs of Palestinian Refugees (Decree 42) under the Ministry of Interior and the Directorate General for political and refugees affairs. The Directorate functions were defined and they include among other:

(a) Coordination with UNRWA on relief, shelter, education and health and social issues;

(b) Issuance of travel documents;

(c) Registration of personal status documents;

(d) Determining the location of refugee camps.

451. A memorandum of agreement was recently signed by UNHCR and the Security General whereby providing those refugees that submit asylums demand starting from the date 9/9/2003, further facilities, including fast registration, issuance of travel documents and provision of help as required…

452. The single instrument available to Palestinian refugees and that confers to them civil rights is the Casablanca Protocol which gives them the right to equal treatment with nationals in the Arab host countries except for citizenship. Lebanon has ratified the Casablanca Protocol with reservations and amendments but has never fully implemented it. 50 This can be attributed to the close connection between the problematic of the Palestinian refugees issue and the political situation in Lebanon, rendering various recommendations and instruments pending. The Lebanese government remains the main responsible party for the refugees civil rights, however the responsibility for their basic rights including health, education, and relief is UNRWA’s, the latter is gradually downsizing its services due to the constant lack of funding which weakened its regular programs in the last years. Therefore funding countries should abide by their commitments and pay UNRWA their dues, whereby enabling the Agency to assume its duties to all refugees, especially that host countries, including Lebanon suffer from a difficult economic situation.

453. In that context few recommendations are in order, pertaining to the ratification of Lebanon of certain treaties relating to the situation of refugees in 1951 and its protocols in 1967, and people with no nationality in 1954, and reducing the number of no-nationality cases in 1961, in addition to the necessity of implementing the Casablanca Protocol. The cause of the delay of Lebanon in joining these treaties and implementing them is the complexity of the political situation relating to the issue of providing nationality to Palestinian in Lebanon, an issue unanimously refused by the Lebanese according to the documents of the national covenant, that was enacted at El Taef.

8-1-3 Services provided to refugee children

8-1-3-1 Services provided to non-Palestinian refugee children

454. The number of non-Palestinian refugee children (0-18 years) was estimated at approximately 1000-1200 children for the period 1998-2002.

(a) Types of services provided to refugees

(i) Monthly financial support

455. These services are provided to families depending on the family member size, they help in covering daily expenses such as rent. Children benefit as part of the families.

(ii) Medical services

456. The refugees program ensures financial coverage of 70% of the medical bill: medications, vaccines, medical tests (in-patient and outpatient) and all types of surgical operations. Refugees pay the difference of 30% directly to the medical service provider: pharmacies, hospital, medical center. Patients in general and especially difficult cases are followed-up by social workers, the attending physician, hospital, medical center and pharmacy. The teams are supported by a consulting physician who follows up certain cases, and gives advice and guidance to the teams and refugees alike. Health education sessions are organized for mothers pertaining to raising children and taking care of sick children and the importance of immunization.

(iii) Education services

457. Education services include all refugee children starting from pre-school until reaching secondary level. Vocational education is emphasized especially for adolescents. Parents and children have the freedom to choose the school where children are enrolled. The refugee office pays a yearly financial scholarship. Children are followed-up all the year through in order to find appropriate solutions in cases of low achievements or drop-outs and other education related problems. Children that were never enrolled in schools are taken care of in order to assess drop out reasons and find rehabilitation measures.

(iv) Leisure activities

458. The refugees program organizes during summer time of each year summer camps in collaboration with social facilitators and specialists. Around 55 refugee children participate. The program includes cultural and leisure activities that emphasize the importance of co-existence and reconciliation between all groups and races living on the Lebanese territories. In addition to teaching children daily life skills namely: daily dental hygiene, personal hygiene, housekeeping work, taking care of personal items. The program also organizes parties, outings and theatre for children.


(v) Awareness-raising

459. Awareness raising programs were developed for the Middle East countries in order to introduce the communities to the refugee issues and incite them to help them, including training workshops for social workers in order to provide services to refugees and emergency assistance. Relevant publications were prepared and disseminated in all Middle Eastern countries.

(b) Constraints hindering services to refugees

(i) Education

460. Unavailability of specialized education programs that prevent school drop-out and help integration of refugee children in Lebanese schools. Lack of vacant places in Public schools, especially in Beirut. The declining quality of education in many private schools. Psychological instability of refugee children and their mysterious future.

( ii) Health

461. The high cost of all medical services in Lebanon in comparison to low incomes. Limited resources and capacities in governmental hospitals, especially governorates and regions outside Beirut. Insufficient number of governmental hospitals.

(iii) Social

462. The Housing facilities are frequently inadequate, requiring rehabilitation of populated streets in relation to cleanliness, water, playgrounds…

(iv) Protection

463. There is a need to provide children with the relevant documentation in order prove their legal status on the Lebanese territories. Early Child Labor (12-13 years), dropping out of school and joining the labor market. Arrest of parents and adolescents for several reasons, whereby affecting negatively children in relation to living, emotion, education and psychology. Unemployment that impact negatively on all aspects of children lives. The unstable situation of refugee children that affect their integration in the Lebanese society.

8-1-3-2 Services provided to Palestinian refugee children

464. The overall registered Palestinian Children (0-18 years) with UNRWA until 2003 was approximately 126960 (64977 Male and 61983 Female). They receive social services that are provided by UNRWA. 52

(a) Types of services provided to Palestinian refugees

(i) Health care services

465. UNRWA provides children from birth until 3 years of age the following health services:


466. As for children services (4-18 years):
...

(ii) Education services

467. UNRWA provides education to Palestinian refugees in all educational levels: primary, complementary and secondary; in addition to training teachers on new curricula and special campaigns for introducing children to their rights and sponsoring cultural activities for students. Children Rights booklets, posters and education materials are distributed to schools in order to inform children about their rights. The number of children enrolled in various levels (2003): Primary 29472, Complementary 10258, Secondary 2292.

468. Teachers were trained on analyzing the contents of Arabic language books and social sciences in order to highlight the concepts pertaining to children rights that are available in these books. Training was provided using educational story “Under the Willow Tree”, that was distributed to students and that promotes children rights principles as well as conflict resolution, forgiveness and tolerance.

(b) Constraints that deprive Palestinian refugees of their rights 53

(i) Non-discrimination

469. Article 2 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, pertaining to Non-Discrimination, sets out the obligations of the Lebanese republic in ensuring the rights of refugee Palestinian children. However the United Nations Decision number 302(4-D), conferred the responsibility of providing humanitarian assistance to refugees and ensuring their rights to UNRWA.

470. The issued property law (Decree 296) in May 2001, prohibits Palestinian from the ownership of property and deprives them of the right to transfer their already purchased apartments and deeds to their children. The Lebanese government considers the Law in harmony with its opposing stance to the resettlement of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon.

( ii) Rights to health and social care

471. Although the health indicators of Palestinian children (Infant Mortality, Under Five Mortality Rate and Nutrition indicators), have shown substantial improvement, which can be attributed to the preventive health program at UNRWA, the reports (mentioned earlier), indicate that 11% of children (over 5 years) suffer from chronic health problems and 7% suffer from critical problems. 53% of children below 5 years of age suffer from various diseases. The prevalence of diseases among Palestinian children is directly related to poverty and substandard housing and unhealthy environment where they live.

472. Palestinian children seek health services at UNRWA and The Palestinian Red Crescent Society that provide these services in spite of their limited resources. In addition to NGOs health centers that provide health services to Palestinian communities. The Palestinian Red Crescent Society manages several hospitals, however the medical personnel, equipments and available hospital beds are not sufficient to satisfy the health care needs of thousands of people.

(iii) The standard of living

473. Article 27 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states that” States parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development. However UNRWA statistics show that more than 50% of registered children live in 12 overcrowded highly congested formal camps in very bad environmental conditions lacking all infrastructure that is required for a humanly decent life.

474. Lebanese authorities forbid the construction of new camps, expansion of existing camps. renovation and reconstruction, in order to prevent the consolidation of the Palestinian presence in Lebanon and implicitly accept the forced resettlement and destroy the principle behind the right of return. This principle is of great importance for both the Lebanese as well as the Palestinian population and they hold on to it. Consequently, UNRWA was unable to contribute to the renovation of 3 camps located in the south due to the Lebanese authorities’ decision to ban the introduction of construction materials into the camps since 1998, which eventually lead to the deterioration of the situation of these camps due to limited areas and tremendous increase in the population size.

475. Around 5% of refugees (approximately 21,000) live in substandard housing compounds, lacking adequate health and environmental conditions.

476. As for the informal and random housing compounds of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, they are in even worse shape than the formal camps, where the residents suffer from multiple problems related to the deteriorating health and environmental conditions as well as the deprivation from the simplest types of social services. At the Gaza buildings just next to the Shatila camp in Beirut, lives around 262 Palestinian families. More than 6 family members live in one room in inadequate health conditions, with one bathroom per 30 persons. The scarcity of social services on all levels from either UNRWA or the Lebanese government makes the social and living conditions unbearable. The situation is partly alleviated by services provided by NGOs and by international humanitarian organizations.

(iv) The right to education

477. The educational levels of Palestinian children is not comparable to that of Lebanese children or even to Palestinian children living in neighboring Arab hosting countries. Out of three Palestinian children in Lebanon, aged 10 and above, one child leaves school before finishing primary or intermediate. The drop out rate is 39%, which is 10 folds higher than for Lebanese students for male and female alike. As for those holding high-school degrees or higher education they are few in numbers and they are 2 folds less in comparison to Lebanese students.

478. It is worth mentioning that students quit school and join the labor market out of de-motivation caused by the lack of quality education or for economic reasons in order to increase the family income and improve their living conditions. Those opting to pursue their education and they are few, try to get enrolled in free governmental schools. Furthermore, places are limited in these schools, and priority is given to Lebanese students whenever they are available.

479. The great responsibility falls upon UNRWA. However its allocated budget is not sufficient to cater to the educational and social needs of Palestinian children, due to their increase in number. This fact is impacting negatively on the quality of education. Class overcrowding is severe in UNRWA schools, it might reach 55 students per classroom. Accordingly a two shift system was adopted, aiming at allowing the highest number of students to acquire education.

(v) The right to association

480. The Lebanese Law deprives Palestinian children of their right to form associations, since such a right is linked to the fact that only associations can be formed if two thirds of the members are Lebanese.

(vi) Right to name and nationality

481. The Lebanese Law prohibits Lebanese women of giving the Lebanese nationality to their children whenever they get married to a foreigner. Many Palestinian men who got married to Lebanese weren’t able to register their children or acquire Lebanese nationalities. Whereas in certain Arab countries this woman’s right is ensured regardless of the father’s nationality.


8-2 Children Affected by Armed Conflicts

8-2-1 Introduction

482. The majority of Lebanese children were deprived of their rights due to their country’s being subjected to Israeli attacks that hit people and assets in all areas in general and the South and the Western Beqa’a in particular. Consequently and as expected, the negative effects of these attacks were reflected on both the living environment and the society, and especially on children whose rights were violated through targeting their residences exposing them to daily bombardment that endangered their lives. In addition to children experienced human and material losses, displacement and internal migration, and fettering that affected their survival, holistic development, and safe living within a stable family. Furthermore, these children were compulsorily forced to join the armed forces in the occupied territories, and as a result, their sense of belongingness to their country and nationalism was shaken subsequently led to loosing their commitment and ties to their homeland. These children were also exposed to besiege, attacks, enforced deportation, oppressive expulsion and torture in the Israeli prisons, whereby depriving them of their personal freedom, including freedom to commute between their country’s occupied regions.

483. Accordingly, a Lebanese nongovernmental organization raised a law case against the Israeli attacks and practices. Consequently, the Israeli deeds were convicted by the International Committee on the Rights of the Child, in compliance with the International Covenant for the prevention of racial extermination crimes and related sanctions, As well as international Human Rights instruments related to war crimes and crimes committed against the humanity.

8-2-2 Israeli aggression practices against Lebanon 1998-2003

484. The Israeli attacks on Lebanon persisted especially during the last period 1998-2000 prior to its defeat in 2000. These attacks reached establishments, infra structures, electricity generation stations, bridges, blocked main roads, and demolished houses. Moreover, tens of children were killed and others were injured as a result of night air raids that attacked Lebanon and even reached the capital Beirut and the North governorate. The Israeli army used in these raids different types of weapons including bombs and rockets that are banned internationally; namely chemical phosphoric, cluster, fragmentation, fission and vacuum leaving behind these raids death, destruction, terror, and apprehension in children and disregarding all conventions and laws that prevent attacking civilians from both conflicting sides.

485. In spite of Israeli withdrawal from most Lebanese territories except Sheba Farms and Kafr Shouba Mounts, it didn’t refrain from attacking Lebanese territories, conducting around 7000 air violations that caused panic and fear among children and created psychological trauma and instability that ultimately progressed and led with time to confused and disruptive behavior within their communities. Furthermore, the marine attacks led to paralyzing economical and touristy activities in Lebanon where all the commerce and tourist activities were diverted to other countries.

...

8-2-3 Social and economical impact on children

486. The Israeli invasion to Lebanon lasted around 25 years and it is still occupying part of its territories. This war destroyed the infra structure and all the sources of human power, and the children got the greatest loss. They were deprived of opportunities to develop in normal conditions; they were deprived of playing, nutrition, inability to move between regions, and consequently made them live in an unsettled economical, social, psychological, and health state.


8-2-4 Impact of war on the psychological state of children

487. The Israeli war that was launched on Lebanon exerted a great impact on the psychological state of children, rendering them obsessed and anxious from the sound of explosions and, sound barrier. This created a permanent state of anxiety that confused them and hindered their mental functioning. In line with this situation; a lecture held at one of the Lebanese universities in November 2003 results showed that 70% of children are experiencing post traumatic stress disorder due to the war and its atrocities.

488. It is worth mentioning the existence of some social and psychological rehabilitation programs that are undertaken by relevant governmental institutions and NGOs on the level of the family and community that attempt to treat the physical and psychological effects incurred by children affected by armed, and promote their reintegration in the community.

...

489. The Lebanese territory was freed from Israeli occupation except for Shebaa Farms and other locations that Lebanon insists on regaining by whatever legal available instruments. Yet there is still another type of implicit occupation that is crouching in the heart of the Lebanese land and its surface in its prairies, the appropriate place for children recreation and play and on both sides of roads and even just meters away from houses and schools and other facilities. This type of occupation is represented by hundred thousands of landmines that were planted randomly on vast areas of inhabited lands, in the gardens and agricultural prairies, in addition to unconventional explosives and cluster bombs that are banned according to International Conventions, that are hazards and threats to children, causing death, disability, maiming and deformity.

490. What adds to the complexity of the problem, is the presence of an unlimited number of mine fields with unknown places to date, a large number of disseminated cluster bombs and unexploded missiles within inhabited areas, in the fields and gardens where around 46% of the injuries occurred as a result of bombs explosions, it is to be noted that the bombs attract the attention of children because of its diverse artistic shapes.

491. The problem of mines in Lebanon entails on Israel an international responsibility in conformity with General International Law and UN Covenants. (According to LaHaye, Geneva, and Ottawa Conventions).


Table 7

Distribution of injured and killed children below 18 years due to
mine explosions and their derivatives from 1998 to 2003

Year
Injured
Killed
Total number
1998
5
-
5
1999
6
-
6
2000
14
10
24
2001
15
7
22
2002
7
1
8
2003
1
2
3
Total number
48
20
68
Source: The National Office for Mine Elimination, Report, 1998-2003.

8-2-6 Policy of expulsion and compulsory recruitment

492. The random captivity and forced compulsory recruitment on all those who reached fifteen years of age during the occupation period resulted in reducing educational access and achievement for children, lack of health care, and the emergence of post traumatic stress disorder as well as other psychological and neurotic severe syndromes for children, because these children were living the threat of being forced to join the armed troops and suffered from related obsessions. The Lebanese law stipulates that no one individual below eighteen years age has to undergo compulsory recruitment into armed forces. It is to be noted that the resistance to the Israeli occupation in the South of Lebanon didn’t recruit children who haven’t attained 18 years of age.

8-2-7 Health status of children as a result of Israeli aggressions

493. Most of Lebanese children lived a difficult health situation especially those who were living in the South, where the successive bombing of canons and missiles and air raids led to a large number of deaths and caused cases of amputations, disabilities, heart attacks and psychic disturbances. Just as the usage of internationally banned weapons (depleted uranium, phosphorus, cluster, nails) in daily attacks led to a increasing the number of pulmonary and neurological diseases , and heart attacks as well as long term negative effects that might appear with time. The circumstances that were prevailing during the Israeli occupation prevented the needed medication from reaching children in a timely manner, delaying their treatment and aggravating their health situation that sometimes led to their death.

8-2-8 Detainees in Israeli prisons including children

494. Israel has detained during the occupation period, 18 Lebanese citizens below eighteen years of age, whereby children constituting 3% of the detainees. Most of them experienced and are still suffering from chronic diseases and physical disabilities inflicted by the following:

(a) Physical torture including various types mainly: severe beating- beating after immersing the body in water- pouring hot and cold water concurrently - hanging the detainees on a pole where barely their toes touch the ground- hanging the detainees upside down- applying electric shock especially on sensitive areas- starvation of the detainees- deprivation from drinking water for several days- bandaged eyes for a long period- throwing gas and smoke grenades in the cells- rape.

(b) Psychological torture: Insults - making the parents witness the torture - threatening the detainees of assaulting his wife or daughters or female relatives - making the detain ees hear the cries of their friends during torture- threatening to kill the detainees or their relatives.

495. These actions constitute flagrant infringements of Geneva Convention No 4 relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 1949. Moreover detainees were deprived from seeing their families and children, the latter were in need of their fathers’ care and attention. Although there are Laws and Conventions and Agreements for the protection of WAR prisoners and the detainees.


Table 8

Proportion of individual and materialistic damages that
affected the families of detained in Israeli prisons

Family situation
Percentage
Death of one or several of family members
9.8
One or more of the family members were disabled
4.6
Number of multiple human injuries affected the family
9.8
One or more of the family members were injured
7.6
Total
31.8

Source : Civil Defense Report, the Islamic Health Organization, 1999.

496. Israel applies on the Lebanese war detained the laws in force that were applied during the British Mandate on Palestine that allows administrative arrest. Furthermore, Israel refuses to implement Geneva Convention No 3, Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, on detainees and resistance groups whereby bluntly violating the rules and provisions of International human Rights Laws that promulgated treating all the war prisoners at all times in a humane manner, and that all the detainees have the right to personal respect as well as respect of their honor, family rights, religious beliefs, customs and traditions.

497. The International Law enforces on those infracting its rules, by undertaking international illegal acts that cause harm and damages to others to assume responsibility for their deeds and thus provide compensations for the resulting losses.

498. The Lebanese government was and is still active on taking care of the liberated prisoners of war from the Israeli prisons through monthly financial assistance that are provided by the South Council, in addition to other social and health services that are provided by relevant Ministries including the Ministry of Social Affairs. It is worth mentioning that the Ministry of Social Affairs conducted an analytical survey of the needs of the ex-detainees and their families, and accordingly provided adequate assistance.

499. In addition, the Lebanese government signed the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflicts, and was included on the Parliamentary Council for ratification.

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